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Animal Diversity - The Kingdom Animalia 1.

Phylum Porifera sponges


sponges are animals with no tissues and no symmetry There are different cell types in a sponge, each cell with different functions, but they are not a tightly integrated system like in other animals o you could stick a sponge in a blender and the sponge would reform Phylum Cnidaria Examples: corals, jellyfish, hydra

radially symmetrical animals with only two tissue types


Endoderm - forms digestive tract Ectoderm - forms epidermis Mesoglea - jelly-like acellular substance between tissues (the "jelly" in jellyfish) o Not a true tissue First organisms with a nervous system - not centralized (no brain) Incomplete digestive tract Possess nematocysts - stingers - unique character in group o Use to stun food for predaceous types Phylum Platyhelminthes - the flatworms

acoelomate usually internal parasites or free living organisms incomplete digestive tract flatworms are structurally limited by not having a fluid-filled cavity
Phylum Nematoda - the roundworms

psuedocoelomate usually internal parasites complete digestive tract (possess both mouth and anus) separate sexes possess lateral muscles - can only move side to side (cannot manipulate coelomic fluid)
Phylum Molluska - mollusks

Examples: snails, clams, octopus


coelomates Mantle tissue - secretes shell radula (chitinous tongue - used like a rasp) advanced sensor organs & nervous tissue

Phylum Annelida - segmented worms Examples: earthworms, leeches, polychetes


coelomate Ventral nerve cord Two types of muscles - longitudinal & circular Full utilization of coelom in movement, support
Phylum Arthropoda - arthropods

Examples: scorpions, spiders, insects


coelomate Hardened chitinous exoskeleton Specialized segmentation Jointed appendages Specialized respiratory organs (fully terrestrial) Division of labor in life cycle

Phylum Echinodermata Examples: sea urchins, starfish, sea cucumbers

Water vascular system - system unique to this phylum o Functions in movement, support, respiration, digestion Decentralized nervous system Rapid regeneration Secondary radial symmetry o Larvae are bilaterally symmetrical o Adults are radially symmetrical

Crab : Phylum Arthropoda


True crabs are decapod crustaceans of the infraorder Brachyura, which typically have a very short [2] [3] projecting "tail" (Greek: / brachys = short, / ura = tail ), or where the reduced abdomen is entirely hidden under the thorax. Many other animals with similar names such as hermit crabs, king crabs, porcelain crabs, horseshoe crabs and crab lice are not true crabs.

Earthworm : Phylum Annelida


An earthworm is a tube-shaped, segmented animal that is commonly found living in soil. Its digestive system runs straight through its body, it conducts respiration through the cuticle covering its skin, and it has a simple, closed blood circulatory system. Earthworms are hermaphroditeseach individual carries both male and female sex organs. As an invertebrate it lacks a skeleton, but an earthworm maintains its structure with fluid-filled chambers functioning like a hydro-skeleton.

Mosquito : Phylum Arthropoda


The mosquitoes are a family of small, midge-like flies: the Culicidae. Although a few species are harmless or even useful to humanity, most are a nuisance because they consume blood from living vertebrates, including humans. The females of many species of mosquitoes are blood eating pests. In feeding on blood, some of them transmit extremely harmful human and livestock diseases, such as malaria. Some authorities argue accordingly that mosquitoes are the most dangerous animals on Earth.

Jellyfish : Phylum Cnidaria


Jellyfish are the major non-polyp form of individuals of the phylum Cnidaria. They are typified as freeswimming marine animals consisting of a gelatinous umbrella-shaped bell and trailing tentacles. The bell can pulsate for locomotion, while stinging tentacles can be used to capture prey. Jellyfish are found in every ocean, from the surface to the deep sea. A few jellyfish inhabit freshwater. Large, often colorful, jellyfish are common in coastal zones worldwide. Jellyfish have roamed the seas for [1] at least 500 million years, and possibly 700 million years or more, making them the oldest multi-organ animal.

Sea urchins : Phylum Echinodermata


Sea urchins or urchins are small, spiny, globular animals which, with their close kin, such as sand dollars, constitute the class Echinoidea of the echinoderm phylum. There are c. 950 species of echinoids [1] inhabiting all oceans from the intertidal to 5000 meters deep. Their shell, or "test", is round and spiny, typically from 3 to 10 cm (1.2 to 3.9 in) across. Common colors include black and dull shades of green, olive, brown, purple, and red. They move slowly, feeding mostly on algae. Sea otters, wolf eels, triggerfish, and other predators feed on them. Their "roe" (actually the gonads) is a delicacy in many cuisines. The name "urchin" is an old name for the round spiny hedgehogs that sea urchins resemble.

Coral : Phylum Cnidaria


Corals are marine animals in class Anthozoa of phylum Cnidaria typically living in compact colonies of many identical individual "polyps". The group includes the important reef builders that inhabit tropical oceans and secrete calcium carbonate to form a hard skeleton. A coral "head" is a colony of myriad genetically identical polyps. Each polyp is a spineless animal typically only a few millimeters in diameter and a few centimeters in length. A set of tentacles surround a central mouth opening. An exoskeleton is excreted near the base. Over many generations, the colony thus creates a large skeleton that is characteristic of the species. Individual heads grow by asexual reproduction of polyps. Corals also breed sexually by spawning: polyps of the same species release gametes simultaneously over a period of one to several nights around a full moon.

Liver flukes : Phylum Platyhelminthes


Liver flukes are parasites. They are a polyphyletic group of trematodes (phylum Platyhelminthes). Adults of liver flukes are localized in the liver of various mammals, including humans. These flatworms can occur in bile ducts, gallbladder, and liver parenchyma. They feed on blood. Adult flukes produce eggs which are passed into the intestine.

Ascaris : Phylum Nematoda


Ascaris is a genus of parasitic nematode worms known as the "Small intestinal roundworms". One species, A. suum, typically infects pigs, while another, A. lumbricoides, affects humans, typically people living in sub-tropical and tropical areas with poor sanitation. A. lumbricoides is the largest intestinal roundworm and is the most common helminth infection of humans worldwide, a disease known [1] as ascariasis. Infestation can cause morbidity by compromising nutritional status, affecting cognitive [citation needed] processes, inducing tissue reactions such as granuloma to larval stages, and by causing intestinal obstruction, which can be fatal.

Pinworm : Phylum Nematoda


The pinworm(in the United States) (genus Enterobius), also known as threadworm (in the United Kingdom) or seatworm, is a nematode(roundworm) and a common intestinal parasite, especially in [5] [6] Humans. The medical condition associated with pinworm infestation is known asenterobiasis, or less [7] precisely as oxyuriasis in reference to the family Oxyuridae. Throughout this article the word Pinworm refers to Enterobius. In British usage, however, pinworm refers [8] to Strongyloides while Enterobius is called threadworm.

Sponge : Phylum Porifera


Sponges are animals of the phylum Porifera (pron.: /prfr/; meaning "pore bearer"). They are multicellular organisms which have bodies full of pores and channels allowing water to circulate through them, consisting of jelly-like mesohyl sandwiched between two thin layers of cells. Sponges have unspecialized cells that can transform into other types and which often migrate between the main cell layers and the mesohyl in the process. Sponges do not have nervous, digestive or circulatory systems. Instead, most rely on maintaining a constant water flow through their bodies to obtain food and oxygen and to remove wastes.

Squid : Phylum Mollusca


Squid are cephalopods of the order Teuthida, which comprises around 300 species. Like all other cephalopods, squid have a distinct head, bilateral symmetry, a mantle, and arms. Squid, like cuttlefish, have eight arms arranged in pairs and two, usually longer, tentacles. Squid are strong swimmers and certain species can "fly" for short distances out of the water.

Lobster : Phylum Arthropoda


Clawed lobsters comprise a family (Nephropidae, sometimes also Homaridae) of large marine crustaceans. They have long bodies with muscular tails, and live in crevices or burrows on the sea floor. Three of their five pairs of legs have claws, including the first pair, which are usually much larger than the others. Highly prized as seafood, lobsters are economically important, and are often one of the most profitable commodities in coastal areas they populate. Commercially important species include two species of Homarus from the northern Atlantic Ocean, and scampi the northernhemisphere genus Nephrops and the southern-hemisphere genus Metanephrops. Although several other groups of crustaceans have the word "lobster" in their names, the unqualified term "lobster" generally refers to the clawed lobsters of the family Nephropidae. Clawed lobsters are not closely related to spiny lobsters or slipper lobsters, which have no claws (chelae), or to squat lobsters. The closest living relatives of clawed lobsters are the reef lobsters and the three families of freshwater crayfish.

Spider : Phylum Arthropoda


Spiders (order Araneae) are air-breathing arthropods that have eight legs and chelicerae with fangs that inject venom. They are the largest order of arachnids and rank seventh in total species diversity among [1] all other groups of organisms. Spiders are found worldwide on every continent except for Antarctica, and have become established in nearly every habitat with the exception of air and sea colonization. As of [2] [3] 2008, at least 43,678 spider species, and 109 families have been recorded by taxonomists; however, there has been confusion within the scientific community as to how all these families should be classified, [4] as evidenced by the over 20 different classifications that have been proposed since 1900. Anatomically, spiders differ from other arthropods in that the usual body segments are fused into two tagmata, the cephalothorax and abdomen, and joined by a small, cylindrical pedicel. Unlike insects, spiders do not have antennae. In all except the most primitive group, the Mesothelae, spiders have the most centralized nervous systems of all arthropods, as all their ganglia are fused into one mass in the cephalothorax. Unlike most arthropods, spiders have no extensor muscles in their limbs and instead extend them by hydraulic pressure.

Starfish : Phylum Echinodermata


Starfish or sea stars are echinoderms belonging to the class Asteroidea. The names "starfish" and "sea star" essentially refer to members of the class Asteroidea. However, common usage frequently finds these names also applied to ophiuroids, which are correctly referred to as "brittle stars" or "basket stars". About 1,800 living species of starfish occur in all the world's oceans, including the Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic andSouthern Ocean regions. Starfish occur across a broad depth range from the intertidal to abyssal depths of greater than 6,000 m (20,000 ft). Starfish are among the most familiar of marine animals found on the seabed. They typically have a central disc and five arms, though some species have many more arms than this. The aboral or upper surface may be smooth, granular or spiny, and is covered with overlapping plates. Many species are brightly coloured in various shades of red or orange, while others are blue, grey, brown, or drab. Starfish have tube feet operated by a hydraulic system and a mouth at the centre of the oral or lower surface. They are opportunistic feeders and are mostly predators on benthicinvertebrates. Several species having specialized feeding behaviours, including suspension feeding and adaptations for feeding on specific prey. They have complex life cycles and can reproduce both sexually and asexually. Most can regenerate damaged or lost arms.
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