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Department of Electrical Engineering

N.I.T. Jamshedpur.

ABSTRACT

cranes, paper mills, textile mills and so forth.

In past only conventional controllers were Small DC machines (in fractional horse

used and their design laws were based either power rating) are used primarily as control

on time domain or frequency domain. Now devices such as tacho-generator for speed

with the advancement in technology, artificial sensing and servomotors for positioning and

intelligence (AI) tools such as expert tracking. DC motors still dominate as traction

systems, fuzzy logic and neural networks are motors used in transit cars and locomotives,

being used for the design of controllers. They as the torque-speed characteristics of DC

are expected to usher a new era in power and motors can be varied over a wide range while

motion control in the coming decades. Today retaining high efficiency. Thus, DC machine

fuzzy logic has emerged as one of the most definitely plays an important role in industry.

active and fruitful areas for research in the DC machines are very popular as its torque-

application for control engineering. Fuzzy speed characteristics can be varied over a

control is based on fuzzy logic – a logical wide range. These characteristics are highly

system that is much closer in spirit to human dependent on load variation and thus there an

thinking and natural language than traditional increasing need for a good controller to

logical systems. The fuzzy logic controller perform tight regulation under high

(FLC) based on fuzzy logic provides a means unpredictable load variations. The traditional

of converting a linguistic control strategy solution has been choosing linear control

based on expert knowledge into an automatic techniques usually based on frequency

control strategy. In our present work, we domain, but this method has turned out to be

design a fuzzy controller to control the speed occasionally inefficient and its behavior can

of a separately - excited DC motor with be improved where the operating conditions

different membership functions and are far from the nominal operation.

defuzzification methods. In order to overcome these limitations,

intelligent control techniques have recently

Keywords: Fuzzy Logic, Fuzzy logic arisen as an important alternative to linear

controller, Membership function, controllers in the field of power and control.

Defuzzification, MATLAB. In the domain of control systems, fuzzy logic

proved very useful and very suitable for

INTRODUCTION systems without mathematical models and

systems with too much uncertainty. In a way,

Electrical machines play an important role in it came to the rescue when conventional

industry as well as our day-to-day life. They methods started to reach dead ends.

are used to generate electrical powering In this work, principle of fuzzy logic is

power plants and provide mechanical work in incorporated for designing a speed controller

industries. They are also an indispensable of the DC drive. For carrying out the work,

part of our daily lives. DC machines are the simplified transfer function of separately

considered to be most versatile machine as its exited DC motor is obtained. We can

torque-speed characteristics can be controlled represent the system by a controller and plant

over a wide range and thus offer economic as shown in Fig.No.3. Controller is

and technical advantage in various fields of implemented before the plant to improve the

application. A DC machine can operate either performance. In place of controller different

as a generator or as a motor but at present its types of controllers as PI, PID and Fuzzy

use as a generator is limited because of the logic controllers are taken for analysis.

widespread use of AC power. Large DC

motors are used in machine tools, printing

presses, conveyers, fans, pumps, hoists,

DC MOTOR DRIVE SYSTEM

Motor shown in Fig.No.4 is considered,

where

Ra=armature resistance in Ohms

La=armature inductance in Henry

Ia=armature current in ampere

If=field current in ampere

ea=applied armature voltage in Volts

eb=back emf in Volts

Ө= angular displacement of the motor shaft

in radian

The equation below represents the transfer

function of the plant under consideration Fig. No. 2

P(s)= K

paper by Y.Tipsuwan and M.Y.Chow in IEEE

Transaction on Fuzzy systems (1999) are as

follows: -

Ra=4.67Ω ; La=8.463 H ;

f0=0.11723Nm/rad/sec;

J=0.10559 Kgm2 ; KT=0.7318 Nm/A ;

Kb=0.7318 volts/rad/sec; Fig.No.3

obtained as (La is not neglected here)

P(s)= 0.7318

0.8937s2+1.485s+1.3146

BLOCK DIAGRAM

Fig.No.4

CONTROLLER

reasoning, is an innovative technology that

enables users to describe a desired system

behavior using everyday spoken language. In

general, a FLC consists of a set of linguistic

statements, which define a set of control

protocol relating the control conditions to

control actions by “If-then” rules. It uses

membership functions to define the degree to

which crisp physical values belong to terms

in a linguistic variable set.

The FLC consists of mainly three basic MATLAB, namely triangular, trapezoidal and

components, namely the Fuzzification, Fuzzy bell shaped.

Engine (rule base) and Defuzzification. The

Fuzzification transforms the analog input

signal into linguistic fuzzy variable in SIMULATION

between 0 and 1. The fuzzy engine handles

rule inference where the variables are MATLAB simulation is carried out with the

articulate in the “If-then” rules. The following model. Fuzzy logic controller has

Defuzzification transforms the fuzzy control fifteen rules; there are two inputs to the FLC,

actions to continuous signals that can be namely error and change of error. There is

applied to the system. Motor speed is picked one output. There are three error MF’s, five

up and the speed error (e) is determined by rate of error MF’s and three output MF’s.

subtracting the motor speed from its Mamdani interface is used for simulation.

reference speed (ωr). Simulation is carried out with various

combinations of types of MF’s (Triangular,

e = ωr – ω Trapezoidal and Bell shaped) and different

Speed error and the rate of change of error defuzzification techniques (Centroid,

are the two inputs to FLC. Bisector and Mom).

The following linguistic variables are used

for the input variable:

P=Positive Z=Zero

NS=Negative Small

NM=NegativeMedium

NB=Negative Big

Rate of error NL NM NS Z P

Error

N N N N N Z

Z N N N Z P

P Z P P P P

DC voltage that is given to the plant. Fig.No.5. -Simulation model

RESULT and CONCLUSION

The fuzzy logic controller was used to

control the DC motor speed with unit step

input. The graphical responses of open loop,

closed loop without any controller, closed

loop with PI and PID controllers, closed loop

with fuzzy logic controller has been shown

below. The three membership functions of

FLC namely triangular, trapezoidal and bell

shaped where used with different

defuzification methods (Centroid, Bisector

and Mom) where used to control the speed of

Fig. Surface view of Rules

the motor, the result of which is summarized

below.

The derivation of the fuzzy control rules is

TRIANGULAR membership function

based on the following criteria: Defuzzificatio Peak Error(% Tr(s) Ts(s)

1) If the output is far from the set point, control n method overshoot(%) )

must be large to bring the output to the set

point. Centroid (1) 4.22 0 2.73 8.54

2) If the output is approaching the set point, the Bisector (2) 0.91 0 3.42 7.1

change is rather small. Mom (3) 0.68 0 3.9 8.3

3) If the set point is reached and the output is Table 1

steady, the control remains unchanged.

In this paper three types of membership TRAPEZOIDAL membership function

Defuzzificatio

Peak Error(% Tr(s) Ts(s)

functions are used in the simulation using

n method overshoot(%) )

Centroid (4) 2.97 0 3.57 8.90

Bisector (5) 0.82 0 3.63 6.98

Mom (6) 0.67 0 3.9 7.2

Table 2

GBELL membership function

Defuzzificatio Peak Error(% Tr(s) Ts(s)

n method overshoot(%) )

Centroid (7) 5.05 0.101 2.66 9.02

Bisector (8) 0.97 0 3.53 6.62

Mom (9) 0.76 0 3.82 6.8

Table 3

FIG(4)

FIGURES

FIG(5)

FIG(1)

FIG(6)

FIG(2)

FIG(7)

FIG(3)

compromise between both and hence is most

used also. The system was observed to be

more sensitive by making the width of the

membership function narrow in the midrange

around zero and broader as we move away

from zero.

REFERENCES

1. L.A.Zadeh, “Fuzzy sets”, Information and control, vol.8,

pp.338-353,1965.

2. E.H.Mamdani, “Application of Fuzzy algorithms for

control of Simple Dynamic Plant”, Proc.IEE,vol 12,

no.12, pp.1585-1588,1974.

3. B.K.Bose, “Expert system, Fuzzy logic, and Neural

Network Applications in Power electronics and Motion

Control”, Proc. Of the IEEE, vol.82, no.8, Aug 1995,

pp.1303-1322.

FIG(8) 4. Jan Jantzen, “Design of Fuzzy Controllers”, Tech.report

no.98-E 864(design),19 Aug 1998.

5. Yodyium Tipsuwan and Mo-Yuen Chow, “Fuzzy logic

microcontroller implementation for DC motor speed

control”, IEEE transaction on Fuzzy Systems, 1999.

6. Bogumila Mrozek and Zbigniew Mrozek, “Modelling

and Fuzzy control of DC Drive”, 14th European

Simulation Multiconference ESM 2000, May 23-26,

Ghent, pp.186-190.

7. Era purwanto et.al., “Simulation of the Application

Fuzzylogic Controller in 3 phase induction motor speed

control by selecting Membership function”, Proc. Of

IEEE TENCON’02.

8. P.Phokharatkul and S.Phaiboon, “Mobile Robot control

using type-2 fuzzy logic system”, IEEE conference on

Robotics, Automation and Mechatronics, vol.1, Dec-

2004,pp.296-299.

9. I.J.Nagrath and M.Gopal, “Control Systems

FIG(9) Engineering”, forth edition, New Age International

Publishers.

that the plant response is greatly improved by

using the Fuzzy controller as compared to

conventional controllers like PI and PID

controllers. The response shows that the peak

overshoot is greatly reduced and the settling

time is also decreased, but the rise time is

increased.

From the above tables we can clearly

understand that the peak overshoot is

minimum for Mom method of defuzification

whereas the rise time is minimum for

Centroid method and the Bisector method

gives the minimum settling time. When we

compare the different membership functions

which are employed in our FLC the we see

the out of the three MF’s the trapezoidal

membership function gives the minimum

peak overshoot, rise time is minimum for

both trapezoidal and bell shaped MF . The

steady state error is zero in all cases.

The oscillations encountered when triangular

MF was used where greatly reduced in the

other two cases. Also oscillations are

minimum in the case of Bell shaped MF. The

triangular membership function is also not

showing a poor response, it is only that it is

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