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Design and Simulation of Fuzzy logic controller for Speed Control of Separately

Excited D.C. Motor

Ramesh Singh and A.K.Singh

Department of Electrical Engineering
N.I.T. Jamshedpur.

cranes, paper mills, textile mills and so forth.
In past only conventional controllers were Small DC machines (in fractional horse
used and their design laws were based either power rating) are used primarily as control
on time domain or frequency domain. Now devices such as tacho-generator for speed
with the advancement in technology, artificial sensing and servomotors for positioning and
intelligence (AI) tools such as expert tracking. DC motors still dominate as traction
systems, fuzzy logic and neural networks are motors used in transit cars and locomotives,
being used for the design of controllers. They as the torque-speed characteristics of DC
are expected to usher a new era in power and motors can be varied over a wide range while
motion control in the coming decades. Today retaining high efficiency. Thus, DC machine
fuzzy logic has emerged as one of the most definitely plays an important role in industry.
active and fruitful areas for research in the DC machines are very popular as its torque-
application for control engineering. Fuzzy speed characteristics can be varied over a
control is based on fuzzy logic – a logical wide range. These characteristics are highly
system that is much closer in spirit to human dependent on load variation and thus there an
thinking and natural language than traditional increasing need for a good controller to
logical systems. The fuzzy logic controller perform tight regulation under high
(FLC) based on fuzzy logic provides a means unpredictable load variations. The traditional
of converting a linguistic control strategy solution has been choosing linear control
based on expert knowledge into an automatic techniques usually based on frequency
control strategy. In our present work, we domain, but this method has turned out to be
design a fuzzy controller to control the speed occasionally inefficient and its behavior can
of a separately - excited DC motor with be improved where the operating conditions
different membership functions and are far from the nominal operation.
defuzzification methods. In order to overcome these limitations,
intelligent control techniques have recently
Keywords: Fuzzy Logic, Fuzzy logic arisen as an important alternative to linear
controller, Membership function, controllers in the field of power and control.
Defuzzification, MATLAB. In the domain of control systems, fuzzy logic
proved very useful and very suitable for
INTRODUCTION systems without mathematical models and
systems with too much uncertainty. In a way,
Electrical machines play an important role in it came to the rescue when conventional
industry as well as our day-to-day life. They methods started to reach dead ends.
are used to generate electrical powering In this work, principle of fuzzy logic is
power plants and provide mechanical work in incorporated for designing a speed controller
industries. They are also an indispensable of the DC drive. For carrying out the work,
part of our daily lives. DC machines are the simplified transfer function of separately
considered to be most versatile machine as its exited DC motor is obtained. We can
torque-speed characteristics can be controlled represent the system by a controller and plant
over a wide range and thus offer economic as shown in Fig.No.3. Controller is
and technical advantage in various fields of implemented before the plant to improve the
application. A DC machine can operate either performance. In place of controller different
as a generator or as a motor but at present its types of controllers as PI, PID and Fuzzy
use as a generator is limited because of the logic controllers are taken for analysis.
widespread use of AC power. Large DC
motors are used in machine tools, printing
presses, conveyers, fans, pumps, hoists,

An armature controlled separately exited DC

Motor shown in Fig.No.4 is considered,
Ra=armature resistance in Ohms
La=armature inductance in Henry
Ia=armature current in ampere
If=field current in ampere
ea=applied armature voltage in Volts
eb=back emf in Volts
Ө= angular displacement of the motor shaft
in radian
The equation below represents the transfer
function of the plant under consideration Fig. No. 2

P(s)= K

J La s2 + (f0La + JRa) s + (f0Ra + K2)

Motor parameters obtained from a

paper by Y.Tipsuwan and M.Y.Chow in IEEE
Transaction on Fuzzy systems (1999) are as
follows: -
Ra=4.67Ω ; La=8.463 H ;
J=0.10559 Kgm2 ; KT=0.7318 Nm/A ;
Kb=0.7318 volts/rad/sec; Fig.No.3

Transfer function of the plant is

obtained as (La is not neglected here)

P(s)= 0.7318






Fuzzy logic, the logic of approximate

reasoning, is an innovative technology that
enables users to describe a desired system
behavior using everyday spoken language. In
general, a FLC consists of a set of linguistic
statements, which define a set of control
protocol relating the control conditions to
control actions by “If-then” rules. It uses
membership functions to define the degree to
which crisp physical values belong to terms
in a linguistic variable set.
The FLC consists of mainly three basic MATLAB, namely triangular, trapezoidal and
components, namely the Fuzzification, Fuzzy bell shaped.
Engine (rule base) and Defuzzification. The
Fuzzification transforms the analog input
signal into linguistic fuzzy variable in SIMULATION
between 0 and 1. The fuzzy engine handles
rule inference where the variables are MATLAB simulation is carried out with the
articulate in the “If-then” rules. The following model. Fuzzy logic controller has
Defuzzification transforms the fuzzy control fifteen rules; there are two inputs to the FLC,
actions to continuous signals that can be namely error and change of error. There is
applied to the system. Motor speed is picked one output. There are three error MF’s, five
up and the speed error (e) is determined by rate of error MF’s and three output MF’s.
subtracting the motor speed from its Mamdani interface is used for simulation.
reference speed (ωr). Simulation is carried out with various
combinations of types of MF’s (Triangular,
e = ωr – ω Trapezoidal and Bell shaped) and different
Speed error and the rate of change of error defuzzification techniques (Centroid,
are the two inputs to FLC. Bisector and Mom).
The following linguistic variables are used
for the input variable:
P=Positive Z=Zero
NS=Negative Small
NB=Negative Big

Rules for the Fuzzy logic controller

Rate of error NL NM NS Z P

The output data of the fuzzy controller is the

DC voltage that is given to the plant. Fig.No.5. -Simulation model
The fuzzy logic controller was used to
control the DC motor speed with unit step
input. The graphical responses of open loop,
closed loop without any controller, closed
loop with PI and PID controllers, closed loop
with fuzzy logic controller has been shown
below. The three membership functions of
FLC namely triangular, trapezoidal and bell
shaped where used with different
defuzification methods (Centroid, Bisector
and Mom) where used to control the speed of
Fig. Surface view of Rules
the motor, the result of which is summarized
The derivation of the fuzzy control rules is
TRIANGULAR membership function
based on the following criteria: Defuzzificatio Peak Error(% Tr(s) Ts(s)
1) If the output is far from the set point, control n method overshoot(%) )
must be large to bring the output to the set
point. Centroid (1) 4.22 0 2.73 8.54
2) If the output is approaching the set point, the Bisector (2) 0.91 0 3.42 7.1
change is rather small. Mom (3) 0.68 0 3.9 8.3
3) If the set point is reached and the output is Table 1
steady, the control remains unchanged.
In this paper three types of membership TRAPEZOIDAL membership function
Peak Error(% Tr(s) Ts(s)
functions are used in the simulation using
n method overshoot(%) )
Centroid (4) 2.97 0 3.57 8.90
Bisector (5) 0.82 0 3.63 6.98
Mom (6) 0.67 0 3.9 7.2
Table 2
GBELL membership function
Defuzzificatio Peak Error(% Tr(s) Ts(s)
n method overshoot(%) )
Centroid (7) 5.05 0.101 2.66 9.02
Bisector (8) 0.97 0 3.53 6.62
Mom (9) 0.76 0 3.82 6.8
Table 3







compromise between both and hence is most
used also. The system was observed to be
more sensitive by making the width of the
membership function narrow in the midrange
around zero and broader as we move away
from zero.
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After simulation of the system we easily see

that the plant response is greatly improved by
using the Fuzzy controller as compared to
conventional controllers like PI and PID
controllers. The response shows that the peak
overshoot is greatly reduced and the settling
time is also decreased, but the rise time is
From the above tables we can clearly
understand that the peak overshoot is
minimum for Mom method of defuzification
whereas the rise time is minimum for
Centroid method and the Bisector method
gives the minimum settling time. When we
compare the different membership functions
which are employed in our FLC the we see
the out of the three MF’s the trapezoidal
membership function gives the minimum
peak overshoot, rise time is minimum for
both trapezoidal and bell shaped MF . The
steady state error is zero in all cases.
The oscillations encountered when triangular
MF was used where greatly reduced in the
other two cases. Also oscillations are
minimum in the case of Bell shaped MF. The
triangular membership function is also not
showing a poor response, it is only that it is