PHONETICS

The word Phonetics has its roots in the Greek word ‘Phone’ which means ‘sound/voice’. Phonetics is the systematic study of speech sounds and their articulation, audition and perception. In English there are twenty-six letters but forty-four sounds. The Speech sounds in English are divided into two main categories: vowel sounds and consonant sounds.

Vowel Sounds:
A vowel is a voiced sound in the production of which there is no obstruction of airflow anywhere through its passage from the lungs. There are twenty vowel sounds which are subdivided into Monophthongs or Pure Vowels (twelve) and Diphthongs or Vowel glides (eight). Out of twelve vowels there are seven Short Vowels and five Long Vowels. A diphthong is a combination of two vowel sounds. It is a glide from one vowel sound to another, as in boy.

Sr. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Monophthongs (Pure Vowels) Short vowels Long vowels i/I kit i: fleece ʊ foot u: food e dress æ trap ə about ɔ: thought ɔ/ɒ lot ɑ: start ʌ strut ɜ: nurse

Diphthongs (Vowel Glides) aɪ eɪ ɔɪ ɪə eə ʊə aʊ əʊ price face choice near fair poor mouth goat

Consonants: A consonant is a voiced or voiceless sound in the production of which the obstruction of the airflow is either partial or complete. The consonants are twenty-four in number.

Sr. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Voiced

b d g dʒ v ð z ʒ

back day get judge view this zero pleasure

Sr. No. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23.

Voiceless

p t k f θ s ʃ h

pen tea key fat thing soon ship hot

12. 10. 11. 13. tʃ church Phonetic Transcription: Phonetic transcription is a system for transcribing sounds that occur in spoken language or signed language. 14.9. m n ŋ l r j w more nice ring light right yet wet 24. Vowels: i/I Sit Ship Is It /sɪt/ /ʃɪp/ /ɪz/ /ɪt/ i: Sheep Seat Ease Eat /ʃiːp/ /siːt/ /iːz/ /iːt/ ʊ Should /ʃʊd/ Would Full Pull /wʊd/ /fʊl/ /pʊl/ u: Fool Pool Food Mood /fuːl/ /puːl/ /fuːd/ /muːd/ ə About Alarm Again Alone /əˈlɑːm/ /əˈgen/ /əˈləʊn/ /nɜːs/ /pɜːs/ /gɜːl/ /pɜːl/ e /əˈbaʊt/ Head Dead Bed Pen /hed/ /ded/ /bed/ /pen/ /hɑːt/ /kɑːt/ /hɑːd/ /bɑːd/ æ Hat Cat Bad Had /hæt/ /kæt/ /bæt/ /hæd/ /pɒt/ /dɒt/ /wɒt/ /ʃɒt/ ʌ Cut Hut Much luck /kʌt/ /hʌt/ /mʌtʃ/ /lʌk/ /dɔːn/ /flɔː/ /dʒɔː/ /drɔː/ ɜ: Nurse Purse Girl Pearl ɑ: Heart Cart Hard bard ɔ/ɒ Pot Dot What shot ɔ: Dawn Flaw Jaw Draw Diphthongs: aI why /waɪ/ eI wait /weɪt/ ɔI boy /bɔɪ/ aʊ wow /waʊ/ . 15.

many • æ trap. high. love. here. two. north war • ʊə poor. boy • u: goose. group • əʊ goat. ladder. weary • eə square. fair. situation • n suddenly. blue. standard • I happy. blood • ʊ foot. put • i: fleece.buy my fry Iə /baɪ/ /maɪ/ /fraɪ/ plain date shape eə /pleɪn/ joy /deɪt/ /ʃeɪp/ boil spoil /dʒɔɪ/ /bɔɪl/ /spɔɪl/ plough /plaʊ/ now doubt /naʊ/ /daʊt/ ʊə /ðeə/ /weə/ /feə / /tʃeə / cure tour pure jury /kjʊə / /tʊə/ /pjʊə/ əʊ no show note /nəʊ/ /ʃəʊ/ /nəʊt/ /rəʊb/ dear near clear sheer /dɪə/ /nɪə/ /klɪə / /ʃɪə/ there where fair chair /dʒʊəri/ robe Important Words: Vowels: • ɪ kit. bad • ɒ lot. try • ɔɪ choice. learn. influence. hymn. stir. radiate. head. cotton • l middle. odd • k key. odd. job • t tea. glorious • U thank you. clock. button • d day. happen • b back. minute • e dress. bid. common. father • ɔ: thought. sea. metal • ‘ (stress mark) Consonants: • p pen. jury. school • g get. baby. mud. no • aʊ mouth. refer • ə about. wash • ʌ strut. copy. tight. good. bed. machine • eɪ face. law. various • ɑ: start. show. day. cure • ɜ: nurse. now • ɪə near. giggle. ghost . break • aɪ price.

feel • r right. valley. cease. vote. hammer. dice. smooth • s soon. soldier • f fat. whole. one. beer. wrong. jury . national • ʒ pleasure.• tʃ church. sum • n nice. pure. buzz • ʃ ship. few • w wet. beauty. match. queen Diphthongs: ɪə eə əʊ aʊ eɪ aɪ ɔɪ ʊə year. move • θ thing. funny. bathe. know. sure. choice cure. way thigh. my joy. heavy. ear chair. path • ð this. other. thanks sung • l light. author. age. throw vow. rough. arrange • j yet. roses. ahead • m more. music. noise. coffee. sun • ŋ ring. tour. sister • z zero. there joke. nature • dʒ judge. vision • h hot. photo • v view. lounge. sorry. out they. use. anger. where. when.