Solar Thermal P S l Th l Power f I di for India

Dr. Dr Shireesh B. Kedare B
Adjunct Associate Professor Department of Energy Science and Engineering, IIT-Bombay Director Clique Developments Pvt. Ltd., Mumbai

Solar Belt S l B lt

Solar Belt

Solar Belt

Solar Thermal Power : Abundance !

Concentrating Solar Power Generation G ti

CSP Plants will become one of the leading energy technologies within the next years

630,000

5% of world-wide world wide energy demand

Cumulated installed power in MWel / Forecast 21,540

5,990 354* 2002 365** 2005 1,550 2010 2015 2020 2040

* Mojave Desert/USA (9 power plants) ** Plants under implementation (165 MW)

Source: ”Solar thermal power in 2020“, Greenpeace/ESTIA

CSP Plants will become one of the leading energy technologies within the next years

Concentrating Optics

Focus

Parabolic Reflector

Concentrators

Parabolic rotational solids Concentrate the irradiance up to 2 000 times 2,000

Extruded parabolic profiles Concentrate the irradiance up to 200 times

8

Fresnel Concentrators

9

Concentrator Applications

Dish Stirling Systems
5 – 25 kWe Off-grid / long-term pilot plants

Solar Tower Systems

5 – 100 MWe On-grid / long-term pilot plants

Parabolic Trough
5 – 200 MWe On-grid / commercial operation

Linear Fresnel

5 – 200 MWe On-grid / pilot plants
10

Parabolic Troughs
Typical application: solar radiation is reflected to a linear focus (receiver pipe) which is cooled by synthetic oil Temperature range 200 – 390°C Capacity range: 10 – 200 MWe The heat is used in conventional power processes Status: 354 MWe in commercial operation since 1989 : 65 MW since 2006
11

Parabolic Trough CSP plants in the US l t i th
Constructed: C d
Ten Parabolic Trough Plants Sizes between 1 MWe and 80 MWe Installed between 1986 and today Status: Under operation
electricity costs approx. 120 USD/MWhe approx Investment cost between 2800 (80 MW SEGS IX) and 4500 USD/kW (13 MW SEGS I) Operation cost approx. 20 USD/MWh

Under construction/development/recent:
One PBT Plant 64 MWe in Nevada Nevada, groundbreaking January ‘06, commissioned ‘07
12

Parabolic Trough CSP plants in th US : C lif i l t i the California
Kramer Junction SEGS III: 30 SEGS S GS IV: 30 SEGS V: 30 SEGS VI: 30 SEGS VII: 30 Total: 150 MWe Harper Lake SEGS VIII: 80 MW SEGS S GS IX: 80 MW Total: 160 MWe

MW MW MW MW MW

13

Parabolic Trough CSP plants Kramer Junction in the US

Parabolic Trough CSP plants Harper Lake in the US

Parabolic Trough CSP plants in th US : C lif i l t i the California
Net Output (MWe) Solar field Dispatchability details outlet temp (C)

I II III / IV / V VI / VII VIII / IX
16

13.8 13 8 30 30 30 80

307 316 349 390 390

3 h thermal storage Gas fired boiler Gas fired boiler Gas fired boiler Gas fired HTF heater

Parabolic Trough CSP plants in the US: The Nevada Solar-One Plant

Parabolic Trough CSP plants in the US: The Nevada Solar-One Plant
Parabolic Trough system commissioned 2007 Capacity : 64 MW Collector fluid: Dowtherm @ 390°C Generates steam to run Rankine cycle Capital Investment : $266 million : $4.16 million/MW : Rs 17 Cr/MW $4 16 Rs.17 Energy Cost : 21 – 30 c/kWh : Rs. 8 to 12/kWh Annual Generation : 2100 hr/yr Area required : 400 acres : 2.5 Ha/MW
Source: official plant website – www.nevadasolarone.net

Parabolic Trough CSP p g plants in the US: Arizona
Parabolic Trough system commissioned 2006 Capacity : 1 MW Collector fluid: Thermic fluid @ 300°C Organic Rankine cycle : n-Pentane, vapour at 22.4 bar, 204°C Cycle efficiency : 20 7% 20.7% Annual Generation: 2000 hr/yr

PT based CSP at Murqab, near Dubai SolarARC S l ARC 34 PBT

Murqab SolarARC 4 x 34 MW Total: T t l 136 MWe

20

PT based CSP at Murqab, near Dubai SolarARC S l ARC 34 PBT

21

Murqab site SolarARC 34 PBT Plant D t Pl t Data and project conditions d j t diti
Electric capacity 34.0 MWel per module Thermal Storage 270 MWhth per module Fossil Backup F il B k plus 15% of solar output l f l t t Electrical output ~ 108 GWhel p.a. per module (97 GWhel thereof solar only, i.e. 2850 hr/yr ) Land use 120 ha i.e. 3.53 ha/MW Collector Area:311,000 sq.m i.e.9150 sq.m/MW Lifetime over 25 years

22

Murqab site SolarARC 34 PBT Plant D t Pl t Data and project conditions d j t diti
Direct normal irradiation of 2230 Loan frame 80% of invest at 5% interest rate (15 years run time) Electricity selling price of 840 – 930 AED/MWh at electricity generating costs of 500 AED/MWh Operating and Maintenance costs of 77 – 90 AED/MWh Land use free of charge 136 MWe total capacity approx. 435 GWhe electricity produced per year IRR20 of 15.3 % - 18.5 % (based on 20% equity capital) Payback Period of approx. 8-9 years

23

Parabolic Troughs - Components
LS-1 Collector

24

Parabolic Troughs - Components

LS-2 Collector Curved glass 2 x 2 modules Width 5 m CR ~ 100

25

Parabolic Troughs - Components

Absorber Tube Pipe diameter 50 mm Evacuated glass cover Selective coating Temp Limit 400 C Bellows for expansion

26

Parabolic Troughs - Components
Mechanical torque transfer Hydraulic drive Solar brain – hardware & software control
Tracking system and controls

Parabolic Troughs - Components

Piping Connections on f side C far d

28

Parabolic Troughs - Components

Steam Generator Fossil fuel hybrid

29

Parabolic Troughs - Components

Steam Turbine y Steam Rankine cycle Organic Rankine cycle

30

Parabolic Trough characteristics - NREL

Parabolic Trough – Power System : Schematic

Parabolic Trough – Power System

35

Parabolic Trough – Power System

36

Parabolic Trough – Power System

37

Parabolic Trough – Power System

Solar Tower Systems
Typical T i l application: solar radiation i reflected b li i l di i is fl d by heliostats to the top of a tower (80 m) Temperature range: 350 to 1500 °C C Capacity range: 5 – 100 MWe The heat is used in conventional power processes Salt storage system Status: 10 MWe l St t long-term pilots t il t in operation

39

Solar Tower Systems

Solar Tower Systems

Heleostats-Central Tower CSP plants i E l t in Europe
Constructed:
Only pilot plants (approx. 15 MWe)

Under construction/ development: Spain: approx. 500 MWe
in total

Greece: pp approx. 50 MWe
42

PS10 at Granada, Spain tG d S i
Heleostat – Central Receiver Capacity : 10 MW Area required : ? Capital Investment : $56.5 million $5 65 o / : $5.65 million/MW : Rs.23.2 Cr/MW

Linear Fresnel

44

Linear Fresnel
Typical application: solar radiation is reflected by facets to a linear focus which is cooled by water/steam Temperature range 300 – 550 °C C Capacity range: 5 – 200 MWe The heat is used in conventional power processes Status: pilots in operation
Applications

45

Dish Systems
Typical T i l application: solar radiation i reflected b a li i l di i is fl d by reflective dish (diameter up to 25 m) to a point focus Temperature range: 650 to 800 °C C Capacity range: 0.01 – 0.025 MWe Absorbed heat is used to generate steam to run engine or turbine Status: A few pilots (50 kWe) in the i th past t
46

Dish with 50kWe Steam Engine

300 m2 Sandia Dish, US, 1984

Dish with 50kWe Steam Engine

300 m2 Sandia Dish with Cavity Receiver

Dish with 50kWe Steam Engine

400 m2 ANU Dish with Cavity Receiver, Australia

Dish Stirling Systems
Typical T i l application: solar radiation i reflected b a li ti l di ti is fl t d by reflective dish (diameter up to 25 m) to a point focus Temperature range: 650 to 800 °C Capacity range: 10 – 25 kWe Absorbed heat is used in a Stirling engine Rs.45 Cr/MWe (Imptd) Rs.25 Cr/MWe ( / (Ind) ) Rs.8-12 /kWh Status: several long-term pilots (10 – 25 kWe) in operation
50

Dish with Stirling Engine

100 m2 Dish with Stirling Engine at Test Field

Dish with Stirling Engine

56 m2 Dish with Stirling Engine at VIT,

INDIA

Dish with Stirling Engine

100 m2 Dishes with Stirling Engine by SES for 500 & 800 MW plant at Mojave Desert, US

Solar Concentrators: Efficiency

54

Comparison

Peak Energy 29 % efficiency Operating 800 °C temperature Typical Size Maturity 0.025 MWe Pilot

23 % 550 – 1500 °C 5 - 25 MWe Long-term pilot

21 % 390 °C 30 – 80 MWe

20 % 300 - 550 °C 10 – 100 MWe

Commercial operation Pilot

* Estimated values only ** Long-term price studies for solar only plants *** values for plants under commercial operation

55

List of CSP plants (announced)

Initiatives in I di I iti ti i India
Concentrators for process heat p
Scheffler cooker / concentrator Arun paraboloid concentrator Solar Bowl

Thermal Power approaches
Scheffler Dish with MS storage Arun with (solid) storage Imported Parabolic Trough / CLFR Imported Stirling Engine / Dish

Cogeneration

Initiatives in I di I iti ti i India
Concentrators for process heat p
Scheffler cooker / concentrator Arun paraboloid concentrator Solar Bowl

Thermal Power approaches
Scheffler Dish with MS storage Arun with (solid) storage Imported Parabolic Trough / CLFR Imported Stirling Engine / Dish

Cogeneration

Paraboloid Dish with Fixed Focus on ground

7 m2 Scheffler dish for cooking, INDIA

Paraboloid Dish with Fixed Focus on ground

7 m2 Scheffler dish for cooking, Mt.Abu, India

Scheffler Paraboloid Dish with Fixed Focus on ground 16 m2 S h ffl di h f cooking, INDIA Scheffler dish for ki • Temp: 100 to 150°C p • Power capacity : 4 to 5 kW • Operating hours : 6 to 7 hours/day • Daily output : 30 kWhth / day • Capital cost : Rs.1,35,000 Rs 30 000 • Cost Parameter : Rs. 30,000 /kWth : Rs. 4,500/(kWhth/day)

Fresnel Paraboloid Dish : ARUN™ ARUN™ from Clique & IIT-Bombay IIT-

160 m2 dish for Pasteurization of Milk at Mahanand Dairy, Latur, India y, , saving about 75 lit Furnace Oil on every sunny day since Feb, 2006

Arun at Mahanand Dairy, y, Latur, India

63

•Paraboloid Fresnel mirror arrangement g •Flat dish of space truss
10000

Small mirror facets, protection provided Light, less costly, t t d i the field Li ht l tl tested in th fi ld

•Point focus fixed to the dish
1000 b

s storage volume, m 3

Load temperature constraint

•Coiled tube cavity absorber y
m given area 10 Minimum Volume 1

100

volume operating region Maximized intercept factor limits for Area limits for given volume

o

•Automatic two-axes tracking
(100°C) 170 50 70 90 110 130 150 190 210 230 0.1

Minimized thermalMaximum temp.constraint losses a

Facing th Sun, maximum i F i Area the S i insolation l ti Minimum
Collector area,m 2

•Storage & Hx for 24 h heat supply g pp y •Optimized integration and efficiency improvement

64

ARUN160TM Concentrator

Steam for process heat applications

Steam Drum

Pump

65

ARUN160TM Concentrator Field

Steam for process heat applications

Steam Drum

Pump

66

ARUN Solar Concentrator: Improved
For Fo the FIRST TIME in Indi a solar concentrator is India ol on ent to i available for Industrial Process Heat Applications. Largest aperture area : 169 m2 Highest modular thermal output : About 700,000 kcal/day; about 70 to 90 kWth for 8 to 9 hours a day Highest stagnation temperature : 1050° to 1200°C Highest process temperature : 300 to 500°C Pressurized water / Oil as thermal / storage medium Integrable with various industrial processes Back-up heating for monsoon On line data logging On-line data-logging can be provided Saves about 75 to 85 lit/d or MORE (110 lit/d!) oil Testing procedure is developed that can characterize the dish
η = 0.765 – {0.4 + 2.4x10-5 (Tm - Tamb) + 0.9x10-3 (sin θz) } (Tm - Tamb) /Ibn
η of PT = 0.78 – {0.35 + 4.3x10-5 (Tm - Tamb) + 0 } (Tm - Tamb) /Ibn
67

Potential

Fully indigenous technology At the fountainhead of Providing about 30% of industrial process heat in India by solar energy saving of about 10% of our oil imports Capable of supplying most economic solar heat for solar thermal power route through steam Rankine cycle / organic Rankine cycle / Combined gas cycle Stirling-Dish system leading to Solar Farms Experience gained leading to development of heleostats and central tower system As tracker for solar PV panels For concentrating solar PV in future g Great CDM potential and important role in reducing global warming 68

Improved Fresnel Paraboloid Dish : ARUN™ ARUN™ 169 m2 dish for Industrial Process Heat / Power

• Temp: 150 to 350°C • Power capacity : 80 to 85 kWth • Operating hours : 9 to 10 hours/day • Daily output : About 800 kWhth / day or 700,000 kcal / day • C i l cost : Rs.28,50,000 Capital R 28 50 000 , • Cost Parameter : Rs. 34,550 /kWth : Rs. 3,562/(kWhth/day)

Fixed Spheroidal Dish with Moving Focus

176 m2 Solar Bowl at CSR, Auroville, INDIA

Comparison of Solar Systems
Specific Cost (Capital cost / Area) (Rs./ m )
40,000

2

Rs./ m2

37,500 , 33,750

35,000 30,000

25,000
25,000 20,000

21,429 15,000 14,793 12,000 12 000 10,000 9,500 7,000 7,500 16,000

15,000 5,000 10,000 5,000 0

So la ra ir he at So er la rw at Ev er ac he ua at te er Ev d Tu ac ua be te C d ol tu le be ct or -H s ea tP ip e Sy st em Sa nd ia ,U S A AN U ,A us tra l ia Pa ra bo lic Tr ou gh

So Sc la rB he ffl ow er l co ok er (1 6 m 2)

Ar un 16 0

Ar un 70

Ar un 16 0

w

ith

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-ir

on

m i rr

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71

-

30,000

40,000

50,000

60,000

70,000

80,000

90,000 90 000

10,000

20,000

So la ra ir h ea So la rw at er he at er r

22140

te

Rs/m 2

Ev Ev ac ua te

23616

ac ua te d tu be Co l le ct be Tu or s

d

14000

-H e at Pi pe Sa nd ia, US A AN U, Au str a l ia Pa ra bo lic Tr ou la co ok rB er er gh So ow (1 6 Sy st

40909

em

48214 53571

22069

Sc he f fl

l m Ar

2

Cost / Efficiency ratio (Rs./m )
77159

35382

2) un Ar un 16 0 Ar wi th lo
72

70 un wir o n 16 m

Comparison of Solar Systems

44835

25509

0 i rr

or

24726

s

Comparison of Solar Systems
Power Cost (Capital cost / Power) at different operating temperatures (Rs./ kW th)
100,000 90,000 80,000 70,000 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 30 000 20,000 10,000 0

R s./ k W th s

94,538 85,084

48,128 25,963 11,667

45,387

52,747 41,626 30,010 29,089

18,450 18 450

19,680 19 680

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Comparison of Solar Systems
Typical Cost of Thermal Energy from different solar thermal units at different operating temperatures (Rs./kWhth)

6 5
4.15 4.89

R s ./ k W h th

4 3 2 1 0
Solar air heater Solar w ater heater

3.57

3.74 2.84 2 84 2.56

1.37

1.46 0.86

1.47

1.32

1.28

Evacuated Evacuated Sandia, Tube tube-Heat USA Collectors Pipe System

ANU, Parabolic Australia Trough

Solar Bow l

Scheffler cooker (16 m2)

Arun70

Arun160

Arun160 w ith low iron 74 mirrors

Comparison of Solar Systems
Scheffler cooker (16 m2) Evacuated tube-Heat Pipe System

0.8 08 0.7 SystemEfficiency E 0.6 06 0.5 0.4 04 0.3 0.2 02 0.1 0.0 00 50 100

Arun160 Parabolic Trough Arun160 with low-iron mirrors

(Topr-Ta), °C

150

200

250

300
75

Comparison of Solar Systems
Specific system cost based on Therm Power d mal Rs / kW th
70,000 65,000 60,000 55,000 50,000 45,000 , 40,000 35,000 30,000 , 25,000 20,000 50 100 150 200 250 300 (Topr-Ta), °C

Scheffler cooker (16 m2) Evacuated tube-Heat Pipe System Arun160 Parabolic Trough Arun160 with low-iron mirrors

76

Comparison of Solar Systems
Comparativ Life Cycle Cost of ve e Delivered Energy, Rs./ kWh th E /
5 4

3

2

1 50 100 150 200 250 300
(Topr-Ta), °C Scheffler cooker (16 m2) Evacuated tube-Heat Pipe System Arun160 Parabolic Trough Electricity Light Diesel Oil (LDO) LPG Furnace Oil (FO) Natural Gas (PNG) Arun160 with low-iron mirrors

77

Initiatives in I di I iti ti i India
Concentrators for process heat p
Scheffler cooker / concentrator Arun paraboloid concentrator Solar Bowl

Thermal Power approaches
Scheffler Dish with MS storage Arun with (solid) storage Imported Parabolic Trough / CLFR Imported Stirling Engine / Dish

Cogeneration

1 MW SOLAR THERMAL POWER PROJECT
1.9 3046 350

Solar Boiler
5.4 MW

60

SOLAR FIELD

H.ST.

WS

1.9 60

3046 400

75.3 %

P = 1 MW
1.4 2521 46.2

SH
WS

0.5 MW
1.9 60 2785 276

0.1013

4.4 MW

HTF

EV

3.1 3 1 MW
1.9 192 46

WS

1.9 65

1134 260

0.1013

C.ST. C ST

HTF

PH

1.8 MW Ppump = 12.1 KW

Power Output: 1 MW Solar Boiler Heat i/p = 5.4 MW Efficiency: 18.4 %
LEGENDS

P=60 P 60 T=350 MW=1 No RH, No RG

1.9 65

198 46

Mass [Kg/S] P [bar]

h [KJ/Kg] T [0 C]

1 MW SOLAR THERMAL POWER PROJECT
1.6 3180 400

Solar Boiler
4.8 MW

60

SOLAR FIELD

H.ST.

WS

1.6 60

3180 400

75.3 %

P = 1 MW
1.6 2554 46.2

SH
WS

0.63 MW
1.6 60 2785 276

0.1013

3.8 MW

HTF

EV

2.64 2 64 MW
1.6 192 46

WS

1.6 65

1134 260

0.1013

C.ST. C ST

HTF

PH

1.49 MW Ppump = 10.2 KW

Power Output: 1 MW Solar Boiler Heat i/p = 4.8 MW Efficiency: 21%
LEGENDS

P=60 T=400 MW=1 No RH, No

1.6 65

198 46

Mass [Kg/S] P [bar]

h [KJ/Kg] T [0 C]

1 MW SOLAR THERMAL POWER PROJECT
1.4 3303 450

Solar Boiler
4.32 MW

60

SOLAR FIELD

H.ST.

WS

1.4 60

3303 400

75.3 %

P = 1 MW
1.4 2585 46.2

SH
WS

0.72 MW
1.4 60 2785 276

0.1013

3.33 MW

HTF

EV

2.3 2 3 MW
1.4 192 46

WS

1.4 65

1134 260

0.1013

C.ST. C ST

HTF

PH

1.3 MW Ppump = 8.9 KW

Power Output: 1 MW Solar Boiler Heat i/p = 4.32 MW Efficiency: 23.1%
LEGENDS

P=60 P 60 T=450 MW=1 No RH, No RG

1.4 65

198 46

Mass [Kg/S] P [bar]

h [KJ/Kg] T [0 C]

1 MW SOLAR THERMAL POWER PROJECT
1.73 3118 350

Solar Boiler
5.1 MW

30

SOLAR FIELD

H.ST.

WS

1.73 30

3233 400

75.3 %

P = 1 MW
1.73 2539 46.2

SH
WS

0.5 MW
1.73 30 2832 276

0.1013

4.1 MW

HTF

EV

3.2 3 2 MW
1.73 192 46

WS

1.73 35

990 260

0.1013

C.ST. C ST

HTF

PH

1.4 MW Ppump = 6 KW

Power Output: 1 MW Solar Boiler Heat i/p = 5.1 MW Efficiency: 19.8 %
LEGENDS

P=30 P 30 T=350 MW=1 No RH, No RG

1.73 35

196 46

Mass [Kg/S] P [bar]

h [KJ/Kg] T [0 C]

1 MW SOLAR THERMAL POWER PROJECT
1.5 3233 400

Solar Boiler
4.6 MW

30

SOLAR FIELD

H.ST.

WS

1.5 30

3233 400

75.3 %

P = 1 MW
1.5 2568 46.2

SH
WS

0.6 MW
1.5 30 2832 276

0.1013

3.6 MW

HTF

EV

2.8 2 8 MW
1.5 192 46

WS

1.5 35

990 260

0.1013

C.ST. C ST

HTF

PH

1.2 MW Ppump = 5.15 KW

Power Output: 1 MW Solar Boiler Heat i/p = 4.6 MW Efficiency: 21.9 %
LEGENDS

P=30 P 30 T=400 MW=1 No RH, No RG

1.5 35

196 46

Mass [Kg/S] P [bar]

h [KJ/Kg] T [0 C]

23.5 23.0 23 0 22.5 22.0 22 0 21.5 21.0 20.5 20.0 300 320 Series1 340

Cycle Efficiency = 0.047xTemperature + 2.0333 R2 = 0.9962

2.0 1.9 19 1.8 1.7

Mass Flow = -0.005xTemperature + 3.6333 R2 = 0.9868

1.6 1.5 1.4 14 1.3

360

380

400

420

440

1.2 460

Series2

Linear (Series1)

Linear (Series2)

Cycle Efficien cy [% ]

25 23 21 19 17 15 300 19.8 18.4 21.9 21 9 21 23.1

320

340

360

380

400

420

440

460

Temperature [C] Pressure=30 Bar
350 19.8 18.4

Pressure=60 Bar
400 21.9 21 450 23.1

30 60

25 Cycle Efficiency [%] E y 23 21 19 17 15 50 70 90 110 130 150 170 190 Degree of Superheat [C] Pressure=30 Bar
75 30 60 18.4 125 19.8 21

23.1 21.9 21 9 21 19.8 18.4 18 4

Pressure=60 Bar
175 21.9 23.1

Comparison of Solar Systems
Scheffler cooker (16 m2) Evacuated tube-Heat Pipe System

0.8 08 0.7 SystemEfficiency E 0.6 06 0.5 0.4 04 0.3 0.2 02 0.1 0.0 00 50 100

Arun160 Parabolic Trough Arun160 with low-iron mirrors

(Topr-Ta), °C

150

200

250

300
87

Solar Thermal Power Technologies : Technical Comparison f I di T h i lC i for India
Typical concentration ratio Heat loss coefficient, Effective Ul, aperture at W/m2/K Lat < 20° Effective aperture at Lat > 20°

Optical efficiency, ηo

Scheffler system Parabolic Trough Arun160
with low-iron ith l i mirrors

150 100 400

0.581 0 581 0.77 0.765 0 765

2 0.35 0.4 04

0.7 07

0.7 07

0.8 – 0.9 0.6 – 0.8 1.0 10 1.0 10

Solar Thermal Power Technologies : Parametric C P t i Comparison f I di i for India
Scheffler Arun
Power Collector Area Sq.m / MW Land required Ha/MW Capital Cost Rs./MW Hrs/day Ratio Rs.Cr/(MWh/d) Energy Cost* Rs./kWh

Imported PT 20 MW 9,500 – 10,500 2.5 to 3.5 17 Cr 7 2.4

Imported CLFR 20 MW ? ? ? 14 Cr 5.6 56 2.5 8.33 8 33 – 12.50

DishStirling 0.025 MW 6750 3 16-20 Cr 8 2 - 2.5 10 – 12 50 12.50

3.5 MW 12,000 2.75 18.3 Cr 6.85 6 85 2.67 9.00 9 00 – 13.50

5 MW 8,450 4.5 20 Cr 8.5 85

2.35

8.00 7.83 7 83 – 8 00 – 11.75 12.00

* With annualized cost / capital cost = 13% and O&M @2% pa, no profit

Initiatives in I di I iti ti i India
Concentrators for process heat p
Scheffler cooker / concentrator Arun paraboloid concentrator Solar Bowl

Thermal Power approaches
Scheffler Dish with MS storage Arun with (solid) storage Imported Parabolic Trough / CLFR Imported Stirling Engine / Dish

Cogeneration

Co-generation with process heat applications li ti

Co-generation with VAR-application

92

Co-generation with Multiple effect Desalination

G

93

Solar Thermal Power Technologies : Research i R h issues f I di for India
Optimization of Process Heat and Cop gen systems Storage material at high temperature g g p Optimum sizing of storage, turbines Organic Rankine cycle PT: Evacuated tube and its coating High temperature receiver for central tower Thermal material for central tower Stirling engine

Solar Thermal Power Technologies : Technology i T h l issues f I di for India
Infrastructure available and cost in India for manufacturing: Labour, industrial components Technical quality, Reliability and Operating experience of indigenous systems vs imported systems Capital cost and Cost of maintenance of indigenous systems vs imported systems Testing standards Testing facility and demonstration plant – IIT Bombay

Solar Thermal Power Technologies : Comparison i C i issues f I di for India
Cost and hours /day, hours /year Operating temperature affects solar collector efficiency as well as turbine ll ff ll b efficiency Design suitable f indigenous D i i bl for i di maintenance Storage sizing and cost S i i d Are we going to put more plants for experimentation / R and D ? i t ti d

CSP - Energy cost estimates : Reduction due to increased installations

CSP - Energy cost estimates : Reduction due to increased installations

CSP - Energy cost estimates : Reduction with respect to time

Solar Thermal Power Technologies : Policy issues f I di P li i for India
Apt and positive policy initiative ! Strategy for indigenous technology development ?
Completely imported plant l Completely indigenous plant

α-Plant

β -Plant

Combination of t h l i ? C bi ti f technologies Hybrid systems ? Co-gen systems ?

????

Thanks for your attention !
Queries and suggestions are welcome.
Dr. Dr Shireesh B. Kedare B
Adjunct Associate Professor Department of Energy Science and Engineering, IIT-Bombay sbkedare@iitb.ac.in Director Clique Developments Pvt. Ltd., Mumbai sbkedare@gmail.com bk d @ il