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Passage Unquestionably, a literary life is for the most part an unhappy life, because, if you have genius.

you Mtlit suffer the penalty of genius; and if you have only talent, there are so many cares and worries incidental to the circumstances of men of letters, as to make life exceedingly miserable. Besides the pangs of composition, and the continuous disappointment which a true aitist feels at his inability to reveal himself, there is the ever-recurring difficulty of gaining the public ear. Young writers are buoyed up by the hope and the belief, that they have only to throw that poem at the world's feet to get hack in return the laurel-erown; that they have only to push that novel into print to be acknowledged at once as a new light in literature. You can never convince a young author that the editors of magazines and the publishers of txsoks are a practical body of men, who are by no means frantically anxious About placing the hest literature before the public. Nay.That, for the most part. they are mere brokers. who conduct their business on the hardest lines of a Profit and I.oss account. But supposing your book fairly launches. its perils are only beginning. You have to run the gauntlet of the critics. To a young author, again. this seems to be a terrible order. When you are a little older. you will find that criticism is not much more serious than the bye-play of clowns in a circus, when they beat the ring the victim with bladders slung at the end of long poles. A time comes in the life of every author when he regards critics as comical. rather than formidable; and goes his way unheeding. But there are sensitive souls that yield under the chastisement, and, perhaps. after suffering much silent torture, abandon the profession of the pin for ever. Keats,

perhaps. is the saddest example of a fine spirit hounded to death by savage criticism. because. whatever his biographers may aver. that furious attack of Gifford and Terry undoubtedly expedited his death. But no doubt there are hundreds who suffer keenly from hostile mid unscrupulous criticism: and who have to bear that suffering in silence, because it is a cardinal principle in literature that the most unwise thing in the %k odd for an author is m take public notice of criticism in the way of defending himself. Silence is the only safeguard. as it is fo:;, only dignified protest against insult and offence. It is an established fact that our literary artists are (a) Geniuses Unhappy (b) talented (d) successful

Young writers are (a) Over-confident skeptical (b) Candid canny The literary publish only what is (a) Best Topical Ans-(b) The writers attitude towards the literary critics is of (a) Reverence indifference scorn (b) (d) respect (b) saleable (d) handy (b) (d)

The writers advice to the literary artists regarding criticism of their work is to(a) Defend it publicly (b) Protest against it (c) Withdraw it (d) Maintain perfect silence

per cent inspiration, so the sooner you get into the habit of disciplining yourself to write, the better. 1. To write well, a person must train himself in(a) Dealing with a difficult problem (b) Not leaving anything out (c) Thinking clearly and logically (4) Following a step-by- step approach

Passage To write well you have to be able to write clearly and logically, and you cannot do this unless you can think clearly and logically .If you cannot do this yet you should train yourself too it by taking particular problems and following them through ,point by point ,to solution ,without leaving anything out and without avoiding any difficulties that you meet. At first to find clear, step by step thought very difficulties. You may find that your mind is not able to concentrate. Several unconnected ideas may occur together .But practices will improve your ability to concentrate on a single idea and think about it clearly and logically .In order to increase your vocabulary and to improve you style ,you should read widely and use a good dictionary to help you find the exact meanings and correct usages of words. Always remember that regular and frequent practice is necessary if you want to learn to write well_ It is no good waiting until you have an inspiration before you write, Even with the most famous writers, inspiration is rare. Someone said that writing is ninety-nine per cent hard works and one

2. Initially it is difficult to write because. (a) A good dictionary is not used (b) Ideas occur without any sequence (c) Aids to correct writing are not known (d) Exact usages of words arc not known

3. according to the passage, writing style can he improved by(a) Thinking logically (b) Writing clearly (c) Undergoing training (d) Reading widely 4. Famous writers have achieved success by(a) Using their linguistic resources properly (b) Disciplining their skill (e) Following only one idea

(d) Waiting for inspiration 5. All the following word means exact except(a) Precise ACCURATE very (B) (D) erect

Ans- (b) 3. Intellectuals are the kind of people who(a) Demand logical inconsistencies and fallacies (b) Ignore faulty logic and wrong beliefs (c) Look for evidence in support of logical inconsistencies and fallacies (d) Accept only those things which are logically consistent and well supported by evidence 4. 'Fallacies' means(a) False evidence (b) False beliefs (c) Illogical arguments (d) Inconsistencies (e) 5 A trait which intellectuals do not possess is(a) Critical thinking (b) rationality (c) over-simplification (d) logical thinking (e) Passage If you are a poet, you will se; clearly that there is a cloud floating in this sheet of paper. Without a cloud there will be no rain; without rain, the trees cannot grow; and without trees, we cannot make paper. The cloud is essential for the paper to exist. If the cloud is not here, the sheet of paper cannot be here either. So we can say that the cloud and the paper inter-are. if we look into this sheet of paper even more deeply, we can see the sunshine in it If the sunshine is not there,

Passage Unlike the masses, intellectuals have a taste for rationality and an interest in facts. Their critical habit of mind makes them resistant to the kind of propaganda that works SO well on the majority. Intellectuals are the kind of people who demand evidence and arc Shocked by logical inconsistencies and fallacies. They regard over simphlication as the original sin of the mind and have no use for the slogans, the unqualified assertion and sweeping generalizations, which are The propagandist's stock-in-trade.

1. The first sentence of the passage suggests that(a) All individuals have a taste for rationality and an interest in facts (b) Groups consist of intellectuals (c) Intellectuals behave like individuals, not like members of crowd individuals are intellectuals 2. The majority of people(a) Resist propaganda (b) Do not possess a critical habit of mind (c) Work well with intellectuals (d) Possess a critical habit of mind

the forest cannot grow. In fact, nothing can grow. Even we cannot grow without sunshine. And so, we know that the sunshine is also in this sheet of paper. The paper and the sunshine inter-are. And if we continue to look, we can see the logger who cut the tree and brought it to the mill to be transformed into paper. And we see the wheat. We know that the logger cannot exist without his daily bread, and therefore the wheat that became his bread is also in this sheet of paper. And the logger's father and mother are in it too, When we look in this way, we see that without all of these things, this sheet of paper cannot exist. Looking even more deeply, we can see we are in it too. This 'is not difficult to see, because when we look at a sheet Of paper, the sheet of paper is part of our perception. ' 'eittr'inind'iS in here and mine is also. So we can say that, everything is in here with this sheet of paper. You.efinnot point out one thing that is not here time, space, the earth, the rain, the minerals in the soil, the sunshine, the cloud, the river, the heat. Everything co-exists with this sheet of paper. This is why I think the word inter-be should be in the dictionary. "To be" is to interbred. You cannot just be by yourself alone. You have to inter-be with every other thing. This sheet of paper is, because everything else is. I. A poet sees a cloud in a sheet of paper as(a) he/she is very creative (h) he/she loves nature (c) he/she writes poetry on paper (d) he/she sees the universe as a single entity 2. A cloud and the paper inter-are means(a) both are very important (h) both exist because of the other- they arc interrelated

(c) a cloud exists on its own (d) everything in this world is separate

3. Why can't the logger exist without his bread? (a) He will die without food (b) He can't grow wheat (c) Without cutting trees he can't earn money can't buy his meals (d) There won't be enough trees to cut

4. The theme of the comprehension is(a) Everything co-exists in nature (b) Don't harm anybody (e) Inter-are and inter-be (d) Very confusing 5. Why does the writer think that the word 'inter-be' should be in the dictionary? (a) because he didn't find this word in the dictionary (b) because he is a linguist because he is interested in new words (d)because our very existence is defined by this turm Passage In the world have we made health an end in itself? We have forgotten that health is really a means to enable a person to do his work and do it well. A lot of modern medicine is concerned with promotion 01 good health. Many patients as well as many

physicians pay very little attention to health: but very much attention to health makes some people imagine that they are ill, Our great concern with health is shown by the medical columns in newspaper, the health articles in popular magazines and the popularity of the television programme and all those books on medicine we talk about health all the time. Yet for the most only result is more people with imaginary illnesses. The healthy inun should nut be wasti 4. , any time talking about health, he should be using health for work, the work he does and the work that good health makes possible. 1.Modern medicine is primarily concerned with(a) promotion of good health (b) people suffering from imaginary illnesses (c) people suffering from real illnesses (d) increased efficiency in work

health 5. The passage tells us(a) how medicines should be manufactured (b) what a healthy man should or should not do (c) what the television programmes should be about (d) how best to imagine illnesses Passage Time was when people looked heavenward and prayed, "Ye Gods, give us rain, keep drought away." Today there are those who pray. "Give us rain, keep El Nino away." El Nino and its atmospheric equivalent, called the Southern Oscillation, are together referred to as ENSO and arc household words today. Meteorologists recognize it as often being responsible for natural disaster worldwide. But this wisdom dawned only after countries suffered, first from the lack of knowledge, and then from the lack of co-ordination between policy making and the advances in scientific knowledge. Put simply, El Nino is a weather event restricted to certain tropical shores, especially the Peruvian coast, The event has diametrically opposite impacts on the land and sea. The Peruvian shore is a desert. But every few years, an unusually warm ocean current El Nino - warms up the normally cold surface-waters off the Peruvian coast, causing very heavy rains in the early half of the year. And then, miraculously, the desert is matted green. Crops like cotton, coconuts and banana grow on the otherwise stubbornly barren land. These are the Peruvians' onos de abundeneia or years of abundance. The current had come to be termed El Nino or the Christ Child because it usually appears as an enhancement if a

2, A healthy man should be concerned with (a) his work which good health makes possible (b) looking after his health (c) his health which makes work possible (d) talking about health 3. Talking about health all the time makes people- (a) always suffer from imaginary illnesses (h) sometimes suffer from imaginary illnesses (c) rarely suffer from imaginary illnesses (d) often suffer from imaginary illnesses 4. The passage suggests that(a) health is an end in itself (b) health is a blessing (c) health is only a means to an end (d) we should not talk about

mildly warm current that normally occurs here around every Christmas. 4. Which word in Para 3 is the antonym for 'Fertile"? (a) Matted (b) Abundance (c) Barren (d) none of the Above Ans-(c) 5. What according to the author is a positive effect of El Nino? (a) It causes changes in atmosphere. (b) It results in vegetation on barren lands. (c) It comes around Christmas. (d) h is regarded as manna. Ans-(b) 6. How can be say flow can we my that El Nino proves to he a boon for South American Coast? (a) It causes an up swelling of rich nutrients making it the most productive in the world. (b) It causes the destruction of many marine species such as anchoret. (e) It warms up normally cold surface waters off causing heavy rais. (d) It enhances warm currents around every Christmas. 7. Tile 'years of abundance' is when(a) El Nino occurs during Christmas (b) the deserts are matted green Cc) marine species is destroyed kl) none of the above 8.The phrase, 'damning effect means(a) Negative affects (c) Full affects (b) Destructive effects (d) Disrupting effects

El Nino away (d) El Nino and droughts away Ans-(c) 10. The word which means -'equal in value, power and meaning' is(a) unusual (b) Current (c) equivalent (d) appear Ans-(c)

Ans-' (a) 9. People today, pray to God to keep (a) rains and droughts away (b) drought away

Passage There is a general consensus that 'International Understanding' need to be taught as a separate subject at the school stage as that would add to the curricular load which is already too heavy. Instead it should be woven into the curriculum and the numerous opportunities that present themselves while teaching normal school subjects may be intelligently and imaginatively used by the teacher to promote International Understanding. The school subjects which can be most profitably used for this purpose are History, Geography, Civics, Economics, Sociology, Political Science, Social Sciences, Languages as well as Physical and Life Sciences_ However, at the higher education level, international education can be prescribed as a separate subject of study_ In fact, the present situation on India broadly conforms to this consensus so far as the school stage is concerned. At the under-graduate and the post graduate levels, courses of study in subjects like history, Geography, Economics, Political Science, International Relations, International Law and International Organisation have been prescribed by most of the universities and these contain content which has a direct or indirect bearing on promoting UNESCO ideals.

I .How International Understanding can

be taught at the school level ? ( a ) Through various subjects like History, Civics, Cieography, etc. 2. Which phrase from the passage means "combined with the curriculum" ? evels,curriculum
-aphy(b) Can be prescribed in the curriculum

(d) None

of the above

2. Which phrase from the passage means evels,curriculum

-aphy(b) Can be prescribed in the curriculum

(e) Woven into the curriculum (d) None

(c) of the above

9. The implied meaning of Para 3 is(a) Most of the universities have prescribed learning of International Understanding. (b) The subject International Understanding is based on the UNESCO ideals. (c) International Understanding is to be taught only at undergraduate and post-graduate level. (d) International Understanding contains subjects like International Relations, international Law and International Organization. 10. rick Out the most probable meaning of the phrase : 'most profitably used'. (a) Most fruitfully used (b) Most rewardingly used (c) Most valuably used (d) MOit commercially used

Passage Authors William Strauss and Nen Howe are known for their theories about 'cycles of generations in American history. They refer to each cycle of four generations as a constellation, and they posit that each constellational era corresponds to "recurring types of historical events" and moods. They state that adjacent generations do not live similar lives, and that each generation ages as a singulai cohort as time Moves forward, According to Strauss and Howe, each generation is comprised of people who possess (1) common age (2) conunon beliefs and (3) perceived membership in the same generation. A generation is approximately 22 years in length. Since a I itctime may reach 80-9U years, members of 4 generations are alive at one time_ The four generational archetypes identified by Strauss are Idealist, Reactive, Civic and Adaptive, Idealists are "increasingly indulged youths alter a secular crisis", who cultivate principle rather than pragmatism in midhfe, and emerge as "visionary elders'. Reactives grow up "under protected and criticized youths during a spiritual awakening," mature into risk taking adults, mellow into "pragmatic midlife leaders during a secular crisis," and become reclusive elders. Civics grow up "increasingly protected youths after a spiritual awakening" become "a heroic and achieving cadre of youth adults," build institutions as midlifers, and "emerge as busy midlifers, attacked by the next s pi ri tu a l aw ak en in g. " A d ap ti ve s gr ow up a s "overprotected and suffocated youths during a secular crisis." become "risk-averse, conformist rising adults,"fnature into

"indecisive arbitrator leaders during a spiritual awakening" and become sensitive elders. generation focuses on its specific traits.


Queen of Italy, who invited him to her palace. 1. What is the assumption made generations by Strauss are not in Adjacent
and Howe? (a) Alternate generations live similar lives. (b) Four generations co-exist at one and the same time. (c) The cycles of generations share some common features and moods. (d) Each constellational era corresponds to recurring types of historical 5.
events and moods, _(d) 'Pragmatic most closely means-

The shepherd saw that he had won the Queen's

Behaving in a reckless way (a) Acting in a practical way (b) Acting on the basis of principle (c) Behaving in a reclusive way ,

What i$ the dissimilarity between adjacent generations? (a) Adjacent generations do not live similar lives, 3_ According to the passage which of the following statements can be inferred ? (a) Idealists are one generation (d) Reactives are one generation younger than the

Passage An old shepherd was playing on a flute on the marshlands outside Rome. He played so sweetly that a lovely fairy came and listened to him The fairy wanted to marry the shepherd because(a) he was very handsome. (b) he had saved her life. (e) he, could play sweetly on his flute. (d) the:Nhepherd loved her The shepherd went to Rome in a. (a) palanquin (b) boat (c) earl (.1) coach 4, When the shepherd reached Rome, he(a) planned to marry the Queen of Italy.

in my castle'?"

pherd: At once he became n princely robes. rewell to my with twelve

(h) met his friends there (e) sought his parents permission to many the fairy td) met the King or Italy. 5. The QUittl ordered the shepherd to be whipped out of the
palace because he

resulted in increased pressure on the available resources and further degradation of the environment.

(a) refused to trinry her (19) turned old and ugly (c) tried to steal her jewels (d) revealed his plan to marry the fairy (b) The environment comprises all the physical, social and cultural factors and conditions influencing the existence or the development of an organism. Due to indiscriminate industrialization, man has created a state of decadence. He has continuously tampered with nature which has resulted in the threat to the sustenance of mankind, A Itho411, attempts have been made to restore nature to its previous state of purity and serenity, the efforts have not been whole-hearted. Earth is the home we all share and would pass on to our future generations as their legacy. But II they Inherit the present state of the world, they would be unable to sustain themselves. Man has steadily improved the technologies and other means necessary for higher production of wealth and for the availability of devices that could give more physical and mental pleasures. The industrial revolution led to a drastic escalation of earth's surface temperature. Man exploited nature for his Midas, without any foresight as to what the implications of his actions would be. Indiscriminate industrialization resulted in urban migration as the rural poor settled in cities in search of opportunities. Cities, already facing a population crisis could not accommodate the migrants and this led to the development of slums. This has

1. Two kinds of propelling forces used by hybrid vehicles are (a) electric 1110tor and powcr (1)) electric engine and generator (c) gasoline engine and electric motor (d) electrical battery and gasoline R (e) 2. The difference between hybrid and conventional vehicle is that ( a ) Hybrids are heavier as compared to conventional ones. A ( b ) Hybrids do not use electric motors while conventional ones do. ( c ) Hybrids use gas while conventional vehicles use petrol, ( d ) Hybrids,use two types of propulsions while conventional rely on Me. (d) .) 3. Why do HEVs use two types of propulsions? (a) To go faster. (a) To use gasoline efficiently. (a) To provide a comfortable rider (b) To become environmental friendly. 4. 'RegenerativeRwt closely means- (b) Electric (d) Powerful 5. In the context of the passage which of the following best articulates haw the author regards the topic? (a) Conventional vehicles may be more powerful than hybrid vehicles but hybrid . vehicles are more socially responsible. (b) Since hybrid vehicles usc less gasoline and put fewer emissibns into


the atmosphere, they are better for the environment. Hybrid vehicles are less expensive, so they are a smarter buy than conventional vehicles.

Conventional vehicles arc faster but hybrid vehicles are better for the environment.