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Dust

Control
November
2007
Page 34
Page 40
Steam Trap
Management
www.che.com
Focus on
Pipes and Fittings
Facts at Your
Fingertips:
Pump Selection
and Specifcation
Managing
Material Safety
Data Sheets
Managing
Global Supply
Chains
Liquid Density
of the Elements
Programmable
Logic Controllers
Making the right connections
Cover 1 CHE 11-07.indd 1 10/29/07 5:04:49 PM
reliability
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To learn more about Honeywell solutions for improved reliability,
please call 1-877-466-3993 or visit www.honeywell.com/ps/reliability.
2007 Honeywell International, Inc. All rights reserved.
Using Honeywells solutions, an ethylene plant
achieved uptime of greater than 90 percent.
Honeywell solutions keep your plant and assets running
optimally and increase visibility across the enterprise to
maximize uptime and ensure that the plant is operating
within safe limits. Honeywells solutions to increase reliability
include proactive asset management tools, backup and
restore capabilities, early detection of potential problems to protect your assets and
monitoring applications to help avoid incidents and minimize risk.
HPS sRe_Chem Eng Ad 11-07 10/10/07 4:17 PM Page 1
Circle 01 on p. 70 or go to adlinks.che.com/6901-01
Cover 2 CHE 11-07.indd 2 10/15/07 12:12:03 PM
Goulds Pumps
this is no place for a leaky pump.
If youve got corrosives, pollutants, or toxics to pump, you really should consider upgrading to Goulds sealless
process pumps. Our metal (Model 3296) and ETFE-lined (Model 3298) magnetic drive pumps are designed for
optimum performance and emission prevention. Goulds Dryguard bearings will ensure safe operation through
short-term dry run conditionsthe main cause of magnetic drive pump failure. And
for the ultimate in protection, the ITT PumpSmart

controller has the ability to monitor,


rapidly identify process upset conditions, and react to protect your mag-drive pump.
One more reason ITT should be your choice for all critical pumping needs. Call
1-800-734-7867 or visit gouldspumps.com for more information.
Warning
Circle 04 on p. 70 or go to adlinks.che.com/6901-04
1 CHE 11-07.indd 1 10/15/07 12:14:16 PM
Circle 05 on p. 70 or go to adlinks.che.com/6901-05
2 CHE 11-07.indd 2 10/15/07 12:23:51 PM
Cover story
34 Cover Story Going Wireless Using this technology
to optimize overall operations offers long-term benefits
for the bottom line
NeWs
13 Chementator This membrane could reduce the carbon
footprint for combustion power plants; Plasma gasifica-
tion process will recycle chlorine wastes and produce
syngas; Slash downstream processing costs for producing
biologicals with this new chromatography technology;
Japanese water-treatment filter enters U.S. market boast-
ing no need to replace granular filter media ever; A fast
way to measure phase fractions in multiphase flow; This
catalyst may open the door to green copolymer of CO
2
;
A second major plant for a new PO process; and more
20 Newsfront Its a Small World managing
the chemical supply chain in a global econ-
omy requires visibility and collaboration
25 Newsfront Keep Control of Your Dust En-
ergy saving, emission regulations, explosion
protection and finer filters combine to drive
the market in particulates removal
eNgiNeeriNg
29 Facts At Your Fingertips Pump Selection
and Specification This one-page guide will
help an engineer in determining the best
pump for a specific application
40 Feature Report The Importance of Inten-
sive Steam Trap Management Payback is
rapid, energy and maintenance savings are
attractive, and the uptime insurance is incal-
culable in value
44 Engineering Practice Liquid Density
of the Elements A comprehensive
tabulation for all the important elements
from Ag to Zr
47 Engineering Practice PLC Maintenance
Management PLCs are critical to the suc-
cess of CPI processes. These requirements
for proper PLC management go a long way
toward reducing downtime and unneces-
sary costs
53 Environmental Manager Managing
Material Safety Data Sheets in the Work-
place While regulatory agencies outline
requirements for communicating chemical
hazards, the format of compliance is up to
the employer. Software tools can be helpful
aids in meeting these requirements
www.che.com
CommeNtary
5 Editors Page
Here's a note on
the wireless
standards debate
30CE Community
Chemical Engineer-
ing has introduced its
new website at
www.che.com
departmeNts
Letters . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Bookshelf . . . . . . . 8,10
Whos Who . . . . . . . 32
Reader
Service page . . . . . . 70
Economic
Indicators . . . . . 71, 72
advertisers
Product
Showcase . . . . . . . . . . 59
Classified
Advertising . . . . .6065
Advertiser Index . . . 69
ComiNg
iN deCember
Look for: Feature
Reports on Practical
Green Engineering; and
Valve Position Monitor-
ing: Advancements
Improve Performance
and Lower Costs; En-
gineering Practice
articles on Accurate
Wetted Surface Areas
for Partially Filled Ves-
sels; and Use Your
Own Models in Process
Simulation; A Solids
Processing article on
Weighing; A Focus on
Gas Detection; News
articles on the Kirkpat-
rick Awards and Heat
Transfer Equipment; a
Chem Show Review;
Facts at Your Finger-
tips on Seals and Seal-
ing Systems; and more
Cover source:
Honeywell
I n ThI s I ssue
November 2007 volume 114, No. 12
equipmeNt & serviCes
32D-1 New Products & Services (Domes-
tic Edition) Moderate sample tempera-
tures with this unit; Clean filters without
downtime with this duplex basket strainer;
Detect leaks from up to 30 feet away; Stop
spills at the first drop; Dry a variety of mate-
rials with this unit; Convert plain hubs into
integral clamps; and more
32I-1 New Products & Services
(International Edition) Your view is not
obstructed by this mask; Determine water
content with this automatic titrator; When
space is limited, consider this centrifugal
pump; Angle-seat globe valves now come
with flange connections; Easy to install lin-
ing protects against spills in tank rooms;
Convert thermocouple data into 4-20 mA
signals with this module; and more
50 Focus Pipes and Fit-
tings Make a leak-free
seal, even for irregular
flanges; Replace cop-
per plumbing lines with
a plastic that looks
golden; Dip pipes that
require less space and
reduce installation
costs; Many different
applications are served
by this nylon tubing;
This tubing and related
products have passed the test; Just one
gasket type is suitable for steel, plastic
or glass flanges; For high-temperature
plumbing, consider these fittings
ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com november 2007
3 CHE 11-07.indd 3 10/29/07 5:18:51 PM
Isn't it a
safe choice?
For application and selection assistance,
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Endress+Hauser will help you nd the best devices for
your requirements. Guided radar offers reliable measurement
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Your safe choice
Endress+Hauser offers the widest range of systems for level
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All three instruments shown here are rated for use in safety
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4 CHE 11-07.indd 4 10/15/07 12:04:03 PM
Editors Page
S
tandardization is a challenging but necessary path in the chemical
process industries (CPI), whether it pertains to pumps, process equip-
ment or one of the most-recent focuses and topic of this months Cover
Story (p. 34), wireless instrumentation and control. Without standardiza-
tion, a lack of interoperability can nearly defeat the noble purposes that
untethered instrumentation and control is designed to provide. Quite often,
though, the process of standardization, itself, introduces multiplicities that
in themselves must be straightened out.
In hopes of laying a smooth foundation for wireless standards from the
beginning, the powers that be in this case, namely the ISA100 Wireless
Systems for Automation Standards committee and members of the HART
Communication Foundation (HCF; www.hartcomm.org), are making a
valiant effort toward integrating the recently released WirelessHART
standard into the yet-to-be released ISA100. From a manufacturers
standpoint, nobody wants to build three or four different flavors of wire-
less, says Ron Helson, HCF executive director. There is no benefit to the
user, and it just increases the cost.
Given the scope of each standard and timing of the cooperation, this in-
tegration approach just might work. It isnt too far off from how HCF has
cooperated with Foundation Fieldbus, Profibus via electronic device de-
scription language (EDDL) initiatives, notes Helson. But it is different in
that the discussion is taking place at a much earlier time in the process.
If you look at ISA100, it has a much broader scope than WirelessHART,
points out Helson. WirelessHART has defined the way messages are com-
municated between the wireless field devices in process applications and
the gateway. ISA100, by contrast, could go way on up into the higher con-
trol and enterprise platform. Furthermore, ISA100 is defining standards
for wireless communication in factory automation and discrete devices,
which are significantly different than those in process devices.
The agreed upon approach will attempt to accommodate the HART-
7 wireless protocol in Release 1 of the ISA100.11a standard through a
dual-gateway architecture, followed by a potentially more integrated
approach in Release 2 of the ISA standard. The ISA100-WirelessHART
Analysis Team is evaluating how the WirelessHART protocol within
HART 7 can be incorporated into the ISA100.11a standard while remain-
ing consistent with the objectives of the ISA100 family of standards,
said ISA100 co-chair Pat Schweitzer of Exxon Mobil during a meeting
between the two organizations at ISA 2007 last month in Houston. The
most important part of that evaluation is the obligation to continue our
commitment to the end user, and were confident that our final decisions
will accomplish that goal.
As Jeff Becker, director of global wireless business for Honeywell Pro-
cess Solutions and author of this months Cover Story, adds, wireless
performance for the end user is indeed what ultimately
matters most in this context. End users only have one
introduction to wireless technology. If the technology
doesnt work well and easily the first time, the second
time will be much farther down the road.
Beyond this common goal, there is agreement on
at least one more fact that appears to be consistent
among all parties: As HCF's Helson says, The good
thing is, were talking.
Rebekkah Marshall
Cooperation looks promising
for wireless standards
Winner of Eight Jesse H. Neal
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CorPorAtE
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5 CHE 11-07.indd 5 10/29/07 5:06:57 PM
Letters
Mining company offers $10 million
for innovation to unlock the silver
Barrick Gold Corp. (Toronto) has challenged scientists
worldwide, offering $10 million to anyone who can un-
lock the silver from the ore at its Veladero gold mine
in Argentina.
Barricks Unlock the Value program invites scien-
tists, engineers and other inventors to solve a scientific
conundrum. Geologists have determined there are 180-
million ounces of silver contained in gold reserves in
the ore at the Veladero mine in Argentina. Because the
silver particles are encapsulated in silica, current pro-
cessing methods are recovering only 6.7% of the silver.
The Unlock the Value program invites proposals for an
economically viable way to significantly increase silver
recovery from this type of ore.
For proposals judged to have merit, Barrick will fund
research and development. For a technology that is suc-
cessfully implemented at Veladero, the company will
pay a performance bonus of $10 million.
This opportunity will appeal to chemists, metal-
lurgists, physicists, engineers, or any inventor with a
new concept for improving silver recovery, says Greg
Wilkins, president and CEO. Experience in mining
is not required because we are looking for innova-
tion and new approaches. The $10-million award is a
substantial incentive to spur creative thinking but,
beyond that, Barrick will fund research and develop-
ment for proposals that have merit. Scientists some-
times have difficulty finding funding to take their
good ideas to the next level, so we believe this will be
a welcome aspect of the program.
Interested researchers can register and submit
proposals through a special website at www.unlock-
thevalue.com. Preliminary proposals must be sub-
mitted by January 21, 2008, to be considered for the
next stage of proposal development. Proposals will
be assessed by a team of experts and evaluated on
their technical viability and ability to be safely imple-
mented at Veladero. Those judged to have merit will
be invited to submit a detailed proposal. If successful,
they will go on to further phases of development, test-
ing and commercial evaluation.
Barricks Veladero mine is located in San Juan Prov-
ince, Argentina, about 320 kilometers northwest of the
city of San Juan in the highly prospective Frontera
District. It is located at elevations of between 4,000 and
4,850 meters above sea level, and comprises two open
pits Filo Federico to the north and Amable to the
south. Barrick invested about $540 million to construct
the mine, creating 4,000 jobs during the construction
phase and 800 full time jobs during operation. The mine
opened in October, 2005. In 2006, its first full year of
production, Veladero produced 511,000 ounces of gold.
Barricks vision is to be the worlds best gold com-
pany by finding, acquiring, developing and producing
quality reserves in a safe, profitable and socially re-
sponsible manner. n
Circle 07 on p. 70 or go to adlinks.che.com/6901-07
6 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com november 2007
6 CHE 11-07.indd 6 10/26/07 5:50:50 PM
Gorman-Rupp has the right pump for the job. Whether youre pumping clear liquids,
highly viscous liquids at high pressures, chemical process or mild slurry, Gorman-Rupp
pumps are designed to handle tough abrasive and corrosive chemicals where other
pumps fail. Whether its a standard centrifugal, a self-primer, gear, submersible or
diaphragm pump, Gorman-Rupp meets your needs. Look to Gorman-Rupp for pumps
that solve all types of chemical handling problems.
Ask your local Gorman-Rupp distributor which pump is best for your job.
C-410 Copyright, The Gorman-Rupp Company, 2007 Gorman-Rupp Mansfield Division is an ISO 9001 Registered Company
The Gorman-Rupp Company P. O. Box 1217 Mansfield, Ohio 44901-1217 n USA
Phone 419.755.1011 Fax 419.755.1251 email: grsales@gormanrupp.com www.GRpumps.com
34453-1GR Trade Ad C-410 9/6/07 10:01 AM Page 1
Circle 08 on p. 70 or go to adlinks.che.com/6901-08
7 CHE 11-07.indd 7 10/15/07 12:10:07 PM
Transport Phenomena in Multiphase
Systems. By Amir Faghri and Yuwen
Zhang. Elsevier, 11830 Westline Industrial
Drive, St. Louis, MO 63146. Web: wiley.
com. 2006. 1030 pages, $99.95.
Reviewed by Clarence A. Miller, Depart-
ment of Chemical and Biomolecular En-
gineering, Rice University, Houston, Tex.
W
ritten at a level suitable for a textbook in a
graduate engineering course or for researchers in
heat transfer with simultaneous phase transfor-
mation, this book presents a comprehensive treatment of
a variety of phenomena. It includes recent analyses of ap-
plications of current interest. The derivations and analy-
ses are accompanied by numerous examples worked out
in the text and by several pages of problems at the end of
each of the eleven chapters.
In approximately 100 pages, the first chapter provides
a summary of basic concepts and equations ranging from
kinetic theory and intermolecular forces to nanoscale phe-
nomena to transport phenomena including thermal and
multicomponent diffusion. Vectors and tensors are used as
appropriate. This part of the chapter is rather condensed
and best suited for those already having a background in
transport phenomena. The last third of the chapter is a
nice overview of applications of heat transport with phase
transformation, most of which are analyzed in detail in
subsequent chapters.
Chapters 2 and 3 discuss thermodynamics needed for the
topics of later chapters, and development of the basic con-
servation equations and boundary conditions. Included is
the differential entropy balance equation with expressions
for the entropy flux and rate of entropy generation.
Chapter 4 covers averaging of the governing equations
for flow and transport in porous media with both a single
and with multiple fluid phases present. A few pages
provide an introduction to the Lattice-Boltzmann model.
Chapter 5 deals with interfacial phenomena: surface ten-
sion, contact angles, interfacial conservation equations
and also less familiar concepts, such as disjoining pres-
sure in thin films.
The remaining chapters are the heart of the book and
consist of discussion and analysis of melting, solidification,
sublimation, condensation, evaporation, boiling and two-
phase flow with heat transfer. Many interesting applica-
tions are discussed, such as ablation, heat pipes, phase
transformation in microchannels, and bubble dynamics
in boiling. The analyses are thorough and based on ana-
lytical or numerical solutions of the governing equations
and boundary conditions. The book includes sections on
numerical methods that are useful in dealing with phase
changes with moving boundaries and free surfaces, al-
though a background in numerical methods comparable to
that of an advanced undergraduate engineering student is
assumed. I used or adapted a few of their examples in my
graduate chemical engineering transport course this year.
Even a book of 1,000 pages cannot cover everything. As
Bookshelf
From Concept to Completion,
Your Best Choice in Thermal Processing
Raymond

& Bartlett-Snow

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Circle 09 on p. 70 or go to adlinks.che.com/6901-09
ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com november 2007
8-10 CHE 11-07.indd 8 10/25/07 7:27:14 PM
LPR - BAT
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING US fish 200x273 mm PP Q Delivery 05/10/2007 -Issue 05/11/2007
Do you see fish?
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Circle 11 on p. 70 or go to adlinks.che.com/6901-11
9 CHE 11-07.indd 9 10/15/07 12:28:41 PM
the authors are primarily interested in applications of heat
transfer, chemical engineers will find little on phase change
involving nonideal, multicomponent liquid solutions or
gas mixtures at high pressure. Chemical reactions are dis-
cussed mainly in the section on chemical vapor deposition.
Mass transfer appears chiefly in situations where heat
transfer is also taking place during a phase change. Effects
of surfactants at interfaces are not considered.
In summary, the authors have achieved their objec-
tive of providing a different type of book on transport. It
takes a fundamental approach to present an authoritative
treatment of many interesting phenomena and important
applications involving phase transformation. I highly rec-
ommend the book for students and researchers interested
in or working in this area.
Separation Process Engineering. Sec-
ond Edition. By Phillip C. Wankat. Pren-
tice Hall, 1 Lake St., Upper Saddle River,
NJ 07458. Web: prenhall.com. 2007. 704
pages. $127.00.
Process Chemistry of Lubricant
Base Stocks. By Thomas R. Lynch.
CRC Press, 6000 Broken Sound Parkway, NW, Suite 300,
Boca Raton, FL 33487. Web: crcpress.
com. 2007. 392 pages. $139.95.
A Real-Time Approach to Process
Control. Second edition. By William Y.
Svrcek, Donald P. Mahoney and Brent R.
Young. Wiley, 111 River St., Hoboken, NJ.
Web: wiley.com. 2006. 344 pages. $190.00.
Rheology and Processing of Polymeric Materials,
Volume 1: Polymer Rheology. By By Chang Dae Han.
Oxford University Press, 198 Madison Ave., New York, NY
10016. Web: oup.com. 2007. 1,333 pages. $174.80.
Advanced Transport Phenomena.
By L. Gary Leal. Cambridge University
Press, 32 Ave. of the Americas, New
York, NY 10013-2473. Web: cambridge.
org. 2007. 932 pages. $135.00
Chemical Reactor Design and Con-
trol. By William L. Luyben. Wiley, 111
River St., Hoboken, NJ. Web: wiley.com.
2007. 417 pages. $115.00. n
Kate Torzewski
Bookshelf
Circle 12 on p. 70 or go to adlinks.che.com/6901-12
10 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com november 2007
8-10 CHE 11-07.indd 10 10/29/07 3:06:48 PM
DSM Special Products produces benzoic acids and derivatives. A critical
element in the process is the ammonia cooler. Until recently, DSM was using
seven Shell & Tube heat exchangers in series for this application. However,
due to severe corrosion problems there was a sudden need for a new cooler.
A quick feasibility study clearly showed that one single Alfa Laval Compabloc
was an extremely competitive solution. Delivery time was short. And thanks
to the lower capital cost it was possible to select a corrosion-resistant plate
material without exceeding the budget. A matter of basic arithmetic!
The Magic Box. Compabloc is probably the most compact and efcient
heavy-duty heat exchanger in the world. Its remarkable design adds a new
dimension to both cooling/heating and condensation/reboiling. It has extremely
high thermal efficiency ... withstands aggressive media ... operates at high
pressures and temperatures ... and requires a minimum of space. And it works
magic on your wallet.
Arnold Blonk. Process Engineer
DSM special products plant,
Rotterdam, Holland
www.alfalaval.com
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of seven Shell &Tubes
Circle 13 on p. 70 or go to adlinks.che.com/6901-13
11 CHE 11-07.indd 11 10/15/07 11:57:56 AM
Uniseal is known throughout
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With fast-moving R&D,
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To keep production in the
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Wed like to help you succeed, too.
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Or visit www.mixers.com.
Tom DiGiannurio,
Senior Engineer,
Ross Employee Owner
In the auto
industry, no one
drives faster
than Uniseal.
RO-2111C Tom Di -Industrial Ad for Chemical Eng. size: 7.875x 10.75 (Bleed: 8.125x 11.5) 4-c date: 10/08/07 (SCD#07ROSS026)
Circle 14 on p. 70 or go to adlinks.che.com/6901-14
12 CHE 11-07.indd 12 10/15/07 12:00:12 PM
A
plasma-based waste-treatment process
will be installed in Dow Corning Corp.s
silicon-products-manufacturing plant in
Midland, Mich., where it will recycle chemi-
cal wastes, help lower the sites consumption
of natural gas by 400-billion Btu/yr and help
reduce the plants total emissions by 75%.
The installation will mark the first use of the
technology in a chemical process plant, says
Jeffrey Surma, CEO of Integrated Environ-
mental Technologies, LLC (IET, Richland,
Wash.; edlinks.che.com/6901-532), which
owns the technology. In its initial installa-
tions, the plasma-enhanced melter (PEM)
is being used to destroy medical wastes and
chemical wastes, he says.
The PEM is a vessel that contains a mol-
ten glass bath, above which are graphite
electrodes that generate a plasma arc. In
the Dow Corning plant, waste chlorosilanes
(from intermediate products) will be fed into
the plasma arc. Organics in the waste will
be gasified to a hydrogen-rich syngas and
removed, along with hydrogen chloride. The
HCl will be scrubbed and condensed out of the
mixture and recycled to the plant, while the
syngas will be mixed with waste gas streams
from other plant operations. These gases will
be treated in a thermal oxidizer and used to
raise steam. Meanwhile, in the PEM, silicon
from the waste will fall into the bath, forming
a relatively small amount of inert waste.
IET will own and operate the PEM, sched-
uled to start up in mid 2008 under an agree-
ment with Dow Corning, says Surma. We
will generate about 10.5-million Btu/h of
syngas for steam and make 12-million lb/yr
of HCl, he says.
Plasma gasification process will
recycle chlorine wastes and produce syngas
W
ithin five years, four large power plants
in Europe will be outfitted for test-
ing at the pilot scale with energy-efficient
CO
2
-filtering membranes that are being
developed at the Norwegian University of
Science and Technology (NTNU; Trond-
heim; edlinks.che.com/6901-531). Professor
May-Britt Hgg, head of the membrane re-
search group (MEMFO) at NTNUs chemi-
cal engineering department, says that the
membrane is the first cost-effective means
of removing CO
2
from flue gas. Hgg also
says that the membrane can easily retrieve
85% of the CO
2
at 90% purity.
Conventionally, carbon capture from flue
gas has required large absorption towers
where gas is bubbled through a hazardous
amine solution, which must then be trans-
ported to an energy-intensive desorption
tower for CO
2
removal. Among the proposed
alternatives, supported liquid membranes
have tended to degrade quickly, due to en-
trainment of CO
2
-carrier liquids in the gas
flow. MEMFOs membrane resolves these
issues by using a comparatively immobile
polyvinylamine nanoplastic as a fixed-site
carrier, with NH
4
F crosslinked in its poly-
mer structure for improved anion exchange.
When saturated with water vapor from the
flue gas, the amine and
fluoride ions will indi-
vidually complex with
CO
2
as bicarbonate.
Frequent regeneration
of the membrane is not
needed as the HCO
3


anion reemerges as
CO
2
after it is shuttled
through (diagram).
The membrane has
been tested at labora-
tory scale for five years
using a simulated flue
gas of heated nitrogen,
methane, carbon dioxide
and water vapor. We are
about to build a small pilot for a small gas
stream (about 0.15 Nm
3
/h) focusing much
on durability of the membrane over time
when exposed to real flue gas, says Hgg.
If tests go well, we will go for a larger pilot
in about three years.
MEMFO was recently awarded 1 mil-
lion for its participation in Nanostruc-
tured Membranes against Global Warm-
ing, a 13-million consortium project
with 26 European institutions and indus-
trial partners.
Note: For more information, circle the 3-digit number
on p. 70, or use the website designation.
Edited by Gerald Ondrey November 2007
ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com november 2007 13
PoIymer
Iayer
coated
on porous
support
Porous support
Carriers fixed on
poIymer backbone
Feed side
Permeate side
ReversibIe
reaction
OnIy by
diffusion
H
2
O
H
2
O
CO
2
CO
2
CO
2
CH
4
CH
4
HCO
3 NH
3
NH
2
+
-
CO
2
This membrane could reduce the carbon
footprint for combustion power plants
Extracting HMs
The latest issues of the J. of
Separation Sci. and the J. of
Colloid Interface Sci. report on
a new material, nanostructured
silica, which can be functional-
ized to extract heavy metals
(hms), such as mercury, lead,
cadmium and zinc, from waste-
water. The material, being de-
veloped at the Universidad rey
Juan Carlos (madrid, Spain;
edlinks.che.com/6901-539),
mimics the reaction that bonds
such metals in biomolecules of
living cells. Under the direction
of isabel Sierra, professor at
the UrJCs dept. of analytical
chemistry, researchers have
created new materials using
different types of silica and
modified them with 5-mercapto-
1-methylthiazole, which makes
them capable of binding lead
and zinc. These materials are
capable of undergoing several
cycles of absorption/desorption,
and the extracted metals can be
recovered for reuse.
Air-pollution control
global revenues for suppliers
of air-pollution-control systems,
services, consumables and
components will reach $80
billion by 2015, up from about
$50 billion in 2007, according
to a survey by mcilvaine Co.
(Continues on p. 14)
13-18 CHE 11-07.indd 13 10/26/07 3:12:11 PM
ChementatoR
L
ast month at the BioProcess
International Conference
(Boston, Mass.; October 13),
Novasep Process (Boothwyn,
Pa.; edlinks.che.com/6901-533)
launched a new technology
for downstream processing of
biologicals. BioSC (Biophar-
maceutical Sequential Chro-
matography) uses a process
known as sequential multi-col-
umn continuous chromatogra-
phy (SMCC), which improves
throughput and stationary
phase productivity for down-
stream processing up to four
times without compromising
product quality or yield, says the company.
The technology is suitable for all types
of biomolecules, including monoclonal an-
tibodies (mAbs), peptides, blood fractions
and vaccines.
SMCC resembles simulated-moving bed
(SMB) chromatography in that it is a coun-
ter-current process where fluid circulates
continuously through a loop of columns,
with feed and eluent being added to cer-
tain columns, while fractions of interest are
recovered sequentially from each column
(diagram). The key difference is in SMCCs
flexible scheduling of each of the multiple
columns and the ability to asynchronously
and flexibly schedule each of the multiple
columns, which enables complex, multi-com-
ponent separations, says Stephen Tingley,
vice president of sales and marketing. This
means that each column can simultaneously
be working in a different step phase, such as
load, wash regeneration and so on.
BioSC overcomes the limitations of con-
ventional batch chromatography, where: the
column loading is limited by its dynamic
capacity; process flowrates are limited by
mechanical stability of the packed bed; and
the stationary phase efficiency is limited by
saturation of the resin binding sites. Initial
modeling studies of a commercially relevant
mAb process clearly indicate the potential of
a BioSC-based continuous downstream pu-
rification process to reduce the overall capi-
tal by up to 30%, equating to a cost of goods
reduction of about 49%, with water usage re-
duced by up to 78% and overall downstream
processing costs reduced by up to 69%, says
managing director Andrew Sinclair. The
first commercial unit is expected to go on-
stream next year.
L
ast month at Weftec.07, the Annual Water
Environment Federation Technical Exhi-
bition and Conference in San Diego, Nihon
Genryo Co., Ltd. (Kanagawa, Japan; edlinks.
che.com/6901-534) launched for the first time
to the North American market its Saito Tank,
a granular water filtration system that never
requires filter media replacement. Since tra-
ditional systems require filter media to ei-
ther be disposed or externally recycled and
use more than twice the volume needed for
backwash water, the Saito Tank will pay for
itself within a 3 to 5 year range, says Yas-
uhiro Saito, Nihons president.
To achieve such results, Nihon Genryo de-
veloped a built-in version of its patented fil-
ter-media cleaning principle used in filter re-
habilitation work. The filter media wash each
other with a kneading action, so the Saito
Tank can remove even stubborn sludge with-
out damaging the filter media. Meanwhile,
since there is no need to dispose of used filter
media as industrial waste, the system is help-
ful in achieving zero emission standards.
The Saito Tank is well established in Japans
chemical process facilities, and has recently
been installed in facilities throughout Korea
and the European Union. Nihon Genryo holds
a worldwide patent on the technology and is
actively seeking North American distributors.
Japanese water-treatment filter enters U.S. market boasting
no need to replace granular filter media ever
14 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com november 2007
(northfield, ill.; edlinks.che.
com/6901-540). The market
will be driven by regulations
and programs to decrease
emissions of greenhouse
gases, says the report.
EPA settlement
american electric Power (aeP,
Columbus, ohio; edlinks.che.
com/6901-541) has agreed to
cut its emissions of air pollut-
ants by 813,000 ton/yr at an
estimated cost of more than
$4.6 billion in a settlement
with the U.S. environmental
Protection agency (ePa,
washington D.C.) and the U.S.
Department of Justice. The
company will also pay a $15-
million penalty and spend $60
million on projects to mitigate
the adverse effects of its past
excess emissions.
The settlement, which also
involves a coalition of eight
states and 13 citizen groups, is
the single largest environmen-
tal enforcement settlement in
history, according to ePa. it
resolves a lawsuit filed against
aeP in 1999, alleging that the
company violated the new
Source review requirements
of the Clean air act.
Under the agreement, aeP
will install equipment to control
emissions of sulfur dioxide and
oxides of nitrogen (nox) on 16
(Continues on p. 16)
Batch
coIumn
Top Iayers
fuIIy Ioaded
PartiaIIy
Ioaded
Lower Iayer
not Ioaded
BioSC continuous SMCC
Four individuaI coIumns
continuousIy Ioaded and eIuted
FuIIy Ioaded
coIumn
ready for
eIution
PartiaIIy
Ioaded
coIumns
Ready
coIumn
equiIibrated
Breakthrough
To Waste
mAb
fraction
coIIection
Load
Loading
continues
ParaIIeI
eIution
To Waste
Slash downstream processing costs for producing
biologicals with this new chromatography technology
(Continued from p. 13)
13-18 CHE 11-07.indd 14 10/26/07 3:12:37 PM
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For real American values,
always trust Apollo Valves.
Circle 15 on p. 70 or go to adlinks.che.com/6901-15
15 CHE 11-07.indd 15 10/15/07 12:02:07 PM
I
n the chemical process industries (CPI),
multiphase flow regimes in reactors, bub-
ble columns, pipework and elsewhere in
plants determine process efficiencies and
safety. As a result, a considerable number of
intrusive and non-intrusive techniques have
been developed to recognize phase fractions.
However, such techniques are very expen-
sive and complex (such as tomography) or
provide only localized, qualitative informa-
tion (such as local probes and cameras). Sev-
eral years ago, a wire-mesh sensor based on
electrical conductivity was developed at the
Dresden-Rossendorf Research Center (FZD;
Dresden, Germany; edlinks.che.com/6901-
535) that overcame many of the drawbacks
of alternative methods, but only conducting
media could be monitored with the device.
Now, researchers at the Institute of Safety
Research at FZD have constructed a wire-
mesh sensor based on electrical capacitance,
which can be universally applied to all liq-
uid and gas phases, making it applicable to
many industrial processes, says researcher
Marco Jose Da Silva. As in the conductivity
sensor, the capacitance wire-mesh sensor
consists of a set of wire electrodes stretched
across a vessel or
pipe in two slightly
separated planes (dia-
gram). The capacitance
is measured between
the electrodes at the
crossing points, which
in turn, is a measure of
the dielectric constant
of the material flowing
through the grid. The
associated electronics
are optimized to mea-
sure capacitances in
the range of a few fem-
tofarad (10
15
F).
The system can measure the phase-frac-
tion distribution in a flow cross section with
high spatial and temporal resolution (graph).
Furthermore, the sensor is able to measure
nonconducting and slightly conducting flu-
ids. The technology can be applied to pipe or
vessel diameters from 5 mm up to a meter.
Investment costs for the sensor and elec-
tronics are expected to be reduced from the
prototypes 30,000 when mass-produced,
says Da Silva.
16 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com november 2007
ChementatoR
T
echnology to copolymerize carbon diox-
ide and propylene oxide (PO) was first
discovered in 1960s, but has not been com-
mercialized due to the formation of cyclic
propylene carbonate (CPC) by a back-bit-
ing reaction, which leads to the formation
of unstable, low-molecular-weight copoly-
mers. This limitation has essentially been
eliminated, thanks to a new catalyst de-
veloped by Professor Kyoko Nozaki at the
Department of Chemistry and Biotechnol-
ogy, Graduate School of Engineering, the
University of Tokyo (Japan; edlinks.che.
com/6901-536).
The new catalyst a bis-(piperidinyl
methyl)-salen cobalt(III) complex with two
acetate ligands is synthesized by the re-
action of cobalt acetate with the correspond-
ing disalicylidenediamine, followed by oxi-
dation in the presence of an excess amount
of acetic acid and air. The catalyst enables
the selective formation of copolymers with
alternating CO
2
and an epoxide, such as PO,
1-butene oxide, and 1-hexene oxide.
For example, the catalyst has been used
to make a copolymer of regularly alternat-
ing CO
2
and PO molecules with a number-
average molecular weight of 26,500. The
reaction takes place in a DME (1,2-dime-
thoxyethane) solvent under 14 bar CO
2
,
with a 99% yield and a 97% selectivity.
CPC formation is suppressed by capping
the copolymer terminus by a proton com-
ing from the piperidinium branch of the
catalyst. This copolymer has a high (250C)
decomposition temperature, making it suit-
able for injection molding. It also has a low
birefringence, a high gas permeability and
flexibility, and is biodegradable.
The commercial production of such co-
polymers provides an opportunity to uti-
lize CO
2
, thus reducing the amount of this
greenhouse gas released into the atmo-
sphere. Taking this opportunity, a project
has started to study the commercialization
of aliphatic polycarbonates made from CO
2

and epoxides. Supported by the New Energy
& Industrial Technology Development Or-
ganization (Kawasaki, Japan), the project
involves three universities (including the
University of Tokyo) and four companies
from Japan.
A fast way to measure phase fractions
in multiphase flow
This catalyst may open the door to green copolymer of CO
2
of its coal-fired power plants in
indiana, Kentucky, ohio, vir-
ginia and west virginia. The
controls are expected to cut
total nox emissions at these
plants from 231,000 ton/yr in
2006 to 72,000 ton/yr by 2016,
and reduce So
2
emissions
from 828,000 tons in 2006 to
174,000 ton/yr by 2018.
Metals complex
last month, UC rusal (mos-
cow, russia; edlinks.che.com/
6901-542) signed an agree-
ment with the government of
russia's Saratov region for
the construction of a major
energy and metals complex,
which includes the expansion
of the balakovsky nuclear-
power plant. UC rusal will
build the fifth and sixth reac-
tor blocks, generating 2,000
mw, and the construction of a
1.05-million m.t./yr aluminium
smelter claimed to be the
world's largest. a feasibility
study is expected to be com-
pleted by the end of next year.
Li-ion betteries
evonik industries ag (essen,
germany; edlinks.che.
com/6901-543) is acquiring a
20% stake in li-Tec verm-
gensverwaltungs gmbh &
Co. Kg (Kamenz, germany).
with its participation in li-Tec,
evonik is now starting mass
(Continued from p. 14)
(Continues on p. 18)
13-18 CHE 11-07.indd 16 10/26/07 3:13:16 PM
Circle 47 on p. 70 or go to adlinks.che.com/6901-47
17 CHE 11-07.indd 17 10/25/07 6:34:05 PM
R
abigh Refining & Petrochemi-
cal Co., a 50:50 joint venture of
Saudi Arabian Oil Co. (Dhahran,
both Saudi Arabia) and Sumitomo
Chemical Co. Ltd. (Tokyo, Japan;
edlinks.che.com/6901-537), is con-
structing a new plant to produce
200,000 m.t./yr of propylene oxide
(PO). When the plant starts up
next year, it will be the second com-
mercial plant to use a byproduct-
free process developed by Sumi-
tomo Chemical (CE, October 2000,
p. 17), the first being a 150,000-
m.t./yr plant at the Chiba, Japan,
factory, which was expanded to
200,000 m.t./yr in 2005.
Conventional routes to PO either gener-
ate large volumes of: wastewater (the chlo-
rohydrin process), styrene monomer (the
Halcon process) or tert-butyl alcohol (the
isobutene-oxidation process). In contrast,
water is the only byproduct generated from
Sumitomos PO process.
According to published patents and re-
ports, Sumitomos PO process is based on a
cumene feedstock. In the process (diagram),
cumene is first oxidized in air (without a
catalyst) at 90130C and 110 bar, into
cumene hydroperoxide (CMHP) with a se-
lectivity of over 95%. Propylene is then ep-
oxylated with CMHP in a fixed-bed reactor
over the companys proprietary titanium-
silica catalyst at 25200C and 1100 bar,
into PO (selectivity over 95%) and alpha-
dimethylbenzyl alcohol (CMA). CMA is
hydrogenated into cumene which, together
with unreacted cumene, is recycled into the
process.
A second major plant
for a new PO process
ChementatoR
OOH
Air
CMHP
Oxidation
Cumene
EpoxyIation
Hydrogenation
H
2
O
C
3
H
2
OH
CMA PO
O
production of battery compo-
nents. Evonik has developed
materials for use in high-per-
formance storage systems
under the tradename Litation
(electrodes) and Separion (a
heat-resistant ceramic sepa-
rator). Since January 2006,
Evonik and its wholly owned
subsidiary, Litarion GmbH,
have been constructing an
electrode-production plant
for large-volume lithium-ion
batteries at the Li-Tec site in
Kamenz. The plants annual
production capacity is enough
to make about 30,000 batter-
ies for hybrid vehicles.
Microbial testing
A molecular testing method
that attains a viable count of
microbial organisms in as little
as 4 h compared to the typical
314 d needed by standard
methods, has been commer-
cialized by Lonza AG (Basel,
Switzerland; edlinks.che.
com/6901-544). The genet-
ics-based (RNA targetting) mi-
croCompass System is said to
offer improved sensitivity and
detection of bacteria, yeast
and mold at a high-throughput
level by batching up to 96
samples at a time.
Solar cells
A program to develop ionic
liquids and formulations to
improve the performance and
efficiency of solar cells has
been initiated by BASF AG
(Ludwigshafen, Germany)
and G24 Innovations, Ltd.
(G24i; Cardiff, Wales; edlinks.
che.com/6901-545). G24i
produces photovoltaic cells
that use the same principles
as photosynthesis in plants,
which makes them sensitive
to "far more" of the visible
spectrum of light than conven-
tional solar cells. Instead of
chlorophyll, a ruthenium dye
is used to convert light into
electrical energy by a chemi-
cal process. The dye-sensi-
tized thin-film technology was
originally developed at the
Swiss Institute of Technology
(Lausanne, Switzerland).
(Continued from p. 16)
18 CHEmICAL ENGINEERING WWW.CHE.Com NovEmBER 2007
A
new process to produce titanium, called
the TiRO process, has been developed by
a team from CSIRO (Melbourne, Australia;
edlinks.che.com/6901-538) through its Light
Metals Flagship. The process is said to halve
the cost of producing titanium metal com-
ponents by: 1) Replacing the conventional
Kroll-batch process with a more continuous
process based on fluidized-bed (FB) technol-
ogy; and 2) Using Tis powder metallurgy to
circumvent the mill-based manufacturing
processes that are currently required.
Team leader Grant Wellwood says the
overall chemistry of the TiRO process is the
same as that of the Kroll process, whereby
TiCl
4
reacts with Mg to form Ti and MgCl
2
.
The novelty of the TiRO process is an oper-
ating window that enables the reaction to
occur at a lower temperature and continu-
ously in an FB. The temperature window is
defined by the melting points of Mg (650C)
and MgCl
2
(712C). The intermediate prod-
uct from the reaction stage of the TiRO pro-
cess is a composite of MgCl
2
(continuous
phase) and Ti particles (discrete phase). In a
second stage, the two phases are separated.
Magnesium and liquid TiCl
4
are conveyed
(stoichiometrically) into the base of the re-
actor by a high-purity argon gas stream.
The centrally discharged solid product is in
the form of spherical pellets with an aver-
age particle size around 400 m. The com-
position of the intermediate composite is 20
wt.% Ti and 80 wt.% anhydrous MgCl
2
. The
Ti deposits as discrete, easily separated par-
ticles with an average size of about 4 m,
which are uniformly dispersed throughout
the MgCl
2
matrix.
The team is using a simple stainless-steel
reactor designed to operate with about 500
g of bed, and has a nominal throughput of
200g/h of Ti. The researchers have achieved
their proof-of-concept stage metal qual-
ity target, and expect to meet commercial
grade quality upon scaleup to the next
scale plant (greater than 2 kg Ti/h).
A less expensive way
to produce titanium
13-18 CHE 11-07.indd 18 10/26/07 3:13:46 PM
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19 CHE 11-07.indd 19 10/26/07 10:42:33 AM
Newsfront
T
he globalization of the economy
is making the world a smaller
place and leading businesses
the chemical process industries
(CPI) included to source, produce
and sell material in foreign lands. Pol-
itics aside, the trend has the potential
to wreak havoc on the supply chain,
logistics and transportation opera-
tions of chemical corporations unless
strategies that increase collaboration
and visibility while handling event
management are put into place.
Supply chain challenges
Globalization has given rise to the
so-called BRIC economies, as Brazil,
Russia, India and China (BRIC) begin
to take prominent roles in the global
chemical market due to their ability
to offer lower material, production
and labor costs, according to a recent
paper titled, Issues and Competitive
Strategies for the Chemical Industry,
by enterprise software and technology
provider CDC Systems (Atlanta, Ga.).
The emergence of these markets
has placed significant pricing and
supply chain pressure on U.S. chemi-
cal manufacturers, forcing them to cut
costs in order to remain competitive.
In addition, many chemical manufac-
turers are buying from, or selling to,
companies in these regions, which cre-
ates much more sophisticated global
supply chains, says CDC. Some U.S.
manufacturers are also opening plants
or partnering with companies that
already exist in the region to share
intellectual property in order to take
advantage of lower production costs.
However, this approach also adds com-
plexity to the supply chain as inven-
tory and capacity are now being man-
aged globally as opposed to regionally
in North American plants, according
to the paper.
This approach also creates the addi-
tional challenge of establishing a core
foundation of business processes that
can keep pace with the ever-chang-
ing global environment, says Brian
Willson, director for chemical indus-
try business at Microsoft (Redmond,
Wash.). How do you easily connect a
new plant, new partner or acquired
company in a new region to the busi-
ness processes that are already estab-
lished? he asks.
Taking action
According to the experts, there are ways
to manage and overcome these global
supply-chain challenges, but thus far,
the CPI has been slow to embrace
them. Consulting firm Accenture (Chi-
cago, Ill.) conducted a series of studies
on supply chain practices, and the most
recent, The 2007 Global Chemical In-
dustry Supply Chain Best Practices
Study, revealed that while companies
now appear to have more clarity about
their supply chain strategies and direc-
tions, change is slow, and actual results
have been relatively limited.
The study also showed that al-
though 75% of respondents consider
supply chain a driver of operational
excellence or a source of competitive
advantage, the CPI has been slow to
advance it (see also Figure 2).
Based on input from study respon-
dents, Accenture identified four focus
areas that provide opportunities to
improve the supply chain and make it
work in this global economy. First and
foremost, says Christopher F. Lange,
senior executive, global-supply-chain
leads for chemicals and natural re-
sources at Accenture, is the increased
involvement of supply chain function
in commercial decision making. You
need to put forth the premise that if
you want to improve supply chain op-
erations, those operations need to be
involved in the commercial decision
making what products to produce,
where to produce them, what custom-
ers to serve and how to serve them,
he says. These decisions need to be
made through modeling for better fi-
nancial results. Who better than the
supply chain folks to look at the cost
drivers and understand the trade-offs
of such decisions?
Lange says that this type of col-
Managing the
chemical supply chain
in a global economy
requires visibility
and collaboration
Microsoft
20 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com november 2007
Newsfront
Its a
small
World
Figure 1. Technology, such as the Microsoft Biz Talk Server 2006 R2, is helping
chemical processors manage their supply chains in an ever-changing global envi-
ronment by making it easy to onboard foreign partners and business units
20-24 CHE 11-07.indd 20 10/26/07 3:03:46 PM
Views from an industry
supply Chain leader
D
ow Chemical Co. (Midland, Mich.)
operates in 39 countries and has
plans for further expansion in
India, China and Saudi Arabia.
Company executives stay ahead of the
curve by successfully leveraging supply
chain management to achieve overall
business objectives, namely expanding
the company's international reach.
Chemical Engineering went to Don
Weintritt, global supply chain director
with Dows Supply Chain Technology and
Enterprise Center, to find out how the
company manages its expansive supply
chain.
Q: What are some of the biggest issues
when dealing with the global supply
chain?
A: Ive bulleted the biggest global supply
chain issues.
Chemical transportation security
International trade
Transportation infrastructure
Rail competition
Payload optimization
Ocean vessel flexibility
Chemical transportation safety regula-
tions and risk management
Sustainable supply chains
Massive shift in supply chain complexity
and volume on the horizon various
new business models being developed
and deployed
Q: What do chemical processors need
to do to improve their supply chain in
order to meet these challenges?
A: Chemical processors need to under-
stand their supply chain environment, its
alignment to corporate strategy, and how
it integrates into supply chain design, op-
erations and sustainability.
Dow embarked on a three-pronged ini-
tiative to further improve its global supply
chain. Our approach includes manage-
ment of distribution safety and security
risks, to reduce the companys risk pro-
file, and to provide industry leadership
to enhance public confidence in chemical
supply-chain safety and security. Dows
initiative is focused on best practice im-
plementation, improvement and innova-
tion. Through this approach Dow evalu-
ates and understands its risks, prioritizes
the risk mitigation efforts, develops proj-
ect plans with stakeholders and finally
incorporates technical innovation and
collaboration into each project.
Q: Can you provide some details about
how your supply chain operates?
A: We are constructed across areas that
can be described by three, integrated
supply chain work processes.
(1) Design and Modify Supply Chain:
We are using design and modify sup-
ply-chain work processes and enabling
technologies to provide breakthrough
technical and operational supply chain
designs across:
Regional cross-business network opti-
mization design
Global business-specific network opti-
mization design
Established market plant and facility
growth / consolidation redesign
Exchange, swaps, and tolls evaluation
and design
Mergers and acquisitions, including
due diligence and Integration
Joint ventures, divestitures
SC design for emerging growth MEGA
production complexes (loosely defined
as over $5 billion)
Distribution models
Macro regional and global material
trade flows
Across these value chains we have (2)
Demand Driven Business Operations
work process and tools to develop the
constrained and unconstrained supply
and demand balances and manufac-
turing/transportation plans. Finally, we
use (3) the Material Flow work process
and tools to manage the flow of materi-
als and information from our suppliers,
through our manufacturing and distribu-
tion assets and channels to market, to our
customers. There are a number of other
supporting technologies and expertise/
operating groups such as warehouse
and terminal management, RFID and
track and trace, bar coding and labeling
systems, our modal operations groups
and others. But we operate across the
supply chain described by these three
main segments.
Q: Do you have any advice for other pro-
cessors on beginning to make improve-
ments?
A: Yes, first you must understand your
supply chain environment, and then
understand your corporate strategy for
network design and sustainability. Be-
yond that its important to evaluate risks
and prioritize your risk mitigation effort.
Next its necessary to develop a project
plan with stakeholders. Once all that is
in place, technical innovation and col-
laboration should be incorporated into
each project.
Bioengineering
Inversina
the gentle way
of mixing.
The Inversina mixes solids or liquids
thoroughly and efficiently. The process
is clean, because mixing takes place in
closed containers that can be quickly
interchanged. The Inversina mixes a
diverse range of components rapidly
and in an extremely gentle way.
Segregation does not occur, even
after extended mixing times, by virtue
of the eversion phenomenon ( Paul
Schatz principle).
Applications for the Inversina: analyti-
cal labs, metal finishing shops, powder
metallurgy and nuclear industry,
manufacture of batteries, cement,
ceramics, cosmetics, dental products,
diamond tools, dyes and pigments,
electrical and electronic devices,
explosives and pyrotechnics, foods,
homeopathic products, household
products, medicines and pharmaceu-
ticals, plastics, printing inks and many
other products. The Bioengineering
Inversina is available with capacities
of 2, 20, 50, 100 and 300 L.
Bioengineering, Inc.
Waltham, MA 02451, USA
Bioengineering AG
8636 Wald, Switzerland
info@bioengineering.ch
www.bioengineering.ch
Circle 18 on p. 70 or go to
adlinks.che.com/6901-18
20-24 CHE 11-07.indd 21 10/26/07 3:04:10 PM
laboration requires involvement of
the supply chain, manufacturing and
commercial entities in a chemical
company. You need input from ev-
eryone so you understand what cus-
tomers want and combine that with
the knowledge of the plant and the
variability in the now-global supply
chain, he explains. Then you need to
model it and come up with optimal an-
swers that determine whether you can
produce that product well for a profit
or whether it adds non-prime material
to your inventory.
The next focus should typically be
planning, particularly demand plan-
ning and forecasting, says Lange. If
you know what the customer wants,
you can factor and coordinate those
needs into production schedules that
mesh with raw material schedules
and then coordinate that with trans-
portation. If planning is done prop-
erly, improvements can quickly ripple
through the supply chain, he says.
Companies should look next at func-
tional areas such as transportation
and material sourcing. We suggest
first simplifying the processes and
then standardizing them across the
board, says Lange. A lot of chemical
companies are really portfolio manage-
ment companies with many different
businesses operating under a single
parent company. So, they need to seek
out common supply-chain characteris-
tics across the family of business units
and leverage them.
And finally, most companies need
to improve supply chain talent. You
need to look within the company, and
then look externally to find the most
qualified people to run the supply
chain, and then improve the training
for those people.
Tools for improvement
To help chemical processors take ac-
tion, technology providers are devel-
oping products that help facilitate
collaboration, visibility and event
management to assist with planning
for supply chain events, both inter-
nally and externally.
When it comes to internal collabo-
ration, we now see that the logistics
guy is just as important as the mar-
keting guy, and these groups need
to be talking, says Ray Adams, field
services director, industry business
unit, chemicals with SAP Americas
(Newtown Square, Pa.). So we are
striving to provide a common platform
and common mechanism that allows
them to be looking at the information
in respective terms that are meaning-
ful to them. We now offer the Sales
and Operations Planning product on
a service-oriented architecture, which
means it is a standalone solution that
doesnt require SAP to be running in
the back office.
On the flip side, SAPs Supply Net-
work Collaboration supply chain suite
is intended to extend the supply chain
externally to include suppliers, cus-
tomers and toll manufacturers. As a
chemical manufacturer, you cant ex-
pect your suppliers to be running SAP..
However, you can expect them to have
internet access and the ability to use
it to hop onto a portal and enter an ad-
vanced shipping notice, says Adams.
If they are willing to do that, you can
have visibility into advanced shipping
notices on purchase orders.
This suite provides links so outside
vendors can perform such functions
through a standard web portal with
a log-on ID. For higher volume trans-
actions, XML exchanges can be per-
formed in a way thats fully automated
and fully loaded directly into a chemi-
cal manufacturers system.
Share
data/integrate
pIanning
53%
Periodic
communication
37%
No
communication
10%
Cross-Business-Unit Collaboration
and Sales and Operations Planning
Figure 2. Chemical companies are
striving to collaborate internally between
the supply chain and sales and opera-
tions units. In the areas of demand/sup-
ply balancing, or sales and operations
planning, 53% of respondents to Accen-
tures The 2007 Global Chemical Indus-
try Supply Chain Best Practices Study,
said that related business units routinely
share demand and supply data. Only 10%
said they had no internal collaboration
Newsfront
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20-24 CHE 11-07.indd 22 10/26/07 3:04:38 PM
Basic information such as a cus-
tomer forecast for products can be
used to generate raw material re-
quirements and supply plans. Those
requirements can be automatically
configured into purchase orders for
suppliers, which can be sent electroni-
cally so the suppliers can see them and
respond automatically. This provides
suppliers with an opportunity to re-
spond with an alert if theres an issue,
so the chemical processor can take ac-
tion, such as going to another supplier.
This type of technology-enabled con-
tingency planning allows a chemical
processor to respond to changes in the
supply chain rapidly, notes Adams.
External collaboration is also needed
to unite externally located businesses
within the chemical manufacturers
own portfolio. When you think about
connecting the business processes
around the country or around the globe,
one of the challenges is just the tech-
nology infrastructure costs necessary
to connect disparate business applica-
tions, says Microsofts Willson. The
Microsoft BizTalk Server 2006 R2 (Fig-
ure 1) was developed as a service-ori-
ented architecture to provide a quick,
easy and economical way to connect
processes and systems both inside the
four walls even when the four walls
extend overseas and outside with
customers and suppliers, he explains.
The service-oriented architecture
approach provides a way to expose all
the applications and orchestrate busi-
ness processes, such as order manage-
ment and plant floor scheduling across
the landscape. This creates efficiencies
and enables processors to react to the
new global environment that might
include new partners and plants and
bring new members onboard without
a lot of expense. Specifi-
cally, to the supply chain,
it increases visibility of
information, which can
help processors make
better decisions, lower
the cost of inventory
and make better fore-
casts. And in this type
of emerging economy, the
faster they can enter a
market and [bring] on-
board new partners, the
better market share they
can achieve over time by being there
first, says Willson.
Solutions that facilitate visibility
and event management are also crucial
to supply chain improvements. Vis-
ibility and event management tools
are needed to provide early warning
and insight into pending issues, such
as a customer order that wont ship on
time, says Jack Weiss, CEO of WAM
Systems (Plymouth Meeting, Pa.).
While its always been important
to have visibility into customer prom-
ises, order ship dates and the impact
that late shipments of supplies and
materials will have, globalization em-
phasizes the need for visibility and
event management. With globaliza-
tion, supplies or materials often come
with a four-week lead time, so having
visibility early that a late supply will
impact manufacturing and fulfillment
of a customer order, gives processors
time to react, says Weiss.
And, some software tools are de-
signed to tie all this collaboration,
visibility and event management
into one package. AspenOne Dy-
namic Supply Chain Management
for Chemicals from Aspen Technology
(Burlington, Mass.,), was developed to
help chemical processors balance sup-
ply and demand on an enterprise-wide
scale (from raw materials to finished-
good inventory) based on dynamic
market conditions. The developer says
the software helps users identify and
react to problems via exception resolu-
tion and alerting capabilities, develop
optimal forecasts by incorporating
statistical methods with collaboration
between internal and external stake-
holders and re-plan on an enterprise-
wide basis.
Software developers, such as Axxom
Supply Chain TeChnology
and ServiCe providerS:
Accenture edlinks.che.com/6901-561
AspenTechnology edlinks.che.com/6901-562
AxxomSoftwareAG edlinks.che.com/6901-563
CDCSoftware edlinks.che.com/6901-564
Deacom,Inc. edlinks.che.com/6901-565
Intergraph edlinks.che.com/6901-566
Microsoft edlinks.che.com/6901-567
OSIsoft edlinks.che.com/6901-568
SAPAmericas edlinks.che.com/6901-569
WAMSystems edlinks.che.com/6901-570
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Circle 20 on p. 70 or go to
adlinks.che.com/6901-20
20-24 CHE 11-07.indd 23 10/26/07 3:05:06 PM
Software AG (Munich, Germany), are
adding functionality to help improve
visibility in the chemical supply chain.
A new version of ORion-PI Value Net-
work Optimization optimizes supply
chain networks via a range of func-
tionalities, including a geographical
view of the network that involves a
structural display of all logistics pro-
cesses and value flows, allowing pro-
cess and material flows in the supply
chain to be visualized quickly and
transparently. This version also offers
extended possibilities for integration
with other systems and applications.
The improved link to MS-Excel per-
mits transfer of all relevant data, and,
with the aid of a certified interface,
data can be synchronized directly with
SAP applications.
No matter what the software tool, ex-
perts agree that adding collaboration,
visibility and event management to the
supply chain can provide vast benefits
for the chemical processor who uses it
to manage its suppliers and customers,
get better forecasts, improve planning,
react faster to unplanned events and
improve inventory performance. Ulti-
mately these actions free up working
capital and improve customer respon-
siveness, leading to more sales.
Improving transportation
Visibility is also of the utmost im-
portance when it comes to managing
transportation. Following the trend to
outsource logistics and transportation
to third-party providers, many chemi-
cal processors have found themselves
with large bills and less of the informa-
tion needed to explain the costs, which
are now rising due to stricter regula-
tions and increasing fuel prices. This
way of doing business doesnt provide
processors with the means to do an
internal strategic analysis concern-
ing transportation costs, says SAPs
Adams. For this reason, we decided
to build a transportation solution, the
TM60, which stands alone and con-
tains all the necessary information.
Improved transportation solutions,
such as the TM60 and our Optimizer
Engine, which handles transporta-
tion optimization, are what we call
game changers because the benefits of
improving transportation are many,
says Adams.
In the general area of carrier se-
lection, todays solutions can provide
visibility into information that helps
processors determine who is the best
carrier for a particular route. They
can get a 10 to 30% improvement on
cost from better carrier management,
says Adams.
Other key benefits come from load
consolidation. Running our Opti-
mizer Engine helps show processors
where they can combine loads, which
results in savings because the truck
is always full, which minimizes costly
empty miles, says Adams.
And, those railcars sitting unused on
a track for two weeks? Technology can
help eliminate that problem as well.
As they begin to employ technology
that provides information and visibil-
ity, processors can begin to proactively
keep these assets moving and reduce
their demurrage costs, says Adams.
It is expensive to have a storage tank
car sitting on a track somewhere, but
if they have visibility and know where
it is, they can keep it moving and
avoid charges. For a large company
with thousands of railcars, demurrage
charges can be in the multi-millions
of dollars. If you can use technology
to cut that in half, the savings can be
significant.
With increased competition, cus-
tomers are demanding higher quality
and better service, and supply chain
and transportation management are
key to providing these characteristics,
even in a global environment. If you
can perform better than the competi-
tion, you can differentiate yourself,
explains Weiss. Leaders in chemical
supply-chain management can offer
shorter lead times and flexibility to
their customers, which is a real ad-
vantage.
What it all comes down to is using
your reactive and well-coordinated
supply chain to react to a customers
unexpected event and save the day for
them, Weiss says. While this is dif-
ficult in todays environment of tight
inventory and distant suppliers, if you
have the tools to spot and react to is-
sues and come up with optimal supply
chain and delivery strategies, you will
serve your customers well and the re-
wards will be plenty. n
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Newsfront
20-24 CHE 11-07.indd 24 10/26/07 3:05:33 PM
B
etter control of baghouses and
cartridge-type dust collectors
can pay dividends in energy sav-
ings, longer filter life and
effort spent in tracking environ-
mental compliance. Thats the
message from Richard Kapcha,
a control specialist with MikroPul
(Charlotte, N.C.), which manufactures
a wide range of dust collection equip-
ment. Until the early 1990s we were
supplying baghouses with cleaning
cycles based on fixed time intervals,
Kapcha says. Many of these timer
systems are still in use. Changing to a
cleaning routine based on differential
pressure can save a large plant tens of
thousands of dollars a year.
By cleaning filters only when they
need it, differential-pressure control
systems lengthen filter life as well as
saving compressed air, Kapcha adds.
MikroPuls recently launched PulsePro
EC control unit (photo, right) uses re-
liable solid-state pressure sensors to
check the cleaning status of one or more
dust collectors, and relay the results to
a control room. As well as managing
the cleaning cycle, the PulsePro EC
monitors compressed-air use, allowing
it to detect energy-wasting valve dia-
phragm failures. And, it also measures
and records particulate levels in the
exhaust air. As reporting requirements
become more stringent, Kapcha says,
the ability to log this information au-
tomatically saves time and paperwork
headaches; it also detects bag failures.
A new particulate emission monitor
and baghouse leak detector from Fil-
Newsfront
KEEP CONTROL OF
YOUR DUST
ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com november 2007 25
The MikroPul PulsePro EC (above) saves
compressed air by controlling baghouse
cleaning based on differential pressure; it
also checks for leaky air valves and moni-
tors downstream dust concentration
This induction-type particle detector from
FilterSense (second from top) is said to be
more reliable than sensors that are based
on optics or triboelectricity
The Twister (top) from Micro Air is a com-
pact solution for local dust removal; Farrs
HemiPleat HE cartridges (right, top) have
high removal efficiency and are easy to
clean; United Air Specialists has launched
these nanofiber cartridges (right, center);
filter bags from Midwesco Filter (right)
boast ease of changing
Energy saving, emission regulations,
explosion protection and finer filters
combine to drive the market in
particulates removal Micro Air
FilterSense
MikroPul
Farr Air Pollution
United Air Specialists
Midwesco
Filter
25-28 CHE 11-07.indd 25 10/26/07 3:08:14 PM
terSense (Beverly, Mass.;
photo, p. 25) incorporates
automatic self-checking
to improve performance
and eliminate manual
calibration, which would
otherwise be required by
the EPAs MACT and CAM
regulations governing fab-
ric-filter dust collectors.
Smart diagnostics and a
proven induction sensing
technique increase reli-
ability compared to sensors
based on measurements of
opacity or triboelectricity,
FilterSense says, making
the unit ideal for difficult
applications such as coal,
steel, cement, carbon black, lead smelt-
ers and pharmaceutical spray dryers.
The company also supplies pass/fail
particulate detectors and non-clogging
pressure transmitters.
To clean filter bags and cartridges
effectively using the minimum of
compressed air, Asco Joucomatic Nu-
matics (lbronn-Drrn, Germany)
has launched a 1.5-in. version of its
successful type 353/800 Power Pulse
solenoid valve. Specifically designed
for dust collectors, the valves feature
a patented piston design that enables
significantly faster opening and clos-
ing, quieter operation, and lower air
consumption with no compromise
in cleaning performance, the com-
pany claims. Options include a rapid
mounting system, and a version with
a remote pilot valve for applications
where space is at a premium. The
standard design can operate at tem-
peratures up to 85C, with a 150C
model available, and version are avail-
able for hazardous atmospheres.
Changing regulations affecting dust
filters and baghouses go beyond envi-
ronmental protection, notes Sal Cam-
pos, marketing services manager with
Farr Air Pollution Control (Jonesboro,
Ark.). Recent updates to standards
published by the National Fire Protec-
tion Assn. (NFPA; Quincy, Mass.; www.
nfpa.org) have increased the range of
applications for which dust filters and
baghouses require explosion venting,
he says. As a result, Farrs flagship
Gold Series cartridge dust collector is
now available with a built-in explosion
vent. The new multi-ribbed X-vent,
which is made of stainless steel and
can be retrofitted to existing dust col-
lectors, meets NFPA and ATEX stan-
dards. Units in the modular Gold Series
range in size from single cartridges up
to 150,000-CFM (ft
3
/min) housings con-
taining 140 cartridges, Campos says.
Finding a finer filter
Instrumentation and explosion protec-
tion notwithstanding, key to the per-
formance of any type of cartridge or
fabric filter is the filter medium cho-
sen. Farrs Gold Series dust collectors,
for instance, are fitted with HemiPleat
filter cartridges, which are resistant to
moisture, highly efficient (99.99% for
particles of 0.5 m and larger), and
have a wide, uniform pleat spacing
for maximum dust capacity and easy
cleaning. The latest HemiPleat HE
(High Efficiency) cartridges (photo,
p. 25) go one better, with an efficiency
of 99.999% for particles down to 0.5
m, and a MERV (Minimum Efficiency
Reporting Value) of 15. The company
claims that these typically provide
twice the life of standard cartridges,
at half the pressure drop.
According to some manufacturers,
nanofibers provide better filtration
performance and cleanability than the
standard fibers of cellulose acetate,
glass and thermoplastics traditionally
used for cartridges and filter bags.
United Air Specialists (UAS; Cincin-
nati, Ohio) recently launched a range
of cartridge filters based on nanofibers
just 70150 nm in diameter (photo,
p. 25); the company says this is around
half the diameter of the nanofibers in
competing products.
UAS marketing manager Lisa Wil-
helmus says the MERV 15-rated nano-
fiber filters typically have twice the life Circle 22 on p. 70 or go to
adlinks.che.com/6901-22
26 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com november 2007
Newsfront
ElEctrostatic prEcipitators fight back
I
n 2007 power plants, mines and industrial
companies spent $6.1 billion on fabric filter
equipment, systems, and elements for exhaust
gases, according to McIlvaine Co. (Northfield, Ill.;
www.mcilvainecompany.com).
In the continually updated online report Fabric
Filter and Elements World Markets, McIlvaine
predicts that sales will increase at 6% annually
over the next five years.
One reason for this healthy growth is the rapid
expansion in Asia of steel mills, foundries, chemi-
cal plants, and cement producers.
Another factor is regulatory pressure, which
is driving coal-fired power stations and cement
plants to move from traditional dry electrostatic
precipitators (ESPs) to more-efficient fabric filters,
McIlvaine says.
Despite this, the ESP market is growing too,
though more slowly. 2007 worldwide sales of
ESPs totaled $3.9 billion. Of this figure, $600 mil-
lion was for wet systems, whose higher efficiency
on small particles is allowing them to gain ground
compared to dry ESPs, McIlvaine says.
Suppliers of ESPs as well as fabric filters to the
power and cement industries include Wheelabra-
tor Air Pollution Control Inc. (Pittsburgh, Penn.),
part of Siemens Power Generation since 2005;
Alstom (Levallois-Perret, France, and Windsor,
Conn.); and Clyde Bergemann (Baltimore, Md.).
In July of this year Environmental Elements Cor-
poration (Baltimore, Md.), now a subsidiary of
Clyde Bergemann, won a contract worth more
than $4.5 million to supply an ESP to Arkansas
Kraft, a division of pulp and paper company
Green Bay Packaging. Replacing an existing 30-
year-old unit on a recovery boiler, the new ESP
will improve both environmental performance
and energy efficiency, by allowing the plant to
burn high-solids liquor from the pulp process.
In June, Wheelabrator won a contract from Prai-
rie State Generating Company LLC for a complex
multi-emission control system at a 1,600 MW
power plant and coal mine planned for Lively
Grove, Illinois. Wheelabrator will supply dry ESPs,
an activated carbon injection system for mercury
control, a hydrated lime injection system for sulfur
trioxide control, wet FGD systems, and wet ESPs
for acid mist and fine particulate control.
25-28 CHE 11-07.indd 26 10/29/07 2:01:22 PM
of standard cellulose and 80/20 cellu-
lose/polyester cartridges, and use up to
60% less compressed air for cleaning.
The filters are durable, because the
nanofibers have very good adhesion
to the substrate material, Wilhelmus
says, and the distribution of nanofi-
bers is very even, so there are no large
holes that can let particles through.
The Donaldson Torit division of filter
systems manufacturer Donaldson Co.
(Minneapolis, Minn.) has been mak-
ing nanofiber filters for 25 years, and
in January this year launched an im-
proved version of its Ultra-Web prod-
uct. With a layer of nanofibers atop a
spunbond polyester substrate, Ultra-
Web SB is a tough filter medium that
is ideal for fibrous or abrasive dusts,
explains marketing manager Julie
Rumsey. Getting perfect adhesion to
the backing material was a technical
challenge, she says, but the result-
ing resin-free construction ensures
good resistance to heat, moisture and
chemical attack, while wide pleats aid
cleanability. Ultra-Web SB is available
in both cartridges (photo, above) and
filter bags. Donaldson Torit also offers
cartridge filters with Ultra-Web nano-
fibers on cellulose and synthetic sub-
strates, as well as PTFE membrane
filters with spunbond substrate.
For installations using bag filters
instead of cartridges, Midwesco Fil-
ter Resources, Inc. (Winchester, Va.)
says its Seal-Tite II pleated elements
(photo, p. 25) are easier to install than
any other bottom-load filter bag on the
market today. The proprietary sealing
and clamp system saves installation
time, creates a virtually leak-proof
seal, and makes incorrect installation
practically impossible, the company
claims. The washable filter bags are
long-lasting, thanks in part to the
elimination of inlet abrasion problems,
and offer dust removal efficiencies up
to 99.99%.
Another design of pleated bag is
MikroPuls Mikro-Pleat, said to be
the only snap-in bag with an integral
venturi. The companys Grapoid tool,
which is powered by a cordless drill,
allows snap-in pleated and felt bags
to be removed in around 10 sec. each,
with little effort. For even easier bag
changing, MikroPul Pop-Top 2 bags
replace standard snap-in bags and
seal with simple foot pressure.
Choose the right housing
Important as the filter bag or car-
tridge is, a well-designed housing is
also essential to create an effective
installation. AAF International (Lou-
isville, Ky.) has launched the ArrestAll
AR Series self-contained, shaker-type
dust collector for intermittent and
light-duty applications. The compact
unit has a top-mounted fan with easy
access for servicing, 16 filter pockets
as standard, an automatic shaker
mechanism with an adjustable timer
for cleaning, and a silencer; an inte-
gral final HEPA filter is optional. A
side door makes filter changing easy,
and a tough powder coating protects
the metal parts.
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ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com november 2007 27
This dust removal unit from
Cyclonaire (far left) targets
pneumatic conveying systems.
Donaldson Torit, pioneer of
nanofibers, recently launched
a new, tougher, version for car-
tridges and bag filters (left)
Clyde Bergemann shows that
electrostatic precipitators
remain an important dust-re-
moval technology (right)
Clyde Bergemann Cyclonaire
Donaldson Torit
25-28 CHE 11-07.indd 27 10/26/07 3:09:39 PM
28 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com november 2007
Newsfront
Pneumatic conveying spe-
cialist Cyclonaire Corp. (York,
Neb.) has launched a range
of environmental protection
products under the name 445
Technology, in reference to the tar-
get of limiting atmospheric carbon
dioxide to 445 ppm suggested by the
U.N. Intergovernmental Panel on Cli-
mate Change. The range includes the
C&C automated dust reclaim system
(photo, p. 27), which captures dust
from silo filling operations. Other
products collect dust from the un-
loading and filling of sacks and inter-
mediate bulk containers (IBCs), and
from pneumatic conveyors.
Micro Air (Wichita, Kan.) makes
cartridge-type filters units with ca-
pacities up to 100,000 CFM, explains
national sales manager Jim Orr. The
companys recently-launched RP-1
Twister (photo, p. 25) is a compact
unit rated at 1,000 CFM that com-
bines an upstream cyclone with a
cartridge filter. The unit measures
just 18.5-in. dia. and 64 in. high.
Cleaning is via Micro Airs exclusive
Roto-Pulse cartridge cleaning sys-
tem, which is said to clean 100% of
the cartridge area. Applications in-
clude capturing dust from grinding
operations and bag filling.
Among the range of dust collec-
tion devices available from Scien-
tific Dust Collectors (Alsip, Ill.) are
two types of heavy-duty horizontal
cartridge units with reverse-pulse
cleaning: the SL and the SL-HR.
The SL is a compact housing for up
to 24 cartridges, and handles flows
of 1,80015,600 CFM. The more ad-
vanced SL-HR (High Ratio) is suit-
able for larger flows, operating at
flowrates of up to 1,000 CFM per car-
tridge. This is around twice the spe-
cific flowrate of the SL, and is made
possible through a patented cleaning
system and innovative cabinet de-
sign, the firm says.
For locations where compressed
air for filter cleaning is not available,
the RAC series of dust collectors
from Sly, Inc., (Cleveland, Ohio) may
be useful. Instead of an external com-
pressed air supply, this design uses
an internal blower powered by an ex-
plosion-proof motor. A rotating clean-
ing arm carrying a series of nozzles
directs high-velocity air jets onto the
filter bags to remove dust. Sly RAC
dust collectors are available for air
flowrates of 4,50070,000 CFM. The
company also manufactures other
wet, dry and combination wet/dry
dust collection systems.
Charles Butcher
Wood Group ESP
Surface Pumps
SPS APPLICATIONS:
0 Booster
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Pressure to lower ever-increasing maintenance
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Doyens of Dust Disposal
AAF International edlinks.che.com/6901-580
Alstom edlinks.che.com/6901-581
Asco Joucomatic edlinks.che.com/6901-582
Clyde Bergemann edlinks.che.com/6901-583
Cyclonaire Corp. edlinks.che.com/6901-584
Donaldson Torit edlinks.che.com/6901-585
Farr Air Pollution
Control edlinks.che.com/6901-586
FilterSense edlinks.che.com/6901-587
Micro Air edlinks.che.com/6901-588
Midwesco Filter
Resources edlinks.che.com/6901-589
MikroPul edlinks.che.com/6901-590
Scientific Dust
Collectors edlinks.che.com/6901-591
Sly, Inc. edlinks.che.com/6901-592
United Air Specialists edlinks.che.com/6901-593
Wheelabrator edlinks.che.com/6901-594
25-28 CHE 11-07.indd 28 10/26/07 3:10:08 PM
Department Editor: Kate Torzewski
Pump Selection
and Specifcation
PUMP SELECTION
I
n choosing a pump, it is important to match a pumps capabili-
ties with system requirements and the characteristics of the liquid
being processed. These factors include the inlet conditions,
required fowrate, differential pressure and liquid characteristics.
Generally, the quality of the liquid should remain unchanged after
passage through a pump. Therefore, material compatibility, viscos-
ity, shear sensitivity and the presence of particulate matter in a
liquid are important considerations in pump selection.
Most engineering applications employ either centrifugal or
positive displacement (PD) pumps for fuid handling. These pumps
function in very different ways, so pump selection should be based
on the unique conditions of a process.
Centrifugal pumps
The most widely used pump in the chemical process industries for
liquid transfer is the centrifugal pump. Available in a wide range of
sizes and capacities, these pumps are suitable for a wide range of
applications. Advantages of the centrifugal style include: simplic-
ity, low initial cost, uniform fow, small footprint, low maintenance
expense and quiet operation.
Positive displacement pumps
Though engineers may be frst inclined to install centrifugal pumps,
many applications dictate the need for PD pumps. Because of their
mechanical design and ability to create fow from a pressure input,
PD pumps provide a high effciency under most conditions, thus
reducing energy use and operation costs.
Choosing centrifugal versus positive displacement
These two main pump styles respond very differently to various
operating conditions, so it is essential to evaluate the requirements
of a process prior to choosing an appropriate pump. Table 1 il-
lustrates the mechanical differences between these pumps, as well
as the effects of pressure, viscosity and inlet conditions on fowrate
and pump effciency.
Range of operation
Pump styles range far beyond simply PD and centrifugal pumps.
PD pumps encompass many specifc styles, including a variety of
reciprocating, rotary and blow-cover pumps. Likewise, centrifugal
pumps encompass radial, mixed, and axial fow styles, which all
belong to a greater category of kinetic pumps.
A simple way to narrow down pump styles is to determine the
required capacity that your pump must handle. Based upon a
required capacity in gal/min. and a pressure in lb
f
/in.
2
, the pump
coverage chart below can help engineers focus their selection to a
just a few pump styles.
PUMP SPECIfICaTIONS
Based on the application in which a pump will be used, the pump
type, and service and operating conditions, the specifcations of a
pump can be determined.
Casting connection: Volute casing effciently converts velocity en-
ergy impacted to the liquid from the impeller into pressure energy.
A casing with guide vanes reduce loses and improve effciency
over a wide range of capacities, and are best for multistage high-
head pumps
Impeller details: Closed-type impellers are most effcient. Open-
type impellers are best for viscous liquids, liquids containing solid
matter, and general purposes
Sealings: Rotating shafts must have proper sealing methods to
prevent leakage without affecting process effciency negatively.
Seals can be grouped into the categories of noncontacting seals
and mechanical face seals. Noncontacting seals are often used
for gas service in high-speed rotating equipment. Mechanical face
seals provide excellent sealing for high leakage protection
Bearings: Factors to take into consideration while choosing a
bearing type include shaft-speed range, maximum tolerable shaft
misalignment, critical-speed analysis, loading of compressor
impellers, and more. Bearing styles include: cylindrical bore; cy-
lindrical bore with dammed groove; lemon bore; three lobe; offset
halves; tilting pad; plain washer; and taper land
Materials: Pump material is often stainless steel. Material should
be chosen to reduce costs and maintain personnel safety while
avoiding materials that will react with the process liquid to create
corrosion, erosion or liquid contamination
References
1. Perrys Chemical Engineers Handbook, 7th ed. New York: McGraw
Hill, 1997.
2. Petersen, J. and Jacoby, Rodger. Selecting a Positive Displacement Pump,
Chem. Eng. August 2007, pp. 4246.
PumP ComParison Chart
Centrifugal
Pump
Positive displacement
pump
Mechanics
The pump imparts a
velocity to the liquid,
resulting in a pressure
at the outlet.
Pressure is created
and flow results
The pump captures
confined amounts of
liquid and transfers
them from the suction
to discharge port.
Flow is created and
pressure results
Performance
Flow varies with
changing pressure
Flow is constant with
changing pressure
Viscosity
Efficiency increases with
increasing viscosity
Efficiency increases with
increasing viscosity
Efficiency
Efficiency peaks at the
best-of-efficiency point.
At higher or
lower pressures,
efficiency decreases
Efficiency increases
with increasing pressure
Inlet
conditions
Liquid must be in the
pump to create a pres-
sure differential. A dry
pump will not prime on
its own
Negative pressure is
created at the inlet port.
A dry pump will prime
on its own
100
5
2
2 5 10 1 2 5 100
Capacity, gaI/min
2 5 1,000 2
10
100
1,000
10,000
510,000
1,000
5
2
H
e
a
d
,

f
t

o
f

I
i
q
u
i
d
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
,

I
b
f
/
i
n
2
10,000
5
2
10
Metering - pIunger
Metering - diaphragm
Screw
Regenerative
CentrifugaI -singIe stage, singIe suction
CentrifugaI -muItistage
CentrifugaI -doubIe suction
Gear Direct-acting steam
MuIticyIinder AxiaI fIow
Adapted from Perrys Chemical Engineers Handbook
29 CHE 11-07.indd 29 10/29/07 5:10:14 PM
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31 CHE 11-07.indd 31 10/25/07 6:26:34 PM
Axel Johnson Inc. (Fort Lauderdale,
Fla.) names Zain Mahmood president
and CEO of Parkson Corp.
Clarient Masterbatches (Holden,
Mass.) elects Kirk Jacobs business di-
rector of Additive Masterbatches.
Stephen R. Brand is appointed senior
vice-president of technology at Cono-
coPhillips (Houston, Tex.).
Hugh Hiigel joins Eclipse, Inc.
(Rockford, Ill.) as corporate services
product manager.
Johnson Controls, Inc. (Milwaukee,
Wis.) appoints Stephen A. Roell CEO.
Danny McDonald becomes vice-
president of North American sales for
Lenze-AC Technology (Uxbridge,
Mass.).
Lurgi AG (Frankfurt/Main, Ger-
many) names Francois Venet vice
chairman of the executive board.
Thomas Zant is appointed president
of Midland Manufacturing (Skokie,
Ill.)
Jeffrey Case is named Automotive
Technologies Group director of sales
and marketing by PCB (Depew, N.Y.).
Saint-Gobain Corp. (Valley Forge,
Pa.) elects Jacques Aschenbroich
president and CEO.
SensorLogic (Dallas, Tex.) names Larry
Pereira vice-president of marketing.
Fred McNeil becomes vice president
of business development for Silecs,
Inc. (Mountain View, Calif.). n
Kate Torzewski
Mahmood Aschenbroich McDonald Zant
WHOS WHO
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32 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com november 2007
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32 CHE 11-07.indd 32 10/25/07 7:43:02 PM
Moderate sample
temperatures with this unit
The EcoTherm Model IC35 Se-
ries chilling/heating heavy-duty
dry baths (photo) are fully program-
mable and can store five programs
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tubes, test tubes, vials, assay plates
and round-bottom flasks. These units
measure 21.6-cm wide, 24.5-cm deep
and 10.2-cm tall. Torrey Pines Sci-
entific, San Marcos, Calif.
edlinks.che.com/6901-331
Clean flters without downtime
with this duplex basket strainer
Removing particulate matter from
pipeline system flow, the Model 50
Duplex Basket Strainer (photo) pro-
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systems. This unit has two strainer
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synchronized butterfly valves. This
design allows flow to be diverted from
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cleaning without shutting off flow, al-
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startup pressure drops low, even in
high-flowrate applications. The basket
design incorporates a larger screening
area by the use of pleating in the per-
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taining a small unit size. Flow enters
the basket from the side, maintaining
a straight flow pattern that further
reduces the initial pressure drop and
extends time between filter cleaning.
Eaton Filtration, LLC, Elizabeth,
N.J.
edlinks.che.com/6901-332
Detect leaks from
up to 30 feet away
With a micro discharge light (MDL)
ultraviolet lamp, the Maxima ML-
3500 Series (photo) allows plant tech-
nicians to quickly identify small re-
frigerant and industrial-fluid leaks.
According to this company, the use of
MDL technology makes the ML-3500
Series up to 10 times more powerful
than the UV-A output of conventional
high-intensity discharge lamps. The
Maxima ML-3500S can be used with
fluorescent dyes to detect leaks in lu-
brication, fuel, ATF, power steering,
coolant, hydraulic and air condition-
ing/refrigeration systems. With an
inspection range of up to 30 ft and
functionability in sunlight, this unit
can be used in almost any application.
The models are available in 120-, 230-,
240- and 100-V versions. A battery-op-
erated unit is available as well, which
includes a 12-V, 7-A/h rechargeable
battery that will power the lamp for
two full hours. Spectronics Corp.,
Westbury, N.Y.
edlinks.che.com/6901-333
ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com november 2007 32D-
November
Note: For more information, circle the 3-digit number
on p. 70, or use the website designation.
Torrey Pines Scientific
Spectronics
KD Scientific
Eaton Filtration
32D1-12 CHE 11-07.indd 1 10/26/07 1:10:53 PM
Stop spills
at the frst drop
With as little as three drops of liq-
uid, the OS-250 (photo, p. 32D-1) will
react to a spill. This unit consists of
a moisture-sensing mat made from a
material that senses spills, which is
connected by a cable to a control unit.
When liquid is detected on the sensing
mat, the OS-250 controller sounds an
audible alarm, flashes an LED light
and turns off the power of any device
that is connected to the single-outlet,
solid-state power controller. This unit
is supplied with the controller and
four reusable 30 by 30-cm mats that
can be cut down to any shape or size.
KD Scientific, Holliston, Mass.
edlinks.che.com/6901-334
Dry a variety of materials
with this unit
Producing a 360-deg airstream, the
Super Air Wipe (photo) is used to blow
off, dry, clean or cool the material pass-
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Air Wipes are available in diameters
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screen printing; cooling hot extruded
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coatings and dust. Exair Corp., Cin-
cinnati, Ohio
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For pumping solvents, this unit
gives precise measurements
The IDS2000 Industrial Dispenser is
constructed of a valveless-ceramic-
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unit now comes with the new Quick
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an external relay to activate dispens-
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Inc., Syosset, N.Y.
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Convert plain hubs
into integral clamps
For the conversion of plain hubs on
drive components into integral non-
marring clamps (photo), this firm of-
fers services that promise a more se-
cure fit, prevention of shaft damage,
easier repositioning and greater vibra-
tion resistance. This service converts a
plain hub into an integral non-marring
clamp that can be bored to size and
finished with or without a keyway. The
Accu-Clamp feature, which is the inte-
gral clamp, retains the integrity of the
hub and has a self-centering clamping
collar that is secured with two socket-
cap screws. Stafford Manufacturing
Corp., North Reading, Mass.
edlinks.che.com/6901-337
Trap pressure and dust from
high-temperature explosions
To protect powder and bulk-solid pro-
cess plants and personnel from ex-
plosions and flames, the IQR system
(photo) traps dust within its mesh
lining and absorbs heat from flames
and hot gases. The mesh interrupts
the explosion in mid-stream while ab-
sorbing the pressure waves and dust
that would normally be ejected by ex-
tremely hot and powerful vented ex-
plosions. Once the explosion has been
contained and quenched, the IQR
system reduces it to harmless water
vapor and traces of smoke. The system
lowers temperatures down to 100C
followed by a rapid cool down made
possible by its large surface area. De-
signed for indoor use, the system is
ideal for applications where the im-
pact of a vented explosion should be
Stafford Manufacturing Exair
BS&B
Pressure Safety
Management
32D-2 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com november 2007
New Products
32D1-12 CHE 11-07.indd 2 10/26/07 1:11:32 PM
Increasing your plants effciency
requires more than changing a few light bulbs.
Fisher-Klosterman XQ Series cyclone dust collectors offer the highest
possible particle removal rates. Many people believe that cyclones are limited to
low effciency applications, however, at FKI we take cyclone design very seriously.
Our vast experience and scientifc knowledge of cyclone design enables us to achieve
extremely high collection effciencies that in many applications can eliminate the
necessity of fnal fltration devices. Our sophisticated computer modeling allows us to
offer guaranteed performance when provided with complete operating information.
Another bright idea from Fisher-Klosterman.
Dust Collection

Product Recovery

Pollution Control
(502) 572-4000
Fax: (502) 572-4025
fki@fkinc.com
fkinc.com
Come see us Oct. 30 Nov. 1, 2007
in New York City. Booth #500.
Circle 28 on p. 70 or go to adlinks.che.com/6901-28
32D-3 CHE 11-07.indd 3 10/15/07 12:07:26 PM
avoided for safety or space issues.
BS&B Pressure Safety Management,
LLC, Tulsa, Okla.
edlinks.che.com/6901-338
This interlock control system
promises a tight seal
This company now offers an interlock
control system (photo) for its inflatable
seal Roto-Flate valve. It creates a hard
link between inflation of the seal and
rotation of the valve. With just one sig-
nal, the system allows users to open
or close the valve. This makes control
of the Roto-Flate as easy as a using a
simple quarter-turn valve while main-
taining the high performance provided
by the two-stage sealing system. The
Roto-Flate and interlock control sys-
tem are ideal for pressure- or vacuum-
processing environments that require
bubble-tight sealing, as the inflatable
bladder provides long service life in
conditions where sliding contact seals
would normally fail. The manufac-
turer recommends applications in-
cluding filling reactors, vacuum dryer
discharge, or as a shut-off or isolation
valve in dense-phase pneumatic con-
veying systems. Inlet-port sizes are
available from 3 to 24 in. Roto-Disc
Co., Milford, Ohio
edlinks.che.com/6901-339
This media converter extends the
distance of existing networks
The IMC-101G, a new industrial-
grade gigabit media converter, of-
fers media conversion between a
10/100/1000BaseT(X) connection and
1000BaseSX/LHX/ZX, allowing users
to extend the distance between cop-
per-based connections with fiber optic
cables. With the ability to extend
transmission distance up to 80 km
and broaden bandwidth up to 1000
Mbps, the IMC-101G provides an eco-
nomical way to extend the distance
of existing networks for remote man-
agement. Each converter comes with
the Link Fault Pass-Through feature,
which allows users to efficiently trou-
bleshoot broken links. The IMC-101G
has a relay output-warning alarm to
prevent damage and loss, support for
redundant power inputs, and IP30-
rated casing. Moxa Technologies,
Inc., Brea, Calif.
edlinks.che.com/6901-340
Measure moisture, solids and
ash at once with this analyzer
The MAX 5000 analyzer, created
for dry-ash testing, boasts shorter
throughput time than traditional test-
ing methods, according to the maufac-
turer. Its results are more accurate
as well, since the analyzer is self-con-
tained and eliminate the risk of mis-
handling. With the ability to test sam-
ples at temperatures of up to 600C in
a small footprint, the analyzer elimi-
nates the need for bulky furnaces. The
option to perform a linked test allows
users to measure moisture, solids, and
ash in samples ranging in weight from
0.2 to 100-g in one procedure. The ac-
companying software simplifies test-
ing and calculations with the capabil-
ity to perform statistical and graphical
analyses and save data in high-capac-
ity test result storage. Arizona In-
strument LLC, Tempe Ariz.
edlinks.che.com/6901-341
This safety device limits pressure
and temperature
This specialist in gas technology now
offers the only safety device for a
maximum pressure of 17 bar, satisfy-
ing the regulations of EN730 for hy-
drogen and methane. According to the
manufacturer, many other products
only operate up to a pressure of 10 bar,
making them unusable for certain ap-
plications, such as flame spraying. The
unit, which measures 48 mm in dia.
by 101 mm in length, can be installed
directly in the gas line at the tapping
point. The unit provides a flame arres-
tor that prevents flames from flashing
over the gas tapping point to the gas
supply. Additionally, it has a tempera-
ture-controlled cut-off valve which
automatically stops the flow of gas
when the temperature exceeds 105C.
Witt-Gasetechnik GmbH & Co KG,
Witten, Germany
edlinks.che.com/6901-342
New Products
Circle 29 on p. 70 or go to
adlinks.che.com/6901-29
Roto-Disc
32D1-12 CHE 11-07.indd 4 10/29/07 2:07:05 PM
Corzan

is a registered trademark of The Lubrizol Corporation


Is corrosion eating your bottom line?
Choose Corzan CPVC for an industrial piping
solution that offers you more chemical and
fnancial strength than metal.
For years, Corzan CPVC has demonstrated superior
resistance to many of the chemicals that aggressively
corrode metals. In addition, Corzan CPVC is pressure
rated for operation at temperatures up to 200F (93C).
IN CORZAN

CPVC WE TRUST
2007 The Lubrizol Corporation
One of the key advantages of Corzan
CPVC is its excellent resistance to a broad range of
corrosive environments. By replacing metallic systems
with Corzan CPVC, engineers can extend the service
life and reduce maintenance, while minimizing process
life-cycle costs.
For a stronger piping system and stronger profts, trust
Corzan CPVC. We offer superior corrosion resistance,
mechanical strength and excellent life-cycle economics
in a single package.
Get more information on Corzan CPVC piping
systems at 1-888-234-2436, or visit our web site
at www.corzancpvc.com.
23643 LBZ_Corzan ad_Chem. Engine1 1 5/23/07 2:22:14 PM
Circle 30 on p. 70 or go to adlinks.che.com/6901-30
32D-5 CHE 11-07.indd 5 10/15/07 12:16:11 PM
Check for leaks without
equipment disassembly
The CB-1000 Cobra and CB-1036
Cobra-Plus Series of multi-purpose
borescopes (photo) feature a UV and a
white-light LED in each unit that allow
users to inspect and check for leaks in
components without disassembly. The
UV LED is designed to detect refrig-
erant leaks, fluid leaks and surface
flaws, while the white light LED is
best suited for component inspection.
For most standard inspections, the
Cobra features a 24-in. shaft length.
Designed for inspections that require
extra reach, the Cobra-Plus has a 10-
mm, 36-in. shaft. Both scopes include
a clip-on inspection mirror for check-
ing flaws that are hidden from view.
Spectroline, Westbury, N.Y.
edlinks.che.com/6901-343
This gas analyzer provides accu-
rate moisture measurement
Capable of measuring in levels of parts-
per-trillion, the
HALO+ mini-cav-
ity ring-down spec-
troscopic analyzer pro-
vides accuracy, speed, and
repeatability at a lower cost
than other analyzers. Indus-
tries that require high purity, includ
ing semiconductor fabrication, labo-
ratory calibration and industrial
process control, will benefit from
the ability of the HALO+ to analyze
gases at ultra-low levels. Particular
processes that are well-suited for the
analyzers high accuracy, speed and
repeatability are continuous quality
control of fixed-bulk gas, portable
mobile-analytical carts, process-tool
monitoring and cylinder quality con-
trol of air separation and gas. As this
unit is based on the Beer-Lambert
law, it does not require frequent cali-
bration. Tiger Optics, LLC, War-
rington, Pa.
edlinks.che.com/6901-344
These controllers are suitable for
food-and-beverage applications
This firm has expanded its Ar-
morStart product line to include
IP69K/NEMA 4X rated variants of
its Bulletin 280/281.283 and 284 dis-
tributed motor controllers. The new
additions will allow users in food-and-
beverage applications to benefit from
the lower installation costs, reduced
engineering times and ease of mainte-
nance, says the firm. ArmorStart is an
32D- ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com november 2007
New Products
Circle 32 on p. 70 or go to
adlinks.che.com/901-32
UNS S31803 S32205
Pipe
Sch 10s 1/2" through 24"
250 wall 10" through 24"
Sch 40s 1/2" through 12"
Sch 80 1/2" through 8"
Flanges
150# and 300# weld-necks, slip-ons, blinds,
socket-weld, lap-joint 1/2" through 12"
Butt weld
Sch 10s and 40s 1/2" through 12"
90 Elbows
|
45 Elbows
|
Tees
Reducing Tees
|
Caps
Conc/Reducers
|
Ecc/Reducers
MSS Type A Stub Ends
ALL IN STOCK
LARGEST STOCKOF
2205 DUPLEXIN USA
Your #1 source of stainless steel pipe,
valves and fittings since 1972
Call
800-666-0088
www.rjsales.com
Buffalo, NY 800-666-0088
Cleveland, OH 800-777-0820
Cincinnati, OH 800-777-2260
Chicago, IL 800-777-2008
Indianapolis, IN 800-777-0510
Minneapolis, MN 800-777-1355
South Plainfield, NJ 800-777-1858
Raleigh, NC 866-493-8834
Tavernier, FL 305-852-1694
Circle 31 on p. 70 or go to adlinks.che.com/901-31
Spectroline
32D1-12 CHE 11-07.indd 6 10/26/07 1:12:59 PM
integrated, pre-engineered enclosed-
motor controller designed for quick
and easy installation. Its pre-tested,
quick-connect wiring assembly mini-
mizes cabling, cuts labor costs and
helps reduce wiring problems. Instal-
lation times can be reduced by up to
30%, says the manufacturer. Together
with a washdown rating of 1,000 psi,
the new NEMA 4X rated versions are
resistant to caustic cleaning agents.
The enclosures and the use of stainless
steel on all exposed metalwork makes
them extremely suitable for hygienic-
controlled environments. Rockwell
Automation, Ltd., Milton Keynes, U.K.
edlinks.che.com/6901-399
Generate computational fuid
drawing easily and with fexibility
With a flat, intuitive graphical inter-
face, this next-generation meshing
software (photo) reduces the time
needed to generate high-quality CFD
(computational-fluid dynamics) and
allows users to generate grids quickly
and easily. This firm has developed
Pointwise to streamline users grid-
generation experience based on a
new code foundation on which they
can easily implement new features
in response to the changing needs of
clients. The program was designed to
automate as much work as possible to
reduce the time of grid design while
still giving users the flexibility to con-
trol the job as much as possible. In
addition to simplifying the meshing
process, Pointwise introduces unified
geometric-curve and grid-curve draw-
ing, as well as simultaneous trans-
formation of CAD geometry and grid.
Pointwise, Fort Worth, Tex.
edlinks.che.com/6901-345
A new version of this condition
manager is now available
InFusion Condition Manager version
2.2 collects and analyzes realtime di-
Circle 32 on p. 70 or go to
adlinks.che.com/6901-32
Spectroline
Pointwise
32D1-12 CHE 11-07.indd 7 10/26/07 1:13:35 PM
agnostics from plant production as-
sets, drives the appropriate actions
and now, also shares that informa-
tion with plant databases and HMIs.
Whereas alternative condition moni-
toring solutions tend to focus on basic
monitoring of field devices and/or
rotating equipment, InFusion Condi-
tion Monitor collects, aggregates and
analyzes realtime data from the full
array of plant-production assets, in-
cluding sensors and actuators, pumps,
motors, compressors, turbines, dry-
ers and heat exchangers and even
entire process units, says the firm.
Thanks to Version 2.2 enhancements,
the information can now be easily dis-
played on plant-process-control and
engineering HMI workstations. In-
vensys Plc., London, U.K.
edlinks.che.com/6901-405
For fux membrane bioreactors,
this flter is the largest
This company has added a 1500-m
2

filtration system (photo)
to its line of Puron mem-
brane bioreactor (MBR)
models. This new design
features greater pack-
ing density and lower
energy costs for aeration
and simplified installa-
tion, says the manufac-
turer. The Puron MBR
modules are available
with membrane areas of
30, 235, 500, or 1500 m
2
.
The newest and largest
design is specifically in-
tended for large-scale
MBR projects, and fea-
tures an optimized permeate-extrac-
tion manifold and air-supply lines
that reduce the number of piping
connections needed during installa-
tion. Additionally, the central aeration
system and bottom header have been
redesigned to reduce the flowrate dur-
ing air scouring, reducing air usage by
up to 20% over the previous design. To
prevent the buildup of fibrous materi-
als, this system uses a single header
with hollow fibers that are fixed only
at the bottom, allowing the upper ends
to float freely. Koch Membrane Sys-
tems, Wilmington, Mass.
edlinks.che.com/6901-346
32D- ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com november 2007
New Products
Circle 33 on p. 70 or go to adlinks.che.com/6901-33
Safety assurance.
Environmental impact.
Process downtime.
No matter what drives your decision, Flowserve
offers the versatile and reliable magnetic drive pumps
to meet your needs. Just what you would expect from
the leading name in chemical process pumps.
t %VSDP(VBSEJBO"/4*NFUBMMJDNBHOFUJDESJWFQVNQT
t *%1$19.*40NFUBMMJDNBHOFUJDESJWFQVNQT
t %VSDP1PMZ$IFN"/4*BOE*40OPONFUBMMJDNBHOFUJD
drive pumps
When zero leakage is the only acceptable outcome,
plant managers rely on Flowserve to keep their
plants running safely and profitably.
Ask your Flowserve representative or
visit http://sealless.flowserve.com
for more information.
Trusted In Any
Environment
Durco

& IDP

Magnetic Drive
Pumps From Flowserve
Circle 34 on p. 70 or go to
adlinks.che.com/6901-34
Koch Membrane Systems
32D1-12 CHE 11-07.indd 8 10/26/07 1:14:10 PM
Detect low levels of gas
with this analyzer
This company now offers the Sense-
Line ELDS OPGD, an open path gas
detection system, which features en-
hanced laser-diode-spectroscopy tech-
nology. OPGD requires fewer units to
establish a detection zone, compared
to existing point-type gas detectors,
and transmitters and receivers can
be spaced from 5 to 200 m apart.
When low levels of a hazardous gas
pass through any part of the laser
line, the system reports the gas leak
early enough to allow the user to take
remedial action. This new system of-
fers many new benefits, including:
high sensitivity, absolute selectivity,
multi-gas detection capabilities for
hazardous gases, remote-electronic-
functional testing, and reduced costs
of installation, maintenance, and field
deployment. Sensient, Inc., Hous-
ton, Tex.
edlinks.che.com/6901-347
This wireless transmitter
communicates corrosion data
In a joint project with Rohrback Co-
sasco Systems (RCS; Santa Fe Spring,
Calif.), this company has introduced
the Microcor wireless transmitter
for high-speed communication of cor-
rosion-rate data. Coupled with this
firms smart wireless offerings, cor-
rosion information from the Microcor
device can be used in the automation
system where it can be logged, trended
and analyzed. This unit is compatible
with AMS Suite, intelligent-device-
manager software used for device con-
figuration, calibration, documentation
and predictive diagnostics. The device
provides nearly realtime corrosion
rates, which allows operators to detect
a spike in corrosion, control inhibi-
tor injection and correlate with other
process data for root-cause analysis.
Emerson Process Management,
Austin, Tex.
edlinks.che.com/6901-348
Take accurate position measure-
ments from 240 feet away
Designed for precise level, distance
and position measurement of dry bulk
solids, opaque liquids and slurries,
the SureShot140XP smart laser level
transmitter takes measures from up
to 240 ft away. The device features
a measurement laser as well as an
alignment laser, which allows accu-
rate data to be taken while eliminat-
ing false echoes due to beam conver-
gence. The narrow measurement laser
can be directed through tight spaces
as small as 3 in. in diameter. Con-
structed in small and compact hous-
ing, this transmitter requires no cali-
bration or configuration for easy setup
and configuration. Even in the pres-
ence of outside noise, such as chemical
vapors, dust, smoke or agitator blades,
this transmitter will produce accurate
results. Standard housing is powder-
coated aluminum with optional stain-
less steel. The explosion-proof assem-
Safety assurance.
Environmental impact.
Process downtime.
No matter what drives your decision, Flowserve
offers the versatile and reliable magnetic drive pumps
to meet your needs. Just what you would expect from
the leading name in chemical process pumps.
t %VSDP(VBSEJBO"/4*NFUBMMJDNBHOFUJDESJWFQVNQT
t *%1$19.*40NFUBMMJDNBHOFUJDESJWFQVNQT
t %VSDP1PMZ$IFN"/4*BOE*40OPONFUBMMJDNBHOFUJD
drive pumps
When zero leakage is the only acceptable outcome,
plant managers rely on Flowserve to keep their
plants running safely and profitably.
Ask your Flowserve representative or
visit http://sealless.flowserve.com
for more information.
Trusted In Any
Environment
Durco

& IDP

Magnetic Drive
Pumps From Flowserve
Circle 34 on p. 70 or go to
adlinks.che.com/6901-34
32D1-12 CHE 11-07.indd 9 10/26/07 1:14:54 PM
bly with a screw-on glass cover make
this unit easy to use and appropriate
for hazardous locations. K-TEK
Corp., Prairieville, La.
edlinks.che.com/6901-349
Create nanodispersions of poorly
soluble organic materials
Iota Nanosolutions (Liverpool, U.K),
which specializes in the formation of
nanodispersions of poorly soluble or-
ganic materials, has been using the
Zetasizer Nano particle characteriza-
tion system (photo) for the processes of
sample optimization and quality con-
trol processes. This technology enables
the conversion of hydrophobic organic
materials into dry solids, allowing sol-
ids can then be added to water to form
colloidally stable nanodispersions
of the actives. The Zetasizer Nano is
used to measure the particle size and
stability of these dispersions, and has
been used to convert over 150 different
organic compounds used in cosmet-
ics, pharmaceuticals, consumer
products, agrochemicals, inks,
and coatings. The Zetasizer
Nano performs nanodispersion
analysis by testing nanopar-
ticles in solution, rather than
after preparation onto a surface.
Booth Malvern Instruments.,
Worchestershire, UK
edlinks.che.com/6901-350
For high-temperature corrosion
resistance, use these quenchants
The UCON Ultraquench Plus Series
quenchants, this companys next gen-
eration of products for the heat-treat-
ing industry, are polymer-based prod-
ucts that provide superior corrosion
protection and bacteria resistance.
These non-flammable aqueous poly-
mer solutions contain a nitrite-free
corrosion inhibitor packages for the
protection of metals during high-tem-
perature manufacturing. This makes
these quenchants ideal for processing
medium-high carbon steel and alloyed
steel of most grades, including 300
and 400 Series stainless steel. The
Ultraquench Plus Series cuts down on
emissions during the manufacturing
process and does not produce smoke,
soot, or any other waste products re-
lated to oxidation. The Dow Chemi-
cal Company, Midland, Mich.
edlinks.che.com/6901-351
This data logger allows
users to view data graphically
The Fluke 289 True-rms industrial log-
ging multimeter with TrendCapture
32D-10 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com november 2007
New Products
SPEC IT AND
FORGET IT.
www.checkall.com
S i n c e 1 9 5 8
West Des Moines, Iowa USA
Check-All Valve is your
one-stop supplier for the
check valves you need in the
materials you require. Better
yet, every valve includes the
experience, engineering, and
application know-how you need
for spec-it-and-forget-it reliability.
After all, you have better things to
do, and check valves are all we do.
Call us at 515-224-2301 or
e-mail us at sales@checkall.com.
Circle 35 on p. 70 or go to adlinks.che.com/6901-35
Malvern Instruments
32D1-12 CHE 11-07.indd 10 10/26/07 1:15:47 PM
logs data and presents it graphically
on screen in order to solve complex
problems in electronics, plant automa-
tion, power distribution and electro-
mechanical equipment. The unit has a
logging function with expanded mem-
ory to store up to 10,000 readings for
unattended monitoring of signals over
time. Multiple logging sessions can be
saved to the unit and reviewed graphi-
cally with the TrendCapture capabil-
ity before downloading to a computer
is necessary. The optional FlukeView
software allows users to document,
store and analyze individual readings
or a series of mea-
surements, and
then convert them
into professional-
looking reports.
Fluke Corp., Ev-
erett, Wash.
edlinks.che.
com/6901-352
Drops and vibrations will not
affect these sturdy laptops
Two rugged, mobile computers manu-
factured by this company have re-
cently become available. The Tough-
book computers (photo), UL 1604
certified for use in Class 1, Division
2 hazardous locations, are designed
for spark-free use in potentially ex-
plosive environments, particularly in
the oil-and-gas, petrochemical, and
aviation industries. The Toughbook
19 is a convertible tablet PC, while
the Toughbook 30 is a clamshell note-
book. MIL-STD-810F tested to deter-
mine the most severe conditions that
these computers can face, the Tough-
book notebooks are built to withstand
drops, shocks, vibration and extreme
temperature. These durable notebooks
have magnesium alloy cases, sealed
keyboard and ports for dust and water
resistance, flexible internal connectors
and shock-mounted hard drives and
LCDs. With a battery life of six hours
and a brightness of 550 candelas/m
2

LCD screen, the UL 1604 series is an
excellent and practical alternative to
stationary computers. Panasonic,
Secaucus, N.J.
edlinks.che.com/6901-353
A plastic shutoff valve
that closes automatically
This firm has introduced a 1/2-in. size
palm- or foot-operated shutoff valve
with no metals or external fasteners
for high-purity or corrosive environ-
ments. These compact valves are de-
signed for liquid service to 150 psi. The
ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com november 2007 32D-11
Circle 37 on p. 70 or go to adlinks.che.com/6901-37
PROTECT PUMPS
Cavitation
Bearing Failure
Dry Running
Overload
TRUE POWER LOAD DISPLAY
Best Sensitivity
4-20 MILLIAMP
ANALOG OUTPUT
TWO ADJUSTABLE SET POINTS
Relay Outputs
Adjustable Delay Timers
COMPACT EASY MOUNTING
Starter Door Panel
Raceway Wall
UNIQUE RANGE FINDER SENSOR
Works on Wide-range of Motors
Simplifies Installation
WWW.LOADCONTROLS.COM
CALL NOW FOR YOUR FREE 30-DAY TRIAL
888-600-3247
CALL NOW FOR YOUR FREE 30-DAY TRIAL
888-600-3247
Circle 36 on p. 70 or go to adlinks.che.com/6901-36
Panasonic
32D1-12 CHE 11-07.indd 11 10/26/07 1:18:47 PM
normally closed design has a spring
return, and will automatically close
fail-safe when hand or foot force is re-
moved. The MFR is offered in Grade 1
Type 1 PVC or natural polypropylene.
Plast-O-Matic Valves. Inc., Cedar
Grove, N.J.
edlinks.che.com/6901-411
This extension software
integrates full instrument control
The Accela High Speed LC system
now has add-on instrument control
software, the Atlas Chromatography
Data System (CDS; photo), providing
integrated instrument control, digital
data acquisition, chromatography data
processing and reporting. This exten-
sion kit integrates full instrument
control and chromatography data
handling for the Accela high-speed
pump, autosampler and PDA detec-
tor. Designed as a multi-user, multi-
instrument data system, the Atlas
CDS enables remote-network access
to any Accela to fully collect, secure
and protect data. The highly scaleable
client-server environment for labora-
tory LAN and WAN networks is ideal
in pharmaceutical drug development,
discovery, QA and QC laboratories,
academics, and food and beverage in-
dustries. Thermo Fisher Scientific,
San Jose, Calif.
edlinks.che.com/6901-354
Recycle cleaning fuids
with this sealless pump
Hydra-Cell sealless pumps are effec-
tive for cleaning applications and are
especially suited for handling recycled
fluids containing particulates. These
high-pressure, positive-displacement
pumps incorporate hydraulically bal-
anced diaphragms and have no rotat-
ing seals, which can be destroyed by
particles as small as 25 m. The pump
drive shaft is rigidly held in the pump
housing by a large, tapered roller bear-
ing that is immersed in a lubrication-oil
bath. A fixed cam translates rotary mo-
tion into linear motion to the hydraulic
cells, which displace diaphragms, so
stress is eliminated. The pumps cover
flowrates from 0.4 to 128 L/min and
pressures up to 172 bar. Wanner En-
gineering, Inc., Minneapolis, Minn.
edlinks.che.com/6901-409
Kate Torzewski
32D-12 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com november 2007
New Products
Thermo Fisher Scientific
Circle 38 on p. 70 or go to adlinks.che.com/6901-38
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98I8 CE Web House Ad.indd I S/?4/0 II.0.IS AM


32D1-12 CHE 11-07.indd 12 10/26/07 1:19:29 PM
Your view is not
obstructed by this mask
The FPS 7000 breathing protection
mask (photo) features a large visor,
which provides the user with a large
and wide field of view even when
looking down. Carefully designed air
circulation within the mask protects
against condensation on the view-
ing glass. Three mask body sizes
and four internal mask sizes are
available to ensure a perfect fit.
A newly developed communica-
tion system, the FPS-COM, opti-
mally adapts to the construction
and design of the full breathing
protection mask. Drger Safety
AG & Co. KGaA, Lbeck, Germany
edlinks.che.com/6901-390
Determine water content with
this automatic titrator
The 870 KF Titrino plus (photo) is this
firms new Karl Fischer titrator for
volumetric water determinations. The
instrument can be used to reliably and
accurately determine water contents
from a few parts per million (ppm) up
to 100% in solid, liquid and gaseous
samples. With an operating interface
designed for routine users, the unit is
ideal for everyday determinations. A
compact USB printer is available as an
option. Deutsche Metrohm GmbH &
Co. KG, Filderstadt, Germany
edlinks.che.com/6901-391
When space is limited,
consider this centrifugal pump
The Combiflex vertical single-stage
centrifugal pump (photo) is espe-
cially suitable for liquid-transfer ap-
plications where space is limited. The
pumps offer a maximum capacity of
1,500 m
3
/h, heads up to 100 m and
a maximum working pressure of 10
bar. Several versions are available to
match the application. For example,
the K1 and K3 Models with space-
saving coupling have the advantage
of the top pull-out principle, whereas
the K2 and K4 versions have a shorter
construction with standard coupling.
A key feature of the Combiflex pump
is the suction-bend design, which is
available in eight different mounting
positions as well as a very flat design
with low-flow resistance. JP Pumps
Ltd., Crawley, U.K.
edlinks.che.com/6901-392
Angle-seat globe valves now
come with fange connections
The GEM 550 with pneumatic stain-
less-steel actuator and the GEM
507 manual valve are available with
flange connections in nominal sizes
DN 15 to 50. The new flanged bod-
ies (photo) are made of 1.4408 cast
stainless steel. Flanges are PN16
and PN25 to EN 1092 form B, length
EN 558-1 Series 1. Flanges to ANSI
B 16.5 are also available. These new
connection types extend the compa-
nys angle-seat globe-valve product
range. GEM Gebr. Mller Apper-
atebau GmbH & Co. KG, Ingelfingen-
Criesbach, Germany
edlinks.che.com/6901-393
ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com november 2007 32I-
November
Note: For more information, circle the 3-digit number
on p. 70, or use the website designation.
Drger
Safety
Deutsche Metrohm
JP Pumps
GEM Gebr. Mller Apperatebau
32i-1-11 CHE 11-07.indd 1 10/26/07 1:52:25 PM
Easy to install lining protects
against spills in tank rooms
This firms new tank-room lining
(photo) is designed to seal drip
pans and rooms used to store
water polluting liquids. The indi-
vidual sheets are factory welded
to be leak-tight. The lining is
then installed in the tank room
and fitted to the wall via alu-
minum rails. Installation does
not require extensive prepara-
tion work in the tank room. An
optional oil-water alarm unit can be
installed in the room, which gener-
ates a visual and audible alarm sig-
nal in case of internal damage. The
alarms can also detect liquids from
the outside, such as may result from
flooding. Afriso-Euro-Index GmbH,
Gglingen, Germany
edlinks.che.com/6901-394
Convert thermocouple data into
420 mA signals with this module
The loop-powered temperature mea-
suring transducer MCR-SL-PT100-
UI-LP (photo) converts measured val-
ues from Pt 100 sensors (IEC 751/EN
60751) into standardized 420-mA
signals. Electrically isolated mod-
ules convert measurement ranges
from 150 to 300C. Pt 100 sensors
can be attached at the input using
two-, three- or four-wire connections.
On the output, the transducer is oper-
ated in a 420-mA signal loop, which
delivers the necessary power sup-
ply to the module at the same time.
Phoenix Contact, GmbH & Co. KG,
Blomberg, Germany
edlinks.che.com/6901-395
Two types of vacuum gauges
are combined into one unit
The new MPT 100 transmitter (photo)
expands this firms portfolio of Digi-
Line vacuum instruments. The device
combines a Pirani and a cold-cathode
sensor, which enables it to cover the
broad measurement range from 5 X
10
9
to 1,000 mbar, and also is insen-
sitive to gas inrush. The two sensors
are matched to each other in order to
eliminate the possibility of contami-
nation, a feature that makes the MPT
100 suitable for coating systems, as
well. The device can be combined with
the firms backing pumps, turbo-mo-
lecular pumps or leak detec-
tors via the RS 485 interface. A
Profibus or DeviceNet interface
can be provided via a fieldbus
converter. Pfeiffer Vacuum
GmbH, Asslar, Germany
edlinks.che.com/6901-396
A new control system
for operating boilers
All new incoming shell boiler or-
ders from this firm will be equipped
with new boiler and system controls.
A graphic TFT color monitor with
a touch-screen interface is used for
displays and for boiler operation. An
industrially proven stored-program
control provides a reliable basis for
mapping the complex regulating, con-
trol and protection functions of the
firms boiler systems. The software
modules were developed in house and
are configured on an order-specific
basis. Loos Deutschland GmbH,
Gunzenhausen, Germany
edlinks.che.com/6901-397
Customized electrolytes keep
reference electrodes healthy
The Rosemount Analytical PERpH-X
sensor family is customized to handle
different processes by using different
reference electrolytes. Six different
refill solution kits are available, each
using a specific chemistry formulated
to extend the life of the reference
electrode in the targeted applica-
tion. These include: operation at high
temperature (to 145C); resistance to
biofilm (for municipal wastewater);
resistance to poisoning (Kraft paper
mills, desulfurization); resistance to
oil (hydrodesulfurization processes,
poultry processing); resistance to
scaling, limestone scrubbers, lime-
slaking in sugar processing); and re-
sistance to metals
(metal plating and
metal-recovery pro-
cesses). Emerson Process Manage-
ment, St. Louis, Mo.
edlinks.che.com/6901-398
Motor controllers that suit
food and beverage applications
This firm has expanded its Ar-
morStart product line to include
IP69K/NEMA 4X rated variants of
its Bulletin 280/281.283 and 284 dis-
tributed motor controllers. The new
additions will allow users in food-and-
beverage applications to benefit from
the lower installation costs, reduced
engineering times and ease of mainte-
nance, says the firm. ArmorStart is an
integrated, pre-engineered enclosed-
motor controller designed for quick
and easy installation. Its pre-tested,
quick-connect wiring assembly mini-
mizes cabling, cuts labor costs and
helps reduce wiring problems. Instal-
lation times can be reduced by up to
30%, says the manufacturer. Together
with a washdown rating of 1,000 psi,
the new NEMA 4X rated versions are
resistant to caustic cleaning agents.
The enclosures and the use of stainless
steel on all exposed metalwork makes
them extremely suitable for hygienic-
controlled environments. Rockwell
Automation, Ltd., Milton Keynes, U.K.
edlinks.che.com/6901-399
This PET crystallizer
is energy effcient
Developed and manufactured in co-
operation with Lanco GmbH (Hanau,
32I-2 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com november 2007
New Products
Afriso-Euro-Index
Phoenix Contact
Pfeiffer Vacuum
32i-1-11 CHE 11-07.indd 2 10/26/07 1:53:08 PM
Circle 40 on p. 70 or go to
adlinks.che.com/6901-40
32i-3 CHE 11-07.indd 3 10/15/07 12:32:31 PM
New Products New Products
Germany), these polyethylene
terephthalate (PET) crystallizers
(photo) are designed as solid-bed
units that transform PET material
from the amorphous to the crys-
talline state. As a result, agglom-
eration of the material during the
drying process is avoided, mate-
rial handling becomes easier, and
the processing of PET and PLA is
simplified, says the firm. The
process recovers 80% of the
processing heat, which can
be used for the crystal-
lization. Operating costs
for the production of PET
can be reduced by up to
100 W/kg/h says the firm.
FDM GmbH, Knigswin-
ter, Germany
edlinks.che.com/6901-400
This powerful microwave
dryer takes a big load
The Microwave Vacuum Test Dryer
(photo) has a 200-mm dia. and length
of 2,500 mm, with a large opening for
loading. The unit can be used with dif-
ferent atmospheres and operate with
a rough vacuum of 10 mbar. The mi-
crowave power (12 x 800 W, or 9.6 kW)
is continuously adjustable between 15
and 100%. Options include a smoke
detector and an extinguishing system.
Applications include drying of wood,
ceramics, chemicals, food, building
materials and fiber-reinforced ma-
terials. Linn High Therm GmbH,
Eschenfelden, Germany
edlinks.che.com/6901-401
A better way to control
batch-crystallization processes
Realtime, non-invasive monitoring of
heat liberation and absorption dur-
ing a process can revolutionize the
way you optimize your crystalliza-
tion process and control production to
improve batch-to-batch consistency,
says this firm. The ChemFlux reac-
tor system (photo) measures power,
enthalpy and temperature informa-
tion to enable accurate determination
of the point of nucleation, the rate of
crystal growth and the reaction end
point. The amount of product can also
be calculated. Powder Systems Ltd.,
Liverpool, U.K.
edlinks.che.com/6901-402
A paperless recorder that
thinks like a data logger
This new line of digital data recorder
collects and manages process variable
information to optimize process pro-
duction and regulatory accountability.
The Foxboro 6100 Data Management
Series incorporates advanced digital
technologies to provide ease of use,
high security and adaptability to a
wide range of production processes, in-
cluding batch applications. The paper-
less recorders feature extended input
capability to communicate with up to
32 slave devices, providing up to 176
inputs. The slave devices can be used
for data acquisition for variable pro-
cess information, including pressure,
flow, temperature and electrochemical
analyses, such as pH and conductiv-
ity measurements. The 6100 Series
also supports Electronic Signatures
in accordance wioth FDA 21 CFR part
11 requirements. Invensys Plc.,
London, U.K.
edlinks.che.com/6901-403
This gas detector also alarms
when the user is in distress
The new Altair 4 is said to be one of
the most rugged four-gas detectors
available. The device measures O
2
,
H
2
S, CO and combustible gas si-
multaneously, and comes with a
triple alarm system, 24-h bump test
check-mark and comprehensive data
logging facility as standard. When
enabled, the optional MotionAlert
man-down alarm with motion detec-
tor alerts anyone in the vicinity, if the
user is in distress, with high visibility
LEDs and a piercing audible alarm.
MSA Europe, Berlin, Germany
edlinks.che.com/6901-404
A new version of this condition
manager is now available
InFusion Condition Manager version
2.2 collects and analyzes realtime di-
agnostics from plant production as-
sets, drives the appropriate actions
and now, also shares that informa-
tion with plant databases and HMIs.
Whereas alternative condition moni-
toring solutions tend to focus on basic
monitoring of field devices and/or
rotating equipment, InFusion Condi-
tion Monitor collects, aggregates and
analyzes realtime data from the full
array of plant-production assets, in-
cluding sensors and actuators, pumps,
motors, compressors, turbines, dry-
ers and heat exchangers and even
entire process units, says the firm.
Thanks to Version 2.2 enhancements,
the information can now be easily dis-
played on plant process control and
engineering HMI workstations. In-
vensys Plc., London, U.K.
edlinks.che.com/6901-405
A tiny GC module
for online monitoring
This firms miniaturized module for
fast gas chromatography (GC) is espe-
cially suitable for cost-effective online
FDM
Linn High Therm
Powder Systems
32I- ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com november 2007
32i-1-11 CHE 11-07.indd 4 10/26/07 1:53:49 PM
www.robuschi.com
ROBUSCHI S.p.A. Via S. Leonardo, 71/a 43100 PARMA - ITALY
Italia Tel. +39 0521 274911 Export Tel. +39 0521 274991 Fax +39 0521 771242
e-mail: robuschi@robuschi.it
NEW
ROBOX evolution ES 5:
Compact Blower package for
the WWT industry
Complete range: from 240 up to 10.500 m
3
h.
Robuschi RBS 3 lobe P. D. Blower with a
patented device to reduce the pulsations:
LOW PULSE.
Low noise: < 5 d(B)A under all types of
operating conditions.
ROBOX evolution ES 5 can be transported
easily fully assembled without removing
enclosure.
Easy oil check
Simple oil change
LOW MAINTENANCE
Sentinel: Electronic
monitoring system
LOW PULSE LOW NOISE
PUMPS AND BLOWERS
Circle 42 on p. 70 or go to adlinks.che.com/6901-42
32i-5 CHE 11-07.indd 5 10/15/07 12:21:21 PM
analysis applications, such as in the
utility grid. The first surface-mounted
ANSI/ISA 76.00.02 2002 online GC
module was launched last month at the
ISA Exhibition in Houston, Tex. This
technology platform allows improved
lifetime and reduced costs of GC appli-
cations in the energy sector, as well as
for those in industrial processing, min-
ing and environmental, security and
safety, laboratories and quality control.
C2V, Enschede, Netherlands
edlinks.che.com/6901-406
A venting device that renders pow-
der fres or explosions harmless
The IQR System (photo) is an explo-
sion-venting device designed to pro-
tect powder and bulk-solid process
plants and personnel from explosions
and flames. The system provides pro-
tection against fire and explosion by
trapping dust within its mesh lining
and absorbing heat from flames and
hot gases. The mesh acts as a heat
sink that interrupts the explosion in
mid-stream while absorbing pressure
waves and dust that would normally
be ejected by extremely hot and pow-
erful-vented explosions. The contained
and quenched explosion from the IQR
System is reduced to harmless water
vapor and traces of smoke. BS&B
Pressure Safety Management, LLC,
Tulsa, Okla.
edlinks.che.com/6901-407
Simplify confguration and testing
with this wireless adapter port
By eliminating the need for cables for
connections and external power, the
new USB Serial Port Adapter (photo)
with Bluetooth and Wireless LAN
(WLAN) functionality makes configu-
ration and testing easier for industrial
programmers. The adapter automati-
cally installs itself as a virtual COM
port when connected to the computer.
The installation runs smoothly as the
industrial application programmer
gains full control via the connectBlue
standard AT commands. No additional
software is needed as the Bluetooth
and WLAN stacks are incorporated in
the connectBlue module. connect-
Blue, Malm, Sweden
edlinks.che.com/6901-408
Recycle cleaning fuids
with this sealless pump
Hydra-Cell sealless pumps (photo) are
effective for cleaning applications and
are especially suited for handling re-
cycled fluids containing particulates.
These high-pressure, positive-displace-
ment pumps incorporate hydraulically
balanced diaphragms and have no ro-
BS&B
Pressure
Safety
Management
connectBlue
Syrris
Circle 39 on p. 70 or go to
adlinks.che.com/6901-39
New Products
Michael Smith Engineers,
32I-6 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com november 2007
32i-1-11 CHE 11-07.indd 6 10/26/07 1:54:39 PM
Circle 44 on p. 70 or go to adlinks.che.com/6901-44
32i-7 CHE 11-07.indd 7 10/15/07 12:18:48 PM
New Products New Products
tating seals, which can be destroyed by
particles as small as 25 m. The pump
drive shaft is rigidly held in the pump
housing by a large, tapered roller bear-
ing that is immersed in a lubrication-oil
bath. A fixed cam translates rotary mo-
tion into linear motion to the hydraulic
cells, which displace diaphragms, so
stress is eliminated. The pumps cover
flowrates from 0.4 to 128 L/min and
pressures up to 172 bar. Michael
Smith Engineers, Woking, U.K.
edlinks.che.com/6901-409
Another module introduced for
this automated synthesis system
The Orbit parallel chemistry module
(photo, p. 32I-6) is the latest addi-
tion to the Atlas family of intelligent
and modular automated-synthesis
systems. The Orbit readily fits the
Atlas Hotplate, Hot and Cold Circula-
tor Plate or any regular third-party
equivalent, and allows reactions to be
heated to 280C with reflux, or cooled
to 40C. Available in two different
sizes, Orbit can accommodate up to
six 45-mL test tubes or twelve 10-mL
tubes. Syrris Ltd., Royston, U.K.
edlinks.che.com/6901-410
Plast-O-Matic Valves
APV
Raytek
The new SPECTRO ARCOS is an extraordinary ICP spectrometer.
A particularly noteworthy characteristic is its extreme speed.
Many measures from sample introduction to readout and
processing of the data ensure that the analytical results are
available faster than ever before. Depending on the application,
up to 60 samples per hour can be analyzed in automatic mode;
more than any other ICP available on the market today.
SPECTRO ARCOS
High Performance ICP Spectrometer
Short fluid paths, automatic flush time control and high speed
readout system for rapid analysis times
extended wavelength range and highest resolution for excellent
sensitivity and precision
Novel, extremely robust generator for absolutely stable plasma conditions
Low maintenance UV system with minimal operating cost
Find out more about the new ICP
performance class for complex
analytical requirements.
www.spectro.com
Tel. +49.2821.892-2102
spectro.info@ametek.com
60 Samples in 60 Minutes
The New SPECTRO ARCOS High Performance ICP Spectrometer
Circle 43 on p. 70 or go to adlinks.che.com/6901-43
32I- ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com november 2007
32i-1-11 CHE 11-07.indd 8 10/26/07 1:55:52 PM
A plastic shutoff valve that
closes automatically
This firm has introduced a 1/2-in. size
palm- or foot-operated shutoff valve
(photo, p. 32I-8) with no metals or ex-
ternal fasteners for high-purity or cor-
rosive environments. These compact
valves are designed for liquid service
to 150 psi. The normally closed design
has a spring return, and will auto-
matically close fail-safe when hand or
foot force is removed. The MFR is of-
fered in Grade 1 Type 1 PVC or natu-
ral polypropylene. Plast-O-Matic
Valves. Inc., Cedar Grove, N.J.
edlinks.che.com/6901-411
Just about any process
can use this IR thermometer
The XR infrared (IR) thermometer
(photo, p. 32I-8) is a rugged, IP65-
sealed single-piece system designed
to optimize continuous temperature
monitoring in a broad range of manu-
facturing processes. The device mea-
sures temperatures in the range of 40
to 1,650C and has an RS-485 inter-
face. The user-defined analog output
can be matched to almost any existing
control system a feature that elimi-
nates the need for analog-to-digital
(A/D) conversion or non-standard A/D
input cards, says the firm. Raytek
GmbH, Berlin, Germany
edlinks.che.com/6901-412
This effcient heat exchanger
has a small footprint
The Zephyr plate heat exchanger
(photo, p. 32I-8) is the latest addition
to this firms XL Series. The unit fea-
tures a large heat-transfer area with
high thermal efficiency, with 400-mm
dia. ports to offer flowrates up to 3,000
m
3
/h per unit. As a result, fewer Zephyr
heat exchangers in parallel can do the
same heating or cooling job as a large
number of conventional units, says the
firm. Customers can choose between a
wide variety of plate sizes and config-
urations that can be tailored to their
specific needs all with a minimal
footprint. APV, Kolding, Denmark
edlinks.che.com/6901-413
Take accurate position measure-
ments from 240 feet away
Designed for precise level, distance
and position measurement of dry bulk
solids, opaque liquids and slurries,
the SureShot140XP smart laser level
transmitter takes measures from up to
240 ft away. The device features a mea-
surement laser as well as an alignment
laser, which allows accurate data to be
taken while eliminating false echoes
due to beam convergence. The narrow
measurement laser can be directed
through tight spaces as small as 3 in.
in diameter. Constructed in small and
compact housing, this transmitter re-
quires no calibration or configuration
for easy setup and configuration. Even
in the presence of outside noise, such
as chemical vapors, dust, smoke or
agitator blades, this transmitter will
produce accurate results. Standard
Total expenditure for
mechanical seals cut by up
to 45%, the number of
repairs by 55%, costs for
bad actors down by as
much as 40% and, on top of
all that, repair times halved!
Those are the results of our
200 service contracts around
the world.
Now it`s up to you ...
TotalSeatCare
TM
: The com-
prehensive seal service from
EagleBurgmann.
We l c o m e t o o u r s e a l i n g w o r l d
w w w. e a g l e b u r g m a n n . c o m
Some convincing
arguments to
discover our service
for yourself
Burgmann Industries
GmbH & Co. KG
D-82502 Wolfratshausen
Tel. +49 / 8171 / 23-0
Fax +49 / 8171 / 23 10 95
L
e
a
k
p
r
o
o
f
f
o
r
a
c
l
e
a
n
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n
v
i r o n m e
n
t
.
07_TSC-e_A:06_Service-d 08.05.2007 16:16 Uhr Seite 1
Circle 41 on p. 70 or go to adlinks.che.com/6901-41
ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com november 2007 32I-9
32i-1-11 CHE 11-07.indd 9 10/26/07 1:58:53 PM
housing is powder-coated
aluminum with optional
stainless steel. The explo-
sion-proof assembly with a
screw-on glass cover make
this unit easy to use and
appropriate for hazardous
locations. K-TEK, Prai-
rieville, La.
edlinks.che.com/6901-349
Stop spills
at the frst drop
With as little as three drops of liquid, the OS-250 (photo)
will react to a spill. This unit consists of a moisture-sensing
mat made from a material that senses spills, which is con-
nected by a cable to a control unit. As soon as liquid is de-
tected on the sensing mat, the OS-250 controller will sound
an audible alarm, flashes an LED light and turns off the
power of any device that is connected to the single-outlet,
solid-state power controller. This unit is supplied with the
controller and four reusable 30 by 30-cm mats that can be
cut down to any shape or size. KD Scientific, Holliston,
Mass.
edlinks.che.com/6901-334
This safety device limits
pressure and temperature
This specialist in gas technology now offers the only safety
device for a maximum pressure of 17 bar, satisfying the
regulations of EN730 for hydrogen and methane. According
to the manufacturer, many other products only operate up
to a pressure of 10 bar, making them unusable for certain
applications, such as flame spraying. The unit, which mea-
sures 48 mm in dia. by 101 mm in length, can be installed
directly in the gas line at the tapping point. The unit pro-
vides a flame arrestor that prevents flames from flashing
over the gas tapping point to the gas supply. Additionally,
this safety device has a temperature-controlled cut-off
valve which automatically stops the flow of gas when the
temperature exceeds 105C. Witt-Gasetechnik GmbH &
Co KG, Witten, Germany
edlinks.che.com/6901-342
Clean flters without downtime
with this duplex basket strainer
Removing particulate matter from pipeline system flow, the
Model 50 Duplex Basket Strainer protects valves, instru-
mentation and meters in large-scale, high-flowrate systems.
This unit has two strainer basket chambers linked by a pair
of synchronized butterfly valves. This design allows flow to
be diverted from one chamber to the other for basket clean-
ing without shutting off flow, allowing a straight flow path
that keeps startup pressure drops low, even in high-flowrate
applications. The basket design incorporates a larger screen-
ing area by the use of pleating in the perforated sheet of
the strainer, increasing the screening area while maintain-
ing a small unit size. Flow enters the basket from the side,
maintaining a straight flow pattern that further reduces
32I-10 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com november 2007
New Products
KD Scientific
Circle 37 on p. 70 or go to adlinks.che.com/6901-37
XXXDIFDPN
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XXXDIFDPN

98I8 CE Web House Ad.indd I S/?4/0 II.0.IS AM


32i-1-11 CHE 11-07.indd 10 10/26/07 1:59:37 PM
the initial pressure drop and
extends time between filter
cleaning. Eaton Filtra-
tion, LLC, Elizabeth, N.J.
edlinks.che.com/6901-332
Detect leaks from
up to 30 feet away
With a micro discharge light (MDL) ultraviolet lamp, the
Maxima ML-3500 Series (photo) allows plant technicians
to quickly identify small refrigerant and industrial-fluid
leaks. According to this company, the use of MDL technol-
ogy makes the ML-3500 Series up to 10 times more pow-
erful than the UV-A output of conventional high-intensity
discharge lamps. The Maxima ML-3500S can be used with
fluorescent dyes to detect leaks in lubrication, fuel, ATF,
power steering, coolant, hydraulic and air conditioning/re-
frigeration systems. With an inspection range of up to 30
ft and functionability in sunlight, this unit can be used in
almost any application. The models are available in 120-,
230-, 240- and 100-V versions. A battery-operated unit is
available as well, which includes a 12-V, 7-A/h rechargeable
battery that will power the lamp for two full hours. Spec-
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ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com november 2007 32I-11
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33 CHE 11-07.indd 33 10/15/07 12:05:20 PM
A
s the chemical process indus-
tries (CPI) make the transition
from communication protocols
and systems that are cable-
ready to those that are wireless, the
conversation is changing. On the plant
floor and in the executive suite, terms
such as mesh network and interoper-
ability bring new meaning to the man-
ufacturing environment.
But what does it all mean? How can
companies truly begin to decode this
new wireless world and choose which
wireless solution, if any, is the right
one for their operations?
Strategies for prioritizing wire-
less applications in chemical process
plants include determining where
wired solutions are impractical or cost
prohibitive, identifying applications
that involve high-energy and natu-
ral-resource usage, and optimizing
field-worker productivity. And these
decisions must be made with consider-
ation to future applications and tech-
nologies that are not yet available.
Consider, for example, the case of an
ethanol-plant tank farm, where large
tanks serve as holding stations for
ethanol to be delivered to distributors.
Although the tanks are ventilated, the
tank farm is an enclosed area and the
ethanol, which is nearly pure-grade al-
cohol, emanates intense vapors. Since
the vapors always pose the risk of ig-
nition, the tank farm is considered an
explosive environment.
The tank farm operator was plan-
ning to install digital transmitters
to monitor tank levels when he hit a
roadblock with the traditional wired
devices. Because the tank farm was
an explosive hazard area, workers
were precluded from using electrical
devices and wiring that werent spe-
cifically designed and labeled explo-
sionproof or intrinsically safe.
For regular wiring, the company
could have expected to pay about $25
40/ft. By comparison, explosionproof
or intrinsically safe wiring would cost
about $80100/ft. In this particular
case, installing a series of wireless
transmitters to monitor the tank lev-
els proved a safer, and more afford-
able, solution.
This example illustrates one of the
obvious benefits of industrial wire-
less solutions reduced installation
costs. Without any wiring or conduit to
install, the implementation is easier
for vendors, and less expensive and
intrusive for operators.
Applied strategically, the benefits of
industrial wireless extend far beyond
the cost savings of fewer wires to run.
For instance, transmitters such as
those used at the aforementioned tank
farm, add value to the operation be-
cause they allow the company to keep
better track of its inventory. Because
Feature Report
34 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com november 2007
Cover Story
Jeff Becker
Honeywell Process Solutions
Using this technology
to optimize overall
operations offers long-
term benefits for the
bottom line
Going Wireless
34-39 CHE 11-07.indd 34 10/29/07 5:43:52 PM
the company can more accurately
monitor tank levels, it can streamline
throughput and optimize operations.
These are some of the factors that
CPI companies should consider when
contemplating how wireless can fit
into their facilities. Because wireless
can be a complex enabling technol-
ogy, it requires careful research before
implementation. However, using this
technology to optimize overall opera-
tions as well as reduce wiring costs
can result in longterm benefits that
directly impact a plants bottom line.
A wireless gamut
An industrial wireless solution can
include anything from a network of
transmitters monitoring a single, spe-
cific application within a plant, to a
full-scale wireless mesh network de-
ployed across an entire site to handle
multiple applications.
An informal analysis of an existing
customer base for wireless technol-
ogy reveals some interesting buying
trends. Initially, the typical purchases
were relatively small five transmit-
ters per project, for example. But over
the last four years or so, the average
number of transmitters purchased
at these same sites has steadily in-
creased. In fact, users initial orders
have proven to be a small percentage
of the overall wireless technology they
eventually purchase. In other words,
most companies start small and ex-
pand their plants wireless systems.
Another buying trend has emerged
with the recent availability of mesh net-
work solutions. Despite the availability
of this technology, some wireless ven-
dors expected users to introduce wire-
less into their plants with small projects
aimed at monitoring specific applica-
tions and gradually implement a larger
network. Instead, a surprisingly large
number of users are showing initial
interest in the larger networks. Either
way, network choices must be scaleable
to accommodate future requirements.
In the evolution of wireless technol-
ogy, the first generation of products
was sensor specific and not designed
to cover entire plants, which was re-
flected in the smaller purchases.
Today, the new generation of products
is more appropriate for wider plant
deployment.
Basically, the main uses for in-
dustrial wireless technology can be
grouped into three categories: safety,
reliability and efficiency.
Safety issues. Nothing has a more
profound impact on a manufacturing
facility than a safety incident. The
losses can range from equipment and
materials to products and profits, and
in a worst-case scenario, personnel.
Wireless solutions are most advan-
tageous in hazardous areas that re-
quire manual measurements, where
wireless sensors can reduce the need
for workers to physically put them-
selves in harms way and provide a
safer environment for monitoring
data points. Less wiring also reduces
the potential for a deadly spark. As
well, there are other innovative ways
in which wireless technology can in-
crease plant safety.
In the U. S., for example, regulations
require control rooms to be notified
within ten seconds of a safety shower
being activated. To comply with this
relatively new regulation using con-
ventional technology, a typical CPI
facility would need to rewire dozens of
safety showers. By contrast, a series of
wireless sensors solves the problem at
a significantly lower cost. The addition
of wireless video cameras, triggered
by these sensors, could further allow
safety managers to assess plant oper-
ations and take appropriate steps.
Wireless technology also improves
safety through people and asset-track-
ing capabilities. With various location
technologies, new wireless solutions
can enable managers to track employ-
ees on the plant floor. This capability is
crucial in the event of a plant incident
because it allows managers to quickly
account for their people and better co-
ordinate with emergency responders.
This same tracking technology can
be used to monitor the movement of
hazardous equipment and materials,
or even to interlock process steps with
a verification that all personnel are in
the appropriate place.
Equipment reliability. Maintenance
is an expected, and often expensive,
cost item for any process plant be-
cause equipment wears down and
pipes corrode.
Yet, the right kind of monitoring
solution can help minimize or pre-
vent the effects of natural wear and
tear, thereby increasing plant uptime.
Wireless technology can be advanta-
geous for plant reliability, especially
as it is applied to three key areas: cor-
rosion monitoring, equipment-health
monitoring and the dutifully named
wireless worker.
To monitor corrosion, companies
typically take measurements at vari-
ous points throughout a plant, collect-
ing data that can be used determine
the nature and extent of the problem.
While measuring corrosion at a single
point is not nearly as valuable as mea-
suring it throughout the process, most
devices are designed for single-point
use. In some plants, where corrosion
monitoring is needed, it is lacking be-
ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com november 2007 35
FIGURE 1. Backbone meshes typically involve powered nodes that communicate
with each other across long distances, connecting various parts of the plant. These
nodes allow thousands of devices to co-exist on a single network infrastructure
34-39 CHE 11-07.indd 35 10/29/07 5:44:23 PM
cause the installed wiring is either dif-
ficult to reach or inaccessible. Wireless
technology enables manufacturers to
monitor multiple points online, in re-
altime or at regular intervals, provid-
ing a more comprehensive picture of
corrosion in the plant.
Like corrosion monitoring, equip-
ment-health monitoring, can be an
expensive proposition. For this rea-
son, it is often reserved for only the
most-critical plant assets. This leaves
a large percentage of plant equipment
with no real health monitoring be-
yond operator rounds and scheduled
maintenance. Wireless technology can
dramatically lower the cost of imple-
menting equipment-health monitor-
ing, allowing operators to effectively
monitor a greater number of assets in
the plant with an increased economic
return. In a sense, wireless technol-
ogy creates a middle class of assets
those that fall between the more
critical assets monitored with wired
technology in realtime and equipment
that is checked manually on a regu-
lar, but infrequent basis. By bringing
equipment-health monitoring to a
larger number of assets, operators can
increase uptime while reducing costs
for unnecessary maintenance.
As for the wireless worker, mobile
wireless solutions allow personnel to
be more effective by helping them com-
puterize their rounds, reduce transcrip-
tion errors and send data directly from
the field to the process controller. This
automated route is more efficient and
accurate than transcribing data onto a
clipboard, walking back to the control
room and manually entering it into the
system. In short, mobile wireless solu-
tions enable field workers to monitor
more assets with increased speed and
accuracy for improved plant reliability.
Plant efficiency. Wireless technol-
ogy also improves plant efficiency
with three key features: efficiency of
implementation, efficiency of people
and process efficiency. The cost sav-
ings of wireless technology is obvi-
ous. Efficiency of deployment is seen
in the wiring cost savings as well as
the speed of installation. It is not un-
usual for requests for additional wir-
ing to take weeks to implement and
require the interaction of multiple
departments. Wireless technology can
greatly simplify the process, deploying
new instruments in minutes instead
of weeks.
Wireless technology also allows
personnel to be more efficient in their
daily routines. As mentioned previ-
ously, mobile wireless solutions can
streamline technician rounds and re-
duce manual errors. Another group of
employees who benefit from this tech-
nology is mobile operators those
who need a view of the entire process
from the control room and to conduct
their own rounds in the field. Tablet
PCs and laptops allow operators to
monitor the control room while walk-
ing through the plant.
Another emerging area that can
help personnel work more efficiently
involves the use of digital cameras
for data collaboration. During rounds,
for example, operators visually in-
spect certain pieces of equipment
for damage. Wireless users, however,
are starting to replace these manual
checks with digital video cameras
that transmit signals back to the con-
trol room.
A third area where wireless can
make a significant contribution is pro-
cess efficiency additional measure-
ments provided by wireless technol-
ogy allow the operators to run their
processes more efficiently and improve
yield and throughput. Using the tank
farm as an example, an ethanol plant
that uses manual inspections may only
partially fill its tanks to avoid any risk
of overflow. Wireless instrumentation
enables operators to monitor the levels
more accurately and increase through-
put without the worry of a spill.

Time to mesh?
A mesh network is considered the
most comprehensive of industrial
wireless solutions currently avail-
able. In general, there are two types
of mesh networks: sensor meshes and
backbone meshes. In sensor meshes,
series of sensors communicate with
one another in a localized area and
transmit signals back to the host
system. Backbone meshes typically
involve powered nodes that commu-
nicate with each other across wider
distances, connecting various parts of
the plant together. These nodes allow
thousands of devices from field instru-
ments, mobile worker devices, and
even voice and video communication
to co-exist on a single network infra-
structure (Figure 1).
Another key characteristic of a true
wireless-mesh network is its ability
to self heal. That is, if part of the
network fails due to an incident such
as a backhoe crashing into a node,
the signal is rerouted through other
points to ensure that critical informa-
tion, such as process data, is delivered
(Figure 2).
Typically, processors choose to em-
ploy a multifunctional mesh network
based on these criteria: First, consider
the number of points a company wants
Cover Story
36 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com november 2007
FIGURE 2. A key characteristic of a true mesh network is its ability to self heal. If
part of a network fails, the signal is rerouted through other points, ensuring that criti-
cal information is delivered
34-39 CHE 11-07.indd 36 10/29/07 5:44:47 PM
to monitor and the geographic disper-
sion of those points. Quite simply, the
more physical areas a company wants
to monitor within the plant, the more
economically viable the mesh network.
Second, consider the value of reliable
communications to the company. Some
processors put a premium on reliable
communications. Mesh networks, by
definition, offer multiple redundant
paths. This increases reliability com-
pared to non-meshing architectures.
For example, a major petroleum
refiner in North America installed a
mesh network solution to reduce op-
erating expenses as well as to save
on the cost of running wires over long
distances to monitor tank-farm areas.
The network gives field personnel the
ability to monitor the process through
operator-room displays on tablet PCs,
even when they are out and about in
the refinery. Using this mobile display,
the operator can view and acknowl-
edge alarms, tweak valves and see the
effects in realtime.
Similarly, another refiner with an
instrumented tank farm on the ex-
treme edge of its property saved more
than $1 million in wiring costs by
wirelessly linking the remote location
with the central control room using a
highly reliable mesh network.
A wireless checklist
When choosing new wireless technol-
ogy for their plants, many companies
make the mistake of planning only for
current needs. To help plants get ready
for the future, several points must be
considered and questions asked as to
how emerging wireless technology can
best benefit a specific plant.
1. Functionality and applications
Which makes more sense for your fa-
cility: Multiple wireless networks or a
single strategic network? This decision
must be made with the future in mind.
Facilities that intend to use wireless
for a limited number of applications
may indeed find that its more cost ef-
fective to use single-purpose networks.
If previous buying trends are any in-
dication, though, more companies will
seek to expand their wireless technol-
ogy bases. In this case, a single, multi-
purpose network is more efficient.
Will you consider some simple control
applications? Many operators are not
ready for control over wireless today.
But its possible they may want to con-
sider open-loop control for non-critical
assets in the future. It is much easier
to take a wireless system capable of
doing simple control and use it for
monitoring and alerting, than to take
a monitoring network and try to use
it for control. The wrong choice could
limit future flexibility.
Do you want to enable field workers
with handheld devices to access data
and interface with various servers?
Do you want first responders to uti-
lize your wireless network during an
emergency? Again, many companies
may not be ready for these particu-
lar capabilities, however, they should
be considered during the planning
stages. Field workers and first re-
sponders typically communicate on
Wi-Fi networks. The industrial wire-
less network could potentially jam
during a plant emergency if it is not
Wi-Fi compatible. Therefore, if you
plan to enable field workers or other
Wi-Fi applications at some point in
the future, it would be wise to select a
compatible network when making the
initial wireless investment.
2. Multispeed support
Do you have requirements for informa-
tion to reach the control room quickly
for some applications and less rapidly
for others? Certain measurements re-
quire fast responses while others can
tolerate a slower update rate. In gen-
eral, its recommended to ensure your
network can support multiple report-
ing speeds. If a network only supports
a fast speed, for example, the slower
applications can unnecessarily con-
sume battery life and bandwidth. Con-
versely, slower-speed networks may
not provide adequate reporting for the
more critical applications.
Can you afford to have alarms trans-
mitted back at the same rate as moni-
toring information? Many sensor net-
works report back only on a periodic
basis values are transmitted every
five minutes, for example. Besides
regular updates, however, a very large
ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com november 2007 37
Decreasing costs, increasing safety anD compliance
C
hemical facilities are volatile environments due to the nature
of their products. Without proper safeguards, these products
pose a hazard to employees and the surrounding environ-
ments. Wireless technology can help to alleviate this hazard
as well as bring plants closer to compliance with strict government
and industry regulations. In this case, a plasma-based pharma-
ceutical company was searching for a way to better monitor its
alcohol tank levels and reduce the safety risks to employees.
Trains deliver virgin alcohol to the facility, where it is unloaded
into 50-year-old, 10,000-gal storage tanks that stand about 15
ft high. Over the next week, the alcohol is processed, refined
and cleaned before being shipped to distributors. Previously, the
method for measuring the alcohol levels within the tanks involved
wooden sticks with lines marking every quarter inch. Each day,
employees would walk up narrow stairways to the tops of the
storage tanks, open a six-inch portal and lower the sticks into the
alcohol. This situation posed a potential safety risk to employees
who would manually check the levels, as the intense alcohol con-
centration increased the risk of a spark.
There also was an environmental concern. Because the tanks sat
outdoors, the company needed to monitor how much vapor the
tanks released into the air to meet U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA) regulations.
The problem was three-fold: the company was searching for
a system that would lessen the safety risk to employees, remain
compliant with EPA regulations and help the company keep better
track of how much alcohol was in the tanks at any given time.
The solution involved a wireless base that sits about 300 yards
from the storage tanks next to a cooling tower on the facility cam-
pus. Pressure transmitters that can sense the weight of the alcohol
in the tanks send the data to the wireless base, which then trans-
mits the numbers to a programmable logic controller (PLC). Em-
ployees can then view the data at any time on a computer screen
versus having to manually check the levels.
Because running 300400 ft of cable or conduit would have
been cost prohibitive, the pharmaceutical companys preference
was wireless. Besides saving money on wiring, the transmitters
also increase safety and efficiency. The new system reduces the
safety risk by eliminating the need for human interaction at the
tanks. Additionally, the wireless transmitters enable the company
to emit even less alcoholic vapors into the air because workers no
longer have to physically open the tanks to take measurements.
The efficiency of the new wireless system has the customer ex-
ploring other possible uses of wireless technology at the facility.
For example, the company is considering options for introducing
wireless technologies into the plants actual processes. Wireless
applications also would eliminate clutter, which would reduce the
amount of time employees spend maintaining the area. Theres
also the issue of keeping the area extremely clean; dirt and dust
will have fewer places to collect without cables or conduit.
34-39 CHE 11-07.indd 37 10/29/07 5:45:06 PM
number of applications also
need to quickly transmit an
alert or alarm when a cer-
tain threshold is passed. For
slower reporting rates, it may
also be necessary for opera-
tors to get a reading before
the next scheduled update.
For both of these reasons, it is
very important to select a sys-
tem that allows both regular
and on demand updates.
3. Reliability
Can your operation survive
without the information con-
veyed wirelessly (think long-
term as well)? Operators are
proven to be more effective when they
have more information to make deci-
sions. Wireless is a proven technology
that can help deliver this information.
4. Self-contained and predictable
power management
When most users consider wireless
deployments, they understand the up-
side of no wiring, but they also envi-
sion the downside of having to change
many batteries in industrial devices
throughout the facility.
How long do you want your wireless
devices to be self powered? The main-
tenance expense of swapping batteries
should not negate the cost savings of
less wiring. Typically users are asking
for at least a 35 year battery life. It
doesnt do you any good to save money
on wiring if the batteries need replac-
ing every three months.
Do your wireless devices require add-
on products to maintain and install
to meet reporting rate needs? Many
vendors quote the battery lifetime at
a very low reporting life. For example,
a vendor may quote a five-year bat-
tery life at a one-minute reporting
rate. When selecting wireless prod-
ucts, start with the reporting rate you
require and then ask for the battery
lifetime at that rate. Typically, a five-
second reporting rate is a good base-
line. This will eliminate the need to
add external batteries to minimize
maintenance requirements.
Is a predictable maintenance schedule
important to you? Certain wireless de-
signs consume battery power at a very
deterministic, and therefore predict-
able, rate. Other systems have non-de-
terministic battery consumption, and
can have widely varying and unpre-
dictable battery replacement cycles
for similar sensors in the same plant.
To minimize maintenance expense,
operators should select systems with
deterministic battery consumption.
5. Scalability
How many devices can your network
handle, and will that be enough for the
networks lifetime? Planning for future
growth should almost always be a con-
sideration. Although many wireless
users begin with very limited wireless
needs, those needs can grow exponen-
Cover Story
38 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com november 2007
FIGURE 3. Wireless transmit-
ters are strategically located
throughout a facility. In the
early days of wireless, typical
purchases were relatively small
about five transmitters per
project. Today, transmitters
are purchased in much larger
quantities
Making an EnvironMEntal iMpact
S
tretching about 620 miles, the Rio Colorado starts in the eastern slopes of the Andes Moun-
tains in Argentina and winds its way east-southeast into the Atlantic Ocean. The path it travels
takes it directly through the Puesto Molina production area, a sector that belongs to Rincon de
los Sauces Oil Fields owned by Repsol YPF (Madrid, Spain), a multinational oil and gas company.
At the Puesto Molina area, the Rio Colorado is the physical boundary between the Mendoza and
Neuquen provinces.
The Economic Unit Rincon de los Sauces, located in western Argentina, covers an area located
in the northern part of the Neuquen province, south of Mendoza and northwest of Rio Negro. It
consists of mature oil fields where the extraction is done through secondary recovery. Output is
188,000 m
3
/d gross production with a net petroleum production (35 API) of 11,000 m
3
/d. The
Puesta Molina production area contains 1,147 producing wells, of which 70% are the mechanical
pumping (AIB) type. There are 787 water-injection wells.
All of these production activities are in line with Repsols commitment to human safety and
environmental preservation. But the company, which operates in more than 30 countries and
produces more than 1.2-million bbl/d, needed to get a little creative, though, when it completed
a major project in 2004.
That year, an underwater pipeline crossing of the Rio Colorado was completed in the Puesto Mo-
lina production area. One oil pipeline, two gas pipelines and a 585-m aqueduct were installed
under the river to connect the oil fields on either side.
Security and environmental standards required an accurate monitoring of the pipelines to avoid
possible spills into the river in the event of a pipe breakage. To solve the problem, Repsol imple-
mented continuous monitoring of pipeline pressure and integration into a supervisory control and
data acquisition (SCADA) reporting system as part of the control system.
The company examined two options for monitoring pressure in the pipelines: instruments that
were wired and instruments that were wireless.
At the Mendoza Head, Repsol used pressure transmitters with 420-mA outputs to sense the
pressure; it also installed a remote terminal unit (RTU) to send the data to the SCADA system.
Meanwhile, at the Neuquen Head, the company used the same type of transmitters, but used wir-
ing and cable to connect them to an existing RTU located in a water-injection well 50 m away.
After completing engineering design concepts for both options, Repsol chose the wireless imple-
mentation because of its lower installed cost versus the traditional wired implementation. In this
case, the mounting and startup costs were reduced from $17,840 to $11,300 a savings of
36.7%. Repsol used an existing RTU near the Neuquen Head to mount a radio base and use wire-
less pressure transmitters in both heads.
The wireless option also boasts greater data reliability, which was achieved by eliminating
data transmission faults caused by wiring, marshalling panels and junction boxes. Additionally,
the high-reliability wireless solution had an approximately 50% reduction in maintenance costs,
considering there werent any wires, panels or boxes to maintain. The transmitters also feature
auto-diagnose capability and easy configuration.
For instrumentation and controls, Repsol chose a variety of products including a distributed con-
trol system, wireless pressure transmitters and other transmitters with 420-mA output to monitor
its pipelines with greater accuracy and security. For instance, the centerpiece of the project was
a wireless pressure transmitter, which transmits data securely within a range of 2,000 ft. With a
battery life of 35 years, this device is geared for applications with no access to power, as well as
those in hazardous and remote locations, where instrumentation changes are frequent or read-
ings are usually done manually.
34-39 CHE 11-07.indd 38 10/29/07 5:45:28 PM
tially once they begin to see the ben-
efits of wireless technology.
How scalable do you want your net-
work to be? For operators who want to
start small and grow, it is important
that the system selected can scale
to meet future requirements. Not all
systems scale the same way. Depend-
ing on the design, some systems can
grow very large with minimal perfor-
mance impact, while other systems
quickly degrade after a small number
of devices.
6. Investment protection and ap-
plication integration
Can your wireless network serve many
application interfaces? Will your next
choice support existing wireless de-
vices? Wireless is not just about sup-
porting legacy devices. Companies
also need flexibility to support future
protocols that might not be in use in
the plant today.
Many plants reap benefits from
having previously deployed mul-
tiple application interfaces such
as Modbus, OPC, HART, Foundation
Fieldbus, Profibus, Ethernet and
wireless products throughout the fa-
cility. Usually, plants contain multiple
application interfaces driven by dif-
ferent departments. Many users also
want information from their wireless
devices to utilize legacy fieldbus pro-
tocols and applications. The ability to
easily interface a network with legacy
applications is ideal because the net-
work will service the entire operation
not just a single department.
Standards on the way
Several organizations are drafting
wireless recommendations and stan-
dards as well as offering solutions to
help wireless users find the best solu-
tions for their applications. Emerging
standards will provide some guidance
for wireless technology choices. How-
ever, with various solutions available
now and on the horizon, CPI compa-
nies can realize the benefits of wire-
less-enabled applications.
Deploying wireless technology with
a defined strategy will enable an in-
frastructure that can deliver benefits
above and beyond the savings on wir-
ing costs. The right decision will help
improve safety, optimize the plant and
ensure compliance.
Edited by Deborah Hairston
ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com november 2007 39
Author
Jeff Becker is director of
global wireless business for
Honeywell Process Solutions
(2500 West Union Hills Drive,
Phoenix, AZ 85027; Phone
602-313-5000; Web: www.
honeywell.com), where he is
responsible for the companys
wireless business. His career
spans a variety of engineer-
ing, sales, marketing, and
general management roles
ranging from startups to companies such as
3Com, Intel, and Ingram Micro. Jeff holds a B.S.
in electrical engineering from the Univ. of Cali-
fornia at San Diego.
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4 6 # 4 $ 3 * # & 5 0
Writteo by eogioeers, Ior eogioeers
More ahd more, busihess ih Ihe Chemical Process hdusIries (CP) is hoI
local, iI's global. To keep up wiIh Ihis rapidly evolvihg markeIplace, you
heed a magazihe IhaI covers iI all, hoI |usI ohe couhIry or regioh, hoI |usI
ohe verIical markeI, buI Ihe whole CP.
WiIh ediIorial oIIces ih Europe, Asia, ahd NorIh America, CHEMCAL
ENGNEEPNG is well-posiIiohed Io keep abreasI oI all Ihe laIesI ihhovaIiohs
ih Ihe equipmehI, Iechhology, maIerials, ahd services used by process
plahIs worldwide. No oIher publicaIioh cah make Ihis claim.
Io subscribe, pIease caII 1-841-54-9290
or visit cIieotservices@accessioteI.co
XXXDIFDPN
Ihe choice oI
worIdwide
6FI orgaoitatioos
34-39 CHE 11-07.indd 39 10/31/07 4:54:33 PM
S
team traps are an integral part
of steam systems in the chemical
process industries (CPI). Steam
is commonly used to add energy
into a process through its latent heat
(steam heat), while the resultant sen-
sible heat (hot condensate) drains
through steam traps. The operation of
these traps influences the entire steam
systems function and reliability.
Steam trap operation has a bearing
on the following:
Process controllability
Production capacity
Cycle time
Energy consumption
Emissions (carbon footprint)
Safety
Downtime
There are three possible types of
steam traps in process facilities: drip
traps, tracer traps and process traps.
Drip traps help ensure that high qual-
ity steam serves the processes through
the effective draining of the mains.
They also protect the distribution sys-
tem by reducing the chance of water
hammer. Tracer traps keep process
fluids flowing properly in the trans-
mission pipelines connecting the pro-
cesses, around the process and to and
from storage tanks. Process traps en-
sure that the process is operating both
effectively and efficiently by removing
the condensate as it forms without the
loss of live steam. It is important that
the steam trap be the right type for
the application and is sized properly
for that application.
Process traps comprise the highest
potential for losses and cost as related
to the process function. When a pro-
cess trap fails, it usually affects the
process function, and the trap must
be replaced or repaired as soon as pos-
sible. Even if the failure does not af-
fect the process, the trap could waste
steam until the failure is detected and
replaced. Drip and tracer traps, in-
stalled in large numbers within most
systems, have the highest potential
for energy loss. Since they normally
do not affect the process when failed,
they tend to be overlooked.
When steam traps malfunction
Steam traps function by removing con-
densate and non-condensable gases as
they form within the process during
the transfer of latent heat into the
process. A properly selected and sized
trap is the best strategy for reliability
and minimum steam leakage in the
event of a failure.
When process traps malfunction, the
effects are wide ranging. A failed-open
process trap dumps live steam need-
lessly to the condensate recovery sys-
tem, with serious degradation in ther-
mal efficiency. The effect is even more
critical when the condensate loop is
not closed, since makeup water must
be chemically pretreated and heated.
A trap which has failed completely or
partially closed results in water ham-
mer and wet steam, increased main-
tenance, longer startup times or total
failure to heat at all.
As traps malfunction, the boiler
emissions load rises to make up for
lost heat. For each gallon of heavy fuel
oil burned unnecessarily to compen-
sate for a steam leak, approximately
25 lb of carbon dioxide are emitted to
the atmosphere.
A failed-open trap poses a risk of
personnel exposure to live steam. A
failed-closed trap allows a buildup
of condensate to occur, with a risk of
injury or damage caused by water
hammer, necessitating downtime and
expensive repairs. In cold climates,
excess venting can result in icing and
potential hazards to personnel.
The significance of trap failure
The massive scale of a typical chemical
process plant magnifies the impact of
steam trap management. Assume that
a steam traps life cycle is seven years.
After the first seven years of the life of
the plant, an average of almost 15% of
the traps will fail in any year. With an
annual maintenance campaign, some
of the traps will fail just after being
checked and some just before the next
check. On average, the 15% can be said
to have failed for half the year, or 7.5%
of traps failed for the whole year.
For the operation team to under-
stand the economic impact of a failure,
an actual scenario can be instructive.
Consider the case of a steam-main
drip trap that fails in rapid cycle. This
thermodynamic style, reduced-port
model operates with a steam pressure
of 100 psig. This trap could be pass-
ing 6.2 lb/h on a 24-h basis. With a
steam cost of $8 per thousand pounds
of steam produced, that cost would be
$435 per year if the trap went totally
unchecked. In a correctly sized trap,
the losses would be less; if seriously
oversized, the losses would be consid-
erably higher.
Usual steam trap failure modes
Increasing attention is being paid in
modern plants to means of assessing
steam trap performance. It is essential
to understand the mode of operation of
each type of trap when operating and
Feature Report
40 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com november 2007
Feature Report
The Importance of Intensive
Steam Trap Management
Payback is rapid,
energy and maintenance savings are attractive,
and the uptime assurance is incalculable in value
Joe Radle
Spirax Sarco, Inc.
40-43 CHE 11-07.indd 40 10/26/07 5:40:56 PM
when failed, and then to select a test
method capable of correctly detecting
a failure.
Failed traps generally leak to vary-
ing degrees depending on the trap
capacity and type of failure. Any trap
with enough dirt accumulation can
plug and fail closed. Small capacity
traps, with their smaller passages, are
more prone to dirt plugging.
An indication of steam trap condi-
tion can be obtained by observation.
Table 1 shows the various types of
steam traps, their behavior under var-
ious steam loadings and typical fail-
ure modes, presented in greater depth
as follows:
Float and thermostatic. These traps
(Figure 1) generally fail with leakage
through the head and seat on the float
mechanism. The mechanism can stick
because of wear or fail partially closed
if the float is damaged or leaks. Wear-
ing of the thermostatic air-vent head
and seat can cause leakage, or the air
vent can lose its fill, allowing the trap
to fail open.
Inverted bucket. These traps (Figure
2) fail open, with leakage across the
head and seat. The trap can blow com-
pletely open under three scenarios: 1)
if the water seal is lost within the trap
due to excessive wear of the head and
seat; 2) sudden changes in pressure; or
3) if the trap is misapplied by oversiz-
ing. Since the head and seat are at the
top of the trap, clogging is rare except
in the dirtiest of systems.
Impulse. This trap (Figure 3) gen-
erally fails with leakage across the
metal head or seat. The trap can fail
closed if the small bleed port in the
piston plugs with debris.
Bimetallic thermostatic. This trap
(Figure 4) normally fails with head or
seat leakage caused by wire drawing
of the metal components. The trap can
also fail closed if dirt accumulates on
the bimetal plates used in stacked plate
types. Small passages make this design
susceptible to clogging by debris.
Disc thermodynamic. The thermo-
dynamic trap (Figure 5) typically fails
from wear on the disc and seat, result-
ing in rapid-cycle operation. In cases
of excessive wear or debris lodgment,
the trap can fail open. However, this
type plugs only on the dirtiest of sys-
tems because blast discharge tends to
make the trap self-cleaning.
Balanced pressure thermostatic.
Head and seat leakage are the most
common failure mode for this trap
ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com november 2007 41
Table 1. Steam trap OperatiOn
trap type
mode of Operation
normal
failure mode
no load Light load normal load Full or overload
Float and
thermostatic
No discharge Usually continu-
ous; may cycle
Usually continu-
ous; may cycle
Continuous Variable leakage;
air vent open
Inverted bucket Dribble Intermittent Intermittent Continuous Open
Balanced pres-
sure thermostatic
No discharge Dribble Intermittent, may
blast
Continuous Variable or open
Bimetallic
thermostatic
No discharge Usually dribble May blast Continuous Variable leakage
or open
Impulse Dribble Usually
continuous
May blast Continuous Open
Disc
thermodynamic
No discharge Intermittent Intermittent Continuous Rapid cycle or
Open
Figure 1. Float and
thermostatic traps, shown
here, have the ability to
operate over a wide range
of flow and pressure.
They provide constant
and consistent levels of
condensate with no steam
loss and they operate in
relation to the saturated
steam pressure/tempera-
ture curve. A thermostatic
air vent removes air rapidly
on startup
Figure 2. In inverted bucket traps, the
operating force is provided by steam
entering under the bucket and being
contained within an inverted bucket
causing it to float in condensate that
surrounds the bucket itself. The bucket
is attached to a lever and pivot point. A
valve head and seat are located at the
top of the trap. When the bucket sinks,
it opens the valve allowing condensate
to flow. A small hole in the bucket al-
lows for air venting and also allows
some small amount of steam to flow
Figure 3. Impulse
traps, in the thermo-
dynamic family, have
a piston instead of a
disc. The piston has
a constant bleed hole
through its stem and
seating disk that re-
lieves the pressure
above and allows the
valve to open to dis-
charge
Figure 4. Bimetallic ther-
mostatic traps usually have
a valve on the outlet side.
Bimetal strips or disks of dis-
similar stainless steels that
can flex when heated by high
temperature condensate pull
the valve head onto the seat.
When the condensate cools,
the bimetals relax allowing
the valve to open. Bimetal
traps backup some conden-
sate by design
Bimetallic thermostatic
Float and thermostatic
Inverted
bucket
Impulse
40-43 CHE 11-07.indd 41 10/26/07 5:41:18 PM
(Figure 6), but the thermostat can
fail closed if it sees superheat or leaks
while the trap is closed. The trap could
also fail open if the bellows or dia-
phragm loses its fill or is damaged by
water hammer.
Manual status monitoring
Operational managers who under-
stand the impact of trap failure should
encourage vigilance on the part of
operators, especially where traps
discharge to grade. Noticing and cor-
recting an obviously leaking trap can
greatly reduce energy losses between
trap surveys. Commonly, process traps
flow into a local vented flash tank. Op-
erators should be primed to notice a
significant increase in venting, so that
an inspection can be scheduled to test
the traps feeding the tank.
Trap location and type affect the
type of condition monitoring best used.
Different considerations exist for each
type of trap and for its operating condi-
tions. Manual observation is the most
widely used method being employed
today. It is important that technicians
be trained to test the various types of
traps and become proficient in the test
equipment to avoid typical erroneous
results. A trained maintenance person
knowing the different types of traps
and how they discharge is the best as-
surance of an accurate assessment.
Visual assessment. Visual inspec-
tion is practical if the trap has an open
discharge to grade; or if test tees and
return isolation valves are in place.
Modern universal trap stations allow
for easy visual testing on drip and
tracer traps. Process traps, because of
high flowrates, are difficult and poten-
tially hazardous to test visually. The
best way to test a process trap visually
is when the process fluid side is not
flowing and the steam side has a very
low condensation rate. With the trap
throttled back to a low level, blowing
through would be obvious.
Ultrasonic discharge sounds. A
sonic gun or mechanics stethoscope
can be used to listen to the flow coming
from the trap. This method is accurate,
especially with an on/off-type steam
trap. The readings can be harder to
detect on modulating type traps unless
the condensate load can be removed,
leaving the trap on live steam.
Temperature testing. Reliance upon
temperature measuring devices often
results in erroneous conclusions. To be
sure, temperature readings definitely
detect traps failed closed or turned off.
A leaking trap, however, may show no
temperature differential across the trap
(inlet versus outlet). Remember that
the steam pressure in the downstream
piping determines the temperature in
the downstream piping. If several traps
discharge into a common return (as is
often the case), the downstream tem-
perature is a mixture of several traps.
One trap blowing through can make
all the traps on that line appear to be
leaking or failed. Alternatively, if the
return piping is correctly sized with
no backpressure, a failed trap could be
passed as good on the basis of no mea-
surable temperature rise.
Ultrasonic plus temperature. Ul-
trasonic sounds and temperature to-
gether offer the most useful condition
indication. Temperature measurement
detects failed-closed or blocked-off
traps, and ultrasonic sounds give an
indication of the trap function. Using
both will ensure that the ultrasonic
tester does not pass a cold trap or iso-
lated trap as good. The temperature
gun can also help identify different
operating pressures, since many lines
are not marked.
Automatic status monitoring
Most process facilities would be well
advised to evaluate an automated
monitoring system, especially in dis-
tribution loops in the 460-psi class, or
any process involving more than 100
traps. Other conditions that make au-
tomatic monitoring desirable include
inaccessible traps, traps in lengthy
steam tunnels and traps placed in un-
safe, confined spaces.
Online conductivity and conden-
sate temperature monitoring. This
monitoring strategy works well in
applications where traps are in non-
freezing, non-explosive environments.
Indoors, any type or style trap can
be monitored by conductivity, which
senses directly what is going on inside
the system. As long as the trap is op-
erating properly, there will always be
condensate covering the sensor. The
minute the sensor is uncovered by
blowing steam, the circuit is broken
and a fail signal is transmitted.
Online temperature and ultrasonic
monitoring. Temperature monitor-
ing, combined with ultrasonic sens-
ing, checks trap-flow characteristics as
well as temperature, with the ability
to detect failed-open, failed-closed or
blocked-out conditions. The addition of
a pressure switch enables determina-
tion between blocked out and failed-
Feature Report
42 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com november 2007
Figure 5. The thermodynamic trap is the only
type of steam trap that has a distinctive snap
open-closed operation. The function of the trap
uses flow velocity, flash steam and ratio of
areas to close the trap. Once the trap closes,
cooler condensate forming at the trap inlet re-
duces pressure in the control chamber allowing
the inlet pressure to reopen the trap. This is the
easiest trap to determine if it is working prop-
erly by visual or audible testing. The trap has
zero loss when working properly
Figure 6. The balance pres-
sure thermostatic capsule or bel-
lows is filled with a liquid, which
boils a few degrees below water.
The trap closes when the liquid
expands and pushes the valve
head closed. As the condensate
cools, the thermostat liquid con-
tracts opening the valve to allow
flow. Thermostatic traps dis-
charge sub-cooled condensate
Disc thermodynamic
with strainer
Disc thermo-
dynamic
in operation
Balanced pressure
thermostatic operation
40-43 CHE 11-07.indd 42 10/26/07 5:41:45 PM
closed at cool temperatures. Ultrasonic
fluctuations are best used with on/off-
type traps, where the measurement is
easily defined. However, results are not
as good on traps that modulate, espe-
cially in process applications. Special
precautions are needed in outdoor and
explosion-hazard areas, and in some
locations this monitoring strategy can-
not be used at all.
Management programs
A useful tool in steam trap manage-
ment is the steam trap survey. Accom-
plished at regular intervals, the sur-
vey involves identifying, tagging and
testing every trap (Figure 7). The sur-
veyor reviews the trap application to
confirm suitability, function and opera-
tional condition. Failed traps are high-
lighted, and steam losses calculated,
giving payback times on replacement
of the failed traps. The survey also
highlights key areas where energy
savings could be made in the boiler
house and on the condensate return
system. The survey report targets and
prioritizes areas of the plant which,
with further investigation, could lead
to greater savings and improvements.
The results are used to build a data-
base of traps useful in managing pre-
dictive and preventive maintenance,
spares and parts inventory.
Labor can be a significant component
within a steam-trap maintenance pro-
gram. This can be offset somewhat by
installing modular-style trap stations
on drip and tracer applications. These
stations connect the trap through uni-
versal connectors in place of pipe con-
nections. Although the installed cost
of the trap itself is slightly higher, the
universal connector and the univer-
sal trap station reduce lifecycle costs.
Table 2 summarizes these savings.
Process traps, since they vary widely
in size, must be piped with NPT,
flanged or socket-weld connections.
In most cases, process traps should be
rebuilt inline with spare mechanisms
and new gaskets, since this cost is sig-
nificantly lower than the replacing the
entire trap.
The plant should also have in place
an organizational mechanism for re-
mediation action and implementation.
A team comprising process engineer-
ing, operations and maintenance usu-
ally works best, since survey remedia-
tion involves on all three functions.
Uptime insurance
When a process steam trap does not
apply energy at a constant rate, uncer-
tainty enters the process, with a risk of
product underheating and off-grade or
totally destroyed product. Even if con-
trols are present to quantify and man-
age the energy application, a failed
trap will still result in slower heating,
longer cycle time, lower unit process
output, reduced production capacity or
total production upsets. The impact of
this situation, in turn, is often missed
production schedules. This risk alone
easily justifies CPI facilities undertak-
ing an active steam-trap management
program, beginning with a complete
trap survey to benchmark the steam
loop against best practices. Payback is
rapid, energy and maintenance savings
are attractive, and the uptime assur-
ance is incalculable in value.
Edited by Gerald Ondrey

ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com november 2007 43
Author
Joe Radle is a steam trap
product manager for Spirax
Sarco, Inc. (SSI; 1150 North-
point Blvd., Blythewood, SC
29016. Phone: 800-575-0394;
Fax: 803-714-2222; Email:
InsideSalesLeads@Spirax.
com). A third-generation SSI
employee known as Steam
Trap Joe, Radle has 35 years
of experience in building and
testing steam trap products,
R&D engineering, applications engineering and
steam system troubleshooting. He is listed as the
inventor on one U.S. patent and has one patent
pending. Radle attended Northampton County
Community College and Lafayette College. He is
a member of the Fluids Control Institute, where
he sits on the steam panel that develops indus-
try standards.
Figure 7. A steam trap survey involves identifying, tagging and
testing every trap
Table 2. Cost Benefits
of Modular drip stations
Cost factor piped-
in trap
universal
connec-
tor trap
universal
connector
station
installation
Materials $435 $456 $556
Labor $270 $150 $30
Total installed cost $705 $606 $586
REPLACEMENT
Materials $192 $170 $170
Labor $60 $7.5 $7.5
Total replacement
cost
$252 $177.5 $177.5
Installation basis. Piped In: Materials include 2 unions, 8 nipples,
4 gate valves, 1 strainer, 1 trap, 1 tee; making 18 connections. Uni-
versal trap: Materials include 4 nipples, 3 gate valves, 1 trap, 1
strainer/blowdown valve, 1 tee; making 10 connections. Universal
connector station: Materials include 1 station, 1 trap; making 2
connections.
Replacement basis. Piped In: Materials include 2 nipples and 1
trap; making 4 connections. Universal Trap And Station: 10 min.
labor.
Connections at 1/3 h per connection; labor $45/h.
40-43 CHE 11-07.indd 43 10/26/07 5:42:11 PM
L
iquid density is important to en-
gineers throughout the chemical
process industries (CPI). Knowl-
edge of liquid density is required
in the design of storage vessels. In
hazard analysis, knowledge of liquid
density is required in the design of the
relief valves to protect the system. In
vapor-liquid operations, such as distil-
lation, knowledge of liquid density is
required to determine column diam-
eter. For environmental applications,
knowledge of liquid density is required
to ascertain emissions into air from a
liquid spill.
Results for liquid density as a func-
tion of temperature are presented here
for the chemical elements. The cover-
age for the elements is comprehensive
ranging from Ag to Zr and includes the
widely used diatomic elements (Br
2
, Cl
2
,
F
2
, H
2
, I
2
, N
2
, and O
2
) and inert gases
(Ar, He, Ne, and Xe). The results are
useful in design, safety, environmental,
and simulation applications in chemical
processing and petroleum refining.
Correlation of liquid density
The modified form of the Rackett
equation was selected for correlation
of saturated liquid density as a func-
tion of temperature:
(1)
density A B
T
C
n

( ) 1
where density is the saturated liquid
density (g/mL), A, B, C, and n are re-
gression coefficients for chemical com-
pound and T is the temperature (K).
The results for liquid density are
given in Table 1. The tabulation is ar-
ranged by alphabetical order (Ag, Al,
Ar, ... , Zr). This provides ease of use in
quickly locating the data by using the
chemical formula. The compound name,
CAS No. (Chemical Abstracts Registry
Feature Report
44 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com november 2007
Engineering Practice
Carl L. Yaws, Lamar University
Liquid Density
Of the Elements
A comprehensive tabulation
for all the important elements from Ag to Zr
Table 1. (density, g/mL; T = temperature, K)
No. ID Formula Name CAS No. A B C n T
min
T
max
Code T, K Density
@ T
1 13 Ag silver 7440-22-4 0.31819 0.03098 6,410.00 0.13648 1,234.00 6,410.00 1,2 1,234.00 9.296
2 77 Al aluminum 7429-90-5 0.69200 0.27351 9,300.00 0.50000 933.25 9,300.00 1,2 1,173.15 2.325
3 200 Ar argon 7440-37-1 0.53120 0.28600 150.86 0.29840 83.78 150.86 1,2 83.78 1.419
4 202 As arsenic 7440-38-3 0.62605 0.05595 1,673.15 0.28571 1,090.15 1,290.15 1,2 1,090.15 5.286
5 256 Au gold 7440-57-5 8.35557 0.44663 4,398.00 0.28571 1,337.33 4,398.00 1,2 1,337.33 17.282
6 283 B boron 7440-42-8 0.72680 0.30000 7,934.59 0.28571 2,348.15 2,548.15 1,2 2,348.15 2.160
7 416 Ba barium 7440-39-3 1.11110 0.30000 3,572.13 0.28571 1,000.15 1,200.15 1,2 1,000.15 3.325
8 530 Be beryllium 7440-41-7 0.02893 0.01109 5,205.00 0.28571 1,556.00 2,000.00 1,2 1,556.00 1.690
9 562 Bi bismuth 7440-69-9 2.01611 0.18801 4,620.00 0.30873 544.54 4,620.00 1,2 544.54 10.064
10 633 Br
2
bromine 7726-95-6 1.18377 0.29527 584.15 0.32950 265.85 584.15 1,2 265.85 3.214
11 637 C
carbon
(amphorous)
7440-44-0 0.31475 0.10000 6,810.00 0.28571 4,765.00 4,965.00 1,2 4,765.00 1.611
12 639 C graphite 7782-42-5 0.63887 0.27136 6,810.00 0.28571 4,765.00 6810.00 1,2 4,765.00 1.611
13 675 Ca calcium 7440-70-2 0.07756 0.04927 3,267.00 0.11441 1,115.00 3,267.00 1,2 1,115.00 1.368
14 776 Cd cadmium 7440-43-9 3.72607 0.43396 2,291.00 0.28571 594.05 2291.00 1,2 594.05 8.017
15 830 Ce cerium 7440-45-1 2.13760 0.31027 11,993.80 0.28571 1,071.15 1,271.15 1,2 1,071.15 6.680
16 899 Cl
2
chlorine 7782-50-5 0.56600 0.27315 417.15 0.28830 1,72.12 417.15 1,2 172.12 1.723
17 916 Co cobalt 7440-48-4 2.51864 0.25033 7,398.48 0.80000 1,768.15 7,398.48 1,2 1,873.15 7.540
18 1035 Cr chromium 7440-47-3 2.13536 0.30000 8,560.93 0.28571 2,180.15 2,380.15 1,2 2,180.15 6.460
19 1124 Cs cesium 7440-46-2 0.28361 0.14024 2,048.10 0.28571 301.65 2,030.00 1,2 301.65 1.853
20 1169 Cu copper 7440-50-8 2.63621 0.30161 5,123.00 0.28571 1,357.77 5,123.00 1,2 1,673.15 7.690
21 1302 D
2
deuterium 7782-39-0 0.06700 0.31500 38.35 0.28571 18.73 38.35 1,2 18.73 0.1730
22 1307 Dy dysprosium 7429-91-6 2.62400 0.29728 8,561.50 0.28571 1,685.15 1,885.15 1,2 1,685.15 8.200
D
e
n
s
i
t
y

o
f

I
i
q
u
i
d
,

g
/
m
L
1.00
0.90
0.80
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.10
0.00
Temperature, K
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
Data Equation
Figure 1. The good agreement be-
tween the correlation curve and experi-
mental data can be seen in this graph of
the liquid density of nitrogen
density = A B
-(1- )
n T
C
44-46 CHE 11-07.indd 44 10/26/07 5:36:52 PM
ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com november 2007 45

Table 1 (Continued). (density, g/mL; T = temperature, K)
No ID Formula Name CAS No A B C n T
min
T
max
code T, K Density
@ T
23 1332 Er erbium 7440-52-0 2.75200 0.29872 9,714.25 0.28571 1,802.15 2,002.15 1,2 1,802.15 8.600
24 1369 Eu europium 7440-53-1 1.57191 0.29797 5,150.00 0.28571 1,095.15 1,295.15 1,2 1,095.15 4.870
25 1409 F
2
fluorine 7782-41-4 0.57014 0.28587 144.12 0.28776 53.48 144.12 1,2 53.48 1.706
26 1420 Fe iron 7439-89-6 1.99446 0.22457 9,340.00 0.70000 1,811.00 9,340.00 1,2 1,923.15 7.109
27 1575 Ga gallium 7440-55-3 0.47740 0.07625 7,620.00 0.28571 302.91 7,620.00 1,2 302.91 6.078
28 1610 Gd gadolinium 7440-54-2 2.68561 0.34705 11,309.81 0.28571 1,586.15 1,786.15 1,2 1,586.15 7.400
29 1637 Ge germanium 7440-56-4 1.61357 0.26102 9,803.00 0.59646 1,210.40 9,803.00 1,2 1,210.40 5.585
30 1709 H
2
hydrogen 1333-74-0 0.03125 0.34730 33.18 0.27560 13.95 33.18 1,2 13.95 0.0776
31 1739 He helium-4 7440-59-7 0.06930 0.41860 5.20 0.24100 1.76 5.20 1,2 1.76 0.152
32 1740 Hf hafnium 7440-58-6 3.75257 0.30000 2,1687.96 0.28571 2,506.15 2,706.15 1,2 2,506.15 12.000
33 1771 Hg mercury 7439-97-6 5.73614 0.40708 1,735.00 0.25997 234.29 1,735.00 1,2 234.29 13.630
34 1841 Ho holmium 7440-60-0 2.66880 0.29781 9,067.21 0.28571 1,747.15 1,947.15 1,2 1,747.15 8.340
35 1873 I
2
iodine 7553-56-2 1.63746 0.33313 819.15 0.33550 386.75 819.15 1,2 386.75 3.976
36 1877 In indium 7440-74-6 0.55791 0.07561 6,730.00 0.28571 429.75 573.15 1,2 429.75 7.031
37 1917 Ir iridium 7439-88-5 6.41388 0.30000 15,035.00 0.28571 2,719.15 2,919.15 1,2 2,719.15 20.000
38 1960 K potassium 7440-09-7 0.18711 0.20637 2,223.00 0.35970 336.35 2,223.00 1,2 336.35 0.828
39 2162 Kr krypton 7439-90-9 0.91799 0.28840 209.35 0.29390 1,15.78 209.35 1,2 115.78 2.449
40 2168 La lanthanum 7439-91-0 1.50549 0.23941 9,511.00 0.28571 1,191.15 1,391.15 1,2 1,191.15 5.960
41 2203 Li lithium 7439-93-2 0.11037 0.19951 3,503.00 0.35129 453.69 3,503.00 1,2 453.69 0.512
42 2316 Lu lutetium 7439-94-3 3.32517 0.29161 4,128.66 0.28571 1,936.15 2,136.15 1,2 1,936.15 9.300
43 2335 Mg magnesium 7439-95-4 0.07780 0.03010 2,241.04 0.28571 923.15 1,023.15 1,2 923.15 1.579
44 2464 Mn manganese 7439-96-5 2.09497 0.30000 6,902.82 0.28571 1,519.15 1,719.15 1,2 1,519.15 6.430
45 2548 Mo molybdenum 7439-98-7 3.14663 0.30000 9,620.00 0.28571 2,895.15 3,095.15 1,2 2,895.15 9.330
46 2678 N
2
nitrogen 7727-37-9 0.31422 0.28610 126.20 0.29660 63.15 126.20 1,2 63.15 0.870
47 2781 Na sodium 7440-23-5 0.19819 0.19553 2,573.00 0.37200 370.95 2,573.00 1,2 370.95 0.928
48 3019 Nb niobium 7440-03-1 2.48435 0.30000 17,904.10 0.28571 2,750.15 2,950.15 1,2 2,750.15 7.830
49 3057 Nd neodymium 7440-00-8 2.02652 0.28826 10,665.10 0.28571 1,294.15 1,494.15 1,2 1,294.15 6.720
50 3091 Ne neon 7440-01-9 0.48504 0.30670 44.40 0.27860 24.56 44.40 1,2 24.56 1.247
51 3092 Ni nickel 7440-02-0 2.56376 0.25892 6,986.15 0.70000 1,728.15 6,986.15 1,2 1,873.15 7.595
52 3198 O
2
oxygen 7782-44-7 0.43600 0.29060 154.58 0.29240 54.35 1,54.58 1,2 90.15 1.135
53 3200 Os osmium 7440-04-2 6.48474 0.30000 16,878.68 0.28571 3,306.15 3,506.15 1,2 3,306.15 20.100
54 3234 P phosphorus (white) 7723-14-0 1.02120 0.50058 993.75 0.66360 317.55 993.75 1,2 317.55 1.745
55 3235 P phosphorus (red) 7723-14-0 0.96106 0.80200 993.75 0.09118 853.15 953.15 1,2 853.15 1.156
56 3483 Pb lead 7439-92-1 1.73000 0.15282 5,400.00 0.28571 600.64 5,400.00 1,2 923.15 10.265
57 3571 Pd palladium 7440-05-3 3.31600 0.26650 10,669.07 0.75000 1,828.05 10,669.07 1,2 1,973.15 10.310
58 3637 Pm promethium 7440-12-2 2.20800 0.30571 10,228.86 0.28571 1,315.15 1,515.15 2 1,315.15 6.900
59 3641 Po polonium 7440-08-6 2.76115 0.30000 3,013.08 0.28571 527.15 727.15 1,2 527.15 8.630
60 3650 Pr praseodymium 7440-10-0 2.10880 0.30930 12,306.26 0.28571 1,204.15 1,404.15 1,2 1,204.15 6.590
61 3691 Pt platinum 7440-06-4 6.65186 0.26561 6,983.00 0.70000 2,041.55 6,983.00 1,2 2,073.15 18.745
62 3773 Ra radium 7440-14-4 1.49145 0.30000 4,862.82 0.28571 973.15 1,173.15 1,2 973.15 4.615
63 3781 Rb rubidium 7440-17-7 0.34600 0.21564 2,093.00 0.37000 312.46 2,093.00 1,2 312.46 1.482
64 3828 Re rhenium 7440-15-5 6.01402 0.30000 21,482.82 0.28571 3,459.15 3,659.15 1,2 3,459.15 18.900
65 3880 Rh rhodium 7440-16-6 3.40525 0.30000 12,906.61 0.28571 2,237.15 2,437.15 1,2 2,237.15 10.650
66 3940 Rn radon 10043-92-2 1.58779 0.28111 377.40 0.28571 202.15 377.40 1,2 202.15 4.400
67 3941 Ru ruthenium 7440-18-8 3.48198 0.30000 15,247.14 0.28571 2,607.15 2,807.15 1,2 2,607.15 10.900
68 3991 S sulfur 7704-34-9 0.20468 0.10440 1,313.00 0.11400 388.36 1,313.00 1,2 388.36 1.794
69 4023 Sb antimony 7440-36-0 1.69927 0.24231 5,070.00 0.28571 903.78 5,070.00 1,2 903.78 6.491
70 4065 Sc scandium 7440-20-2 0.90098 0.29526 8,035.08 0.28571 1,814.15 2,014.15 1,2 1,814.15 2.800
71 4083 Se selenium (gray) 7782-49-2 0.75697 0.16124 1,766.00 0.28571 494.15 694.15 1,2 494.15 3.987
72 4140 Si silicon 7440-21-3 1.73001 0.64037 5,159.00 0.30000 1,685.00 5,159.00 1,2 1,687.00 2.570
73 4303 Sm samarium 7440-19-9 2.30412 0.28994 5,082.92 0.28571 1,347.15 1,547.15 1,2 1,347.15 7.160
74 4332 Sn tin (white) 7440-31-5 0.68914 0.09454 7,400.00 0.27000 505.08 7,400.00 1,2 505.08 6.986
75 4461 Sr strontium 7440-24-6 0.78222 0.30000 4,267.20 0.28571 1,050.15 1,250.15 1,2 1,050.15 2.375
76 4517 Ta tantalum 7440-25-7 4.78107 0.30000 19,900.93 0.28571 3,290.15 3,490.15 1,2 3,290.15 15.000
77 4550 Tb terbium 7440-27-9 2.44800 0.30358 11,138.10 0.28571 1,629.15 1,829.15 1,2 1,629.15 7.650
(Continues on P. 46)
density = A B
-(1- )
n T
C
44-46 CHE 11-07.indd 45 10/26/07 5:38:05 PM
Number), and regression coefficients
are provided in the adjacent columns.
The range of application is denoted
by minimum and maximum tempera-
tures (T
min
and T
max
). Temperatures
outside the range of application should
not be used. The next column provides
the code for the tabulation, which is
based on both experimental data and
estimated values. The last two columns
provide a representative temperature
and value for liquid density at the rep-
resentative temperature.
In preparing the tabulation, a lit-
erature search was conducted to iden-
tify data source publications for the
elements [111]. Both experimental
values for the property under consid-
eration and parameter values for esti-
mation of the property are included in
the source publications. The publica-
tions were screened and copies of ap-
propriate data were made. These data
were then keyed into the computer to
provide a database of values for com-
pounds for which experimental data
are available. The database also served
as a basis to check the accuracy of the
estimation methods. Upon completion
of data collection, estimation of the val-
ues for the remaining compounds was
performed. The numerous point values
were processed using a computer pro-
gram for minimum deviation.
The compilations of CRC [1];
Daubert and Danner [2]; Landolt
and Bornstein [4]; Perrys [5]; and
Yaws [811] were used extensively
for liquid density. Estimates were
primarily based on literature esti-
mated values and proprietary tech-
niques developed by the author. For
the high melting compounds, most of
the data for liquid density are only
available in the region of the melt-
ing point. In the absence of data,
the estimates at temperature much
higher than melting point should be
considered rough approximations.
A comparison of calculated and data
values is shown in Figure 1 for a rep-
resentative compound. The graph dis-
closes favorable agreement between
equation-derived values and experi-
mental data.
An example
In an industrial application, the liquid
density of nitrogen (N
2
) at 77.56 K is
required. Calculate the liquid density
of nitrogen at this temperature.
Substitution of the coefficients from
the table and temperature into Equa-
tion (1) for liquid density yields:
density = (0.31422)
.
(0.2861)exp[(1
77.56/126.2)
.2966
]
= (.31422)
.
(.2861)exp[(0.38541)
0.2966
]
= (0.31422)
.
(.26610)
0.753683
= (0.31422)
.
(2.5681)
density = 0.807 g/mL n
Edited by Gerald Ondrey
Author
Carl L. Yaws is a professor
of chemical engineering at
Lamar University (Dept. of
Chemical Engineering, P.O.
Box 10053, Beaumont, TX
77710; Phone: 409-880-8784;
Fax: 409-880-2197; Email:
clyaws@my.lamar.edu). Yaws
holds bachelor, master and
doctor degrees from Texas
A&I University and Univer-
sity of Houston. A registered
professional engineer (Texas), he is the author of
30 books and has published more than 640 tech-
nical papers. His research interests include tech-
nology development, thermodynamic and trans-
port property data, environmental engineering
and process simulation.
References
1. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics,
7586th eds., CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton,
Fla., 19942006.
2. Daubert, T. E. and R. P. Danner, Data Com-
pilation of Properties of Pure Compounds,
Parts 1, 2, 3, and 4, Supplements 1 and 2,
DIPPR Project, AIChE, New York, N.Y.,
19851994.
3. Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, 3rd
and 4th eds., John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New
York, N.Y., 19782004.
4. Landolt, H. and R. Bornstein, Zahlenwerte
und Funktionen ans Physik, Chemie, Astron-
omie und Technik, Springer-Verlag, Heidel-
berg, Germany, 19712005.
5. Perrys Chemical Engineering Handbook,
6th and 7th eds., McGraw-Hill, New York,
N.Y., 1984 and 1997.
6. Saxs Dangerous Properties of Industrial Ma-
terials, 10th ed., Vol. 1, 2, and 3, Lewis, R.
J.. Lewis, Sr., editor, John Wiley, New York,
N.Y., 2000.
7. Vargaftik, N. B., Tables on the Thermophysi-
cal Properties of Liquids and Gases, 2nd ed.,
English translation, Hemisphere Publishing
Corporation, New York, N.Y., 1975 and 1983.
8. Yaws, C. L. and others, Major Diatomic Gases
(Hydrogen, Nitrogen and Oxygen) Phy.
and Thermo. Prop. (8), Chem. Eng., 82 (2), pp,
99106, January 20, 1975.
9. Yaws, C. L., Physical Properties, McGraw-
Hill, New York, N.Y., 1977.
10. Yaws, C. L., Chemical Properties Handbook,
McGraw-Hill, New York, N.Y., 1999.
11. Yaws, C. L., Matheson Gas Data Book, 7th
ed., Matheson Tri-Gas (Parisppany, N.J.),
McGraw-Hill, New York, N.Y., 2001.
Engineering Practice
46 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com november 2007

Table 1 (Continued). (density, g/mL; T = temperature, K)
No. ID Formula Name CAS No. A B C n T
min
T
max
Code T, K Density
@ T
78 4570 Tc technetium 7440-26-8 3.34979 0.30000 17,400.77 0.28571 2,430.15 2,630.15 1,2 2,430.15 10.615
79 4583 Te tellurium 13494-80-9 1.83626 0.30000 4,840.00 0.28571 722.66 922.66 1,2 722.66 5.797
80 4639 Ti titanium 7440-32-6 1.38759 0.30000 6,400.00 0.28571 1,941.15 2,141.15 1,2 1,941.15 4.110
81 4703 Tl thallium 7440-28-0 1.79212 0.14783 4,648.06 0.28571 577.15 4,648.06 1,2 577.15 11.291
82 4747 Tm thulium 7440-30-4 2.88674 0.28545 6,283.16 0.28571 1,818.15 2,018.15 2 1,818.15 9.000
83 4766 U uranium 7440-61-1 5.57293 0.30000 13,712.62 0.28571 1,408.15 1,608.15 1,2 1,408.15 17.907
84 4836 V vanadium 7440-62-2 1.78294 0.30000 11,787.15 0.28571 2,183.15 2,383.15 1,2 2,183.15 5.550
85 4899 W tungsten 7440-33-7 5.84023 0.30000 14,756.00 0.28571 3,695.15 3,895.15 1,2 3,695.15 17.700
86 4945 Xe xenon 7440-63-3 1.10648 0.28552 289.74 0.28967 161.36 289.74 1,2 161.36 2.978
87 4960 Y yttrium 7440-65-5 1.32860 0.29141 9,381.32 0.28571 1,795.15 1,995.15 1,2 1,795.15 4.240
88 4995 Yb ytterbium 7440-64-4 2.12198 0.31165 4,365.92 0.28571 1,092.15 1,292.15 1,2 1,092.15 6.210
89 5021 Zn zinc 7440-66-6 1.98150 0.27115 3,170.00 0.34000 692.70 3,170.00 1,2 812.15 6.427
90 5113 Zr zirconium 7440-67-7 1.90680 0.30000 8,802.00 0.28571 2,128.15 2,328.15 1,2 2,128.15 5.800
Code: 1 = data, 2 = estimate
Density = density of liquid, g/mL
A, B, C, and n = regression coefficients of chemical compound
T = temperature, K
T
man
= maximum temperature, K
T
min
= minimum temperature, K
density = A B
-(1- )
n T
C
44-46 CHE 11-07.indd 46 10/26/07 5:38:32 PM
A
lthough some CPI manage-
ment may not realize it, PLCs
(programmable logic control-
lers) are the brains behind
many operations in the chemical
process industries (CPI). A malfunc-
tioning PLC can cause lines, plants
and even operations such as city
bridges and water stations to shut
down. Thousands to millions of dol-
lars could be lost in association with
one PLC that maintenance person-
nel may not even know exists. Proper
maintenance management of PLCs
is needed to avoid damage to ma-
chines and personnel, as well as to
minimize downtime. In every CPI fa-
cility, the following questions should
be answered:
What is a PLC?
How many PLCs is your bottom line
depending on?
Do you have an up-to-date list of all
PLC models, part availability, pro-
gram copies, and other details?
Do you have at least one trained
person per shift to maintain and
troubleshoot your plants PLCs?
Do maintenance personnel work
with PLCs following written com-
pany or corporate policy, and proce-
dures?
If any of these questions cannot be an-
swered positively or with confidence,
this article will prove to be a valuable
resource for maintenance manage-
ment of PLCs.
What are PLCs?
Understanding what PLCs are and
how they work is important not only
for maintenance engineers and tech-
nicians, but also for maintenance
managers, plant managers and cor-
porate managers. A PLC is the type
of computer that controls and trou-
bleshoots most machines today. The
PLC can be thought of as the brain
of a machine; without it, the machine
is dead. Just as a doctor asks a pa-
tient questions to determine what
is wrong, a maintenance technician
asks the PLC questions to trouble-
shoot a machine. Using a laptop com-
puter, plant personnel can see what
conditions have to be met in order for
the PLC to cause an action to occur
(for example, turn a motor on). In a
reliable maintenance-management
environment, the technician will use
the PLC as a troubleshooting tool to
reduce downtime.
Technical definition of a PLC. A
programmable controller is a small,
industrial-strength computer used to
control real-world actions based on
its program and real-world sensors.
PLCs replace the networks of thou-
sands of relays that were common in
older electrical panels, allowing main-
tenance technicians to change the way
a machine works without having to do
any wiring. The program is typically
written in ladder logic, the sequential
control of a process that is similar to
the wiring schematics maintenance
electricians are already accustomed to
working with. Inputs to a PLC can in-
clude switches, sensors, bar codes and
machine operator data. Outputs from
the PLC can include motors, air sole-
noids and indicator lights.
PLC awareness
In an ongoing PLC-related global
maintenance survey, the majority of
participants in 2001 reported being
aware of three to six PLCs in their fa-
cilities. Many of the participants are
from large Fortune 500 companies, and
most were managers, who are typically
not exposed to technical operations on
a day-to-day basis. While awareness
was reported for three to six PLCs, it
is likely that most of these companies
have 12 to 30 PLCs in their facilities.
Although the current average number
of PLCs reported is only six to nine, it
shows that the industry as a whole is
gradually becoming more PLC aware.
It is common to learn about a PLC
only once it is malfunctioning, possi-
bly shutting down an entire process
with the clock ticking at thousands of
dollars per hour. Unfortunately, after
the fire is out, it is often on to the
next fire without fully learning what
can be done to avoid costly downtimes
in the future, both in the repaired unit
and in other similar PLCs within the
company.
Although some older electrical pan-
Engineeering Practice
PLC Maintenance
Management
Engineering Practice
ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com november 2007 47
Don Fitchett
Business Industrial Network
PLCs are critical to the success of
CPI processes. These requirements
for proper PLC management
go a long way toward reducing downtime
and unnecessary costs
47-49 CHE 11-07.indd 47 10/26/07 5:45:29 PM
els may have only relay panels in them,
most equipment (for example, air com-
pressors) are controlled by a PLC. An
operation that could potentially cause
a process bottleneck is also likely to be
controlled by a PLC. How much would
it cost your company if the bottleneck
or malfunctioning utility shut down a
line, a section of your facility, or even
the entire plant?
Performing PLC audits
Maintaining an up-to-date list of PLC
information is essential to PLC man-
agement. The following three-step
process should be followed every six
months to check that all information
is current.
1. Perform a PLC audit: Open every
electrical panel, and write down the
PLC brand, model and other perti-
nent information
2. Analyze the audit details and risk
3. Act on the analysis
The PLC audit form, shown in Table 1,
illustrates the information that should
be collected, along with examples of
this information and the recommended
actions that should be taken based on
the outcomes of the audit.
Once the basic information from the
plant-wide or corporate audit has been
collected, it is important to analyze
the information in order to develop
an action plan based on risk analysis.
In the risk analysis, bottlenecks and
other factors will help you assign pri-
orities. Starting with the highest pri-
ority PLC, additional questions need
to be asked.
Are there spares for the most com-
mon PLCs onsite for quick switching
in the event of a malfunction?
Is the original equipment manufac-
turer still in business? Does it have
personnel available 24 hours a day, 7
days a week?
Is there a backup copy of the PLC
program?
Does the program copy have el-
emental descriptions (Figure 2) so
we can work with it reliably and ef-
ficiently?
Do we have the software needed
to view the PLC program? Are our
maintenance personnel trained on
that PLC brand?
By asking these questions and ensuring
that they can be answered positively,
plant managers can avoid unnecessary
risk and guarantee reliability.
Training personnel
Costly downtime due to PLC malfunc-
tion can be avoided by providing main-
tenance staff with sufficient training.
The investment in maintenance train-
ing can save a company from much
greater losses. Many facilities sched-
ule most of their knowledge base to be
available during day shifts. At least
one trained person should be onsite
during every shift to work reliably
with PLCs, since greater downtime
occurs during off shifts. Also, consider
Engineering Practice
48 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com november 2007
Table 1. PLC AUDIT FORM
Collected information Examples and recommended actions
Machine or area name Warehouse conveyor, pump station 3, strapper 2, line 7, traffic signal west main
PLC program name 1789GAA1, P3, Strap2, 5872443, WestMainTL
Network node address No two addresses will be the same
Network name Commonly the same as the program name, but not mandatory
PLC brand Allen Bradley, Siemens, Schneider, Mitsubishi, DirectSoft, Omron
PLC model number PLC-5/25, SLC-504, SIMATIC S5, MELSEC FX1N, DL 405
Available spares Yes on shelf; only in less critical machines; or no
Date program was last backed up Make program backups part of your semiannual maintenance program
Descriptive copy of program avail-
able
Without a descriptive copy of the program, troubleshooting and downtime are
greatly increased
Does PLC have a method for storing
a backup program
EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory) or other method
of storing backup program in a chip on PLC
Date program was last changed Remember to log when outside consultants or OEM make program changes too
Date EEPROM was last burned Should be saved to EEPROM (burned) after every successful program change
Date battery was last changed See manufacturers data for recommended change frequency
Other pertinent information Might be facility location when corporate is using this form
B3
341
T4:32
DN
B3
81
B3
398
B3
6
A typicaI rung description for this simpIified exampIe rung, might read "If conveyor is in manuaI or automatic and being toId to move
forward and not in aIarm 1 condition, activate (output to) the conveyor forward motor reIay"
If conveyor is
in manuaI
Conveyor
brake is on
Conveyor
forward joy stick
B3
2100
T4:10
DN
B3
24
Conveyor is
in automatic
Downstream
conveyor fuII
Conveyor forward
auto requested
Conveyor
forward
motor output
Conveyor
AIarm 1
AIarm 1
Figure 2. Example of a descriptive process
47-49 CHE 11-07.indd 48 10/26/07 5:46:00 PM
that baby boomers, the core knowl-
edge base in the industry, are about
to retire, and implementing a training
program for PLC management will
help to prepare other employees.
Training should be sought with two
primary objectives:
1. Emphasize working with PLCs in a
safe and reliable way that extends
beyond textbook knowledge or self-
learned knowledge
2. Focus training on the PLC products
that are actually used or will be
used in the facility in the future
To get more out of your PLC train-
ing investment, implement hands-on
training using the actual PLC pro-
grams and software that the mainte-
nance technician will be working with
in the facility. Ensure that your per-
sonnel have the software, equipment
and encouragement to continue with
self-education. PLC Training CBT
(computer-based training) CDs are a
good way for employees to follow up
six months after the initial training.
Also consider providing technicians
with simulation software and/or a
spare PLC off the shelf for practicing.
PLC policies and procedures
If policy and procedures are not writ-
ten and enforced, employees may
eventually return to old unreliable
ways. Maintenance management of
PLCs is rarely included in these poli-
cies, which is as detrimental as writing
guidelines for the health of the entire
organizations body, and then leaving
out the brain of the operation. While
a complete PLC policy and procedure
manual is out of the scope of this arti-
cle, a general procedure for PLC man-
agement is outlined in the box.
Edited by Kate Torzewski
ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com november 2007 49
Author
Don Fitchett is president
and founder of Business In-
dustrial Network (BIN; 2
Cityplace Drive, Suite 200, St.
Louis, MO; Phone: 573-547-
5630; Email: bin95@bin95.
com; Web: www.bin95.com).
He is also a long-time active
member of the Association
for Facilities Engineering.
Before starting up BIN, an
industrial training company,
Fitchett spent over 20 years developing and de-
livering industrial training around the world.
He has worked for world-class companies like
Toyota and Dana Corp. Fitchett currently works
as editor-in-chief for Feed Forward Publications,
a subsidiary of BIN, and has authored books on
the topic of The True Cost of Downtime, as well
as published articles in journals on this subject.
Nothing controls
temperatures of
corrosives and high
purity materials better
than AMETEK fluoropoly-
mer heat exchangers. Not
glass. Not silicon carbide
or graphite units. Available
with steel or non-metallic
shells, diameters from 3"
to 14" and metric designs,
AMETEK heat exchangers
include TEMA/ANSI nozzle and
end connections. To learn more
call (302) 456-4431 or visit:
www.ametekfpp.com
The best way to heat and cool
the most corrosive materials.
CPD-5 8/20/07 10:34 AM Page 1
Procedure for Plc management
1.WritePLCpoliciesandproceduresintoyourexistingmainte-
nancepolicyandprocedures
2.TrainpersonnelworkingwithPLCsonspecificPLCequipment
3.CreatebackupcopiesofPLCprogramseverysixmonthsre-
gardlessofchangestatus
4.IfaPLCprogramhasbeenchanged,performstepsad.Ifthe
outsidevendorchanges,thesestepsshouldbeperformedby
maintenancepersonnel
a.Documentthechangeinthesoftwarecopy,intheprinted
copyandintheCMMS(CertifiedMaintenanceManage-
ment)program
b.StorecopiesofthePLCprogramonreliablemedia,suchas
aCDorUSB
c. Storemultiplecopiesonmaintenancelaptops,inthemain-
tenancemanagersofficeandoffsite(corporate)
d.UpdateEEPROMwiththechangedprogram
5.Purchasingfutureequipment
a.AimtoimplementacommonPLCbrandinallequipmentto
standardizePLCtypes
b.ObtaindescriptorcopiesofPLCprogramsfromtheoriginal
equipmentmanufacturer
c. SelectPLC110-Vcontrolvoltagewithalinefilter
d.SelectPLCswithabackupEEPROMoptionforzerodown-
timeinsomefailuremodes
6.Regardtheforcingofinputsandoutputsonoroffasasafety
issue
7.Donotforceinputsandoutputsonoroffwithoutasecond
opinionandaclearunderstandingofthecompleteeffectson
thePLCprogram
a.Ifforcesareinstalled,removethemwithin24hoursand
findamorepermanentsolution
b.Documentallforcesinsoftwareandawrittenlogbefore
enablingthem
8.Onlineprogrammingcanbeasafetyrisk.Thenormalproce-
dureistochangetheprogramofflineandthendownloadto
thePLC
Circle 27 on p. 70 or go to adlinks.che.com/6901-27
47-49 CHE 11-07.indd 49 10/26/07 5:46:27 PM
Make a leak-free seal,
even for irregular fanges
The proprietary Multi-Swell gasket
material (photo) is said to be the
worlds first self-loading, general-ser-
vice gasket. The material creates its
own load when it comes into contact
with oil or water, which virtually
eliminates the most common cause
of gasket failure insufficient load.
The material performs equally well in
water or oil, does not degrade in con-
tact with oils and adapts easily to all
types of flange designs, all at a cost
comparable to conventional gasket
material, says the firm. Twice as soft
as conventional gaskets, Multi-Swell
is easy to cut and readily conformable
even to irregular flanges. Garlock
Sealing Technologies, Palmyra, N.Y.
edlinks.che.com/6901-431
Replace copper plumbing lines
with a plastic that looks golden
FlowGuard Gold (photo) is the lat-
est addition to this firms CTS CPVC
plumbing pipe product line. Available
in 1/2- through 2-in. dia., FlowGuard
Gold is said to excel in hot- and cold-
water applications. Compared to cop-
per plumbing pipe, the plastic tub-
ing is more corrosion resistant, and
using reliable solvent-welding
joining offers a substantially lower
installed cost, says the manufacturer.
This product meets the requirements
of NSF Standards 14 and 61 for qual-
ity and health effects. Harvel Plas-
tics, Inc., Easton, Pa.
edlinks.che.com/6901-432
Dip pipes that require less space
and reduce installation costs
Used to deliver or withdraw liquids
or gases to and from reactor vessels,
columns and storage tanks, this line
of steel dip pipes and spargers (photo)
is lined and jacketed with PTFE to
handle corrosive liquids. Units are
available that fit large nozzles without
the need for reducing flanges, which
means fewer joints, less headroom and
lower installation costs, says the man-
ufacturer. The PTFE-sealing faces of
the flanges of Micromold dip pipes and
spargers are machined to a uniform
thickness and surface finish to ensure
the highest seal integrity. Micro-
mold Products, Inc., Yonkers, N.Y.
edlinks.che.com/6901-433
Many different applications are
served by this nylon tubing
Nylotube (photo) is stocked in both
semi-rigid and flexible grades, six
colors, and inches and metric sizes.
The nylon tubing offers low moisture
absorption (1.4% maximum at 73F),
an excellent resistance to flex fatigue,
and is resistant to corrosion, abrasion,
crushing cracking and brittleness.
Nylotube is suitable for many appli-
cations, including instrumentation,
chemical transfer, food-and-beverage
lines, compressed air, refrigerant and
cooling systems, and pneumatic con-
trols. Sizes range from 1/8- to 1-in.
O.D. and 4- to 12-mm O.D. NewAge
Industries, Inc., Southampton, Pa.
edlinks.che.com/6901-434
Note: For more information, circle the 3-digit number
on p. 70, or use the website designation.
50 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com november 2007
Focus on
Pipes &
Fittings
Garlock Sealing Technologies
Harvel Plastics
Micromold Products
NewAge Industries
Parker/Page International Hose
W.L. Gore & Associates
50-52 CHE 11-07.indd 50 10/25/07 7:33:30 PM
Note: For more information, circle the 3-digit number
on p. 70, or use the website designation.
This tubing and related products
have passed the test
This firms RCTW (rubber covered
fluoropolymer hose) and PAGE-flex
SBF products (photo, p. 50) have been
certified to meet the requirements of
USP Class VI. Certification includes
stringent testing of materials to de-
termine biocompatibility, toxicity and
extractables of product. For end users,
especially in the pharmaceutical and
food industries, purity, taste, smell,
color and extractables are critical char-
acteristics. With USP Class VI certified
hose, the assurance of purity is abso-
lute, says the firm. Parker/Page In-
ternational Hose, Fort Worth, Tex.
edlinks.che.com/6901-435
Just one gasket type is suitable
for steel, plastic or glass fanges
Unaffected by even the most aggres-
sive chemicals, Gore Universal Pipe
Gaskets (photo, p. 50) provide excep-
tional performance in three important
areas: seal reliability, conforming to
irregular surfaces, and protecting
flanges. They are engineered to de-
liver superior bolt-load retention, and
achieve superior creep resistance for
reliable sealing of steel piping flanges.
Moreover, these gaskets deliver the
lowest stress-to-seal in even the most
fragile plastic and glass-lined flanges,
says the firm. The gaskets are suit-
able for temperatures up to 600F and
pressures up to 3,000 psi. W.L. Gore
& Associates, Inc., Elkton, Md.
edlinks.che.com/6901-436
For high-pressure plumbing,
consider these fttings
This new line of NPT valves and fit-
tings (photo) is designed for safe and
easy plumbing. Made of high-ten-
sile 316 stainless steel, the new pipe
connection valves are offered in both
two-way straight and two-way handle
body configurations. Sizes available
include 1/8, 1/4, 3/8, 1/2, 3/4 and 1 in.
Fittings are available as elbows, tees
and crosses to accommodate either
10,000 or 15,000 psi. High Pressure
Equipment Co., Erie, Pa.
edlinks.che.com/6901-437
Pinpoint problem areas of sew-
ers with this sidewall scanner
DigiSewer digital visual sidewall
scanning (DVSS; photo) enhances the
speed and detail at which pipeline
inspection is performed. In a single
day, a DigiSewer-equipped video in-
spection system can scan extensive
networks of pipe at full speed. When
scanning is complete, a supervisor
rapidly analyzes these scans using a
freeware viewer, zooming in on areas
of interest, and making measurements
and annotations directly on the scan.
Envirosight, Randolph, N.J.
edlinks.che.com/6901-438
For very concentrated H
2
SO
4
,
use this plastic piping
Troubles with existing sulfuric acid
piping systems, such as pipeline dam-
age, leaks, joint failures, chemical spill-
age and downtime, have been caused
by a decrease in availability of low-
concentration (93%) H
2
SO
4
and the
switch by suppliers to 98
+
% H
2
SO
4
,
says this firm. Many facilities run-
ning PVDF pipe systems had assumed
there would be no issue with higher
concentration acid in their pipelines,
but had problems within 36 mo. after
changing to the higher concentration.
Sulfur trioxide a natural contami-
nant is the culprit of the failure. As
a result, only Halar (E-CTFE) is rec-
ommended for this application, claims
the manufacturer. Halar Ultra Proline
piping systems (photo) sprovide reli-
ability and cost savings to municipal
water-treatment facilities. Asahi
America, Inc., Malden, Mass.
edlinks.che.com/6901-439
Keep components healthy with
this patented technology
Hose Track (photo) uses RFID technol-
ogy and software to identify parts and
monitor on-going wear-related events,
such as cleaning cycles, the number
of batches processed, and other user-
defined occurrences. It involves read-
write RFID tags and readers to provide
a solution for the critical job of process
component maintenance and replace-
ment. In May, the manufacturer re-
ceived a U.S. patent for this technol-
ogy, developed for hose assemblies
that are used in the pharmaceutical,
food-and-beverage, biomedical, chemi-
cal and other high-purity applications.
AdvantaPure, Southampton, Pa.
edlinks.che.com/6901-440
Corrosives are no problem
for this piping system
Designed specifically to provide a non-
corroding, safe system for the convey-
ance of aggressive exhaust gases and
fumes, this firm has introduced the
SYGEF PVDF (polyvinylidene fluo-
ride) Exhaust Piping System (photo,
p. 52). The new system conforms to
FM 4910 standards (Cleanroom Mate-
rials Flammability Test Protocol), and
is suitable for the state-of-the-art 300-
mm semiconductor manufacturing
Envirosight
High Pressure Equipment
AdvantaPure
Asahi America
ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com november 2007 51
50-52 CHE 11-07.indd 51 10/25/07 7:34:04 PM
plants as well as in the chemical and
microelectronics markets. Constructed
of the highly inert, high-strength ther-
moplastic PVDF, the system will not
corrode or rust. The system is available
in pipe sizes from 2 1/2 in. through 16
in., and includes a variety of fittings,
reducers, fixed flanges, gaskets, seals
and throttle valves. GF Piping Sys-
tems, Tustin, Calif.
edlinks.che.com/6901-441
Stress cracking is less problem-
atic for pipes of this plastic
In January, this firm launched an en-
hanced version of its Hostalen CRP
100 black high-density polyethylene
grade, which enables its customers to
produce pressure pipes with increased
resistance to slow crack propagation.
Tradenamed Hostalen CRP 100 Resist
CR black, the polymer has been devel-
oped for non-conventional pipe-instal-
lation methods, where a superior re-
sistance to stress cracking is required,
says the firm. Basell Corp.,
Hoofddorp. Netherlands
edlinks.che.com/6901-442
A coating that protects threads
from weld sputtering
The Nycote coating process is a non-
conductive, White Teflon PFA powder
coating that can be applied to threaded
fasteners (photo). The patented pro-
cess provides guaranteed protection
against thread contamination from
electrodeposited paints, primers and
adhesion of weld spatter and elimi-
nates the need to manually apply
and later remove caps, tape or plugs.
There is no need for slave bolts and
retaping, which can compromise qual-
ity and safety. Nycote also adds lubric-
ity to fasteners and reduces torque
versus tension scatter, says the firm.
Nylok Corp., Macomb, Mich.
edlinks.che.com/6901-443
See how the piping system be-
haves with one program
Launched in August, PIPE-FLO Com-
pressible 2007 software is a major up-
grade to the desktop application for
designing and simulating the opera-
tion of steam and gas piping systems.
The new upgrade integrates the calcu-
lating power of the PIPE-FLO prod-
uct line with its familiar design and
dynamic-simulation features, result-
ing in a total piping-system view. It
includes functionality improvements
that allow the user to better visualize,
quickly calculate, efficiently commu-
nicate and provide access to informa-
tion in one, easy-to-use program, says
the firm. Engineered Software, Inc.,
Lacey, Washington
edlinks.che.com/6901-444
Gerald Ondrey
Focus
GF Piping Systems
Focus
Nylok
52 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com november 2007
Statement of Ownership, Management, and Circulation (Requester Publications Only)
1. Publication Title: Chemical Engineering 2. Publication Number: 0009-2460
3. Filing Date: 10/1/2007 4. Issue Frequency: Monthly except twice in October 5. Number of
Issues Published Annually: 13 6. Annual Subscription Price $59. Complete Mailing Address
of Known Office of Publication: Access Intelligence, 4 Choke Cherry Road, 2nd Floor,
Rockville, MD 20850-4024 Contact: George Severine Telephone: 301-354-1706 8.
Complete Mailing Address of Headquarters or General Business Office of Publisher: Access
Intelligence, LLC, 4 Choke Cherry Road, 2nd Floor, Rockville, MD 20850-4024 9. Full
Names and Complete Mailing Addresses of Publisher, Editor, and Managing Editor:
Publisher: Nella Veldran, 4 Choke Cherry Road, 2nd Floor, Rockville, MD 20850-4024
Editor: Rebekkah Marshall, 4 Choke Cherry Road, 2nd Floor, Rockville, MD 20850-4024
Managing Editor: Dorthy Lozowski, 4 Choke Cherry Road, 2nd Floor, Rockville, MD
20850-402410. Owner if the publication is owned by a corporation, give the name and
address of the corporation immediately followed by the names and addresses of all
stockholders owning or holding 1 percent or more of the total amount of stock: Veronis
Suhler Stevenson, 350 Park Avenue, New York, NY 1002211. Known Bondholders,
Mortgagees, and Other Security Holders Owning or Holding 1 Percent or More of Total
Amount of Bonds, Mortgages, or other Securities: None 12. Non-profit organization: not
applicable. 13. Publication: Chemical Engineering 14. Issue Date for Circulation Data:
September 2007
Average No. of No. Copies
15. Extent and Nature of Circulation: Copies Each Issue of issue
During Preceding Nearest to
12 Months Filing Date
a. Total Number of Copies (Net press run) 67,743 69,423
b. Legitimate Paid and/or Requested Distribution
(1) Individual Paid/Requested Mail Subscriptions 57,985 58,901
2) Copies Requested by Employers 0 0
(3) Sales Through Dealers and Carriers, Street Vendors 0 0
(4) Requested Copies Distributed by Other Mail Classes 0 0
c. Total Paid and/or Requested Circulation 57,985 58,901
d. Nonrequested Distribution (By Mail and Outside the Mail)
(1)Nonrequested Copies, Sample copies, Requests Over 3
years old, Requests induced by a Premium, Bulk Sales and
Requests including Associate Requests. Names obtained
from Business Directories, Lists, and other sources) 7,222 6,168
(2) Nonrequested Copies Distributed Through the USPS
by Other Classes of Mail 0 0
(3) Nonrequested Copies Distributed Outside the Mail
(Include Pickup Stands, Trade Shows, Showrooms,
and Other Sources) 571 4,000
e. Total Nonrequested Distribution 7,793 10,168
f. Total Distribution (Sum of 15c and 15e) 65,778 69,069
g. Copies not Distributed 1,965 354
h. Total 67,743 69,423
i. Percent Paid and/or Requested Circulation 88.2% 85.3%
16. Publication of Statement of Ownership for a Requester
Publication is required and will be printed in the November 2007 issue of this publication.
17. Signature of Owner: Don Pazour Date: 10/1/07
I certify that all information furnished on this form is true and complete. I understand that anyone who
furnished false or misleading information on this form or who omits material or information requested on the
form may be subject to criminal sanctions (including fines and imprisonment) and/or civil sanctions (including
civil penalties).
Advertise in the
Classified
Interested?
For more information on classified
advertising, please contact:
Helene Hicks
Tel:212.621.4958
Fax:212.621.4976
email:hhicks@che.com
CL ASSI FI ED ADVERTI SI NG
THAT WORKS
50-52 CHE 11-07.indd 52 10/30/07 6:27:04 PM
T
o ensure the health and safety
of workers, the U.S. Occupa-
tional Safety and Health Ad-
ministration (OSHA) adopted
the Hazard Communication Standard
(HCS) in 1983. Initially designed to
protect workers in the manufacturing
sector, the HCS was expanded in 1987
to cover all industries where workers
could be exposed to hazardous chemi-
cals. This article gives an overview of
the OSHA requirements for material
safety data sheets (MSDSs) and de-
scribes ways to meet these require-
ments with automated software tools.
Hazard communication program
All manufacturers and importers of
chemicals are required to review the
known physical and health hazards
of the chemicals they make or import
to determine if they are hazardous.
This process is known as hazard as-
sessment. The manufacturers and
importers must have a process for
collecting and assessing this infor-
mation, and then generating MSDSs.
While OSHA only requires MSDSs for
chemicals that are hazardous accord-
ing to its definition, these data sheets
are also often written for non-hazard-
ous materials.
When the MSDSs have been devel-
oped, the manufacturer must make
them available to downstream users
of the chemicals, including its own
employees, distributors and custom-
ers. A written hazard-communication
program is also required to share this
information with employees through
training and the use of MSDSs and
warning labels. The written program
must describe how the requirements
for labels, MSDSs and employee train-
ing are going to be met in the facility.
This hazard communication program is
key to meeting OSHAs requirements.
Employee training
Under the HCS, all employees have
the right to know about chemical haz-
ards in the workplace, and how they
can protect themselves against both
the physical and health hazards as-
sociated with exposure. Employees
must know the identities of the haz-
ardous chemicals in their workplace
and where they can find the MSDSs
for the chemicals.
The HCS dictates that employees
be trained at least once a year, but
additional training should also be
conducted whenever a new hazard-
ous chemical is introduced into the
workplace. The training must include
educating employees in the proper
use of the hazardous chemicals. Both
the physical and health hazards of
the chemicals should be included, as
well as information on how employees
can protect themselves from exposure.
Employees need to know the physical
properties of the chemicals, how to de-
tect a spill or release of the chemical,
and what measures to take if a spill
occurs.
Solids Processing Environmental Manager
Managing Material Safety
Data Sheets in the Workplace
Karen E. Lintz
Wercs Professional Services, LLC
Material safety
data sheets are
an essential part
of hazard commu-
nication programs
While regulatory agencies
outline requirements for
communicating chemical
hazards, the format of compliance
is up to the employer.
Software tools can be helpful aids
in meeting these requirements
ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com november 2007 53
53-55 CHE 11-07.indd 53 10/25/07 7:30:12 PM
Employee access to information
According to OSHA, all employees
must have direct access to MSDSs for
the hazardous chemicals that are in
their work areas during their normal
working hours. Employers must en-
sure that employees are provided with
an MSDS for every chemical to which
they may be exposed, and employees
must receive training on any new
chemicals before the chemicals are in-
troduced into the workplace. MSDSs
may be provided to employees as paper
copies contained in centrally located
binders or through computerized sys-
tems. Alternatives to paper copies are
permitted, as long as employees have
immediate access to the MSDSs. Main-
taining paper copies of MSDSs in a
back-up method to electronic systems
is often a good practice.
Information requirements
To ensure that employees can prop-
erly handle hazardous chemicals in
the workplace, the HCS requires that
each MSDS include information about
the chemical that will allow employees
to quickly identify the chemical, recog-
nize the possible hazards of exposure,
and take precautions to protect them-
selves against exposure. The HCS is a
performance-oriented standard, which
means that OSHA provides very few
requirements for the format of MSDSs.
However, the HCS does specify that
MSDSs must be available in Eng-
lish, and must include the following
information:
The product name as it appears on
the container label: This allows em-
ployees to quickly locate the proper
MSDS for the chemical they are
handling
The names of all of the hazardous
chemicals in the product that are
present at a concentration of greater
than 1% (0.1% for carcinogens): Non-
hazardous chemicals may also be
listed, but full disclosure of a prod-
ucts formulation is not required
The physical and chemical charac-
teristics of the chemical, such as its
physical form, color, odor, flash point
and vapor pressure: To ensure safe
handling, employees must be able to
recognize how a product is supposed
to look and behave
The physical hazards of the product,
such as flammability and reactivity:
This information may be important
for proper handling, storage, and
disposal of a chemical
The known acute (immediate or
shortterm) and chronic (longterm)
health hazards of the chemical
The signs and symptoms of expo-
sure: Some chemicals do not have
good warning properties, such as a
smell, so employees must be able to
recognize any expected health ef-
fects from overexposure to a hazard-
ous chemical
Any medical conditions that may
be aggravated by exposure to the
chemical: Employees with pre-ex-
isting medical conditions may need
to take additional steps to ensure
their safety when working with a
chemical
The routes of exposure for the haz-
ardous chemical: This information is
important when choosing the proper
personal protective equipment to be
worn while handling a hazardous
chemical. Severe irritants or chemi-
cals that can be absorbed through
the skin may require specific gloves
or protective clothing, while products
that are respiratory hazards may
need special ventilation or respira-
tory protection for safe handling
The exposure limits for the hazard-
ous chemical, including the OSHA
permissible exposure limit, the
ACGIH (American Conference of
Governmental Industrial Hygien-
ists) threshold limit value (TLV),
or a recommended exposure limit
developed by the manufacturer of
the hazardous chemical: This in-
formation is critical to ensure that
employees are not overexposed to
hazardous chemicals during the
workday
The classification of the chemical as
a known or potential carcinogen by
OSHA, NTP (National Toxicology
Program), or IARC (International
Agency for Research on Cancer)
Precautions for safe handling and
use, including hygiene practices and
cleanup procedures
Appropriate engineering controls
and personal protective equipment
Emergency and first aid procedures
The date the MSDS was prepared
The name, address and telephone
number of the party responsible for
preparing the MSDS
The MSDS may also provide addi-
tional regulatory information for the
hazardous chemical. SARA (Super-
fund Amendments and Reauthoriza-
tion Act) hazard classifications, CER-
CLA (Comprehensive Environmental
Response, Compensation and Liabil-
ity Act) reportable quantities (RQs),
transportation information, global
inventory compliance, and environ-
mental hazards or effects are often
included in MSDS. When these docu-
ments are written to the ANSI (Amer-
ican National Standards Institute)
standard guidelines, they will meet
OSHA requirements and provide the
user with additional helpful toxicology
and regulatory information.
Updating the MSDS
In the U.S., there is no specific time-
frame requirement for updating
MSDSs. When the document is pre-
pared, it must include the most up-
to-date information about the chemi-
cal hazards based on the available
scientific evidence at that time. If a
manufacturer becomes aware of new
significant information regarding a
chemicals hazards, the manufacturer
has three months to update its MSDS.
This updated version must be provided
to customers with the next shipments
of the hazardous chemical. To ensure
compliance with this requirement,
manufacturers must closely monitor
global chemical regulations as well as
new reports of adverse health or en-
vironmental effects associated with
chemical exposure.
MSDS management software
While there are no requirements for
generating MSDSs through specific
software, many companies utilize soft-
ware tools or programming to produce
and manage their MSDSs.
Using dedicated MSDS-manage-
ment software has several distinct
advantages over word processing: in-
creased MSDS-production efficiency;
enhanced MSDS-language consis-
tency; better formulation manage-
ment; and ease of distribution.
Global market. In todays global
market, having a system that supports
alternate templates and languages to
54 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com november 2007
Environmental Manager
53-55 CHE 11-07.indd 54 10/25/07 7:30:37 PM
meet the requirements for specific re-
gions or countries is a must. All global
product information can be stored in
MSDS management software, allow-
ing for the quick and easy production
of MSDSs for any country or region.
Rules or logic tools. Automated tools
can decrease the need for manual data
entry and manipulation. By using ap-
propriate software, information can be
automatically entered into the MSDS
based on system rules or logic. This
not only increases the efficiency of
MSDS production but the consistency
of MSDS information as well.
Impact of regulatory changes. The
impact of changes in regulations can
be quickly determined through the
use of automated impact analyses
and update tools. These tools can en-
sure that all affected products are re-
viewed, and required changes are ap-
plied appropriately. These tools can be
configured to apply to local, regional,
state, federal and global changes, de-
pending on the needs of the user.
MSDS distribution tools. Auto-
mated MSDS distribution tools are
also a very useful part of an automated
system. MSDSs can be automatically
mailed, faxed, emailed, or sent to a
web viewer based on predetermined
criteria.
Looking forward
Requirements for MSDSs will con-
tinue to grow and change. New initia-
tives, regulations and health-effect
information make it necessary for reg-
ulatory professionals to continually be
on the lookout for anything that may
impact their MSDSs. New guidelines
or classification systems, such as the
Globally Harmonized System of Clas-
sification and Labeling of Chemicals
(GHS), will impact how we communi-
cate and classify information. Regula-
tory professionals must keep abreast
of not only the OSHA requirements for
MSDSs, but also global requirements.
Through proper training, procedures,
and automated software tools, we can
ensure that our employees and cus-
tomers always receive the most up-
to-date information for the chemicals
they use. n
EditedbyDorothyLozowski
Author
Karen Lintz is the direc-
tor of regulatory services for
Wercs Professional Services
(WPS); (Phone (800) 572-6501
or (518) 640-9220; Email:
info@thewercs.com; Fax; (518)
640-9299), where she provides
regulatory guidance in sup-
port of software content and
implementation. Prior to this
position, Lintz was a regula-
tory specialist at GE Silicones. In earlier posi-
tions, Lintz followed patients in human clinical
cancer-treatment trials as a study coordinator at
the Cancer Center of Albany Medical Center, de-
veloped and reviewed clinical protocols and case
report forms as a data manager at Frontier Sci-
ence and Technology Research Foundation, Inc.,
and worked as a product safety specialist at the
Carborundum & Advanced Materials Division of
BP Chemicals. Lintz holds a B.A. in biology from
Lycoming College and an M.A. in pharmacology,
toxicology and therapeutics from the State Uni-
versity of New York at Buffalo.
ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com november 2007 55
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53-55 CHE 11-07.indd 55 10/25/07 7:31:04 PM
The Process Economics Program (PEP) provides in-depth, independent technical and
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56 CHE 11-07.indd 56 10/16/07 11:14:07 AM
Flowserve
The Flowserve Durco Mark 3 ANSI process pump is renowned for
its reliability and durability in severe chemical service applications.
It is designed with several unique features that help improve
performance and reduce operating costs, including an exclusive
reverse vane impeller. This impeller provides benefts such as:
low, predictable, constant seal chamber pressure for reliable seal
performance; low NPSHR to mitigate damage from cavitation; rear
cover wear transfer that protects the casing from erosion; and 20-second in-shop impeller setting.
Additional pump features include: the SealSentry seal chambers; and the Mark 3A power end with
its external micrometer impeller adjustment. An optional ANSI 3A power end with a lifetime warranty
is also available. The Mark 3 ANSI handles fow rates to 1680 m3/h (7400 gpm) and heads to 215
m (700 ft). Temperatures can range from -75C (-100 F) to 370C (700F) and pressures to 27
bar (400 psi).
For more information about Flowserve, see their ad on Pages 32D-7, 32D-9
Gorman-Rupp
Pump for Chemicals
The Gorman-Rupp Company has released a Pumps for Chemicals brochure highlighting pumps and
related equipment for the chemical industry.
The brochure contains information on the entire line of chemical
duty pumps including; self-priming centrifugal, high effciency,
straight centrifugal, submersible, portable engine driven, rotary gear
and air-driven diaphragm pumps. All designed for wastewater or
process applications. Gorman-Rupp also manufactures complete
pumping stations that include pumps, drives and controls.
Pumps are available in various materials of construction for abrasive
and corrosive applications.
The Gorman-Rupp Company has 75 years of pump manufacturing
experience and the leading distribution network in the world. When
you need a pump for handling tough chemical applications, think
Gorman-Rupp!
For more information aboutGorman-Rupp, see their ad on Page 7
Special Pumps Advertising Section
57
CE_NovPumpSection.indd 21 10/25/07 3:08:59 PM 57-58 CHE 11-07.indd 57 10/25/07 6:23:02 PM
Goulds Pumps
Goulds Offers Lined Magnetic Drive Pumps
ITT Goulds Pumps has an entire line of heavy duty, magnetically
driven, lined ANSI process pumps. The 3298 will handle the
caustic, corrosive fuids safely, reliably and at a minimum
operational cost. The 3298 is available in frame mounted,
close-coupled, vertical in-line and self priming confgurations.
Liquid-end parts are lined with a thick layer of Tefzel (ETFE)
for universal corrosion resistance and an impenetrable barrier
against leakage. The 3298 meets the strictest EPA regulations under the Clean Air Act. Zero emissions
for a safe system and work environment. Effciencies are equal to conventionally sealed ANSI pumps
and as high as 30% better than competitive metallic, mag drive pumps. The 3298 Series offers
capacities to 1,200 GPM (270m3/h), heads to 425 feet (129m) and temperature limits to
250F (121C).
For more information about Goulds Pumps, see their ad on Page 1
Wood Group ESP
Alternative Surface Pump Solutions
Pressure to reduce initial capital expenditures and the desire to lower increasing maintenance costs
as well as reduce environmental impact has encouraged many to evaluate alternative fuid handling
technologies for surface pump applications.
Building on down hole electric submersible pump technology,
the SPS Surface Pumping System has developed a reputation
as a low-maintenance, cost-effective alternative to vertical
turbine, split-case and positive displacement pumps in a variety
of industrial surface fuid-movement applications. These systems
feature a direct-drive, multistage centrifugal design ideally
suited for most high-pressure, low- to medium-volume and
environmentally sensitive applications.
Offering a low surface profle and quiet vibration-free operation,
SPS pumps can be electric, gas- or diesel-powered. They can typically handle up to 2000 gpm
(64,000 BFPD) and discharge pressures ranging up to 6000 psi. SPS technology has inherent
advantages such as low NPSH, lack of pulsation, product containment, volume and pressure fexibility,
and the lack of high-pressure packing glands that help operators eliminate costly maintenance
repairs, nuisance shutdowns, product leakage, piping stresses and man-hour consumption. They
are very fexible and can be easily modifed to handle a variety of service requirements. Design
adjustments to such items as the seal assembly, elastomers and metallurgy are made routinely to
accommodate special applications.
For more information about Wood Group ESP, see their ad on Page 28
Speci al Pumps Adverti si ng Secti on
A single SPS unit rated for 160 gpm at 3000 psi with a
400 HP motor installed in a Louisiana plant on wash-
water pump service.
58
12560
CE_NovPumpSection.indd 22 10/25/07 3:09:03 PM 57-58 CHE 11-07.indd 58 10/25/07 6:24:25 PM
PRODUCT SHOWCASE
59
Circle 205 on p. 70 or go to
adlinks.che.com/6901-205
Circle 201 on p. 70 or go to
adlinks.che.com/6901-201
x Simple yet effective diffuser
silencing
x Suitable for high pressure, high
temperature steam and gas
x Compact size and weight
x Non Clogging
x Minimum supporting requirement
CU Services LLC
725 Parkview Cir, Elk Grove, IL 60007
Ph 847-439-2303 rcronfel@cuservices.net
www.cuservices.net
Model
D800
Silencer
High Pressure
Silencers
Circle 202 on p. 70 or go to
adlinks.che.com/6901-202
Mixing Solutions for
Multiple Tank
Configurations
Pulsair pneumatic mixers are
the undisputed leader in Process
Control Management. Our
systems are designed to operate on
minimal nitrogen, thus eliminating
temperature fluctuation and specific
gravity stratification in tanks. The
Pulsair System operates multiple
tanks exceeding one million
gallons each or more, with one
programmable controller, creating a
consistent viscosity every time.
For further information, contact
Expect Engineering Excellence
425.455.1263
800.582.7797
sales@pulsair.com
www.pulsair.com
"Loders Croklaan's new
Pulsair equipped state-of-the-art
Palm Oil Refinery Rotterdam,
Netherlands. 2006"
Circle 203 on p. 70 or go to
adlinks.che.com/6901-203
PTFE or FKM
diaphragms.
PVC, Polypro or
PVDF bodies.
Available with
or without
gauges.
Gauge
Shields for
harsh environments.
PLAST-O-MATIC VALVES, INC.
CEDAR GROVE, NJ 07009
(973) 256-3000 Fax: (973) 256-4745
www.plastomatic.com info@plastomatic.com
Compact and Economical, Plast-O-Matic
Gauge Guards prevent dangerous leaks and
allow dependable instrument readings from
full vacuum to 250 psi.
Protect pressure or vacuum
instruments from clogging,
corrosion and damage.
SEALS/GUARDS 2C AD-07 8/15/07 8:59 AM Page 1
Penn SeParator CorP.
automatic Condensate
aftercoolers
Normally
used with a
blowdown
separator a
Penn After-
cooler can
also be used
alone in a
condensate
line going to drain where steam
is not present to automatically
cool the condensate to 140
deg. F to meet local require-
ments. They are available in 2
thru 8 sizes. An adjustable self
actuating valve senses the tem-
perature and adds the correct
amount of cooling water.
Phone: 1-888-PENNSEP
(736-6737)
Fax: 814-849-4510
Email:
info@pennseparator.com
Web:
www.pennseparator.com/ce
P.O. Box 340
Brookville, PA
15825
Circle 204 on p. 70 or go to
adlinks.che.com/6901-204
Circle 206 on p. 70 or go to
adlinks.che.com/6901-206
59 CHE 11-07.indd 59 10/29/07 5:51:56 PM
Intelligen Suite
The Market-Leading Engineering Suite for Modeling, Evaluation,
Scheduling, and Debottlenecking of Single & Multi-Product Facilities
Use SuperPro Designer to model, evaluate, and
debottleneck batch and continuous processes
Switch to SchedulePro to schedule, model,
and debottleneck multi-product facilities
SuperPro SchedulePro
Tracking of equipment occupancy
in multi-product facilities
Tracking demand for resources
(e.g., labor, materials, utilities, etc.)
Inventory tracking for raw materials,
intermediates, products, and wastes
SuperPro Designer is a comprehensive process simulator that facilitates modeling, cost analysis, debottlenecking, cycle time
reduction, and environmental impact assessment of biochemical, specialty chemical, pharmaceutical (bulk & fine), food, consumer
product, mineral processing, water purification, wastewater treatment, and related processes. Its development was initiated at the
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). SuperPro is already in use at more than 400 companies and 500 universities around
the world (including 18 of the top 20 pharmaceutical companies and 9 of the top 10 biopharmaceutical companies).
SchedulePro is a versatile finite capacity scheduling tool that generates feasible production schedules for multi-product facilities that
do not violate constraints related to the limited availability of facilities, equipment, resources and work areas. It can be used in
conjunction with SuperPro (by importing its recipes) or independently (by creating recipes directly in SchedulePro). Any industry
that manufactures multiple products by sharing production lines and resources can benefit from the use of SchedulePro. Engineering
companies use it as a modeling tool to size utilities for batch plants, identify equipment requirements, reduce cycle times, and
debottleneck facilities.
Visit our website to download detailed product literature
and functional evaluation versions of our tools
INTELLIGEN, INC. 2326 Morse Avenue Scotch Plains, NJ 07076 USA
Tel: (908) 654-0088 Fax: (908) 654-3866
Email: info@intelligen.com Website: www.intelligen.com
Intelligen also has offices in Europe and representatives in countries around the world
R
e
cipe D
B
Circle 240 on p. 70 or go to adlinks.che.com/6901-240
60-65 CHE 11-07.indd 60 10/30/07 6:31:48 PM
Intelligen Suite
The Market-Leading Engineering Suite for Modeling, Evaluation,
Scheduling, and Debottlenecking of Single & Multi-Product Facilities
Use SuperPro Designer to model, evaluate, and
debottleneck batch and continuous processes
Switch to SchedulePro to schedule, model,
and debottleneck multi-product facilities
SuperPro SchedulePro
Tracking of equipment occupancy
in multi-product facilities
Tracking demand for resources
(e.g., labor, materials, utilities, etc.)
Inventory tracking for raw materials,
intermediates, products, and wastes
SuperPro Designer is a comprehensive process simulator that facilitates modeling, cost analysis, debottlenecking, cycle time
reduction, and environmental impact assessment of biochemical, specialty chemical, pharmaceutical (bulk & fine), food, consumer
product, mineral processing, water purification, wastewater treatment, and related processes. Its development was initiated at the
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). SuperPro is already in use at more than 400 companies and 500 universities around
the world (including 18 of the top 20 pharmaceutical companies and 9 of the top 10 biopharmaceutical companies).
SchedulePro is a versatile finite capacity scheduling tool that generates feasible production schedules for multi-product facilities that
do not violate constraints related to the limited availability of facilities, equipment, resources and work areas. It can be used in
conjunction with SuperPro (by importing its recipes) or independently (by creating recipes directly in SchedulePro). Any industry
that manufactures multiple products by sharing production lines and resources can benefit from the use of SchedulePro. Engineering
companies use it as a modeling tool to size utilities for batch plants, identify equipment requirements, reduce cycle times, and
debottleneck facilities.
Visit our website to download detailed product literature
and functional evaluation versions of our tools
INTELLIGEN, INC. 2326 Morse Avenue Scotch Plains, NJ 07076 USA
Tel: (908) 654-0088 Fax: (908) 654-3866
Email: info@intelligen.com Website: www.intelligen.com
Intelligen also has offices in Europe and representatives in countries around the world
R
e
cipe D
B
Software
Product ShowcaSe
Contact Helene Hicks
Tel: 212-621-4958
Fax: 212-621-4976
Email: hhicks@che.com
circle 245 on p. 70 or go to
adlinks.che.com/6901-245
circle 242 on p. 70 or go to
adlinks.che.com/6901-242
HTRI Xchanger Suite

an integrated, easy-to-use suite of tools that


delivers accurate design calculations for
shell-and-tube heat exchangers fired heaters
jacketed-pipe heat exchangers air coolers
hairpin heat exchangers economizers
plate-and-frame heat exchangers tube layouts
spiral plate heat exchangers vibration analysis
Interfaces with many process simulator and physical property
packages either directly or via CAPE-OPEN.
C
A
P
E
-
O
P
E
N
C
o
m
p
l
i
a
n
t
!
Heat Transfer Research, Inc. HTRI@HTRI.net
150 Venture Drive www.HTRI.net
College Station, Texas 77845, USA
circle 243 on p. 70 or go to adlinks.che.com/6901-243
FlowPhase Inc.
VLEFlash
Now you can quickly
calculate fuid properties,
use the results to size
equipment and much
more...
Phase Envelopes
2 Phase Hydrocarbon VLE
Dew Point Calculations
Bubble Point Calculations
NIST Database
PH: (403) 250-7522
Fax: (403) 291-9730
circle 241 on p. 70 or go to
adlinks.che.com/6901-241
Cost Effective
Engineering Software
To Download a 14 Day Free Trial
Visit our website at www.fowphase.com
circle 244 on p. 70 or go to adlinks.che.com/6901-244
ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com november 2007 61
60-65 Che 11-07.indd 61 10/30/07 6:32:23 Pm
New & Used eqUipmeNt
62 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com november 2007
Circle 255 on p. 70 or go to
adlinks.che.com/6901-255
Wabash sells & Rents
boilers
20,000 - 400,000 #/Hr.
Diesel & turbine Generators
50 - 25,000 KW
Gears & turbines
25 - 4000 HP
We stock large inventories of:
Air Pre-Heaters Economizers Deaerators
Pumps Motors Fuel Oil Heating and Pump Sets
Valves Tubes Controls Compressors
Pulverizers Rental Boilers & Generators
24/7 Fast emergency service
800-704-2002
Phone: 847-541-5600 Fax: 847-541-1279
www.wabashpower.com
Power equiPment Co.
444 Carpenter Ave., wheeling, iL 60090
wabash
Circle 253 on p. 70 or go to
adlinks.che.com/6901-253
New ARRIVALS for FALL- BIOPHARM
50 sq. ft. Pellicon 2 Maxi Ultra Filtration System, Sanitary 316 S/S
500 liter Vertical Agitated BioPharm Pressure Vessel, 316L-S/S
125 liter Vertical BioPharm Reactor Body, 316L-S/S
Yamato Model GB-21 Pulvis Fluid Bed Dryer
Yamato Model GB-22 Pulvis Fluid Bed Dryer
100-N Applied Chemical Laboratory Fluid Bed Dryer, S/S
196- S Quadro CoMill, Sanitary Type 316 Stainless Steel
Model W-750-H Greerco Horizontal Colloid Mill, 316 S/S
Model SD-5 Charlotte Horizontal Colloid Mill, S/S
Shionogi #10 & Macofar CD-40 Capsule FIllers
300 ml.., & .5 Liter Netzsch Media Mill
1 qt.,2 gal., 4gal, 50 Ross LDM & PVM Mixers, S/S, Vacuum , Jkt. (6)
5000 Gal. Vertical Agitated, Tank, 304 S/S (2)
0.75 gal. Baker Perkins Jacketed Vacuum Sigma Blade Mixer, S/S (6)
2 CFM to 1600 CFM Stokes and Kinney Vacuum Pumps (75)
TOO Many Items to List..Please contact us for more info.
Website: WWW.HPEQUIP.COM
P.O. Box 839; Montville, NJ 07045
Contact Jim Siegel: Jim@hpequip.com
Phone: 973-335-9770; Fax: 973-335-5333
Circle 251 on p. 70 or go to
adlinks.che.com/6901-251
Circle 252 on p. 70 or go to
adlinks.che.com/6901-252
ProCess Filtration equiPment
Jwi Filter presses with polypro recessed plates
Sizes available: 2, 3, 5, 12, 25, cu. ft.
Sparkler & niagara horizontal plate filters,
model 33D17, 18S23, 1824S, 3348S
Komline 1' x 12' SS vac. belt Filter
nutsche filter, 10 gal, 316 SS, 35 psi
Stainless Steel erTel & STar Filter presses
Star 18" diameter SS plates, 14 chamber, 45 sq. ft.
netzsch 10 cu. ft. 630 mm, polypro plates
Several small oberlin belt filters
Avery Filter Company, Westwood, NJ
Phone: 201-666-9664 Fax 201-666-3802
E-mail: larry@averyfilter.com
www.averyfilter.com
ReguIar Position: Introductory Rate $995.00
(Front Cover Premium: $295)
CIosing Dates:
Dec 2007 closes Nov 16 June 2008 closes May 9
March 2008 closes Feb 8 Sep 2008 closes Aug 9
SpeciaI Position: (8 Lits/page) 2nd/3rd cover............$9,396
4th cover ....................$9,918 All rates are gross.
No charge for standard 2nd color or 4-color process
Free: Ask about
ONLNE POSTNG
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readers to yourwebsite.
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REAOH 266,700 ENGtNEERtNG PROFESStONALS
Fox bock lo: Helene Hicks * Fox: 2J2-62J-4976 * Phone: 2J2-62J-4958 * hhicksche.com
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60-65 Che 11-07.indd 62 10/30/07 6:33:08 Pm
New & Used eqUipmeNt
ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com november 2007 63
Circle 249 on p. 70 or go to
adlinks.che.com/6901-249
CoNsUltiNg
KnightHawk
Engineering
Specialists in design, failure analysis
and troubleshooting of static
and rotating equipment
Computational Fluid Dynamics
Finite Element Analysis
Heat Transfer Analysis
Vessel/Exchanger/Machine Design
Rotor Dynamics/Structural Dynamics
Pelletizing Die Design
Process Simulation
Pipe Stress
Circle 250 on p. 70 or go to
adlinks.che.com/6901-250
www.knighthawk.com
Tel: 281-282-9200
Fax: 281-282-9333
CONTROL
SYSTEMS
Recipe-controlled systems
for all process applications!
Continuous & batch processes
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Fast design and start-up
Designed, built, installed and supported
by the process experts at Ross!
1-866-797-2660
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Circle 258 on p. 70 or go to
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Economy Recovery Conservation
Serving the chemical, petrochemical, plastics,
pharmaceutical and food industries
We Stock: TANKS * VESSELS
* REACTORS * HEAT EXCHANGERS
* CHILLERS * COLUMNS * MILLS
* SCREENERS * SILOS
* DUST COLLECTORS * MIXERS
* BLENDERS * PUMPS * CENTRIFUGES
* DRYERS * FILTERS * COMPRESSORS
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process equipment available for sale.
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We Buy and Sell Process Equipment from Individual
Pieces to Complete Plants and Provide Full Plant
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Phone: 856-299-4500 Fax: 856-299-4446
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RAILCAR MOVING
P 412-788-9810 F 412-788-9822 E info@heylpatterson.com
The CUB

is an electromechanical
machine designed to move single
railcars or groups of cars.
Some advantages of the CUB

are:

Fast Installation

One Person Operation

Little Maintenance Requirements

Low Investment/Operating Costs


Ask about our complete line
of Railcar Moving Devices
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Circle 260 on p. 70 or go to
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HOCKMEYER
Equipment Corporation
A leader in the grinding and
dispersion industries
New & Used Equipment
Dispersers Mills Mixers
Tank & Tote Washers
Particle Size Analysis Vessels
Visit us at www.hockmeyer.com
or call us at 252-338-4705
Wanted to purchase:
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HEAT EXCHANGERS
FOR
GASES & LIQUIDS!
Talk Directly with Design Engineers!
Blower Cooling Vent Condensing
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www.xchanger.com info@xchanger.com
Liquid Cooled
Air Cooled

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Classified
Contact Helene Hicks
Tel: 212-621-4958
Fax: 212-621-4976
Email: hhicks@che.com
60-65 Che 11-07.indd 63 10/30/07 6:33:39 Pm
64 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com november 2007
Faculty Positions in
Mechanical Engineering
at Ecole Polytechnique Fdrale de Lausanne (EPFL)
The School of Engineering at EPFL invites applications for a tenure-track faculty
position in Mechanical Engineering. The main focus of this search is for a junior
position. Exceptionally, well qualified candidates may be considered at a more senior
level. We encourage applications in the broad area of energy sciences and tech-
nology with special emphasis on fluid flow topics. Particular attention will be
given to candidates working experimentally and/or theoretically in complex and/or
reactive flows, renewable fuels, fluid and combustion dynamics, or related areas.
Evidence of strong research and teaching capabilities are expected. Qualified fe-
male candidates are strongly encouraged to apply.
The successful candidate is expected to initiate independent, creative research pro-
grams and participates in undergraduate and graduate teaching. Significant start-up
resources and research infrastructure will be available. Internationally competitive
salaries and benefits are offered.
Interested individuals should include a rsum with a list of publications, a concise
statement of research and teaching interests, and the names and addresses, with
e-mail, of at least five referees. Applications should be uploaded (as PDFs) by January
15, 2008 to http://gmeca-osearch.epfl.ch. For further information, please contact:
Professor John Botsis
School of Engineering, EPFL
Station 9
CH-1015 Lausanne
Switzerland
e-mail : hiring.stime@epfl.ch
For additional information on EPFL, please consult http://www.epfl.ch and http://
sti.epfl.ch/
EPFL is an equal opportunity employer.
Circle 247 on p. 70 or go to adlinks.che.com/6901-247
RecRuitment
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ABROWN
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60-65 Che 11-07.indd 64 10/30/07 6:34:21 Pm
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60-65 Che 11-07.indd 65 10/30/07 6:34:49 Pm
66-67 CHE 11-07.indd 66 10/31/07 3:42:32 PM
66-67 CHE 11-07.indd 67 10/31/07 3:43:31 PM
SRI Consultings Directory of Chemical Producers (DCP) is the worlds leading
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Economic Indicators
ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com november 2007 71 For more economic indicators, see next Page
November 2007; VOL. 114; NO. 12
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For additional news as it develops, please visit www.che.com
plant watch
BASF inaugurates two new
plants in Texas
october 8, 2007 BasF inaugurated
two new manufacturing plants at its
site in Freeport, tex. the polyamide
production line, which replaces a facility
in enka, n.c., has a capacity of 120,000
m.t./yr. the new superabsorbent-
polymers (saP) manufacturing plant
(photo) has a capacity of 180,000
m.t./yr and replaces existing facilities
in aberdeen, miss. and Portsmouth, Va.
these two plants are supplied with raw
materials, caprolactam and acrylic acid
respectively, from other BasF plants at
the Freeport site.
Basells technology is licensed for
a polypropylene plant
october 8, 2007 Qatar Petroleum
has selected Basells spheripol
technology for a new 700,000-ton/yr
polypropylene plant that will be built in
mesaieed, Qatar, as part of the Qatar
Petrochemical complex project. the
unit will be operated by a joint venture
between Qatar Petroleum and Honam
Petrochemical of Korea. startup is
expected in 2011.
Metso to supply minerals
processing plant to Gradir
october 2, 2007 metso minerals will
supply a minerals processing plant to
gradir montenegro, a supplier of lead
and zinc concentrate, to be located at its
mine in montenegro. the delivery will be
completed during the 2nd Q of 2008. the
approximately 7-million order includes
equipment for crushing, screening,
grinding, dense medium separation,
flotation, filtration and tailings treatment.
the mines capacity is estimated to rise
from 170,000 m.t./yr to 500,000 m.t./yr of
ore once the expansion is complete.
Evonik is increasing its alkoxide
production capacity
october 2, 2007 evonik industries ag
will build an alkoxide production facility at
its mobile, ala. site. the plant, designed for
a capacity of 60,000 m.t./yr, is expected
to come onstream in early 2009. a second
facility in Brazil is scheduled to start
operation the following year.
A $105-million investment is planned
for biofuel and electricity complexes
october 1, 2007 dynamotive energy
systems corp. and its subsidiary
dynamotive Latinoamericana s.a.,
announced that they have submitted
documents detailing plans to invest
approximately $105 million to develop
two self-contained biofuel-to-electricity
complexes in corrientes, argentina. each
complex will be comprised of a 15.7-mW
electricity-generating station powered
by the majority of the fuel output of two
200-ton/d modular plants producing
biofuel from wood waste and residues
from nearby forests and other biomass
residue. development and construction
of the complexes, which are expected to
be fully operational late next year, will be
implemented by dynamotive, jointly with
tecna, a major argentine engineering
firm.
ChemPro Group designs and fabricates
modular ethanol plant
september 29, 2007 the chemPro
group, LLc announced that the company
has contracted with golden triangle
energy of craig, mo., to design and build
a modular, distillation dehydration plant
for the production of high-quality ethanol
from corn-based fermentation feedstock.
the facility will be a multi-tower distillation
plant consisting of free-standing distillation
columns, seven process modules and
a stair module to connect them. Plant
assembly will begin in 2007, with startup
scheduled for the 1st Q of 2008.
SAFC to expand high-potency API
fermentation capabilities
september 26, 2008 saFc, a member of
the sigma-aldrich group, has announced
a $29-million investment to significantly
expand its drug substance capabilities
in high-potency biologics at its facility
in Jerusalem. the site enhancement will
enable saFc Pharma to provide process
development and cgmP manufacturing
to customers requiring large-scale,
high-potency, toxic or hazardous drug
substances. the expansion is scheduled
for completion in the 1st Q of 2009 and
is expected to broaden capabilities to
complement the multi-step, organic-
synthesis flagship facility at the companys
madison, Wis. location.
mergers and
acquisitions
Ineos Silicas and PQ
Corp. combine
october 11, 2007 ineos and the carlyle
group have reached an agreement in
which the PQ corp., the specialty chemical
company acquired in July 2007 by the
carlyle group, will combine with ineos
silicas. Under terms of the proposed
agreement, the carlyle group will have
approximately 60% share and ineos
approximately 40%. the financial terms are
not disclosed. the combined business will
become a global producer of specialty
inorganic chemicals, catalysts and
engineered glass products with annual
sales revenue of $1 billion.
Lanxess completes two
portfolio adjustments
october 2, 2007 the former Lustran
Polymers business unit of Lanxess has
become part of ineos aBs, a newly formed
joint venture with British chemicals group
ineos. Lanxess initially holds a 49% financial
interest in the joint venture, while the
operating business is run by ineos. this
minority interest held by Lanxess will also
be acquired by ineos in two years time as
agreed. meanwhile, Lanxess has divested
its wholly owned subsidiary Borchers gmbH,
which specializes in additives for coatings,
emulsion paints and printing inks, to the om
group (omg) in the U.s.
Haldor Topse acquires Saipems
shares in Haldor Topse A/S
september 27, 2007 dr. Haldor topse
now holds all the shares in Haldor topse
after acquiring saipems 50% share for
a consideration of 340 million in cash.
saipem is the owner of snamprogetti, which
originally invested in Haldor topse a/s
alongside dr. Haldor topse in 1972. Haldor
topse a/s will continue its current focus
on providing innovative research-based
solutions for catalysis and related process
technology with global operations and
headquarters in copenhagen. n
Dorothy Lozowski
Business news
This facility is the new superabsorbent polymer (SAP) plant
at BASFs Freeport, Tex. site
71-72 CHE 11-07.indd 71 10/29/07 5:48:28 PM
Economic Indicators
CURRENT BUSINESS INDICATORS
LATEST PREVIOUS YEAR AGO
sep. '07 = 109.6 aug. '07 = 109.4 Jul. '07 = 109.5 sep. '06 = 109.3
aug. '07 = 1,613.6 Jul. '07 = 1,653.8 Jun. '07 = 1,656.3 aug. '06 = 1,686.9
sep. '07 = 82.7 aug. '07 = 82.7 Jul. '07 = 82.8 sep. '06 = 83.4
oct. '07 = 749.0 sep. '07 = 749.4 aug. '07 = 745.4 oct. '06 = 733.8
sep. '07 = 227.7 aug. '07 = 222.8 Jul. '07 = 233.3 sep. '06 = 216.4
sep. 22, '07 = 311.4 sep. 15, '07 = 311.6 sep. 8, '07 = 310.5 sep. 23, '06 = 284.8
sep. '07 = 142.8 aug. '07 = 142.4 Jul. '07 = 143.7 sep. '06 = 141.8
sep. '07 = 133.5 aug. '07 = 132.0 Jul. '07 = 132.3 sep. '06 = 130.2
75
77
79
81
83
85
96
99
102
105
108
111
1360
1440
1520
1600
1680
1760
J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D
CPI OUTPUT INDEX (2000 = 100) CPI OUTPUT VALUE ($ Billions) CPI OPERATING RATE (%)
CPI output index (2000 = 100)
CPI value of output, $ billions
CPI operating rate, %
Construction cost index (1967 = 100)
Producer prices, industrial chemicals (1982 = 100)
Index of industrial activity (1992 = 100)
Hourly earnings index, chemical & allied products (1992 = 100)
Productivity index, chemicals & allied products (1992 = 100)
2006 2007
465
480
495
510
525
540
J F M A M J J A S O N D
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PLANT COST INDEX (CEPCI)
CE INdEx
Equipment
Heat exchangers & tanks
Process machinery
Pipe, valves & fittings
Process instruments
Pumps & compressors
Electrical equipment
Structural supports & misc
Construction labor
Buildings
Engineering & supervision
Aug. '07 Jul. '07 Aug. '06
Prelim. Final Final
531.5 533.7 510.0
632.9 636.4 602.3
602.9 609.4 560.9
601.7 603.5 556.2
747.4 746.0 731.7
428.6 430.6 437.2
836.1 829.8 788.3
434.5 435.4 414.2
669.9 678.4 637.7
317.2 316.9 312.9
478.5 478.2 475.2
356.4 356.5 351.9
Annual Index:
1999 = 390.6
2000 = 394.1
2001 = 394.3
2002 = 395.6
2003 = 402.0
2004 = 444.2
2005 = 468.2
2006 = 499.6
(1957-59 = 100)
dOWNLOAd THE cepci TWO WEEkS SOONER AT www.che.com/pindex
MARSHALL & SWIFT EQUIPMENT COST INDEX
(1926 = 100) 3rd Q 2nd Q 1st Q 4th Q 3rd Q
2007 2007 2007 2006 2006
1,393.0 1,383.6 1,362.7 1,353.8 1,333.4
1,445.6 1,433.5 1,410.0 1,399.2 1,378.3
1,427.5 1,417.5 1,398.8 1,385.8 1,368.4
1,421.0 1,408.8 1,384.9 1,374.1 1,353.9
1,408.8 1,400.4 1,378.1 1,367.6 1,349.1
1,341.8 1,331.3 1,309.5 1,299.5 1,280.6
1,451.2 1,440.2 1,414.2 1,404.6 1,384.8
1,364.0 1,354.0 1,331.6 1,324.2 1,308.4
1,536.2 1,521.0 1,497.9 1,486.3 1,460.4
1,494.8 1,486.7 1,463.1 1,449.4 1,428.4

1,359.0 1,340.7 1,319.5 1,310.1 1,284.4
1,453.2 1,442.7 1,427.7 1,413.5 1,402.1
1,691.7 1,679.3 1,648.2 1,638.5 1,613.3
1,407.4 1,394.2 1,369.1 1,359.8 1,334.7
M & S INdEx
Process industries, average
Cement
Chemicals
Clay products
Glass
Paint
Paper
Petroleum products
Rubber
Related industries
Electrical power
Mining, milling
Refrigeration
Steam power
1225
1240
1255
1270
1285
1300
1315
1330
1345
1360
1375
1390
1405
1st 2nd 3rd
Quarter
4th
Annual Index:
1999 = 1,068.3 2001 = 1,093.9 2003 = 1,123.6 2005 = 1,244.5

2000 = 1,089.0 2002 = 1,104.2 2004 = 1,178.5 2006 = 1,302.3
current business indicators provided by dri-WeFa, Lexington, mass.
THE ONLINE CEPCI
CEs Online CEPCI provides ac-
cess to the entire historical CEPCI
database (top). And, instead of
waiting more than two weeks for
the print or online version of the
magazine to arrive, subscribers to
the Online CEPCI can download
new data as soon as it is calcu-
lated. Visit www.che.com/pindex
to subscribe to the following:
Electronic notification of
monthly updates
All annual data archives
(1947 to present) and monthly
data archives (1970 to present)
Option to download data in
Excel format
A selection of helpful
cost-estimation articles
* Starting with the April 2007 Final numbers, several of the data series for labor and compressors have been
converted to accommodate series IDs that were discontinued by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
72 ChemiCal engineering www.Che.Com november 2007
71-72 CHE 11-07.indd 72 10/29/07 5:48:30 PM
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Cover 3 CHE 11-07.indd 3 10/15/07 12:30:28 PM
Circle 03 on p. 70 or go to adlinks.che.com/6901-03
Cover 4 CHE 11-07.indd 4 10/15/07 12:34:20 PM