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Analog & Digital Communications :

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Asad Abbas Assistant Professor Telecom Department Air University, E-9, Islamabad

Scope of the course

Communication is a process by which information is exchanged between individuals through a common system of symbols, signs, or behavior Communication systems are reliable, economical and efficient means of communications

Public switched telephone network (PSTN), mobile telephone communication (GSM, 3G, ...), broadcast radio or television, navigation systems, ...

The course is aiming at introducing fundamental issues in designing analog and digital communication systems
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Scope of the course ...

Example of a communication systems:


Cellular wireless communication systems
BS

Base Station (BS)

UE

UE

UE User Equipment (UE)


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General structure of a communication systems
Info. Noise Received Transmitted Received info. signal signal Transmitter Receiver Channel User

SOURCE

Source

Analog Transmitter

Analog Receiver

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General structure of a communication systems
Info. Noise Received Transmitted Received info. signal signal Transmitter Receiver Channel User

SOURCE

Source

Digital Transmitter
Formatter Source encoder Channel encoder Modulator

Digital Receiver
Formatter
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Source decoder

Channel decoder
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Demodulator

Course Information

Course text books:

Analog Communications

Modern Digital and Analog Communication Systems by B.P. Lathi Digital communications: Fundamentals and Applications by Bernard Sklar,Prentice Hall, 2001 Communication systems engineering, by John G. Proakis and Masoud Salehi, Prentice Hall, 2002, 2nd edition, ISBN: 0-13-095007-6

Digital Communications

Additional recommended books:

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Signal

It is a set of information e.g. voice signal, video signal etc Signal Energy Signal power

Signal Strength measurement


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Signal Energy (real Signal)

Eg =

(t ) dt

Signal Energy (complex signal)

Eg =

g (t ) dt

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Signal Power ( Real Signal)


T /2

Pg = Lim
T

1 T

T / 2

g 2 (t ) dt

Signal Power (Complex Signal)


T /2

Pg = Lim
T

1 T

T / 2

g (t ) dt

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Classification of Signals

Continuous Time and Discrete Time Signals Analog and Digital Signals Periodic and Aperiodic Signals Deterministic and Probabilistic Signals Energy and Power Signals

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Review

Classification of Signals

Continuous Time Signal It is specified for every time of t Discrete -Time Signal It is specified for only at discrete values of t

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Review

Classification of Signals

Analog Signal

The range set (dependant variable) contains infinite number of values

Digital Signal

The range set (dependant variable) contains finite number of values. It may contain 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128 or 256 values.

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Review

Analog and discrete signals

A discrete signal Analog signals

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Review

Digital Signal Types. Binary Signal (symbol/message)


It is two valued digital signal. Each value is called bit or some time symbol.

M-ary Signal (symbol/message)


It has equal to or greater than 2 symbols. Each symbol contains many bits. The number bits per symbol are given by:
k = log2 M bits per symbol Where M is total number of symbols. If M=2, it is binary signal.

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Review

Periodic and non-periodic signals x(t)=x(t+T) for all t

A periodic signal

A non-periodic signal

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Review

Deterministic and random signals

Deterministic signal: No uncertainty with respect to the signal value at any time. Random signal: Some degree of uncertainty in signal values before it actually occurs.

Thermal noise in electronic circuits due to the random movement of electrons Reflection of radio waves from different layers of ionosphere The multipath signal in mobile communication system

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Review

Energy and power signals


A signal is an energy signal if, and only if, it has nonzero but finite energy for all time:

A signal is a power signal if, and only if, it has finite but nonzero power for all time:

General rule: Periodic and random signals are power signals. Signals that are both deterministic and non-periodic are energy signals.
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Trigonometric Fourier Series

A periodic signal of period To consists of sum of sinusoids. The frequency of the fundamental sinusoid is 1/To and that of higher components, the harmonics, is integral multiple of the fundamental.

f (t ) = a0 + an cos not + bn sin no t


n =1

a0 = T10 an =
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To 2 To 2

f (t ) dt f (t ) cos no t dt f (t ) sin not dt


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2 T0 2 T0

To 2 To 2

bn =

To 2 To 2

Exponential Fourier Series

The periodic signal, f(t), can also be represented in terms of exponentials as shown below.

f (t ) = Dn =
1 T0

n =

De
n

jno t

To 2

To 2

f (t ) e jnot dt

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Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform and Inverse Fourier Transform

G ( ) = g (t ) = =
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1 2 jt G ( ) e d

g (t ) e jt dt

j 2 f t G ( f ) e df
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Spectral Density
It is distribution of Signals energy or power in frequency domain. Energy Spectral Density The total Energy of a real valued energy signal x(t) is given by

Energy Spectral Density =

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Spectral Density (contd..)

Power Spectral Density The average power of a real valued power signal x(t) is given by Parsevals Theorem

Power Spectral Density =

s
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Spectral Density (contd..)

The Power Spectral density of a non-periodic power signal is given by:

Where XT(f) is Fourier Transform xT(t), which is truncated version of x(t). It is observed in (-T/2, T/2)

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Example

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Example (contd..)

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Autocorrelation

It is matching of signal with a delayed version of itself. Autocorrelation of real valued Energy Signal

Autocorrelation of a complex Energy Signal:

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Autocorrelation (contd..)

Autocorrelation Properties of Energy Signal

Autocorrelation is symmetric around zero. Its maximum value occurs at the origin. Autocorrelation and spectral density form a Fourier transform pair. Its value at the origin is equal to energy.

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Autocorrelation (contd..)

Real valued Power Signal:

Complex Power Signal :

For a periodic signal:

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Autocorrelation (contd..)

Autocorrelation Properties of Power Signal

Autocorrelation is symmetric Its maximum value occurs at the


density form a Fourier transform pair. Its value at the origin is equal to the average power. around zero. origin.

Autocorrelation and spectral

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Communication Systems

Basband Communication
Baseband signals are used to transmit information.
Each message symbol is represented by one of a set of pulse waveforms g1(t), g2(t)gM(t)

Passband Communication
Passband signals are transmitted. Each baseband
pulse waveform is represented by one set of bandpass waveforms s1(t), s2(t)sM(t)

Data rate

It is speed of communication. In case of Binary signaling, it is measured as bits/sec and in case of M-ary Signaling it is measured as symbols/sec.
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Review (contd..)

Baseband signal
Its spectra ranges from (near ) DC to some finite value

Passband Signal
Its spectrum is shifted away from DC Value

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END

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