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‫ﺇﱃ ﻃﻠﺒﺔ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ‬

‫ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﲢﻀﲑ ﲝﺚ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻤﻴﺰ‬

‫ﻗﺎﺩﺓ ﺯﺍﻭﻱ‬:‫ﺗﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻟﺐ‬

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‫ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﲢﻀﲑ ﲝﺚ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ ﻣﺘﻤﻴﺰ‬

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‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‪:‬‬

‫ﻳﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﺍﳌﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻜﺸﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﻘﺎﺋﻖ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ‬

‫ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﻘﺼﺪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪ ,‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻬﺪﻑ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻭ ﺇﱃ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﻉ ﻭ ﺍﻷﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﻌﻪ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻧﻘﺪﻡ ﻟﻄﻠﺒﺔ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻧﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﳍﺎ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻘﺎﻳﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﺍﳌﻤﻴﺰ ﻭ ﺍﳌﻤﻨﻬﺞ ﻭ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﻮﺙ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺠﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﲢﻀﲑ ﲝﺚ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ ﻣﺘﻤﻴﺰ‬

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‫اﻟﻤﻘﺪﻣﺔ واﻟﺨﺎﺗﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﻣﻬﻢ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﲝﺚ ﻳﺒﺪﺅﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﺑﺘﻤﻬﻴﺪ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻭﻳﺒﺪﻱ ﺭﻏﺒﺘﻪ ﰲ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﻭﻳﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﻋﺪﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ‪ ,‬ﰒ ﻳﺒﲔ ﻣﱪﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﰒ ﻳﻄﺮﺡ ﺇﺷﻜﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻭﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﻬﺎﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳚﻴﺐ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ‪.‬‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﳋﺎﲤﺔ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﺑﻌﺮﺽ ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭﻩ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﻭ ﺍﳋﺮﻭﺝ ﺑﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﳐﺘﺼﺮﺍ‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻓﻴﻪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﻘﺎﯾﯿﺲ اﻟﺒﺤﺚ اﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ اﻟﻤﺘﻤﯿﺰ‬
‫ﺇﺑﺮﺍﺯ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ‪:‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻳﻴﺲ ﺍﳌﻬﻤﺔ ﰲ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﻮﺙ ﻭﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻹﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ‬

‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻭ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻞ ﺣﺮﻓﻴﺎ ﻭ ﺇﳕﺎ ﺑﻠﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺣﻮﺍﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﺁﺭﺍﺀﻩ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ‪:‬‬

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‫ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﲢﻀﲑ ﲝﺚ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ ﻣﺘﻤﻴﺰ‬

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‫ﺗﻠﻌﺐ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺑﺎﺭﺯ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﺧﺬ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻟﺐ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺿﻴﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻬﺔ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺃﺻﺤﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻓﻼ ﻳﻨﺤﺎﺯ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻱ ﻃﺮﻑ ﻣﻌﲔ ﺣﱴ ﻻ ﻳﺆﺛﺮ‬
‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﻳﻘﺼﺪ ‪‬ﺎ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺻﺤﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻓﻼ ﻳﻨﻘﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﻓﻘﺮﺓ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻛﻼﻡ ﻣﻌﲔ ﻟﻜﺎﺗﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻴﻪ ﻻﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ‬
‫ﺳﺮﻗﺔ ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ‪:‬‬
‫ﺗﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺮﻕ ﺇﱃ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﰒ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺇﱃ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫ﺑﻌﻴﺪﺓ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﲝﻴﺚ ﺇﻥ ﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻗﺪ ﳛﺪﺙ ﻓﺠﻮﺓ ﲣﻠﻂ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺉ‪,‬‬
‫ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻻﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺑﻂ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺑﺒﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺣﱴ ﺗﺘﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﻭﺗﻌﱪ ﺑﻮﺿﻮﺡ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻂ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳉﻤﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻗﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﲑ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻂ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳉﻤﻞ ﻛﺤﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﻄﻒ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺟﻞ ﺇﻳﺼﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ‬

‫ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻭ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﻳﺴﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺎﻧﺔ ﺑﻘﻮﺍﻣﻴﺲ ﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻣﻀﺔ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﳍﺎﻣﺶ ﺣﱴ ﻻ ﳛﺪﺙ ﺗﻮﺟﺲ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺉ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻤﻴﺶ ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻤﻴﺶ ﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺒﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻵﺭﺍﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ ﻭ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ‪ ...‬ﺍﱁ‬
‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺧﺬﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻤﻴﺶ ﰲ ﺃﺳﻔﻞ‬
‫ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻭﺳﻨﺘﻄﺮﻕ ﺇﱃ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻤﻴﺶ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﲢﻀﲑ ﲝﺚ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ ﻣﺘﻤﻴﺰ‬

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‫ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺯﻧﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻮﻝ ﻭﺍﳌﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪:‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻮﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺯﻧﺔ ﰲ ﻓﺮﻭﻋﻬﺎ ﻓﻼ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﳛﺘﻮﻱ‬
‫ﻓﺼﻞ ﻣﺜﻼ ﻋﻠﺔ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﻣﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺒﺤﺚ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﺃﻭ ﳛﺘﻮﻱ‬
‫ﻣﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻄﻠﺒﲔ ﻭ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﻣﺜﻼ‪...‬ﺍﱁ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻟﻠﻌﻨﺎﻭﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﻭﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺗﻌﱪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻓﻤﺜﻼ ﻻ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﻭ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺑﻌﻨﺎﻭﻳﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻳﺘﺤﺪﺙ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻴﺔ‪...‬ﺍﱁ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﲢﻀﲑ ﲝﺚ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ ﻣﺘﻤﻴﺰ‬

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‫اﻻﻗﺘﺒﺎس‬
‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺒﺎﺱ ﻋﻤﻞ ﲤﻴﺰﺕ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻷﲝﺎﺙ ﰲ ﻋﺼﺮﻧﺎ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪,‬‬

‫ﻭﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻭ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻭ ﺍﳌﻮﺛﻮﻕ ﲟﺆﻟﻔﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻳﻠﺰﻡ ﺍﻹﳌﺎﻡ ‪‬ﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ‪ .‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﳌﻘﺘﺒﺴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺼﲑﺓ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻠﺔ‪ ,‬ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﻠﺢ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﳌﻬﺘﻤﲔ ﺑﺎﳌﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻗﺘﺒﺎﺱ ﻧﺺ ﻗﺼﲑ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﲑ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺒﺎﺱ‪:‬‬

‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻗﺘﺒﺲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺗﺐ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﻣﺎ ﺣﺮﻓﻴﺎ ﻓﻌﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﺑﲔ ﻣﺰﺩﻭﺟﺘﲔ “‪ ,”....‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﻧﻘﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﺄﺳﻠﻮﺑﻪ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﻓﻴﻜﻔﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻀﻊ ﰲ ﺍﳍﺎﻣﺶ ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻭ ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻊ ﺫﻛﺮ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺮﺟﻊ‪.‬‬

‫ﻋﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺬﻑ‪:‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﲨﻠﺔ ﺣﺮﻓﻴﺎ ﻓﻌﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻀﻊ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ )‪(...‬‬
‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺣﺬﻑ ﻓﻘﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﻓﻌﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﻣﺘﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ )‪(...............‬‬

‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺿﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﲨﻠﺔ ﺩﺧﻞ ﻧﺺ ﻣﻘﺘﺒﺲ ﻓﻌﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﺑﲔ ﻣﻌﻘﻮﻓﺘﲔ‬
‫ﻫﻜﺬﺍ ]‬

‫[‪.‬‬

‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺧﻄﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﻓﻴﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ]ﻫﻜﺬﺍ[ ﺑﲔ ﻣﻌﻘﻮﻓﺘﲔ ﺑﻌﺪ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﳋﻄﺄ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﲢﻀﲑ ﲝﺚ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ ﻣﺘﻤﻴﺰ‬

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‫اﻟﺘﮭﻤﯿﺶ‬
‫ﺍﳍﻮﺍﻣﺶ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳊﻮﺍﺷﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﺽ ﺍﳌﺨﺼﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻨﻘﻞ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﻭ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﺡ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺫﻛﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﰲ ﲝﺜﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭ ﺗﻜﻤﻦ ﺃﳘﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﰲ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭﻩ‬

‫ﻭ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺗﻪ ﻭ ﻫﻲ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ‪ ,‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﳍﻮﺍﻣﺶ‬
‫ﻛﺄﻧﻪ ﻳﻀﻊ ﲢﺖ ﺑﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀ ﻣﺎ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻟﲑﺍﺟﻌﻪ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻭ ﻛﺄﻧﻪ‬
‫ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﺸﺮﻛﻪ ﻣﻌﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﻴﻒ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ؟‬

‫ﺗﺮﻗﻢ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻭ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﺗﺮﻗﻴﻤﺎ ﺗﺴﻠﺴﻠﻴﺎ ﻭﺗﺬﻛﺮ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺣﻘﺎﺋﻖ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻊ ﻭ ﻫﺬﺍ‬

‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﳌﺆﻟﻒ‪ ,‬ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺟﻊ‪ ,‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪ ,‬ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪ‪ ,‬ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻌﺔ )ﺇﺫﺍ‬

‫ﻭﺟﺪﺕ(‪ ,‬ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‪ ,‬ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﳌﺆﻟﻒ‬

‫ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‬

‫ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺟﻊ‬

‫ﺩ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﳊﻤﺎﺩﻱ‪9 ,‬ﻃﺮﻕ ﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﻭﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﲑ‪ ,‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺰﻡ‪,‬‬
‫ﺑﲑﻭﺕ )ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ(‪ ,‬ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪ ,2005 ,‬ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ‪37‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻌﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬

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‫ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﲢﻀﲑ ﲝﺚ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ ﻣﺘﻤﻴﺰ‬

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‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﺑﻨﻘﻞ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻣﺎ ﺣﺮﻓﻴﺎ‪ ,‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺑﻨﻘﻞ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻌﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻀﻴﻒ ﻟﻠﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺜﻼ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪ ,‬ﺩ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﳊﻤﺎﺩﻱ‪9 ,‬ﻃﺮﻕ ﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﻭﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﲑ‪ ,‬ﺩﺍﺭ‬

‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺰﻡ‪ ,‬ﺑﲑﻭﺕ )ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ(‪ ,‬ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪ ,2005 ,‬ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ‪37‬‬

‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻳﻜﺘﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﺑﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﳌﺆﻟﻒ ﻭ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺮﺟﻊ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﳌﺆﻟﻒ ﻣﻊ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺮﺟﻊ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺮﺟﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﻟﻒ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﻓﻌﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﺘﺐ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﰲ‬
‫ﻛﻞ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﺑﻠﻐﺔ ﺃﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﳍﺎﻣﺶ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ‬

‫ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ‪‬ﺎ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺗﺐ ﻣﺘﺮﺟﻢ ﻓﻨﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺮﺟﻊ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﺮﺍﻧﺎﻩ ‪‬ﺎ ﰒ ﻧﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﲨﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻻ ﳜﺘﺺ ﺍﳍﻮﺍﻣﺶ ﺑﻨﻘﻞ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﻭ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﻞ ﻗﺪ ﳜﺼﺼﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ‬
‫ﻟﻨﻘﻞ ﺷﺮﻭﺣﺎﺗﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﻠﻴﻘﺎﺗﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻧﺒﺬﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺣﺪ ﺍﻷﻋﻼﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻣﺮﺍﺩﻑ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺎ ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﲢﻀﲑ ﲝﺚ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ ﻣﺘﻤﻴﺰ‬

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‫ﺷﻜﻞ اﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ‪:‬‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻧﻜﺘﺐ ﻣﺎﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﳝﻘﺮﺍﻃﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺒﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱄ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻲ‬
‫ﻛﻠﻴﺔ‪...................‬‬
‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ‪...........................‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬

‫) ﲞﻂ ﻋﺮﻳﺾ ﻭﻭﺍﺿﺢ(‬

‫ﲢﺖ ﺇﺷﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻷﺳﺘﺎﺫ‬

‫ﻣﻦ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻟﺐ‬

‫‪..........‬‬

‫‪.........‬‬

‫ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ‪ ) :‬ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﶈﻀﺮﻱ ﻣﺬﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺮﺝ (‬

‫ﺍﻷﺳﺘﺎﺫ‪:‬‬

‫‪......‬‬

‫‪........‬‬

‫ﺃﺳﺘﺎﺫ‪) :‬ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ(‬
‫‪........‬‬

‫‪.........‬‬

‫ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ‪:‬‬

‫‪..........‬‬

‫‪..........‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ‪:‬‬

‫‪........‬‬

‫‪.......‬‬

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‫ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﲢﻀﲑ ﲝﺚ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ ﻣﺘﻤﻴﺰ‬

‫‪10‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﺑﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺁﻳﺔ ﻗﺮﺁﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺪﻳﺚ ﺷﺮﻳﻒ ﺃﻭ ﺣﻜﻤﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﻴﺴﺘﺴﻬﻞ ﺑﻪ ﲝﺜﻪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‪:‬‬

‫ﲣﺼﺺ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺸﻜﺮﺍﺕ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﺑﺸﻜﺮ ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺳﺎﻋﺪﻭﻩ ﰲ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻣﺪﻭﻩ ﲟﻌﻠﻮﻣﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺳﺎﻋﺪﺗﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ ,‬ﻭﻳﻮﺟﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻜﺮﺍﺕ ﻭ ﳜﺘﺼﺮ ﻗﺪﺭ ﺍﻹﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﺮ ﻣﻌﱪﺍ ﺑﻌﻴﺪﺍ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻃﻒ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻌﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﲣﺼﺺ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﻟﻺﻫﺪﺍﺀ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﺑﺈﻫﺪﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻨﲔ ﻛﺎﻟﻮﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺭﲟﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ‪...‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺧﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺳﺔ‪:‬‬

‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ) ﺍﳌﻘﺪﻣﺔ( ﰲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ﻟﻮﺣﺪﻫﺎ ﲞﻂ ﻋﺮﻳﺾ ﻭﻭﺍﺿﺢ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻭﻥ‬

‫ﺗﺮﻗﻴﻢ ﻟﻠﺼﻔﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻌﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻗﻴﻢ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻣﻨﺔ‪:‬‬

‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ) ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻬﻴﺪﻱ( ﲞﻂ ﻋﺮﻳﺾ ﻭﻭﺍﺿﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻌﺔ‪:‬‬

‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻬﻴﺪﻱ‪.‬‬
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‫ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﲢﻀﲑ ﲝﺚ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ ﻣﺘﻤﻴﺰ‬

‫‪11‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺷﺮﺓ‪:‬‬

‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ( ﲞﻂ ﻋﺮﻳﺾ ﻭﻭﺍﺿﺢ ﻟﻠﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﲝﺜﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ‬

‫ﻓﺼﻮﻝ ﻭﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﻣﺒﺤﺚ ﻟﻠﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﲝﺜﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺒﺎﺣﺚ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ‪:‬‬
‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻮﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﻮﺙ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﻛﺘﺐ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﲤﺔ ﰲ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ﻟﻮﺣﺪﻫﺎ‪ ,‬ﰒ ﺍﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﳋﺎﲤﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻟﻴﺔ ﳍﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺗﺄﰐ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﻭ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻛﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ‪:‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻊ‬

‫)ﺗﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﺃﻭﻻ ﰒ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ(‬

‫ﺃﻭﻻ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﻭ ﺍﳌﺆﻟﻔﺎﺕ)ﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﺮﻗﻢ‬
‫ﺃﲜﺪﻳﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻟﻒ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺀ ﻭﺗﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺃﻭﻻ ﰒ ﺗﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ(‬

‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪:‬ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺳﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﻭﺍ‪‬ﻼﺕ ﻭﻫﻨﺎ ﺗﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﳌﻮﺳﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍ‪‬ﻼﺕ ﻭﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﺪ‬
‫ﻭ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻻﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ‪:‬ﻳﻜﺘﺐ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺮﺱ‪.‬‬
‫ﳑﺎﺫﺍ ﺗﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻮﻝ؟‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﳛﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺎﺕ ) ﺛﻼﺛﲔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﲔ ﻣﺜﻼ(‬

‫ﺗﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺫﺍ ﺻﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﻋﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻣﺬﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺮﺝ‬
‫ﻣﺜﻼ ﻓﻴﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻮﻝ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﺑﻮﺍﺏ‬

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‫ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﲢﻀﲑ ﲝﺚ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ ﻣﺘﻤﻴﺰ‬

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‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻮﻝ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺣﺚ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﺎﻟﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻭﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﺩ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻁ‬

‫ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﳚﺐ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻟﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ‪:‬‬

‫ﺃﻭﻻ‪ :‬ﺍﻛﺘﺐ ﺧﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺭﻕ ﻣﻘﻮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ﺃﻭ ﻗﻢ ﺑﻄﺒﻊ ﻧﺴﺦ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﻭﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺔ ﻭ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺟﻞ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﻊ‬
‫ﰲ ﻭﺳﻂ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ‪.‬‬

‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪ :‬ﺣﺎﻭﻝ ﺗﻠﺨﻴﺺ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻹﻟﻘﺎﺀ ﺣﱴ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﳑﻼ ﻭﻣﻌﻘﺪ‬
‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﺎ‪ :‬ﻗﺪﻡ ﺃﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﰲ ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺃﻭ ﰲ ﺃﻭﻟﻪ ﺗﻮﺟﺰ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ ﲢﻮﻱ ﺷﺮﻭﺡ‬
‫ﳌﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﺎﺕ ﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﲔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺭﺍﺑﻌﺎ‪ :‬ﻗﺪﻡ ﺷﺮﻭﺡ ﻭﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻟﻸﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺣﱴ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻭ ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﺃﺳﻠﻮﺏ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺮﺍﻭﻏﺔ ﻟﻠﻬﺮﻭﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﺌﻠﺔ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﲢﻀﲑ ﲝﺚ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ ﻣﺘﻤﻴﺰ‬

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‫ﺍﳋﺎﲤﺔ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﻴﺘﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻬﺠﻴﺔ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﻮﺙ ﻟﺴﻨﱵ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ‬
‫ﺃﺣﺒﺒﺖ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺷﺎﺭﻙ ﺑﻪ ﺇﺧﻮﺍﱐ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺟﻞ ﺍﻹﻓﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ‪ ,‬ﻓﺎﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺣﺴﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻮﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺗﻘﺼﲑ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﲏ ﻭﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎﻥ‪.‬‬

‫ﻟﻠﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪:‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﺩﺓ ﺯﺍﻭﻱ‬
‫‪Email : mirat2000@yahoo.fr‬‬
‫‪Blog : 7olme.wordpress.com‬‬

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