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Automatic control of an activated sludge process a benchmark study

Darko Vreko*, Nadja Hvala*, Ju Kocijan*,** and Bengt Carlsson***


*Institut Jo Joef Stefan, Jamova 39, Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia Gorica Polytechnic, Polytechnic, Vipavska 13, Nova Gorica, Gorica, Slovenia ***Department of Systems and Control, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
**Nova

Introduction
Two automatic control strategies for activated sludge process will be presented Control strategies wil be tested on the wastewater treatment benchmark COST 624

Control strategies
Main time constants of some sub-processes are of different magnitude orders control independently Simple strategy: PI controllers, feedforward control and step-feed procedure Complex strategy: supervisory control,feedbackfeedforward control, PI control

Simple strategy

Tuning of PI controllers
Oxygen and nitrate PI controllers: used the same parameters as set in the benchmark Suspended solids PI controller: IMC tuning rules

Parameters of PI controllers
Parameter Oxygen controller 500 d-1.(g.m-3)-1 0.001 d Nitrate controller 15000 (m3.d-1)(g.m3)-1 0.05 d Suspended solids controller -0.2 d-1. (g.m3)-1 18 d

Kp Ti

Set-points analysis
Tested all possible combinations of set-points
SS5set (mg/l){4000,4250,4500,4750,5000} SNO,2set (mg/l){0.5,1,1.5,2} r {0.5,0.75,1,1.25,1.5} SO,5set (mg/l){0.5,1,1.5,2}

Acceptable plant performance


Dry: %Tviol SNH,e< 6% Rainy: %Tviol SNH,e < 6%

Stormy: %Tviol SNH,e < 6% and %Tviol SSe < 3.5%

Acceptable set-points regions


Dry Dry influent Rainy Rainy influent Stormy influent

Optimal set-points
SO,5set = 2 mgl-1, SNO,2 set = 2 mgl-1, SS5 set = 4500 mgl-1 r = 1.5

Plant performance-dry weather


Ntot,e
Effluent total nitrogen and limit value 18 Total COD concentration in effluent (mg COD/l) Total nitrogen concentration in effluent (mg N/l) 17.5 17 16.5 16 15.5 15 14.5 14 13.5 13 7 8 9 10 11 time (days) 12 13 14 100 90 80

COD,e
Effluent total COD and limit value 5 4.5 Ammonia concentration in effluent (mg N/l) 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 40 7 8 9 10 11 time (days) 12 13

SNH,e
Effluent total ammonia and limit value

70

60

50

SS,e

BOD,e
14 7 Effluent BOD5 and limit value

10 11 time (days)

12

13

14

Effluent suspended solids and limit value 30 Suspended solids concentration in effluent (mg SS/l) 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 BOD5 concentration in effluent (mg/l) 7 8 9 10 11 time (days) 12 13 14 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2

10 11 time (days)

12

13

14

Plant performance-rainy weather


Ntot,e
Effluent total nitrogen and limit value 18 Total COD concentration in effluent (mg COD/l) Total nitrogen concentration in effluent (mg N/l) 100 16 90 80 14

COD,e
Effluent total COD and limit value 6 Ammonia concentration in effluent (mg N/l) 5 4

SNH,e
Effluent total ammonia and limit value

70

12

60

10

50

40

10 11 time (days)

12

13

SS,e
14

30

10 11 time (days)

12

13

BOD,e
14 0 7 Effluent BOD5 and limit value

10 11 time (days)

12

13

14

Effluent suspended solids and limit value 30 Suspended solids concentration in effluent (mg SS/l) 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 BOD5 concentration in effluent (mg/l) 7 8 9 10 11 time (days) 12 13 14 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2

10 11 time (days)

12

13

14

Plant performance-stormy weather


Ntot,e
Effluent total nitrogen and limit value 18 Total COD concentration in effluent (mg COD/l) Total nitrogen concentration in effluent (mg N/l) 100 16 90 80 14

COD,e
Effluent total COD and limit value 5 4.5 Ammonia concentration in effluent (mg N/l) 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 30 7 8 9 10 11 time (days) 12 13

SNH,e
Effluent total ammonia and limit value

70

12

60

10

50

40

10 11 time (days)

12

13

SS,e
14

BOD,e
14 0 7 Effluent BOD5 and limit value

10 11 time (days)

12

13

14

Effluent suspended solids and limit value 40 Suspended solids concentration in effluent (mg SS/l) 10 9 BOD5 concentration in effluent (mg/l) 7 8 9 10 11 time (days) 12 13 14 8 7 6 5 4 3 2

35

30

25

20

15

10

10 11 time (days)

12

13

14

Complex control strategy

Parameters of controllers
Taken from Rehnstrm (2000) and manually adjusted
Controller Oxygen master controller Oxygen slave controller External carbon controller Nitrate controller

Kp
-1 100 0 0

Ki
-0.2 1e4 -7e6 -6e4

Suspended solids -0.5 -0.05 controller

Set-points
Selected manually with care
SNH,5set = 0.5 mgl-1, SNO,2 set = 1 mgl-1, SNO,5 set = 12 mgl-1, SS5 set = 4000 mgl-1 r = 1.5

Plant performance-dry weather


Ntot,e
Effluent total nitrogen and limit value 18 Total COD concentration in effluent (mg COD/l) Total nitrogen concentration in effluent (mg N/l) 100 17 90 16 80

COD,e
Effluent total COD and limit value 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 Ammonia concentration in effluent (mg N/l)

SNH,e
Effluent total ammonia and limit value

15

70

14

60

13

50

12

10 11 time (days)

12

13

14

40

Effluent suspended solids and limit value 30 Suspended solids concentration in effluent (mg SS/l) 28 BOD5 concentration in effluent (mg/l) 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 7 8 9 10 11 time (days) 12 13 14 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2

SS,e

10 11 time (days)

12

13

14

BOD5,e
Effluent BOD5 and limit value

10 11 time (days)

12

13

14

10 11 time (days)

12

13

14

Plant performance-rainy weather


Ntot,e COD,e
Effluent total nitrogen and limit value 18 Total COD concentration in effluent (mg COD/l) Total nitrogen concentration in effluent (mg N/l) 100 Effluent total COD and limit value 5 4.5 Ammonia concentration in effluent (mg N/l) 90 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 30 7 8 9 10 11 time (days) 12 13 14 0 7 8 9 10 11 time (days) 16

SNH,e

Effluent total ammonia and limit value

80

14

70

12

60

10

50

40

10 11 time (days)

12

13

14

12

13

14

SS,e
Effluent suspended solids and limit value

BOD5,e
Effluent BOD5 and limit value 10 9 BOD5 concentration in effluent (mg/l) 8 7 6 5 4 3 2

30 Suspended solids concentration in effluent (mg SS/l) 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 7 8 9 10 11 time (days) 12 13 14

10 11 time (days)

12

13

14

Plant performance-stormy weather


Ntot,e
Effluent total nitrogen and limit value 18 Total COD concentration in effluent (mg COD/l) Total nitrogen concentration in effluent (mg N/l) 100 16 90 80 14 70

COD,e
Effluent total COD and limit value 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 Ammonia concentration in effluent (mg N/l)

SNH,e
Effluent total ammonia and limit value

12

60

10

50

40

10 11 time (days)

12

13

14

30

10 11 time (days)

12

13

14

10 11 time (days)

12

13

14

SS,e
Effluent suspended solids and limit value 40 Suspended solids concentration in effluent (mg SS/l) 10 9 BOD5 concentration in effluent (mg/l) 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 35 30

BOD5,e

Effluent BOD5 and limit value

25

20

15

10

10 11 time (days)

12

13

14

10 11 time (days)

12

13

14

Comparison of control strategies


Performance criterion EQ (kg.d-1) Pdisp_sludge(kg.d-1) AE (kWh.d-1) PE (kWh.d-1) Nb Viol. Ntot,e Nb Viol. SNH,e Nb Viol. SSe % Tviol Ntot,e % Tviol SNH,e % Tviol SSe Dry influent conditions 6982 2158 7232 2017 0 4 0 0 3.7 0 6847 2482 7661 1608 0 0 0 0 0 0 Rainy influent conditions 8515 1978 7274 2560 0 4 0 0 4.3 0 8508 2254 7690 1822 0 2 0 0 2.68 0 Stormy influent conditions 7713 2288 7303 2366 0 4 2 0 4.5 3.3 7658 2631 7779 1738 0 0 2 0 0 3.12

Conclusions
Used simple strategy and complex strategy Important: optimally select the set-points Complex strategy: lower number of effluent violations at the same energy consumption Comments on the benchmark: EQ criterion KLa limitation

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