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Chromobacterium violaceum

For the bacteria previously classified as Chromobacterium violaceum Ford 1927 or Chromobacterium violaceum Leifson 1956 see Janthinobacterium lividum.Chromobacterium violaceum

Blood agar plate culture of C. violaceum. Image from the CDC. Scientific classification Kingdom: Phylum: Bacteria Proteobacteria

Class: Betaproteobacteria Order: Neisseriales Family: Neisseriaceae Genus: Chromobacterium Species: C. violaceum

Binomial name

Chromobacterium violaceum (Schrter 1872)

Chromobacterium violaceum is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, non-sporing coccobacillus. It is part of the normal flora of water and soil of tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. It produces a natural antibiotic called violacein, which may be useful for the treatment of colon and other cancers.[1] It grows readily on nutrient agar, producing distinctive smooth low convex colonies with a dark violet metallic sheen (due to violacein production). Its full genome was published in 2003.[2] It has the ability to break down tarballs.[3]Contents [hide] 1 Biochemistry 2 Medical significance 3 Treatment 4 Genome 5 References


C. violaceum ferments glucose, trehalose, Nacetylglucosamine and gluconate but not Larabinose, D-galactose, or D-maltose. In many cases can show high level resistance to a range of antibiotics.[4] Medical significance[edit]

C. violaceum rarely infects humans, but when it does it causes skin lesions, sepsis, and liver abscesses that may be fatal.[5] Care must be taken because Burkholderia pseudomallei is commonly misidentified as C. violaceum by many common identification methods.[6][7] The two are readily distinguished because B. pseudomallei produces large wrinkled colonies, whereas C. violaceum produces a distinctive violet pigment.

C. violaceum produces a number of natural antibiotics: Aztreonam is a monobactam antibiotic that is active against gram-negative aerobic bacteria including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It is marketed as Azactam. Violacein is active against amoebae and trypanosomes; Aerocyanidine is active against Gram-positive organisms; Aerocavin is active against Gram-positive and Gramnegative organisms.

It has been described as a cause of infection in gibbons.[8] Treatment[edit]

Infection caused by C. violaceum is rare, therefore there are no clinical trials evaluating different treatments. Antibiotics that have been used to successfully treat C. violaceum include pefloxacin,[9]

ciprofloxacin, amikacin,[10] and co-trimoxazole.[11] Other antibiotics that appear to be effective in vitro include chloramphenicol and tetracycline.[12] For theoretical reasons, infection would not be expected to respond to penicillins, cephalosporins, or aztreonam, although carbapenems like meropenem or imipenem may possibly work.[13]

Necrotizing fasciitis

Streptococcus pyogenes Staphylococcus aureus Vibrio vulnificus Clostridium perfringens Bacteroides fragilis Aeromonas hydrophila