This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Adjective lists that follow each topic are only partial ones. Three Questions. Adjectives usually answer three questions about the nouns they describe: 1. What kind of? I found a red rose in the cave. What kind of rose? Red 2. How many? Three tickets, please. How many tickets? Three. 3. Which one(s)? I would eat these figs. Which figs? These. Kinds of adjectives. 1. Demonstrative adjective This, that, these, those are called demonstrative adjectives. They point out nouns. They always answer the question which one? In the following example, demonstrative adjectives are shown in color. Lets play this game and later watch that movie. Remember that this, that, these, those can also act as demonstrative pronouns in which case they are not followed by nouns (as demonstrative adjectives are), but take the place of nouns. In the following example, demonstrative pronouns are shown in color. Lets play this and later watch that. 2. Common adjective is just a simple, regular adjective. It describes a noun in a general way. sharp, flexible, hot, red, hidden, dripping, nice, huge. 3. Proper adjective is derived from a proper noun and is capitalized. Proper noun China California Mars Spain Christianity Japan Hollywood Texas Proper adjective Chinese Californian Martian Spanish Christian Japanese Hollywood Texas
In this case it is called predicate adjective. a proper noun does not change at all to become a proper adjective. Usually an adjective comes in front of the noun it is describing. An adjective can also come after a linking verb.Sometimes. and describe the subject of the sentence. The balloon was dark. Positive Comparative clear dark good fresh fit big deep sweet high expensive more expensive hard dark jealous independent incredible light obvious nice painful Superlative Most expensive more jealous Most jealous northern hopeful angry curious deaf Angrier Angriest 2 . Adjectives .Comparison Fill in the missing words into the gaps. The big balloon floated over the dark sea. Where an adjective goes in a sentence. as in last two examples. like to be.
Who is the (rich) …………………… woman on earth? 9. 3. 8. He was the (clever) ……………….empty desperate concrete western light liberal bad little far old Much/many Emptier Emptiest worse less farther further Older elder more worst least farthest furthest Oldest Eldest most Fill in the correct form of the words in brackets (comparative or superlative).. This flower is (beautiful) ……… ………. A holiday by the sea is (good) …… …………. This is the (interesting) ………………. Which is the (dangerous) ………………….. Non-smokers usually live (long) ………………. thief of all. 7. It is strange but often a coke is (expensive) ………………… than a beer. than yours. book I have ever read. 3 . The weather this summer is even (bad) ………………… than last summer.. animal in the world? 6. My house is (big) …… ………. 4. than that one. 5. than a holiday in the mountains. 1. 2. 10. than smokers..
dangerous. fabulous However. terrific attractive. disastrous. internal. careful. functional. manic. grateful. They do not have typical adjectival form: bad bright clever cold common complete dark deep distant elementary good great honest hot main morose 4 quiet real red silent simple strange wicked wide . rustic. illegible. dismissive.Adjectives can be identified using a number of formal criteria. restless courageous. Typical adjective endings include: -able/-ible achievable. persuasive breathless. remarkable -al -ful -ic -ive -less -ous biographical. a large number of very common adjectives cannot be identified in this way. However. careless. harmful cubic. groundless. inventive. we may begin by saying that they typically describe an attribute of a noun: cold weather large windows violent storms Some adjectives can be identified by their endings. capable. logical beautiful.
the middle point is known as the COMPARATIVE form. at a position higher or lower than the one indicated by the adjective alone. Characteristics of Adjectives Adjectives can take a modifying word. However.difficult old young As this list shows. they have a number of characteristics which we can use to identify them. the modifying word locates the adjective on a scale of comparison. or less. though if the adjective already denotes the highest position on a scale. Most adjectives are gradable. such as very. extremely. adjectives also take different forms to indicate their position on a scale of comparison: big bigger biggest The lowest point on the scale is known as the POSITIVE form. then it is non-gradable: my main reason for coming ~*my very main reason for coming the principal role in the play ~*the very principal role in the play As well as taking modifying words like very and extremely. before them: very cold weather extremely large windows less violent storms Here. This characteristic is known as GRADABILITY. Here are some more examples: Positive Comparative Superlative dark darker darkest 5 . adjectives are formally very diverse. and the highest point is known as the SUPERLATIVE form.
to the absolute form. and the superlative is formed by adding -est. the comparative is formed by adding -er .new old young newer older younger newest oldest youngest In most cases. the highlighted words are adjectives. a number of very common adjectives are irregular in this respect: Positive good bad far Comparative better worse farther Superlative best worst farthest Some adjectives form the comparative and superlative using more and most respectively: Positive Comparative Superlative most important important more important miserable more miserable most miserable recent more recent most recent Exercise In the following sentences. 6 . However.
Absolute 5. successful.are called PREDICATIVE adjectives. Absolute atomic scientist. Their restaurant is very a. Absolute 4. Gradable b. Notice that predicative adjectives do not occur immediately after the noun. My uncle is an a. Gradable b.after the noun .before the noun . Gradable b. Those in the second position . they follow a verb. Attributive and Predicative Adjectives Most adjectives can occur both before and after a noun: the blue sea the old man happy children ~ the sea is blue ~ the man is old ~ the children are happy Adjectives in the first position . Absolute 2. Instead. unbelievable story! a.1. His new car was stolen.are called ATTRIBUTIVE adjectives. Absolute 3. 7 . Gradable b. a. Something smells a. What an good. Gradable b.
especially in certain institutionalized expressions: the Governor General the Princess Royal times past We refer to these as POSTPOSITIVE adjectives. Predicative c. The green door opened slowly. Jan feels ill. For example. attributive adjectives: the shortest route possible the worst conditions imaginable the best hotel available Most adjectives can freely occur in both the attributive and the predicative positions. Postpositive 8 . The share-holders present voted against the Chairman. Predicative c. Postposition is obligatory when the adjective modifies a pronoun: something useful everyone present those responsible Postpositive adjectives are commonly found together with superlative. Attributive b. Attributive b. Conversely. Postpositive a. Predicative c. Attributive b. Postpositive a. 4. This stretch of water is dangerous. a small number of adjectives are restricted to one position only. 5. 3. Postpositive a. Exercise Assign the highlighted adjectives in each of the following examples to one of the three positions. Predicative c. Predicative c. the adjective afraid (the child was afraid) can only occur predicatively (attributive: *an afraid child). Attributive b. Attributive b. 1. A larger than normal pay increase was awarded to the nurses.Sometimes an adjective does occur immediately after a noun. However. the adjective main (the main reason) can only occur in the attributive position (predicative: *the reason is main). Postpositive a. a. 2.
For example. the phrase a red car may be said to denote a car which is red. as the reformulations show. However. For instance. it refers to a businessman whose business is small. not all adjectives are related to the noun in the same way. showing the contrast between inherent and non-inherent: Inherent distant hills Non-inherent distant relatives a complete chapter a complete idiot a heavy burden an old man a heavy smoker an old friend 9 . inherent in the noun which they modify. Here are some more examples. the adjective small in a small businessman does not describe an attribute of the businessman. They refer less directly to an attribute of the noun than inherent adjectives do. Instead. Adjectives of this type are known as INHERENT adjectives. The attribute they denote is. In fact most adjective-noun sequences such as this can be loosely reformulated in a similar way: an old man ~a man who is old difficult questions ~questions which are difficult round glasses ~glasses which are round This applies equally to postpositive adjectives: something understood ~something which is understood the people responsible ~the people who are responsible In each case the adjective denotes an attribute or quality of the noun. We refer to adjectives of this type as NON-INHERENT adjectives.Inherent and Non-inherent Adjectives Most attributive adjectives denote some attribute of the noun which they modify. as it were. It cannot be reformulated as a businessman who is small.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.