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Online Health Midterm Study Guide Chapter 1 Health Continuum : Signs of Wellness -High energy level -Enthusiasm for

for life -Strong sense of purpose -Feeling of well-being -Supportive relationships Factors that influence your health -Hereditary: All the traits that are passed biologically from parent to child. -Physical Environment: The environment is all of the physical and social conditions that surround a person and con influence that persons health. -Social Environment: All the people you spend time with influence your health. -Culture: Is the beliefs and patterns of behavior that are shared by a group of people and passed from generation to generation. -Media: Are forms of communication that provide news and entertainment. -Technology: Advances in technology help doctors detect health problems sooner and improve the quality of life for patients. -Healthcare: Your health is influenced by the healthcare that is available to you and your family. -Behavior: Behaviors turn into habits: A behavior that is repeated so often that it becomes almost automatic. Consumer: A consumer buys products or services for personal use. Fraud: If a person tells lies to obtain money or property, the person is guilty of an illegal act called fraud. (Quackery: Fraud products with health) Rights as a consumer: As a consumer, you have the right to information, the right to consumer protection by government agencies, and the right to complain. Chapter 2 Central traits to describe personality: Personality consists of the behaviors, attitudes, feelings, and ways of thinking that make you an individual. Many researchers use five central traits to describe how people behave, relate to others, and react to change. These traits are extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experiences. Ways to improve self esteem: Self esteem refers to how much you respect yourself and like yourself. Many psychologists think that high self-esteem has a positive effect on health, while low self-esteem has a negative effect on health. -Maintain a positive attitude. -Focus on your strengths. -Form close relationships. -Set goals for yourself. -Avoid risky behaviors. -Ask for help.

-Help others. Primary Emotions: Primary emotions are emotions that are expressed by people in all cultures. Happiness, sadness, anger, and fear are examples of primary emotions. Learned emotions: The expression of learned emotions depends on the social environment in which a person grows up. Love, guilt, and shame are examples of learned emotions. Chapter 3 Eustress: Positive Stress Optimism: The tendency to focus on the positive aspects of a situation. Pessimistic: The tendency to focus on the negative and expect the worse. Resilient people: -Tolerate high levels of stress. -The key factor in resilience is having the support of family and friends. -Know their strengths and have confidence in their abilities. -Make realistic plans and take the steps to carry out those plans. -Good communication and problem solving skills. -Recognize and control their feelings. -Change is a normal part of life, puts lifes changes into perspective. Chapter 4 Mental Disorder: An illness that affects the mind and reduces a persons ability to function, to adjust to change, or to get along with others. Phobias: Anxiety that is related to a specific situation or object is called a phobia. (Anxiety: Fear caused by a source you cannot identify or a source that doesnt pose as much treat as you think) Anxiety Disorder: When the anxiety persists for a long time and interferes with daily living. Examples of these disorders are generalized anxiety disorder, phobias, panic attacks, obsessive compulsive disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Post traumatic stress disorder: People who survive a life threatening event may develop post traumatic stress disorder. They may have flashbacks or nightmares that produce fear or horror. Because situations that remind them of the event can produce intense anxiety, they begin to avoid those situations. They may feel guilty because they survived and others did not. Anorexia Nervosa: Doesnt eat enough food to maintain a healthy body weight. Bulimia: Go on uncontrolled eating binges followed by purging, or removing the food from their bodies. Risk factors for depression -A parent or other close biological relative with a mood disorder -A major life change or a prolonged stressful situation -Being the victim of a violent crime or witnessing violence. -A previous bout of depression -A sense of hopelessness Risk factors for suicide:

-A previous suicide attempt or a family history of suicide -Having both a mental disorder and a substance abuse disorder -Feelings of hopelessness or isolation -Lack of access to mental health treatment -Being influenced by the suicide of family members, peers, or celebrities Types of mental health professionals -Psychiatrists: A physician who can diagnose and treat mental disorders. -Neurologist: Physician who treats physical disorders of the nervous system. -Clinical Psychologist: Trained to recognize and treat behavior that is not normal. -Psychiatric social worker: Helps people with mental disorders and their families to accept and adjust to an illness. Chapter 5 Divorce: A legal agreement to end a marriage. -Divorce rate has decline since 1990. Separation: A separation is an arrangement in which spouses live apart and try to work out their problems. -May lead to divorce -Painful for children in family Family Responsibilities for Adults and Children -Adults of families are expected to provide for their childrens basic needs. -Socialization for adults to teach children: Behaving in a way that is acceptable to the family and society. -Help around the house, chores, part time job. Children during divorce -Concentrate on things you enjoy -Educated about divorce -Talk to relatives about feelings -Meet with other teens who are dealing with divorce -Mental health counselor Skills for a healthy family -Resolving conflicts -Expressing emotions -Making good decisions -Managing Time Chapter 6 Cooperation: Working together to meet a common goal. -Cooperation builds strong relationships that are based on mutual trust, caring, and responsibility. Communication: The process of sharing information, thoughts, or feelings These skills include using I messages, active listening, assertiveness, and using appropriate body language.

Compromise: The willingness of each person to give up something in order to reach agreement. -When you are willing to compromise, you let the other person know how important the relationship is to you. Empathy: When someone (i.e. a close friend) is caring and sensitive to your feelings Loyalty: A close friend sticks by you in both good times and bad. Envy: can occur when one person has something that the other person desires. -Jealousy -Source can be of appearance, talent, possessions, or popularity. Chapter 7 Meditation: A process for resolving conflicts that involves a neutral third party. (Bystander, involving an adult) Discrimination: Unfair treatment of a person or group based on prejudice. Prejudice: Negative feelings about a group based on stereotypes. -Leads to intolerance, a lack of acceptance to another persons opinions. Revenge: The desire for revenge leads to a dangerous cycle of fighting. In cases where revenge is the motive for a fight, the fighting can quickly escalate, or grow more intense. Common motive in fights between territorial gangs. Chapter 8: Nutrients: Substances that the body needs to regulate bodily functions, promote growth, repair body tissues, and obtain energy. -More than 40 different nutrients. Carbohydrates: Source of energy, supply energy for body functions. Trans fats: Unsaturated fats that have been converted to saturated fats by the addition of hydrogen. Functions of Vitamins: Nutrients that are made by living things are required only in small amounts, and that assist many chemical reactions. -2 classes of vitamins: Fat soluble vitamins, which dissolve in fatty materials, and water-soluble vitamins, which dissolve in water. Homeostasis: The process of maintaining a steady state inside your body. Dehydration: Very heavy perspiring or sever diarrhea can result in dehydration, a serious reduction in the bodys water content. Anemia: A condition in which the red blood cells do not contain enough hemoglobin. When a person doesnt get enough iron Daily values are based on a # of calories... how many? 2000 Food label ingredients are listed from most weight to least weight. Weight/Height in inches Squared x 703 Food intolerance: The inability to digest a particular food or food additive. -More common Food Allergy: The immune systems response to the proteins in certain foods. -Life Threatening

Fad Diet: A popular diet that may help a person lose or gain weight but without proper regard for nutrition and other health issues Chapter 15 Effects of intoxication o Heart rate and blood pressure increase o More blood flows to skins surface o Core body temperature decreases o Brain activity slows down o Coordination becomes impaired o Sensations and perception become less clear o Reflexes become sluggish o Kidneys increase urine production o Drinker loses more water from body than usual o Too much alcohol in the stomach may cause vomiting Blood Alcohol Concentration o The rate of alcohol consumption, the gender and size of the drinker, and how much food is in the stomach all affect BAC. o At 0.02-0.07, which is the legal driving limit, reflexes and alertness decline, judgment and self-control are impaired, reaction time slows, and muscle coordination decreases. From 4.0-5.0 death usually occurs. Alcoholism o People who can no longer control their use of alcohol suffer from the disease known as alcoholism. o Requires alcohol to function o Tolerance to alcohol, then dependence, and then addiction o Needs medical and psychological help Withdrawl: A group of symptoms that occur when a dependent person stops taking a drug. Tolerance: The brain develops a chemical need for alcohol and cannot function normally without it Detoxification: Involves removing all alcohol from ones body Chapter 16 Short term effects of tobacco include increased heart rate, increased blood pressure, and changes in the brain that may lead to addiction. Tar and its effect o The dark sticky substance that forms when tobacco burns is known as tar. It is one of the most harmful substances in tobacco smoke. o Brown stains on fingers and teeth o Smelly hair and clothes o Bad breath o Paralysis of cilia lining the airways o Increased number of respiratory infections, such as colds and the flu o Impaired lunch function, which leads to reduced athletic ability

Problems relating to nursing mothers that use tobacco o 3rd hand smoking to babies o Low birthweight o Cerebral palsy o Sight impairment o Hearing problems o Learning difficulties o Higher rate of sudden infant death syndrome, premature births, still births, and miscarriages. Chapter 17 Drug Abuse: Drug abuse occurs when people intentionally use any kind of drugs for nonmedical purposes Drug Misuse: Drug misuse is the improper use of medicines, either prescription or over-thecounter drugs. Reward Pathway o Many psychoactive drugs trigger activity along a pathway of cells in the brain called the reward pathway. Risk factors for drug use include family factors, social factors, and personal factors. Depressants: Depressants slow body functions by decreasing heart and breathing rates and lowering blood pressure o Barbiturates: Sedatives (relax a person) o CNS Depressants: Slows the activity of the central nervous system o Opiates: A drug made from the psychoactive compounds contained in the seed pod of poppy plants. Some cases, act to dull the senses, relieve pain, and induce sleep. (Morphine, codeine. Heroin) Stimulant: A drug that speeds up activites of the central nervous system. Stimulants increase heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate, and alertness. o Amphetamiens: Are prescription drgus that sometimes sold illegally as speed or uppers. o Methamphetamine: Meth Crank o Cocaine: A powerful but short acting stimulant Crack Cocaine: Highly addictive, tolerance develops rapidly Chapter 18 Toxic Shock Syndrome: This syndrome is caused by a bacterial infection. Symptoms of toxic shock syndrome include a sudden high fever, a rash, vomiting, diarrhea, and dizziness. Because toxic shock syndrome can lead to death, a woman with any of these symptoms during her period should seek medical attention immediately. To decrease the risk of toxic shock syndrome, women should use tampons with the lowest possible absorbency for their needs and change their tampons often. Chapter 19 Zygote: The united egg and sperm is called a zygote

Embryo: The original cell divides to make two cells. From the two-cell stage until about 9 weeks after fertilization, the growing structure is called an embryo. Blastocyst: The embryo reaches the uterus. A blastocyst is no longer a solid mass of cells, but a sphere of cells surrounding a hollow center. Miscarriage: The death of an embryo or fetus in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy. Premature birth: Delivery of a baby before the 37th bweek of pregnancy. Chapter 21 Functions of saliva and tears o Can trap pathogens and wash them away. Like mucus, saliva and tears also contain chemicals that attack pathogens. Bacterial Diseases o Strep throat, Lyme disease, meningitis, and tuberculosis Diseases Caused by Viruses o Common cold, influenza, pneumonia, and hepatits The immune system: Fights disease by producing a spate set of weapons for each kind of pathogen it encounters Chapter 22 Genital Herpes: Painful blisters than appear on or around the genitals o No cure HIV: Infects helper T cell, which stimulate other cells of the immune system to produce antibodies against invading pathogens. Inside a helper T cell, HIV reproduces, killing the cell in the process. The new viruses are released from the cells and move on to destroy other helper T cells. Transmission of HIV o Sexual Contact, Shared Needles, Contact with Blood, Mother to baby Main Goal of HIV Treatment o The main goal of HIV treatment is to keep the persons immune system function as close to normal as possible. o Keep the persons viral load-the number of virus particles circulating in the body-as low as possible o Keep the persons T cell count as high as possible HIVE attacks specific cells of the immune system, disabling the bodys defenses against other pathogens. When the immune system becomes severely disable, the infected person has aids. Chapter 24 Angina Pectoris: Chest pain that occurs when an area of the heart does not get enough oxygen rich blood. (Coronary Heart Disease) o Can lead to heart attack Risk Factors for Cardio Vascular Disease o Hereditary o Ethnicity o Gender o Age

Preventing Heart Disease o Weight o Diet o Stress o Blood Pressure o Smoking/Drinking Asthma: A disorder in which a persons respiratory passages become inflamed and narrow significantly in reaction to certain triggers. Osteoarthritis: The most common type of arthritis caused by wear and tear on a joint after years of use or by repeated injuries to a joint. The 3 Most Common Disabilities o Impaired Vision o Macular Degeneration: A condition affecting the retina and Is the leading cause of vision los sin older Americans. o Impaired Hearing Tinnitus: A condition in which ringing is heard in the ears even when there is no external sound. o Impaired Mobility Cancer harms the body by destroying healthy body tissues. o Forms a malignant tumor o Metastasis: Spread of cancer from where it form develops Treatments o Surgery can remove part of all of a malignant tumor o Radiation therapy can kill cancer cells and slow tumor growth o Chemotherapy: use drugs to slow the reproduction of cancer cells. Immunotherapy uses drugs to stimulate the bodys immune system to attack cancer cells. Arthritis results in joint stiffness, joint pain, or swelling in one or more joints. o Inflammation or irritation of a joint is known as arthritis o Leading cause of disability among Americans over 15