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UNITS & FORMS OF MEASURE Question: Why is it important to measure ingredients accurately?

Keep costs in line Ensure consistency of quality and quantity (ingredients and portion sizes) A. PROPER MEASURING TECHNIQUES 1. VOLUME MEASURE VOLUME is the space filled by a liquid, gas or solid. LIQUIDS graduated liquid measuring cups or pitchers measuring cup/pitcher must be sitting on a level, stable surface and the mark on the measuring device is at eye level SOLIDS all ingredients must be in the form called for in the recipe before measuring (for example: diced, minced, etc.) used nested measuring tools; overfill the measuring tool and scrape off the excess; do not tamp or pack down ingredients unless the recipe tells you to do so SCOOPS also known as dishers, usually used for measuring portion sizes for cookie doughs, cooked rice, ice cream, stuffings, etc. 2. WEIGHT MEASURE Weight is the measure of the heaviness of a substance. : The tool used is a scale on a level surface, kept clean and free of debris B. MEASURING EQUIPMENT

1. Nested Measuring Cups Cups

2. Graduated Measuring

3. MEASURING SPOONS

4.

LADLES

5. PORTION SCOOPS

6.

SCALES

C. COMMON TYPES OF MEASURE COMMON TERM teaspoon tablespoon cup pint quart gallon fluid ounce ounce pound each bunch to taste ABBREVIATIO N t, tsp T, tbsp C, c pt qt G, gal fl oz oz lb, # ea bu tt

Converting Grams and Ounces 1 ounce equals 28.35 grams 1 fluid ounce equals 28.35 milliliters 1 kilogram is about 2.2 pounds 1 gram is about 1/30 ounce 1 pound is about 450 grams A liter is slightly more than a quart A centimeter is slightly less than inch 0C (32F) is the freezing point of water 100C (212F) is the boiling point of water Common Equivalents Dash = 1/8 teaspoon 3 teaspoons = 1 tablespoon 2 tablespoons = 1 fl. Oz 4 tablespoons = cup (2 fl. Oz) 5 1/3 tablespoons = 1/3 cup (2 2/3 fl.oz) 16 tablespoons = 1 cup ( 8 fl.oz) 2 cups = 1 pint (16 fl.oz) 2 pints = 1 quart (32 fl.oz) 4 quarts = 1 gallon (128 fl.oz) 2 gallons = 1 peck 4 pecks = 1 bushel 1 gram = 0.035 ounces (1/30 oz) 1 ounce = 28.35 grams (often rounded to 30 for convenience) 454 grams = 1 pound 2.2 pounds = I kilogram (1000 grams) 1 teaspoon = 5 milliliters 1 tablespoon = 15 milliliters 1 fluid ounce = 28.35 milliliters (often rounded to 30 for convenience)

1 cup 1 gallon

= 0.24 liters = 3.80 liters

E.

METRIC MEASURE The metric system is the global language of measurement that has been adopted by almost all countries, except for the United States. Advantages; Is an internationally recognized unit of measure Based on the number 10, which makes it easier to calculate Recording very small measures is easier and therefore, more accurate METRIC BASE UNIT ABBREVIATION S liter, L gram, g OTHER COMMON METRIC ABBREVIATIONS milliliter, ml kilogram, kg

METRIC PREFIXES kilo = 1,000 base units deka = 10 base units deci = 0.1 base unit centi = 0.01 base unit milli = 0.001 base unit METRIC CONVERSION IN THE FOODSERVICE INDUSTRY WEIGHT (MASS) VOLUME (LIQUID) 1 gram = 1,000 milligrams 1,000 grams = 1 kilogram WEIGHT CONVERSION BETWEEN U.S. AND METRIC 1 ounce = 28.35 grams 1 kilogram = 2.21 pounds 1,000 milliliters = 1 liter

VOLUME CONVERSION BETWEEN U.S. AND METRIC 1 liter = 33.8 fluid ounces

*Use only grams, milligrams, kilograms, etc. to measure solids (weight) and use only liters, milliliters, etc to measure liquids (volume). APPROXIMATE EQUIVALENT TO WEIGHT CHART

QUESTION: IF A CUP OF WATER = 8 FL. OZ. IS IT SAFE TO ASSUME THAT A CUP OF HONEY = 8 FL. OZ TOO? ANSWER: NO. HONEY IS HEAVIER THAN WATER. IF A MEASURING CUP IS FILLED WITH HONEY AND IS PUT ON A SCALE, IT WILL NOT WEIGH 8 OZ. IT WILL WEIGH 12 OZ. *DO NOT ASSUME THAT ALL LIQUIDS = 8 FL. OZ. WHEN PLACED IN A MEASURING CUP. OR, THAT AN OUNCE IS ALWAYS = 28.35 GRAMS. Get the actual weight of the ingredient, or Use the Approximate Volume to Weight Chart