Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing (1999) 13(2), 217—240 Article No. mssp.1998.

1214 Available online at on

Dynamics and Control Research Group, School of Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, U.K. Normal-mode force appropriation is a method of physically exciting and measuring the undamped natural frequencies and normal-mode shapes of a structure which is distinct from the more common phase separation approaches. In this paper, the theory of normal modes and force appropriation is reviewed and a comparison made of a number of common force appropriation techniques. Both simulated and experimental data are used to highlight the relative merits of the different approaches, and comparisons to phase separation results are presented. Further advancements and applications of normal-mode testing—to non-proportionally damped structures, non-linear structures and consideration of the optimal exciter placement problem—are also discussed.
1999 Academic Press


Normal-mode force appropriation (or phase resonance testing) [1] is a method of extracting the undamped natural frequencies and normal-mode shapes of a structure. By contrast to phase separation (curve-fitting) approaches which are largely mathematical, phase resonance testing is a physical technique in which the individual modes of the system are excited in turn and the mode shapes measured directly at each resonance condition. Existing force appropriation techniques may be divided into direct and iterative approaches. Iterative force appropriation methods [2, 3] were developed but are rarely used as they tend to be time-consuming and difficult to apply. The requirement of a suitable initial force vector is a limitation and convergence problems have been experienced. By comparison, direct methods have been found to be straightforward to apply, reliable and efficient. As a result, only direct force appropriation methods will be considered in this paper. The direct appropriation of the normal modes of a structure is essentially a three-stage procedure. Firstly, frequency response function (FRF) matrices are measured for multiple input and response positions, using random or stepped sine excitation. The undamped natural frequencies of the normal modes are then estimated using one of a number of matrix-based approaches [4] which are described in a later section. The force appropriation methods derive a monophase vector of excitation forces for each normal mode which will, in theory, generate a single-mode monophase response in the structure at the undamped natural frequency. The final stage of the force appropriation procedure is to apply the force vectors corresponding to each mode to the structure using a sinusoid of the relevant undamped natural frequency, and to directly measure the normal-mode shape. A normal mode is said to be ‘tuned’ when the response across the structure at the undamped natural frequency is in monophase, and in quadrature to the excitation, to within some specified level of accuracy. Normal-mode force appropriation has, traditionally, been used in the aerospace industry for ground vibration testing [5, 6], and in other areas where accurate normal-mode
0888—3270/99/020217#24 $30.00/0 1999 Academic Press



estimates are required such as when direct comparisons are to be made between appropriated normal-mode responses and the results of finite-element analyses. These techniques are of most benefit in situations of significant modal overlap where modes are close in frequency and/or coupled by damping forces. Phase separation techniques may have trouble identifying and separating these types of mode and other approaches are then needed to convert the estimated complex modes into normal modes. In this paper, an overview and comparison will be presented of a number of normal-mode force appropriation algorithms. The ability of such approaches to appropriate accurate normal modes in situations where phase separation techniques fail will be demonstrated. Finally, current and future developments and uses of force appropriation methods will be discussed.


2.1. FORCE APPROPRIATION Consider a linear system subject to e monophase (0 or 180° phase) sinusoidal excitation forces at a frequency , giving an (e;1) force vector + f ,. In the steady state, the complex displacement response at the r response measurement positions on the structure is +x,"[A ( )#iB ( )] + f , (1)

where +x, is the (r;1) vector of responses, while [A] and [B] are the real and imaginary parts of the frequency response function (FRF) matrix respectively, relating responses at r positions to excitation at e positions. The jth undamped normal mode is excited at the corresponding undamped natural frequency ( ) when the response of the structure is in monophase, and in quadrature H (90° phase) with the excitation (for displacement or acceleration data) [7]. At this condition, the real part of the response will be zero while the imaginary part corresponds to the undamped normal-mode shape, +
, . Thus, for undamped normal mode j, H Re +x,"[A] + f , "0 H Im +x,"[B] + f , "+
, H H (2) (3)

where + f , is the appropriated force vector for mode j. This is known as the ‘phase H resonance condition’. It should be noted that a variety of normalisation methods may be applied to the mode shape. In principle, the force vector derived for a particular normal mode will excite only that mode. For proportionality damped systems, therefore, the force vector will be derived from a modal force input to the mode of interest and no contribution to the other modes. For non-proportionally damped systems, however, modal force contributions are also included for any coupled modes in order to cancel the unwanted modal responses due to the modal cross-damping terms. 2.2. FORCE APPROPRIATION METHODS A number of direct methods have been developed for the estimation of the normal-mode frequencies and appropriated force vectors of a system from measured FRF data. In all of these methods, an important parameter is the number of effective degrees of freedom (dof ) at any point in the frequency range of interest, n*. If the number of exciters used to excite

if the number of exciters is greater than the number of effective dof (e'n*). Square FRF matrix methods For square FRF matrices (r"e). the real part of the response is minimised across all of the response measurements.2. the methods invariably degrade or fail due to the number of exciters exceeding the effective dof and subsequent rank deficiency of the FRF matrices.2. methods that operate on rectangular FRF matrices and utilise a rank-reduction technique [4]. an exact non-trivial solution of equation (3) is possible. then the mode may not be accurately appropriated. Note that the eigenvalues behave differently for each of the methods discussed. Instead.2. By comparison. As a result. The Asher method [10] uses the determinant of A to obtain natural frequencies and then solves equation (3) directly using the adjoint of [A] or the Gauss—Seidel method. where m'e. the number of effective dof is an imprecise quantity which is generally unknown prior to testing." + f . an eigenvalue solution is preferable. The most common direct force appropriation techniques are discussed below. the Traill—Nash method [11]. 2. with different specific cost functions being used in each of the methods.1. Direct force appropriation methods may be divided into three categories: methods that operate on square FRF matrices (r"e). methods that operate on rectangular FRF matrices (r'e). However. The Extended Asher method [12] minimises the sum of the squares of the real part of the response with respect to the force vector. Rectangular FRF matrix methods For rectangular FRF matrices. The corresponding eigenvectors gives the appropriation force vectors for each mode. an exact solution is not available. leading to the eigenvalue problem [A]2[A] + f . this process is not ideal as the force vector + f . (4) An alternative approach. may be shown [4] to be trivial if [A] is not H exactly singular. the square FRF matrix methods have the inherent limitation that the phase resonance condition can be sought exactly for a limited number of response locations on the structure. 2. uses the general eigenvalue of the form [A] + f . The Modified Asher method [4] thus solves [A] + f .NORMAL-MODE FORCE APPROPRIATION—THEORY AND APPLICATION 219 a normal mode is less than the number of effective dof (e(n*) [8] at the undamped natural frequency.. Instead. (5) The undamped natural frequencies are then identified by zero crossings of the eigenvalues .." + f . it is stated that the eigenvalues drop to zero at undamped natural frequencies. certain direct force appropriation methods will degrade and eventually fail due to rank deficiency of the FRF matrices [9]. (6) In the original formulation [12]. Conversely. In general. fixed by the number of exciters." [B] + f . In practice.. In fact. zero eigenvalues will only be generated if a quadrature response is realised on all r responses simultaneously [4]. If the number of exciters is increased in order to allow more responses to be measured. the Multivariate Mode Indicator Function (MMIF) [13] minimises the ratio of the sum of the squares of the real part of the response to the sum of the squares of . minima in the Extended Asher eigenvalue trace should be sought.

2+x.3. WRIGHT E¹ A¸. j"1. either by maxima. "1! . e) or singular values. and corresponding eigenvectors or singular H vectors (+ f .4. (7) A weighting matrix (possibly an estimated mass matrix) may also be included in the MMIF formulation.2+x.90 is usually deemed satisfactory.2. USE OF FORCE APPROPRIATION METHODS Each of the methods discussed may be solved at each measured frequency point to give eigenvalues ( . Methods have therefore been formulated which incorporate rank reduction techniques and may be applied in cases where the number of exciters exceeds the number of effective dof. (8) This expression returns a value between zero and unity which relates the degree to which the responses deviate from being in quadrature with the applied appropriated force vector. 2. defined as Re +x. A rank-reduction technique is then employed to reduce the size of the eigenvalue problem and so generate principal force vectors. However." ([A]2[A]#[B]2[B]) + f . .2. while a value greater than 0. R. The eigenvalue (or singular value) traces are then used to indicate H the undamped natural frequencies of the system. whilst the corresponding eigenvectors (or singular vectors) represent the appropriated force vectors required to tune the individual normal modes. The appropriated force vector can then be applied sinusoidally to the structure at the estimated undamped natural frequency and the frequency and/or force pattern adjusted . MODAL PURITY INDICATOR (MPI) The quality of a tuned normal mode can be judged by calculating the normal-mode purity [2]. minima or zero crossings depending upon the method employed. j"1. +x. leading to J. 2.. The rectangular FRF matrix methods allow the phase resonance condition to be sought approximately at many points on the test structure and are not limited to coincident exciter and response positions.3.2. the eigenvalues of [B] are calculated as an indication of the rank (n*) of the FRF matrix. The Juang—Wright method [15] attempts to minimise the real part of the response.220 the moduli. whilst simultaneously maximising the imaginary response. Rectangular FRF matrix methods with rank reduction In the Modified Multivariate Mode Indicator Function approach [14]. these methods will tend to degrade or fail due to rank deficiency of the FRF matrices [9]. These may be transformed back to physical force vectors for the purpose of tuning. as for the Extended Asher method. [A]2[A] + f . e). A second SVD is then carried out which yields the appropriated force vectors. a value of unity indicates a perfect undamped normal mode. The SVD of [A] is first carried out and the decomposition partitioned according to the effective rank of [A] at a given resonance. 2. The singular values are also used to identify the undamped natural frequencies. The undamped natural frequencies are thus identified by minima of the eigenvalues . when the number of exciters exceeds the number of effective dof.

0 4.0 4. A brief comparison of the methods described above is now presented to illustrate the use of the mode indicator functions resulting from each approach. Alternatively.0 4. the appropriated force vector can be ‘applied’ to the FRF at the estimated undamped natural frequency [using equation (1)] to simulate the normal-mode tuning process and so estimate the resulting response and mode shape numerically.714 227. Traill—Nash. Extended Asher.0 4. Wider-ranging comparisons have also been undertaken of both direct and iterative force appropriation methods using both simulated data [4]. The MMIF and Modified MMIF approaches are the easiest to interpret for the identification of the undamped natural frequencies because of the form of the eigenvalue signature. Excitation at the four corners has been used with 24 response positions across the plate (i.0 4. the eigenvalues derived from the Modified Asher.0 4. FRF data was simulated from a mathematical model of a proportionally damped free—free perspex plate with six rigid-body modes and 10 flexural modes in the frequency range 40—270 Hz. MMIF and Modified MMIF approaches and the singular values of the Juang—Wright approach.737 92. and also because they return an eigenvalue between 0 and 1 which can be used as an early indication of the modal purity that may be expected from the tuned mode. In general.e. 16. TABLE 1 Modal parameters of mathematical model of a perspex plate Mode 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Frequency/(Hz) 40. Four modes are present in the frequency range of analysis.841 201.831 165.0 .5. and experimental data from a benchmark structure [18]. This process is referred to as ‘soft tuning’. In cases where the number of exciters exceeds the number of effective dof. Figures 1—7 show the Asher determinant. COMPARISON STUDIES A number of comparison studies have been carried out.377 114. 2.171 Damping ratio/(%) 4. This process is referred to as ‘hard tuning’. r"24). The undamped natural frequencies of the four modes in the chosen frequency range are indicated by vertical dashed lines.0 4. 4% modal damping was included for each mode in the model. 80—150 Hz.0 4.0 4. and given in Table 1.193 40. e"4. only the corner responses have been included. it has been found that the rectangular FRF matrix methods are superior to the square FRF matrix methods as the phase resonance criterion may be sought over the entire structure rather than just at a limited number of points. together with the other frequencies in the model.745 269.084 142.NORMAL-MODE FORCE APPROPRIATION—THEORY AND APPLICATION 221 until the undamped normal mode has been excited to some predetermined level of accuracy.013 109. each using a limited number of the methods discussed. although there is no necessity that the chosen excitation and response positions coincide for these methods. including two close modes around 110 Hz. including references [1. the rank-reduction procedures are of benefit as the rectangular matrix methods appear to be more sensitive to noise. For the square FRF matrix techniques. 17].

The reason that the traces derived from the square FRF matrix approaches do not cross zero at the undamped natural frequency of mode 4 is that the chosen exciter combination (four corners) is not capable of exactly appropriating this mode at the chosen responses. The rectangular FRF matrix approaches overcome this problem by considering all of the responses simultaneously and thus identifying those frequencies at which the phase resonance condition is most closely satisfied on average over the structure. By comparison. Asher determinant. In all three cases. [A] + f . particularly if the original FRF measurements were noisy. . the need for an exact solution is a major shortfall of the square FRF matrix methods. i. Although it is possible that an alternative subset of the response positions may allow mode 4 to be identified. Again. The MMIF indicates the mode at 109 Hz by a clear minimum. the mode 4 at 109 Hz has been missed."0 is not satisfied at 109 Hz. although the fact that the eigenvalue does not drop to zero implies that the mode will not be accurately appropriated by excitation at the corner positions.222 J. the mode at 109 Hz could easily be missed on the Extended Asher plot. Both the the methods with rank reduction indicate the four modes present in the frequency range 80—150 Hz. The Extended Asher and MMIF approaches both indicate normal modes by minima in the eigenvalues. though the troughs are sharper because the singular values are essentially the square root of the eigenvalues. WRIGHT E¹ A¸. it is arguable that the Modified MMIF Figure 1. R.e. It is certain that the use of fewer exciters would further degrade the results. It is clear from Figs 1—3 that the square FRF matrix methods are not particularly successful in identifying the presence of normal modes. The Juang—Wright approach has a very similar behaviour to the Extended Asher method. this will always be the case unless very close modes are present when the secondary and tertiary eigenvalues are seen to drop towards zero. The use of fewer exciters would be expected to cause the eigenvalue troughs corresponding to the other modes not to drop to as low a value. It is clear from Figs 4 and 5 that the MMIF is easier to interpret as all of the minima occur in the primary MMIF. although a good indication of the undamped natural frequencies should still be obtained.

approach is the easier to interpret and. Figure 3. Currently. The MMIF methods will therefore be used for the remainder of this paper (Figs 6 and 7). Trail—Nash eigenvalues. although the Asher method has been implemented on some commercial systems. . Modified Asher eigenvalues. this is generally the case.NORMAL-MODE FORCE APPROPRIATION—THEORY AND APPLICATION 223 Figure 2. in the authors’ experience. the MMIF and the Modified MMIF are the direct force appropriation methods most commonly used in practice.

in general.224 J. WRIGHT E¹ A¸. PHASE SEPARATION 3. . Phase separation methods. PHASE RESONANCE VS. Figure 4.1. COMPLEX AND NORMAL MODES The key difference between force appropriation and the traditional curve-fitting techniques is in the form of the identified parameters. R. Extended Asher eigenvalues. Figure 5. Multivariate Mode Indicator Function eigenvalues. 3.

Juang—Wright singular values. . phase-resonance methods permit direct measurement of the undamped normal modes and the corresponding undamped natural frequencies. Modified Multivariate Mode Indicator Function eigenvalues. the modal damping ratio is generally estimated using a half-power points method from the Nyquist plot generated by a mini-sweep around the natural frequency. Figure 7. yield complex/damped mode shapes plus frequencies and damping ratios derived from the complex eigenvalues. In contrast.NORMAL-MODE FORCE APPROPRIATION—THEORY AND APPLICATION 225 Figure 6.

R. When a system exhibits proportional damping. Figure 9 shows the corresponding MMIF. 3. both approaches will yield the same undamped natural frequency and damping estimates. BENCHMARK PLATE STRUCTURES Some experimental force appropriation results are now presented from two real benchmark structures—a perspex plate [18]. In practice. Proportionally damped perspex plate Modal analyses were performed on an experimental perspex plate equivalent to that modelled mathematically above [18]. . As for the simulated case. As the phase resonance approach has no limitations regarding the damping distribution of the system. The true number of modes is far from clear if only the FRF amplitude is inspected. An LMS-DIFA SCADAS data acquisition system was employed throughout these analyses. the estimated frequency does not equal the undamped natural frequency and the concept of modal damping is inappropriate for non-proportionally damped systems. are given in Table 2. Figure 8 shows one of the drive point FRFs measured during the modal test with multiple uncorrelated random excitation. It can be seen from Table 2 that six of the modes were tuned to a high degree of accuracy whilst modes 4 and 8 could not be adequately tuned with the chosen exciter combination. Furthermore. use of a mode indicator function such as the MMIF should be encouraged even if a phase separation analysis is to be used. the modal damping matrix will be non-diagonal and some of the resulting modes are coupled by the damping forces. 20]. which will be correct. WRIGHT E¹ A¸. Indeed. 3. the derivation of frequency and damping values from the complex eigenvalues is somewhat contrived as the underlying theory assumes a proportional damping distribution. partly helped by the fairly high level of damping present. The tuned normal-mode results and the results of a phase separation approach.2. and an aluminium plate with a significant level of non-proportional damping [19. 24 response positions were used with excitation applied at the corners of the plate. However. there would appear to be only six modes although the MMIF reveals two pairs of close modes around 39 and 110 Hz. which correctly identifies the presence of eight modes in the frequency range 20—220 Hz. Results derived from such systems can thus be misleading. excitation must be provided at a sufficient number of correctly chosen positions if the normal modes of the non-proportionally damped systems are to be well appropriated. These experimental results are of high quality. to identify the correct number of modes in a given frequency range. Such procedures have been implemented experimentally on significantly non-proportionally damped structures [19] with success. it is reasonable to assume a proportional modal damping distribution. force appropriation methods may equally be applied to nonproportionally damped systems without error. the complex modes are related to the normal modes by a simple transformation. The importance of exciter placement to achieve well-appropriated modes was again highlighted by this work.226 J.1. The complex/damped modes which result from the solution of the first-order eigenvalue problem differ from the undamped normal modes and there is no simple transformation between them. A force vector is again derived which allows a normal mode to be excited at its undamped natural frequency and no additional approximations are required. In this case. As a result. A variety of methods have been proposed although none are entirely satisfactory. in systems where the damping is non-proportional. In theory.2. the Least Squares Complex Exponential (LSCE) method.

Figures 10—17 show the mode shapes and phase scatter plots of the tuned and LSCE estimates of the first two modes which are almost coincident in frequency. .NORMAL-MODE FORCE APPROPRIATION—THEORY AND APPLICATION 227 Figure 8. an area in which phase separation approaches have sometimes Figure 9. Experimental MMIF eigenvalues of perspex plate. The identification and separation of close modes provided much of the impetus to the development of force appropriation techniques. Experimental drive point FRF of perspex plate.

Commonly. 3. Non-proportionally damped aluminium plate Further modal tests were performed using an experimental aluminium plate with large dash-pot oil dampers positioned at opposite corners in order to introduce a significant level of non-proportional damping into the structure.87 100.3 below.949 0. TABLE 2 Results of experimental phase separation/phase resonance analysis of a perspex plate Phase separation (LSCE) Mode 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Frequency/(Hz) 38.76 114. Figures 19 and 20 show a drive point FRF and the MMIF eigenvalue plot resulting from the modal test of the non-proportionally damped aluminium plate.966 0.66 206.26 165. particularly for the case of non-proportionally damped structures.99 90.2.2. FE updating may even be the sole reason for performing an experimental modal test. The experimental rig is shown in Fig.01 90.77 141.72 Phase resonance Frequency/(Hz) 38. The comparison to the results of a phase separation analysis is less straightforward.02 165. tuned normal-mode shape.690 0.228 J.979 0. The complexity could be due to some non-proportional damping or to the phenomenon mentioned in Section 3.29 114.78 MPI 0. .949 0.97 39.974 0. The level of complexity of the phase separation estimates is apparent in Figs 10—17 whilst the tuned responses are very close to pure normal modes.490 been seen to fail or to give significantly complex modal results. WRIGHT E¹ A¸.43 206. FE analyses generate pure normal modes which may thus be directly compared to the appropriated modes resulting from force appropriation. Indeed.959 0. 18. comparisons are made between the results of modal analyses and finiteelement (FE) predictions.93 38.97 100.53 141. Generally. It would be very difficult Figure 10. R. First mode of perspex plate. Again 24 response measurements and four corner exciters were used.

to judge the number and position of the modes from the FRF amplitude alone (arguably five modes). LSCE mode shape.NORMAL-MODE FORCE APPROPRIATION—THEORY AND APPLICATION 229 Figure 11. This effect can be simulated on a simple two-dof system where it can easily be shown that the two MMIF eigenvalues may only coincide for the case of a proportionally damped system. 9. . some non-proportionality is apparent between modes 4 and 5 in Fig. Even for the simple perspex plate. which was assumed to be proportionally damped. First mode of perspex plate. tuned phase scatter plot. First mode of perspex plate. while they are clearly identified by the MMIF eigenvalues (actually seven modes). The separation of the primary and secondary MMIF eigenvalues between the first two modal frequencies is indicative of modal coupling due to a high level of non-proportional damping [20]. Figure 12.

. LSCE phase scatter plot.3. WRIGHT E¹ A¸. when a phase separation method is used for multiple input/output data. It can be seen that the complexity of the structure is now such that comparison of phase separation results with FE would prove very difficult. SMOOTHNESS OF MODE SHAPES When a normal mode is physically excited using a monophase force vector. However. the Frequency Domain Direct Parameter Identification (FDPI) method.230 J. First mode of perspex plate. whilst Figs 23 and 24 show similar plots resulting from a phase separation approach. the resulting global frequency and damping estimates are Figure 14. The tuned responses. so ensuring that the final mode shape has a smooth appearance with no abrupt changes or discontinuities. the structure acts as a spatial filter. are very close to the underlying normal modes of the structure. Figure 13. Arguably the best method for transforming from complex to real modes is to perform a soft-tuning force appropriation on the synthesised FRF data derived from the curve-fitted results. Second mode of perspex plate. R. however. tuned normal mode shape. 3. Figures 21 and 22 show the hard-tuned mode shape and phase scatter plot of the second mode.

modelling of complicated upper and lower residual effects by simple additional terms or extra modes may cause different levels of error at each measurement position. There is thus a possibility of some errors occurring in the derived mode shapes. the final plotted mode shape may appear less smooth than the corresponding appropriated normal-mode shape. In addition.4. LSCE mode shape. Second mode of perspex plate. However. TEST TIME The implementation of force appropriation techniques and the tuning of a set of modes of a structure is clearly a sizeable task. As a result. a compromise across all of the measurement positions. Second mode of perspex plate. .NORMAL-MODE FORCE APPROPRIATION—THEORY AND APPLICATION 231 Figure 15. 3. it would invariably be quicker to use a phase separation approach to curve-fit the multiple input/output data. tuned phase scatter plot. given the time taken to set Figure 16.

up a modal test and perform pretest checks. Figure 18. R. . Second mode of perspex plate. LSCE phase scatter plot. Figure 17. the additional time requirements may seem less significant.232 J. WRIGHT E¹ A¸. A compromise is to use phase separation techniques for the majority of modes whilst reserving phase resonance methods for particularly close or complex modes. Aluminium plate with added non-proportional damping. particularly if improved parameter estimates are obtained.

RECENT ADVANCES IN PHASE RESONANCE TESTING 4. Experimental drive point FRF of non-proportionally damped aluminium plate.1. Experimental MMIF of non-proportionally damped aluminium plate. However. the choice of exciter Figure 20. 4.NORMAL-MODE FORCE APPROPRIATION—THEORY AND APPLICATION 233 Figure 19. OPTIMAL EXCITER LOCATION The number and positioning of exciters has been shown to be critical to the successful application of normal-mode force appropriation techniques. .

Figure 22. . One approach to optimal exciter placement by Niedbal [21]. tuned normal mode shape. However. No account is taken of the damping levels in this technique. It was proposed that the optimum subset of excitation positions for a given number of target modes should correspond to the modal matrix with the lowest condition number. tuned phase scatter plot. WRIGHT E¹ A¸. rather than to excite a single mode whilst suppressing others. configuration is traditionally left to the judgement of the test engineer.234 J. Although a number of techniques are available for the positioning of exciters for phase separation testing. with alterations being made on a trial and error basis. makes use of the condition number of the modal matrix. R. there appears to be no theoretical reason that the exciter configuration chosen according to this criterion should necessarily excite the target normal modes in an optimum way. Figure 21. Second mode of non-proportionally damped aluminium plate. and proportional damping is assumed throughout. applicable to phase resonance testing. Second mode of non-proportionally damped aluminium plate. these methods are unsuitable for phase resonance testing as they all aim to maximise the energy input into the target modes simultaneously.

Second mode of non-proportionally damped aluminium plate. LSCE phase scatter plot. a method has been developed [22] which uses an a priori model of a test structure to predict the optimum exciter configuration for force appropriation of a set of normal modes. Both exhaustive search and Genetic Algorithm approaches are considered. . Second mode of non-proportionally damped aluminium plate. For the case of the proportionally damped perspex plate described above.NORMAL-MODE FORCE APPROPRIATION—THEORY AND APPLICATION 235 Figure 23. In cases when an a priori model of a structure is not available. the results of an a priori FE model have been validated by a normal mode test. Two measures of combined normal mode purity (sum and product) may be defined which are suitable for different test situations. it has been shown [23] that the mathematical model derived from a phase separation analysis may also be used for optical exciter placement prediction. LSCE mode shape. This procedure particularly lends itself to mid-test Figure 24. Recently.

some configurations which lie in the top few per cent in terms of condition number (e. Figure 25 shows the condition number of the first approach [21] plotted against the average modal purity value ( ) of the second  approach [22]. values above 0.g. WRIGHT E¹ A¸. R. whilst a fairly good exciter configuration could be selected on the basis of the condition number. exciter optimisation in cases when some of the modes of a structure may not be well excited by the initial choice of exciter positions.941. chosen for optimal excitation of the first eight modes of the proportionally damped perspex plate. Conversely. Comparison of optimal excitation approaches for the perspex plate model. with an average modal purity value of 0. Figure 26 shows the exciter configuration [8. In both cases. These values represent a significant improvement over the results seen in Table 2 which were measured using excitation at the corner positions and gave an average modal purity of only 0. Thus. . 15. non-proportionally damped systems may be considered by estimating the positions and magnitudes of representative discrete dampers. equally good alternatives would be discarded. The two methods of optimal exciter selection described above have been compared for excitation of the first four modes of the perspex plate model. 12. It is clear that the exciter configurations with the highest values of are  spread across the range of condition numbers.236 J.870.92. Using this configuration in practice. All combinations of four exciters out of a possible 24 were considered.077 and would thus not be considered under Niedbal’s method.3). 16]. each of the first eight modes was hard-tuned to a modal purity above 0. have relatively low values and are thus suboptimal in terms of  normal-mode force appropriation. The optimal configuration based on corresponds to a condition  number of only 0. Figure 25.

The concept of normal modes is not directly applicable to non-linear systems. These methods have been validated on a benchmark aluminium plate structure. As a different set of exciter positions is found for each mode. Optimal exciter configuration for the perspex plate model. although the method may be extended to the situation where an a priori estimate of a non-proportional damping matrix is available. a single normal mode is tuned and then the excitation is removed. For a nonproportionally damped system. Finally. APPLICATION TO NON-LINEAR STRUCTURES Recent work [26] has been directed at the application of force appropriation techniques to non-linear systems.NORMAL-MODE FORCE APPROPRIATION—THEORY AND APPLICATION 237 Figure 26. Again. as defined in equation (8) is used to indicate the presence of the normal modes of the system. resulting in a multi-modal decay. The modal purity indicator. 4. and is also used as the optimisation criterion. In this technique. the modal damping may be found from a time-domain curve-fit to the resulting single-mode decays at each measurement position. A Genetic Algorithm is used to perform the optimisation. classical force appropriation can yield a single-mode response at low excitation levels.3. a method has been proposed [24] which seeks optimal exciter combinations for each normal mode of a system. In other words. For the case of a proportionally damped system. proportional damping is assumed. ESTIMATION OF MODAL DAMPING AND CROSS-DAMPING TERMS It has recently been demonstrated [25] that force appropriation may be used to estimate the direct modal damping and cross-damping terms for a general system. this approach will prove impractical in real-test situations. 4.2. but other modes respond at higher . A curve-fit to these responses allows both direct and cross-damping terms to be estimated. the modal cross-damping terms cause other coupled modes to respond once the appropriated forces are removed. and it has been shown on simulated non-linear systems that the appropriated force vectors derived from the Modified MMIF do not significantly reduce the contribution of the coupled mode(s) for the non-linear case.

06 9. An extension of the approach could yield important non-linear cross-coupling terms.10 FANS approach Mode 1 3. The non-linear identification could be restricted to those modes which demonstrate non-linear behaviour. Figure 27. /(N/m) Mode 1 2.60 10. A comparison of this new approach with a classical restoring force method is presented in Table 3 .54.90 6. Figure 27 shows the single-dof modal restoring force surfaces of the modes of a benchmark two-dof structure with a cubic stiffness non-linearity.10 3. R. However. and a classical modal model. may thus be developed. WRIGHT E¹ A¸. Modal Restoring force surfaces of a 2 DoF benchmark non-linear structure using FANS approach.10 Mode 2 2.49 6.73 4.238 J. it has been demonstrated theoretically and experimentally that the linear mode shape of a single mode may be excited in the non-linear region for a multiple-dof non-linear system through the use of optimised force vectors with both fundamental and harmonic sinusoidal terms included in the multipoint force vector.10 2. It can be seen that similar modal parameter estimates are obtained using the FANS technique as for the classical method. c/(Ns/m) Linear stiffness. m/(kg) Damping.87.54. TABLE 3 Comparison of Restoring Force and FANS approaches on benchmark 2 DOF non-linear structure Restoring Force Method Modal parameter Mass.49. appropriated using the force appropriation for non-linear systems (FANS) approach described in [26].10 Mode 2 3.10 . The resulting responses are then suitable for analysis by single dof non-linear techniques such as the restoring force surface and the sensitivity approach which cannot be easily applied to coupled multiple-dof responses.01 8. However. it is proposed that the FANS approach may be extended to real non-linear systems of arbitrary dimension.83.11 4.73.97. excitation levels where non-linear modal couplings are active.10 1. with additional non-linear terms. k/(N/m) Cubic stiffness.84 10. whereas the classical restoring force method begins to become impractical for systems with more than two dof.10 6.29.

W. 70. G. NASH 1988 Proceedings of the 6th International Modal Analysis Conference. In situations where the number of exciters exceeds the number of effective dof. 6. A variational approach to pure mode excitation based on characteristic phase lag theory. ASHER 1958 Proceedings of the National Specialists Meeting on Dynamics and Aeroelasticity. W. However. 519—528. S. DEBILLE and J. Journal of Aeronautical Sciences 6. The MMIF is. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of LMS International and LMS-DIFA Measuring Systems in the provision of software and hardware. 822—824. and is the most commonly used of the presented techniques. VAN DER AUWERAER. HUNT 1992 Proceedings of the 10th International Modal Analysis Conference. 8. MOROSOW and R. It has been shown that the rectangular FRF matrix methods are superior to the square FRF matrix methods in the identification of the normal modes of a structure. M. 643—658. phase separation analysis. normal-mode force appropriation in a valuable element in the modal analyst’s toolbox. It is the belief of the authors that phase resonance techniques should be used alongside. In many cases. rank reduction techniques are of value. E. D. ASHER 1967 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal 5 (4). 56—96. B. R. The application of normal-mode force appropriation techniques to both proportionally and non-proportionally damped structures has been discussed. 3. Comparison of some multipoint force appropriation methods. Use of the multivariate mode indicator function for normal mode determination. ALEXIOU and J. DE VEUBEKE 1956 AGARD Report 39. A note on the effective degrees of freedom of a vibrating structure. It has also been shown that phase resonance techniques may offer a way forward for non-linear identification with a modal model. M. J. 2. Ground vibration testing for validation of large aircraft structural dynamics. 9.NORMAL-MODE FORCE APPROPRIATION—THEORY AND APPLICATION 239 5. LEURIDAN 1992 Proceedings of the 17th International Seminar on Modal Analysis. non-proportional damping or the need to correlate closely with FE analysis. R. curve-fitted mode shapes are adequate and the time required for force appropriation may prove prohibitive. Multiple input excitation methods for the C-17 transport aircraft GVT. DEGENER 1995 Proceedings of the International Forum on Aeroelasticity and Structural Dynamics.12. AYRE 1978 Sound and »ibration Bulletin 48.1—70. WRIGHT 1993 Modal Analysis 8 (2). BRILLHART and D. F. 10. D. ease of comparison to FE results and smoothness of mode shapes—have been described along with the disadvantages—the requirement of extra analysis and testing time and the need for adequate excitation. Enhanced force vector appropriation methods for normal mode testing. 740—744. and a demonstration of the need for good exciter positioning shown. in cases of significant modal overlap. CONCLUSIONS An overview of normal-mode force appropriation techniques has been presented. REFERENCES 1. 4. A semi-automatic modal survey test technique for complex aircraft and spacecraft structures. . The advantages of phase resonance approaches over phase separation—accuracy. 39—48. G. the clearest of the methods to interpret. 5. H. A method of normal mode excitation using admittance measurements. Force apportioning for modal vibration testing using incomplete excitation. 119—136. arguably. rather than instead of. OTTE. G. L. BREITBACH 1973 Proceedings of the 3rd ESRO ¹esting Symposium. 7. K. Some approaches to optimal exciter placement have also been reviewed.

14. J. 16. NASH 1991 Proceedings of the 9th International Modal Analysis Conference. 130—141. P. HOLMES. 20. WRIGHT 1991 Journal of »ibration and Acoustics 113. D. WRIGHT 1993 Modal Analysis 10 (2). R. S. IBANEZ 1976 SAE Paper No. 17. J. HOLMES. E. VOLD 1986 Proceedings of the 3rd International Modal Analysis Conference. 66—70. WRIGHT and J. P. Optimal exciter placement and force vector tuning required for experimental modal analysis. R. 13. R. 15. P. 137/1—137/7. TRAILL-NASH 1961 Structures and Materials Report 280. Some theoretical aspects of resonance testing and proposals for a technique combining experiment and computation. WRIGHT E¹ A¸. COOPER 1996 Proceedings of the 14th International Modal Analysis Conference. DEGENER 1996 International Conference on Identification in Engineering Systems. WRIGHT and J. real part of the FRF matrix imaginary part of the FRF matrix number of exciters vector of forces integer number of effective modes number of response positions vector of responses eigenvalues normal-mode purity average normal-mode purity normal-mode shape frequency ?T + . R. 753—759. On the estimation of modal matrices with non-proportional damping. R. E. of Supply. NIEDBAL and E. A multipoint force appropriation method based upon a singular value decomposition approach. 24. Australian Defence Scientific Service. 18. E. M. M. E. RADES 1992 Proceedings of the 17th International Seminar on Modal Analysis. 760873. HAMILTON and J. S. J. 23. Estimating the behaviour of a nonlinear experimental multi degree of freedom system using a force appropriation approach. 21. COOPER 1997 Proceedings of the 15th International Modal Analysis Conference. S. R. P. WRIGHT 1996 Proceedings of the 21st International Seminar on Modal Analysis. J. COOPER and J. IBANEZ and K. 377—387. R. R. 2. CROWLEY and H. A modification of the multivariate mode indicator function employing principal force vectors. WRIGHT and J. BIFULCO and M. Automatic force appropriation—a review and suggested improvements. E. S. Force appropriation by Extended Asher’s method. HOLMES. KLUSOWSKI 1990 Proceedings of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Dynamics Specialists Conference. WRIGHT 1997 Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Recent Advances in Structural Dynamics. APPENDIX A: NOMENCLATURE [A] [B] e +f. Identification of a significantly non-proportionally damped structure using force appropriation. 903—907. R. 2. P. 1099—1112. J. 1237—1250. Experimental evaluation of various normal mode force appropriation methods on a rectangular perspex plate using four exciters. 563—581. WRIGHT and J. 12. R. Normal mode estimation from non-proportionally damped systems. The multivariate mode indicator function in modal analysis. 19. E. A. j n* r +x .240 J. WILLIAMS. 118—130. W. 11. J. P. J. Theoretical prediction and experimental verification of optimum exciter configurations for modal testing. . Aeronautical Research ¸aboratories. NAYLOR. BLAKELY 1984 Proceedings of the 2nd International Modal Analysis Conference. A comparison of some mode indicator functions. HOLMES. SAE Aerospace Engineering and Manufacturing Meeting. ATKINS and J. COOPER 1996 Proceedings of the 2nd D¹A/NAFEMS International Conference. 176—181. S. N. 688—693. JUANG and J. Optimum exciter placement for normal mode force appropriation using an a priori model. COOPER 1995 Proceedings of the 15th ASME Conference on Mechanical »ibration and Noise. 25. Dept. P.-N. Mid-test optimum exciter placement for normal mode force appropriation. J. J. 1—7. 26. COOPER. R. M. 22. A.