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1, JANUARY 2009


A Versatile Control Scheme for a Dynamic Voltage Restorer for Power-Quality Improvement
Pedro Roncero-Snchez, Member, IEEE, Enrique Acha, Senior Member, IEEE, Jose Enrique Ortega-Calderon, Member, IEEE, Vicente Feliu, Senior Member, IEEE, and Aurelio Garca-Cerrada, Member, IEEE

AbstractThis paper presents a control system based on a repetitive controller to compensate for key power-quality disturbances, namely voltage sags, harmonic voltages, and voltage imbalances, using a dynamic voltage restorer (DVR). The control scheme deals with all three disturbances simultaneously within a bandwidth. The control structure is quite simple and yet very robust; it contains a feedforward term to improve the transient response and a feedback term to enable zero error in steady state. The well-developed graphical facilities available in PSCAD/EMTDC are used to carry out all modeling aspects of the repetitive controller and test system. Simulation results show that the control approach performs very effectively and yields excellent voltage regulation. Index TermsDynamic voltage restorer (DVR), harmonic distortion, power quality (PQ), repetitive control, voltage sag.

I. INTRODUCTION HE importance of power quality (PQ) has risen very considerably over the last two decades due to a marked increase in the number of equipment which is sensitive to adverse PQ environments, the disturbances introduced by nonlinear loads, and the proliferation of renewable energy sources, among others. At least 50% of all PQ disturbances are of the voltage quality type, where the interest is the study of any deviation of the voltage waveform from its ideal form [1]. The best well-known disturbances are voltage sags and swells, harmonic and interharmonic voltages, and, for three-phase systems, voltage imbalances. A voltage sag is normally caused by short-circuit faults in the power network [2], [3] or by the starting up of induction motors of large rating [4]. The ensuing adverse consequences are a reduction in the energy transfers of electric motors and the disconnection of sensitive equipment and industrial processes brought to a standstill. A comprehensive description of voltage sags can be found in [5].
Manuscript received June 05, 2007; revised May 26, 2008. Current version published December 24, 2008. This work was supported in part by the Castilla-La Mancha Council under Research Project PBI-06-0150, in part by the Fellowship Program of Caja Castilla-La Mancha, and in part by the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologa de Mxico and Instituto Tecnolgico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Mxico. Paper no. TPWRD-00330-2007. P. Roncero-Snchez and V. Feliu are with the Department of Electrical, Electronic, Control Engineering and Communications, E.T.S. Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Ciudad Real 13071, Spain (e-mail: E. Acha and J. E. Ortega-Calderon are with the Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering of the University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8LT, U.K. A. Garca-Cerrada is with the Department of Electronics and Control Engineering, Universidad Ponticia Comillas de Madrid, Madrid 28045, Spain. Color versions of one or more of the gures in this paper are available online at Digital Object Identier 10.1109/TPWRD.2008.2002967

Harmonics are produced by nonlinear equipment, such as electric arc furnaces, variable speed drives, large concentrations of arc discharge lamps, and loads which use power electronics. Harmonic currents generated by a nonlinear device or created as a result of existing harmonic voltages will exacerbate copper and iron losses in electrical equipment. In rotating machinery, they will produce pulsating torques and overheating [6]. Voltage imbalances are normally brought about by unbalanced loads or unbalanced short-circuit faults, thus producing overheating in synchronous machines and, in some extreme cases, leading to load shutdowns and equipment failure. The DVR is essentially a voltage-source converter connected in series with the ac network via an interfacing transformer, which was originally conceived to ameliorate voltage sags [7]. However, as shown in this paper, its range of applicability can be extended very considerably when provided with a suitable control scheme. The basic operating principle behind the DVR is the injection of an inphase series voltage with the incoming supply to the load, sufcient enough to reestablish the voltage to its presag state. Its rate of success in combating voltage sags in actual installations is well documented [8], this being one of the reasons why it continues to attract a great deal of interest in industry and in academic circles. Research work has been reported on DVR two-level [9] and multilevel [10] topologies as well as on control and operation. The latter may be divided into several topics. 1) The conguration, whether two-level or multilevel, relates to the availability, or otherwise, of energy storage [2], the output lter [11], and the capacity to cancel out unbalanced voltages in three-phase four-wire systems [12]. 2) The voltage-sag detection. Several techniques have been used to detect the instant of sag appearance, such as measurement of the peak value of the grid voltage. A comprehensive analysis of these techniques can be found in [13]. 3) The control strategy. The DVR may be operated to inject the series voltage according to several criteria, such as minimum energy exchange with the grid. The three most popular strategies to compensate voltage sags are [14]: 1) presag compensation. The injected DVR voltage is calculated to simply compensate the load voltage to its presag condition; 2) inphase compensation. The DVR voltage is always in phase with the grid voltage; and 3) optimal energy compensation. This strategy minimizes the energy transfer between the energy storage and the grid during steady-state operation. Although these are the best well-known control strategies, many efforts are being made to develop new ones to enable better DVR utilization, as amply discussed in [15][18].

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4) The design of the control law. The controller is normally designed with some specic aims rmly in mind, such as the kind of disturbances it should ameliorate, the velocity of time response, error in steady-state, etc. Most of the published work on DVR uses a simple proportional-integral (PI) control law implemented in a frame of reference which rotates with the frequency of the grid voltage. This basic approach is sufcient to enable voltage sag compensation, to warrant zero tracking error for the fundamental component, and to compensate certain kinds of unbalanced conditions. However, this simple control law is insufcient when dealing with high-performance applications and more complex controllers are required [19], [20]. The former reference adds resonant control lters to the existing PI control scheme in order to eliminate harmonic voltages [21]. The main drawback of this structure is that one lter is required for each harmonic to be eliminated if the system is unbalanced, and only half that number if the system is balanced. The latter reference takes the approach of adding a feedforward loop to the feedback PI controller in order to improve the control overall performance, taking into account the time delay of the sampled system and the DVR output lter constraints. This paper focuses on the design of a closed-loop control law for a two-level DVR, based on the so-called repetitive control, aiming at compensating key voltage-quality disturbances, namely, voltage sags, harmonic voltages, andvoltage imbalances. Repetitive control was rst introduced in [22] to eliminate periodic disturbances and to track periodic reference signals with zero tracking error. A detailed analysis of various repetitive control congurations is reported in [23]. The repetitive control was originally applied to eliminate speed uctuations in electric motors but it has since been adopted in a wide range of power-electronics applications. In [24], a repetitive controller is applied to obtain an output voltage with low distortion in a constant voltage, constant frequency three-phase PWM inverter. In [25], a repetitive controller is used to achieve zero tracking error in the output current of a three-phase rectier in order to improve its power factor. A more recent example is found in [26], where a repetitive controller is used in a parallel active lter to cancel out harmonic currents produced by a nonlinear load. The repetitive controller presented in this paper has a wider range of applicability; it is used in a DVR system to ameliorate voltage sags, harmonic voltages, and voltage imbalances within a bandwidth. Unlike other schemes, which also have a comparable range of applicability, only one controller is needed to cancel all three disturbances simultaneously. The control structure contains a grid voltage feedforward term to improve the system transient response, and a closed-loop control which comprises a feedback of the load voltage with the repetitive controller in order to warrant zero tracking error in steady state. This paper is organized as follows. The DVR model is presented in Section II. The fundamentals of the control system and the proposed control scheme are studied in Section III. The modeling of the repetitive controller using the well-developed graphical facilities available in PSCAD/EMTDC and simulation results are presented in Section IV. The main conclusions of the current investigation are drawn in Section V.

Fig. 1. System conguration with a DVR.

Fig. 2. Single-phase equivalent circuit for the DVR.

II. MODEL OF THE DVR-CONNECTION SYSTEM A typical test system, incorporating a DVR, is depicted in Fig. 1. Various kinds of loads are connected at the point of common coupling (PCC), including a linear load, a nonlinear load, and a sensitive load. The series connection of the voltage-source converter (VSC) making up the DVR with the ac system is achieved by means of a coupling transformer whose primary is connected in series between the mains and the load. Although a passive LC lter is normally used to obtain a switching-ripple-free DVR voltage, in this paper, this lter is not considered in order to fully assess the harmonic cancelling properties of the repetitive controller. Fig. 2 shows the equivalent circuit for the DVR, where is is the line impedance, is the current the supply voltage, supplied by the source, which splits at the PCC into a current injected into the sensitive load and a current injected into other is the measured voltage at the PCC, loads . The voltage is the voltage representing the DVR, which is modeled as an ideal voltage source. Also, and are the resistance and inductance of the coupling transformer, respectively, and is the measured voltage across the sensitive load. The sensitive-load voltage can be obtained as (1)



Fig. 3. Closed-loop control scheme.

III. DESIGN OF THE CONTROL SYSTEM The aim of the control system is to regulate the load voltage in the presence of various kinds of disturbances. The control structure proposed in this paper is based on the use of a feedforward term of the voltage at the PCC to obtain a fast transient response, and a feedback term of the load voltage to ensure zero error in steady state. The continuous time of the whole control system represents the controller. If the is depicted in Fig. 3 where switching frequency is high enough, the DVR can be modeled [20]. This as a linear amplier with a pure delay delay is the sum of one-sample-period plus the time delay of the inverter due to PWM switching. The former applies in cases of microprocessor-based implementations [27] and the latter can be taken to be half the switching period [20]. The transfer funcis equal to is the reference voltage tion for the load, is the control output, whereas is the is the load voltage. The output voltage of the DVR and and stand for the grid voltage and the curinputs rent through the load, respectively. Both inputs are assumed to be measurable. The model may be extended with ease to three-phase applications. The load voltage is (2) where (3) (4) (5) Repetitive control is a contemporary control technique that may be used to cancel out, simultaneously, voltage sags, voltage harmonics, and voltage imbalances, characteristics rarely achieved with other control techniques, such as PI controllers. As a rst approximation, as described in conventional repetitive-control can be written as theory [23], the controller (6) where is a transfer function chosen so that the closed-loop is the fundamental frequency stability is always fullled and at the mains.

The substitution of (6) into (3)(5) yields (7)


(9) In order to calculate the frequency response of (7)(9), the . It should be noticed that the variable is substituted by is always zero whenever is an term (e.g., , then integer multiple of the frequency ). Hence, the frequency response shows that and for frequenwith . Therefore, if the cies closed-loop system is stable, the error in steady state is zero for sinusoidal reference inputs or sinusoidal disturbance inputs of frequency . is smaller than the grid-voltage period Since the delay , the transfer function can be chosen as (10) With the substitution of (7)(9) and (10) into the load voltage, (2) yields

(11) Unfortunately, the delay is not exactly known and the closedloop system will not be stable if a controller is used with (6) and . (10) designed for an estimated is proTo tackle this problem, a modied controller posed as (12) is the transfer function of a low-pass lter [23], where is the estimated value for the DVR delay, with , and is a design parameter which is smaller than the period of the grid voltage .



The transfer functions (3)(5) are (13) (14) (15) . with The characteristic equation of the resulting closed-loop system is

(16) in (16) must comply In order to guarantee stability, the term with the Nyquist criterion: if the number of unstable poles of the is equal to zero , then the open-loop system number of counterclokwise encirclements of the point of the term must be zero with . Since all of the poles of are stable, which implies that , then must be zero to guarantee stability, and a sufcan be obtained by making cient condition for (17) which is fullled if (18) Note that condition (18) is independent of the delay value of in (12). the controller A low-pass lter, which is approximated by a constant time within its passband, can be designed delay being the time delay of the lter. For continuous syswith tems, Bessel lters can be used because they can be approximated by a constant time delay [28], while for discrete time systems, nite-impulse-response (FIR) lters with a linear phase in their passband can be used [29]. Therefore, the design parameter can be chosen to cancel out the lter time delay ; and under such conditions, the closed-loop-system frequency reand sponse will satisfy while the approximation of a constant time delay is valid. Obviously, the bandwidth of the controller will be limited because the magnitude characteristic of the lter will decrease as frequency increases. IV. STUDY CASE The power system depicted in Fig. 1 and the controller shown in Fig. 3 have been implemented in PSCAD/EMTDC. Figs. 4 and 5 show the test system and the control system, respectively. The test system is comprised of a 400-V, 50-Hz source which feeds three different loads: 1) a squirrel-cage induction machine, 2) a nonlinear load which consists of an uncontrolled three-phase rectier with an inductive-resistive load, and 3) a three-phase sensitive load which consists of astarmadeup of a resistance connected in series with an inductance in each phase. A two-level DVR is connected between the PCC and the sensitive load by means of a

Fig. 4. Test system implemented in PSCAD/EMTDC.

Fig. 5. Three-phase control scheme using the repetitive controller. TABLE I PARAMETERS OF THE TEST SYSTEM

20-kVA coupling transformer with a unity turns ratio and a starconnected secondary winding. The voltage of the dc storage device is 650 V. The main parameters are summarized in Table I.



Fig. 6. Nyquist diagram of the term


0 1).

Fig. 7. Three-phase rms voltage. (a) Across the sensitive load. (b) At the PCC.

A. Controller Parameters In order to design the parameters of the control system correctly, a nominal value for the expected time delay must be chosen. As the controller has been implemented by using the continuous systems provided by PSCAD/EMTDC, the time delay is only due to PWM switching. In this paper, a sinusoidal PWM scheme has been used to generate the switching signals for the power converter, which consists of a three-branch three-phase voltage-source inverter. A controller has been designed for each phase by using a coordinate system. The reference frame three-phase is perhaps the most popular alternative to control load voltages when operating under unbalanced conditions. Nevertheless, it should be recalled that the repetitive controller also guarantees zero-tracking error at zero frequency; the controller can be implerotating synchronously mented by using a reference frame with the fundamental frequency since the fundamental harmonic transforms into a dc component in this reference frame. The fundamental frequency was chosen as being equal to 50 Hz, while the switching frequency was set at 6.45 kHz in which order to obtain a frequency-modulation (FM) index was large enough and an odd integer multiple of 3 (see [30] for more details). Hence, the estimated time delay was , with being the switching frechosen to be quency. The parameter was set at . has been designed whose A second-order Bessel lter cutoff frequency is 5 kHz. The lter has a linear phase lag in its passband, which is equivalent to a constant time delay of 551.33 s. The amplitude of the lter begins to decrease at approximately 1 kHz (about 20 times the fundamental frequency). Fig. 6 shows the Nyquist diagram of the term where it can be seen that the number of counterclockwise encirclements of the point is zero . Therefore, recalling that the number of is , the unstable poles of the open-loop system closed-loop system is stable. B. Simulation Results The scenario of the simulation is the one depicted in Fig. 4 where the simulation has been carried out as follows: the nonlinear load and the DVR are connected at 0 s. A two-phase short-circuit fault is applied at the PCC from 0.2 s to

Fig. 8. Line-to-line voltage. (a) At the PCC. (b) Across the sensitive load. Corresponding to the interval (s): 0 0 2.

t< :

0.28 s via a fault resistance of 0.2 . This short circuit causes a 40% voltage sag in the two affected phases with respect to their 0.4 s nominal values. The induction machine is connected at with a constant rotor speed of 0.97 p.u. (the slip has a value of %), while the nonlinear load is disconnected at 0.65 s. The total simulation time is 0.8 s. Fig. 7(a) shows the three-phase rms voltage across the sensitive load, while Fig. 7(b) shows the three-phase rms voltage at the PCC. Initially, the rms value at the PCC is 385 V and this falls to 270 V when the two-phase short-circuit fault is applied (note that during the time in which this fault is applied, the three-phase rms value is not correctly calculated since the fault causes unbalanced voltages which have been measured by using the three-phase rms voltmeter block available in PSCAD/ 0.4 s, EMTDC). When the induction motor is connected at the voltage at the PCC decreases to 330 V, causing a voltage sag of 17.5% with respect to the nominal value. Finally, when the 0.65 s, the voltage at the nonlinear load is disconnected at PCC rises to 370 V. A comparison of Fig. 7(a) and (b) graphically shows that despite the many voltage variations at the PCC, the DVR is able to provide the sensitive load with the necessary voltage, maintaining an almost constant voltage level of 400 V. Fig. 8(a) and (b) shows results only for the case in which the nonlinear load and the sensitive load are connected. Notice that only 0.08 s are plotted, although this case lasts for 0.2 s. Fig. 8(a) : the waveform shows the line-to-line voltage at the PCC



Fig. 9. Detail of the spectrum of the line-to-line voltage. (a) At the PCC. (b) Across the sensitive load.

Fig. 11. Sensitive-load line-to-line voltages. (a) v . (b) v . (c) v . Corresponding to the interval (s) 0:2 t < 0:28.

Fig. 10. Line-to-line voltages at the PCC. (a) v t < 0:28. Corresponding to the interval (s) 0:2

. (b) v

. (c) v

distortion is due to the harmonic currents drawn by the rectier, while the total current provided to the sensitive load and the rectier causes a voltage drop at the PCC. The Fourier analysis of the line-to-line voltage shows that the rms value at the fundamental frequency is 385 V (96.25% of the nominal value) 12.52%. and the total harmonic voltage distortion is Fig. 8(b) shows the line-to-line voltage across the sensitive load, whereas Fig. 9(a) and (b) shows the harmonic spectrums of the line-to-line voltage at the PCC and across the sensitive load, respectively. The control system guarantees that the DVR not only counteracts the voltage drop but also cancels out the harmonic voltages caused by the nonlinear load. In this case, the fundamental harmonic has an rms value of 399.63 V, while the %. Note that total harmonic voltage distortion is this harmonic distortion value is due to the high-frequency harmonics associated with the PWM process. The results obtained when the two-phase short circuit occurs are plotted in Figs. 1012. Since the fault causes unbalanced voltages at the PCC, the three line-to-line voltages have been

plotted in Figs. 10 and 11. From 0.2 s to 0.28 s, the fault is applied and causes an unbalanced voltage sag, while the nonlinear load continues to cause harmonic voltage distortion. The fundamental-harmonic rms values of the line-to-line voltV, V, and ages at the PCC are V, where the superscript indicates the fundamental harmonic. The total harmonic voltage distortions are % % and %. Fig. 11 shows the three line-to-line voltages across the sensitive load: a very fast DVR response is obtained owing to the feedforward term of the controller, and the two-phase short-circuit fault is hardly noticed in the sensitive-load voltage. Furthermore, the repetitive term of the controller guarantees zero-tracking error in steady state. Hence, the control system and the DVR are able to cancel all three different disturbances simultaneously (the voltage sags, the unbalanced voltages, and the harmonic voltages). The fundamental-harmonic rms values of the line-to-line V, voltage across the sensitive load are V, and V, whereas the total harmonic % % voltage distortions are and %. There is an increase in the total harmonic distortion value with respect to that obtained in the case of Fig. 8(b), which is due to the fact that the DVR supplies more voltage to compensate the short-circuit fault as the voltage sag is more severe and, therefore, the harmonic voltages caused by the PWM are larger. The control outputs for the three branches of the DVR voltage-source inverter are plotted in Fig. 12. Fig. 13(a) and (b) shows the results when the induction motor 0.4 s. Notice that only 0.12 s are plotted, alis connected at though this case lasts for 0.25 s. In this case, the induction motor connection causes a balanced voltage sag at the PCC, while the nonlinear load continues to generate harmonic voltages. Initially, the fundamental-harmonic rms value of the line-to-line voltage at the PCC decreases to 330 V (82.5% of the nom0.44 s (see Fig. 7 for more details), and the inal value) at steady-state value is 365 V (91.25% of the nominal value). As




Fig. 12. Control outputs. (a) u . (b) u . (c) u . Corresponding to the interval t < 0:28. (s) 0:2

Table II summarizes the most signicant information of the many simulation results. V. CONCLUSION The use of dynamic voltage restorers in PQ-related applications is increasing. The most popular application has been on voltage sags amelioration but other voltage-squality phenomena may also benet from its use, provided that more robust control schemes than the basic PI controller become available. A case in point is the so called repetitive controller proposed in this paper, which has a fast transient response and ensures zero error in steady state for any sinusoidal reference input and for any sinusoidal disturbance whose frequencies are an integer multiple of the fundamental frequency. To achieve this, the controller has been provided with a feedforward term and feedback term. The design has been carried out by studying the stability of the closed-loop system including possible modelling errors, resulting in a controller which possesses very good transient and steady-state performances for various kinds of disturbances. A key feature of this control scheme is its simplicity; only one controller is required to eliminate three PQ disturbances, namely, voltage sags, harmonic voltages, and voltage imbalances. The controller can be implemented by using either a stationary reference frame or a rotating reference frame. In this paper, the highly developed graphical facilities available in PSCAD/EMTDC have been used very effectively to carry out all aspects of the system implementation. Comprehensive simulation results using a simple but realistic test system show that the repetitive controller and the DVR yield excellent voltage regulation, thus screening a sensitive load point from upstream PQ disturbances. REFERENCES
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Fig. 13. Line-to-line voltage when the induction motor is connected. (a) At the PC. (b) Across the sensitive load. Corresponding to the interval (s) 0:4 t < 0:65.

shown in Fig. 13, the DVR once again counteracts the voltage sag and the low-frequency voltage harmonics, thus protecting the sensitive load from these disturbances. The total harmonic distortions for the voltages at the PCC and across the sensitive load are 8.91% and 3.77%, respectively, while the fundamental harmonic of the line-to-line voltage across the sensitive load has an rms value of 400.17 V. 0.65 s, the nonlinear load is disconnected from At the system and only the motor and the sensitive load remain connected. The results obtained show that, as expected, the % and the voltage at the PCC is sinusoidal line-to-line voltage has an rms value of 370 V (92.5% of the nominal value) due to the voltage drop in the line impedance. The control system and the DVR once again work properly, thus compensating the voltage drop in the sensitive load. The fundamental harmonic of the sensitive-load voltage has an rms value of 399.78 V and the total harmonic distortion is 3.17%.



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Pedro Roncero-Snchez (M07) received the Electrical Engineering degree from Universidad Ponticia Comillas, Madrid, Spain, in 1998 and the Ph.D. degree from Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Ciudad Real, Spain, in 2004. He is an Adjunct Professor in the School of Industrial Engineering, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha. His research interests include control, power electronics, and its applications in electric energy systems as well as dynamic control of exible robots.

Enrique Acha (SM02) was born in Mxico. He graduated from Universidad Michoacana de San Nicols de Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacn, Mxico, in 1979 and received the Ph.D. degree from the University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand, in 1988. He was a Postdoctoral Fellow at the University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada, and the University of Durham, Durham, U.K. He is the Professor of Electrical Power Systems at the University of Glasgow, Glasgow, U.K. Dr. Acha is an IEEE Power Engineering Society Distinguished Lecturer.

Jose Enrique Ortega-Calderon (M05) was born in Orizaba, Veracruz, Mexico, in 1962. He received the B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees in electrical engineering from Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey (ITESM), Nuevo Leon, Mexico, in 1990 and 2001, respectively, and is currently pursuing the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering at the University of Glasgow, Glasgow, U.K. He was with Telemecanique and Schneider Electric Mexico from 1990 to 1999. In 1999, he held a managing post in the Department of Project Engineering at ITESM and, since 2001, has held a teaching post at ITESM. His research interests include power quality, power electronics, and signal-processing algorithms for electrical power systems.

Vicente Feliu (SM08) received the M.S. degree (Hons.) in industrial engineering and the Ph.D. degree from the Polytechnical University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain, in 1979 and 1982, respectively. He was with the Electrical Engineering Department, Universidad Nacional de Educacin a Distancia, Madrid, Spain, from 1980 to 1994. He was Full Professor in 1990 and was Head of the Department from 1991 to 1994. He is with the School of Industrial Engineering, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Ciudad Real, Spain, and was a Fulbright Scholar at the Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, from 1987 to 1989. His research interests include multivariable and digital control systems, and kinematic and dynamic control of rigid and exible robots. Dr. Feliu is a member of the International Federation of Automatic Control (IFAC).

Aurelio Garca-Cerrada (M91) received the M.Sc. degree from the Universidad Politcnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain, in 1986 and the Ph.D. degree from the University of Birmingham, Birmingham, U.K., in 1991. Currently, he is a Professor with the Electronics and Control Engineering Department and a member of the Applied Research Institute (IIT) at the Universidad Ponticia Comillas de Madrid. His research interests include power systems and power-electronics control and its applications to electric energy systems.