Microsoft Operations Manager 2005 Operations Guide

MOM 2005 Feature Overview
Authors: Dan Wesley Program Managers: Lorenzo Rizzi, Travis Wright
Published: October 2004 Applies To: Microsoft Operations Manager 2005 Document Version: Release 1.0

The information contained in this document represents the current view of Microsoft Corporation on the issues discussed as of the date of publication. Because Microsoft must respond to changing market conditions, it should not be interpreted to be a commitment on the part of Microsoft, and Microsoft cannot guarantee the accuracy of any information presented after the date of publication. This White Paper is for informational purposes only. MICROSOFT MAKES NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY, AS TO THE INFORMATION IN THIS DOCUMENT. Complying with all applicable copyright laws is the responsibility of the user. Without limiting the rights under copyright, no part of this document may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), or for any purpose, without the express written permission of Microsoft Corporation. Microsoft may have patents, patent applications, trademarks, copyrights, or other intellectual property rights covering subject matter in this document. Except as expressly provided in any written license agreement from Microsoft, the furnishing of this document does not give you any license to these patents, trademarks, copyrights, or other intellectual property. Unless otherwise noted, the example companies, organizations, products, domain names, e-mail addresses, logos, people, places, and events depicted herein are fictitious, and no association with any real company, organization, product, domain name, e-mail address, logo, person, place, or event is intended or should be inferred.

© 2004 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
Microsoft, MS-DOS, Windows, Windows NT, Windows Server, Active Directory, ActiveSync, and Windows Mobile are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries. The names of actual companies and products mentioned herein may be the trademarks of their respective owners. Acknowledgments Primary Reviewers: Brenda Carter, Michael Bickle, Kelly Morris Managing Editor: Sandra Faucett

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MOM 2005 Feature Overview
C H A P T E R 2

This chapter introduces the Microsoft Operations Manager 2005 (MOM) components, and the user interfaces that you can use to perform different tasks in the MOM environment.

In This Chapter
• • • • • • • • • Overview MOM Components Processing Flow and Operational Data User Interface Overview The Administrator Console The Operator Console The Web Console The Reporting Console MOM Wizards

Send feedback to the MOM Documentation Team: momdocs@microsoft.com.

Overview
Microsoft Operations Manager (MOM) 2005 is a comprehensive server-monitoring solution that improves the availability, performance, and security of Windows–based networks and applications. It provides central monitoring and automatic problem resolution for networks that scale to thousands of computers

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MOM provides proactive real–time system monitoring for a wide range of resources, including computers, applications, server farms, e–commerce Web sites, corporate servers, and computers running Windows 2000 Server or later. You use MOM by itself, or implement a solution that includes other Microsoft products, such as Microsoft Exchange Server. MOM 2005 provides the following benefits: • • • Event–driven operations monitoring Self–deploying and scalable solutions Improved system availability and performance tracking

MOM Components
The basic management unit is the MOM Management Group, which is a MOM installation that includes one MOM Database, one or more MOM Management Servers, and multiple MOM Agents that are installed on the physical computers. It can also include multiple computers that are managed by using an agentless monitoring technique. The MOM deployment scenario illustrated in this chapter has all of the components installed with managed computers in two domains. The MOM Database is installed on a different server than the Management Server, and the only Management Pack that is installed is the MOM Management Pack. Figure 2.1 illustrates this deployment scenario. Figure 2.1 MOM Management Group

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Note
Another optional component, which is not shown in Figure 2.1, is the MOM Connector Framework (MCF), which is documented in the Microsoft Operations Manager 2005 Deployment Guide and is also covered in subsequent chapters.

The user interfaces shown in Figure 2.1 are described in more detail later in this chapter. Table 2.1 describes the components contained in Figure 2.1. Table 2.1 MOM Component Definitions
Component MOM Database Description A Microsoft SQL Server™ database that stores configuration information and operations data that is produced

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by the monitoring process. MOM Management Server A computer that is responsible for monitoring and managing other computers. The MOM Management Server consists of the Data Access Server, and the MOM Server and MOM Agent components. The MOM Management Server is an essential part of a management group. A COM+ application that manages access to the MOM Database. A component that manages the MOM Agents that monitor computers in a MOM environment. A component that monitors and collects data from a managed computer. A SQL Server database that collects and stores the operations data contained in the MOM Database. The Administrator console and Operator console installed by default when you install MOM.

Data Access Server (DAS) MOM Server

MOM Agent

MOM Reporting Database

User interfaces

Processing Flow and Operational Data
This section describes the general processing flow in a MOM environment and provides information about the operational data that is generated.

Processing Flow
The primary elements in the data processing flow are the MOM Database, the MOM Management Server, and managed computers. This flow is bi-directional, and the flow direction is determined by the situation. Operational Data
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When an alert is raised on a managed computer, the data is sent to the Management Server. The MOM Server component passes the data to the Data Access Service (DAS) runtime component. The DAS adds the operational data to the MOM Database. After the alert is written to the database, the information is provided to the MOM Operator console.

Note
In scenarios with agentless managed computers, the alert is raised by the local agent on the Management Server, which passes the data to the DAS.

Rules and Configuration Data When there is a rule or configuration change, the MOM Server runtime component passes this information to the DAS, which writes the change to the MOM Database. After the change is stored in the operational database, the MOM Management Server sends these changes to the managed computers.

Note
In scenarios with agentless managed computers, the changes are retained by the local agent in the MOM runtime.

Operational Data
During computer and application monitoring, all the operational data that is generated is stored in the MOM Database. This data includes: event data, performance data, alert data, and discovery data. Event Data (Events) Managed computers log events in local event logs (Application, Security, and System), and MOM collects event information from these logs, which can be used to: • • • • • View operational data in the Operator console. Generate reports using the MOM Reporting Server and the Reporting Database. Provide a context for problems that are detected. Provide information about MOM monitoring and management activities. Provide information about computer state, which is derived by correlating data from consolidation events or missing events.

Performance Data

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Numeric performance data is gathered from sources such as Windows performance counters and WMI, which can be used to: • • • View performance data in the Operator console by using different formats such as forms, lists, and graphs. Generate reports using the Reporting Server and the Reporting Database. Identify critical threshold crossings that may indicate performance issues.

Alert Data (Alerts) Alerts inform you about the health of managed computers and provide the basis for the status monitoring, which is described in more detail later in the chapter. Alert data contains the following information about a problem detected on a managed computer: • • • • • • • • • The entity associated with the problem. This is described as a service discovery type. The problem area for the entity. For example, if the entity is the SQL Server Agent, the problem area could be the SQL Server Instance. The severity of the problem. Alert severity is indicated by a level, such as Error, Critical, and Warning. The Alert Name, which is descriptive. The Alert Description, which provides a brief description of the problem. The Problem State, which shows the current state of the problem and indicates whether the problem is still occurring. The Alert Count, which indicates how many times the problem was reported. The Alert Resolution State, which indicates whether the problem has been acknowledged, assigned, or resolved. The Alert History, which is contained in the knowledge base, provides a record for the alert. The knowledge base contains a problem description and recommended resolution, as provided by the Management Pack creator, or it can contain customer knowledge that describes the problem and its resolution.

Alert Updates Alert data that is stored in the MOM Database is continuously updated as MOM collects information about the computer that generated the alert. When a problem is first detected, an alert is generated and inserted in the database. If MOM detects that the problem has disappeared, MOM updates the problem state of the original alert and retains it in the MOM runtime. Eventually, the problem state of the existing alert in the database is updated and flagged as fixed; however, alerts must still be acknowledged and resolved. Discovery Data

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Discovery data contains a snapshot of the entities that are discovered in accordance with a given Management Pack. Unlike the other operational data, discovery data is not directly exposed to the user, but is shown as topology diagrams, computer attributes, service lists, or computer lists. This data is presented in different views such as the State view. See also: “The Operator Console” section of this chapter.

User Interface Overview
MOM 2005 provides interfaces with the flexibility required to meet the needs of an operations center staff. Interface design focuses on two usability themes: discoverability and automation. Specifically, the interfaces focus on making it easy for a user to discover where to start a task, or where to go in the user interface to change a configuration. Additionally, the interfaces ease the completion of a task by automating and guiding processes by using wizards and dialogs. For example, there are several discoverable entry-points to the Install/Uninstall Agents wizard, which automates the process of installing or removing agents. These interfaces are role-based and task-based, and map to the following primary user types defined for the MOM environment: • • • • Administrators Authors Users SC DW Reader

Note
The idea of role delineation is further enforced by the MOM Local Groups that are created when you first run the MOM setup program. Group membership determines what you can view and the actions that you can take in a console. Detailed information about these groups, and MOM accounts, is provided in the Microsoft Operations Manager 2005 Security Guide.

The following table summarizes the local groups and describes the actions that group members can take. Table 2.2 MOM local groups
Group Description

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MOM Administrators

Members have full access to the MOM feature set, including all of the installed MOM consoles. Members have full access to the Operator console and have limited access to elements in the Administrator console. They can view and change settings in the following Administrator console nodes: Operations and Management Packs. Members can view and modify settings in the Operator console and in the Operations node of the Administrator console. Members can transfer operational data from the MOM Database to the MOM Reporting Database and can modify information in the MOM Reporting Database. Members can view information in the Reporting Database.

MOM Authors

MOM Users

SC DW DTS

SC DW Reader

Note
A MOM Service account is also created during setup. However, this account is intended solely for use by MOM services and processes. DO NOT add individuals to this group.

The following table summarizes the MOM user interfaces and their characteristics. Table 2.3 MOM user interface and user summary
User interface Administrator console Group MOM Administrators, MOM Authors Primary users IT Administrators and individuals responsible for configuring and maintaining MOM. Typical tasks MOM Management and configuration, Global Settings configuration, Management Pack authoring,

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and Management Pack import/export. Operator console MOM Users (MOM Tier 1 & 2 Administrators, Operators who MOM Authors) identify, diagnose and fix problems. MOM Users (MOM Operators, IT Administrators, staff, and MOM Authors) operations customers on thin clients, with a need to access basic alert, event, and computer information. SC DW Reader, SC DW DTS IT staff, analysts, and managers who are interested in seeing the historical analysis of operational data. Alerts management, changing views, monitoring, and launching tasks Alerts management, changing Views

Web console

Reporting console

View information in the Reporting database, edit information in the Reporting database

The tasks listed in the preceding table are not exhaustive. Detailed information about each interface its functionality is covered in later in this chapter.

The Administrator Console
The Administrator console is a Microsoft Management Console (MMC) snap-in, but as shown in Figure 2.2, the details pane is enriched with hyperlinks that provide more information and entry points to tasks.

To open the Administrator Console:
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1. From the Start Menu, point to Programs, and then select Microsoft Operations Manager 2005. 2. From Microsoft Operations Manager 2005, select the Administrator console. Figure 2.2 Details Pane

These changes extend the functionality of the MMC structure shown in Figure 2.2 by using it to provide detailed information for certain elements in the navigation pane. Figure 2.3 The details pane for Global Settings

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Figure 2.4 illustrates the full extent of the design possibilities for the details panes in the MMC, and shows the new functionality that is provided by using hyperlinks. The hyperlinks shown in Figure 2.4: • Provide quick links to points in the navigation pane. In the example shown, clicking the Computer Attributes link opens the Management Packs node in the navigation pane and positions the cursor on the Computer Attributes folder. Launch wizards or dialogs that you can use in the Administrator console. For example, clicking the Import/Export Management Packs link starts the Management Pack Import/Export Wizard.

In Figure 2.4, the details pane also provides summary information related to this specific pane, including the number of Rule Groups, Management Pack rules, Custom rules, computer groups, and scripts. This summary information changes dynamically as MOM configuration changes. Figure 2.4 The details pane for Management Packs

The active location in the navigation pane determines which type of details pane to display: either the conventional design shown in Figure 2.3 or the new design shown in Figure 2.4. The following navigation pane nodes and sub-nodes use the extended details pane: • Microsoft Operations Manager

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• • • •

Information Center Operations Management Packs, Rule Groups, Notification Administration, Computers

Administrator Console - MOM Administrator Role
The Administrator console serves two purposes. First, it provides all the tools that a MOM Administrator needs to manage and maintain a MOM environment. This includes tasks such installing/removing agents, and changing configuration settings. Secondly, it provides the tools that members of the MOM Authors group can use to change the monitoring environment defined by the Management Packs installed. For example, they can add rules, delete or disable rules, and change rules. The Administrator console is used to administer the MOM infrastructure, including the management group, the computers in the management group, and the custom console scopes for operations support team members. Figure 2.5 illustrates the primary node that users in an Administrator role will use. Table 2.4 lists the main categories and sub-categories in the Administration node of the navigation pane, and summarizes the purpose of each. Figure 2.5 The Administration Node

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Table 2.4 Administrator Console - Administration
Category/sub-category All Computers Purpose View all the computers in a management group, install or install agents, change type of management, and view/edit properties for individual computers. View all the management servers, install or uninstall agents, change type of management, run computer or attribute discovery, and view/edit properties for individual management servers. View the unmanaged computers, install an agent, begin agentless management, and view/change the properties of an agent-managed computer of an unmanaged computer. View all the agentless managed computers, stop agentless management, run attribute discovery, and view/change the properties of an agentless managed

Management Servers

Unmanaged Computers

Agentless Managed Computers

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computer. Agent-managed Computers View all the agent-managed computers, uninstall agents, run attribute discovery, view/change the properties of an agent-managed computer, and update agent settings. View Windows Server Cluster computers, change the management mode, run attribute discovery, view/change the properties of a cluster computer, and update agent settings. View, approve, or delete pending actions. View the discovery rules for adding computers to the management group, create or modify a discovery rule, and run computer discovery. Define and modify scope for Operator console users. Change the default global settings that are applied to various management group and Management Pack elements. Create a product connector to implement multi-tiered MOM environments.

Windows Server Cluster Computers

Pending Actions Computer Discovery Rules

Console Scopes Global Settings

Product Connectors

MOM Management Server
The MOM Management Server fulfills several critical roles in the management environment: • Deploys Management Pack configuration information to the agent-managed computers; and in the case of agentless managed computers, applies specific rules when contacting these computers. Provides an environment for creating, modifying, and applying Management Packs. Provides the tools for administering the MOM environment.

• •

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Communicates with the Data Access Service (DAS) to interface with the MOM Database.

Managed Computers
MOM implements two approaches to managing computers: agent-managed and Agentless managed. MOM also enables you to identify and track unmanaged computers. Agent-managed In the agent-managed scenario, use MOM to install software on the computer that you want to manage. This component, the MOM Agent, runs a local service and monitors the the computer on which it is installed by using the Management Pack rules that are installed as part of the agent installation. You can install agents automatically from the Administrator console, or manually by logging on the computer directly. Agentless Managed In the agentless management scenario, MOM does not install software on the computer that you want to manage. Instead, the MOM Agent, which runs locally in the MOM Management Server runtime, collects data from the managed computer. Unmanaged This management state is used to identify computers that you intend to manage in the future, or that you have taken offline for maintenance purposes.

Note
As noted in Table 2.4, MOM supports Windows Server Cluster computer management as a special case for implementing agent-managed, agentless managed, and unmanaged computers. This scenario is covered in later in this book.

Pending Actions
Not all actions occur automatically in MOM. Pending actions are stored in the Pending Actions folder until explicitly approved.

Computer Discovery Rules
Computer discovery, not to be confused with service discovery, is the process of finding computers that you want to include in a management group. The Install/Uninstall Agents wizard requires you to specify computer names or search criteria for computer names (including wildcards).

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After the wizard completes its task, the discovery rule is listed in the Computer Discovery rules folder. You can create custom discovery rules, change existing rules, and force computer discovery.

Console Scopes
Console scopes provide a tool for setting the scope of operational data viewing in the Operator console. MOM Administrators, for example, need to view different data than a tier 1 operator in the MOM Users group. In addition to filtering data, the use of custom console scopes enables you to define what members of the MOM Authors and Users groups can view in the Operator console. The ability to create custom scopes is not intended to be security access mechanism, rather a tool for compartmentalizing your operations environment. Three scopes are defined for the Operator console: MOM Author, MOM Administrator, and MOM User. By default each scope has access to the entire collection of computer groups defined in the MOM Management Pack. You can edit the existing scopes to add or remove access to specific computer groups. You can not add users directly to the existing scopes; instead, users are automatically added to these scopes when you add them to a local group, such as MOM Author. In order to add specific users you have to create a new console scope. This activity is described in Chapter 3, “Monitor”.

Global Settings
The MOM environment has several global default settings. You can view and change the following settings: • • • • • • • • • • Custom Alert Fields Alert Resolution States Operational Data Reports Email Server Communications Security Web Addresses Database Grooming Notification Command Format Management Servers

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Agents

Product Connectors
Product connectors, which are implemented by the MOM Connector Framework (MCF), give you a tool for setting up multi-tier MOM environments. In a multi-tier environment, alerts and configuration information from one management group (Source Management Group) are forwarded to another management group (Destination Management Group). MOM provides a wizard that steps you through the process of creating a MOM-to-MOM Connector. Typically, this type of intra-management group communications is two-tier, but you can set up three-tier configurations if you business requires it.

Administrator Console - MOM Author Role
Some one in the MOM Author role, who is responsible for implementing and adjusting monitoring and management criteria, would use the Administrator console to complete tasks. Figure 2.6 illustrates the primary node that users in a MOM Author role will use. Table 5 lists the main categories and subcategories in the Administration node of the navigation pane, and summarizes the purpose of each. Figure 2.6 The Management Packs node in the navigation pane of the Administrator Console

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Table 2.5 Administrator Console - Management Packs
Category/sub-category Computer Groups Purpose Create computer groups, manage subgroups, delete computer groups, calculate group membership, and view/modify the properties of a computer group. Create a replica of any discovered groups. Create a rule group, find rules, associate with a computer group, and view/modify the properties of a rule group. Create a rule, find rules, configure alert handling (respond, filter, detect missing event), consolidate rule type, and view/modify rule

Discovered Groups Rule Groups

Event Rules

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properties. Alert Rules Create a rule, find rules, configure alert response, and view/modify rule properties. Create a rule, find rules, configure data sampling, configure performance data comparison, and view/modify rule properties. Search, and store the results of searches against rules and rule groups. Create an override that is not associated with a rule. Create predefined actions that are available to a MOM user. Specify the recipients of notifications. Manage notifications by group. Identify specific operations staff roles and assign privilege levels. Create and view/modify scripts. Create a computer attribute and view/modify attribute properties. Create a provider and view/modify provider properties.

Performance Rules

Search Results

Override Criteria Tasks Notification

Operators Scripts Computer Attributes Providers

Management Packs
Management Packs serve as a container and distribution vehicle that MOM uses to deploy the configuration information required for managing computers and applications. A Management Pack consists of a collection of rules, knowledge, and public views. The Management Pack makes it possible to collect a wide range of information from different sources. You use Management Packs to determine how a MOM Management Server collects, handles, and responds to data, and you can tailor Management Packs for your own environment. Management Pack Content

Important

There is no single Management Pack that works for every environment. The complexity and specific requirements of the Did you computers and applications that organizations suggestions and comments about find this information useful? Please send your have to manage requires varying degrees of specificity. For example, a the documentation to momdocs@microsoft.com. valid performance indicator for the operating system wouldn’t Looking necessarily work well for an application such power of customer communities! for more MOM information? Experience the as Exchange Server. MOM Community

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The following information can be contained in a Management Pack: • • • • • • • • • • • • • A list of Rule Groups that contain rules. A list of Rules for each Rule Group. A list of Provider Instances that the Rules reference. A list of Scripts that Rules need to call in response to an event. A list of registry-based Computer Attributes that are needed for discovery. A list of Computer Groups whose formula depends on the specified Computer Attributes. A list of Computer Group and Rule Group associations that specify rule targets. A list of Notification Groups that notification responses use in rules. A list of view instances definitions that define how the operations data produced by managed computers should be viewed. A list of Tasks that a user might need for managing the application. The Service Discovery Class Schema that defines the entities that will be managed, their properties, and their relationship to other properties. The Diagram Definitions that describes how service discovery data should be viewed as a diagram from an application perspective. Knowledge associated with the rules which specify how problems should be corrected and how the Management Pack should be used.

Management Pack Formats Management packs have two formats: • • A binary file called an AKM file. Management Packs are usually distributed in this format. The database format used to store information in the database by importing a Management Pack (in binary or XML format) into the database.

Management Pack Authoring The supported method for Management Pack authoring in the Administrator console is to first create the configuration object definitions in the Administrator console, and then export the new object definitions to an AKM file.

The MOM Management Pack
The MOM Management Pack is the key to ensuring high availability and performance. This Management Pack leverages other Management Packs such as those for the operating system and SQL Server. Some of the key availability indicators are:

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• • •

Agent deployment and discovery Heart beating and server availability Security

The following table lists the key MOM components that are monitored and provides examples of what is monitored. Table 2.6 Typical component monitoring specified in the MOM Management Pack.
Component Agent-managed computer Monitored Script failures, service discovery problems, managed code responses, task failures, provider problems, overrides, and queues. Monitoring failures and permission issues Agent deployment, agent upgrade, response failures, computer discovery, service discovery, DAS, queues, UDP and TCP Ports, and security. Space, configuration, authentication, and grooming SQL Server Reporting, Server services, and grooming Forwarding, inserting, and configuring data

Agentless managed computer MOM Management Server

MOM Database MOM Reporting Server and MOM Reporting Database MOM Product Connectors

In addition to the components described in Table 2.6, the MOM Management Pack handles general performance monitoring and provides state monitoring for the runtime. Figure 2.7, which shows performance rules, illustrates the robustness of the MOM Management Pack. Figure 2.7 Structure and contents of the MOM Management Pack

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Computer Groups
Computer groups contain a list of computers that are viewed and handled as a single entity. MOM uses technology-based computer groups to target rules (for example, all Exchange 2000 Servers) and supports nested computer groups as well as multi-group membership. The benefit of using computer groups is that monitoring views and operations responsibility can reflect the way your business is organized, as well as the roles that your computers support. For example, computers can be grouped by: • • • • Region (East Coast, West Coast). Business unit (marketing, manufacturing). Function (mail servers, database servers). Domain membership or computer name: using wildcards, regular expressions, or Boolean regular expressions.

The following criteria are available for creating a computer group:

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• •

Computer attributes: choosing from existing attributes (for example, operating system version), or by using a formula to create your own attributes. Inclusion or exclusion for a group, regardless of shared attributes or individual characteristics.

Computer groups are dynamic. For example, computer group Windows 2000 is defined as all the computers that are running Windows 2000 Server. This group includes all the discovered computers that are running Windows 2000 Server when the rule was created, and any computers that had Windows 2000 Server installed after the rule was created. If you remove Windows 2000 Server from a managed computer, this computer no longer satisfies the group criteria, and is no longer be a member of the Windows 2000 computer group. You run periodic scans of managed computers to refresh group memberships according to the existing rules. Management Packs define specific computer groups according to the application or technology that the pack was written to monitor. For example, the Exchange 2000 computer group is predefined and part of the Exchange Management Pack.

Discovered Groups
Discovered groups are introduced in MOM 2005. The key difference between discovered groups and computer groups is that discovered groups are created and populated by discovery rules that are contained in Management Packs.

Rule Groups and Rules
Rule groups contain collections of rules for monitoring different aspects of a managed computer. MOM uses rules to determine how to collect, process, and respond to data generated by managed computers. Depending on the type of information a rule processes, rules are categorized as Event rules, Alert rules, and Performance rules. These rule types use different data sources and serve different purposes. In addition to defining the data that MOM collects and stores in the operational database, rules are used to refine operational data. Some typical examples of rule subtypes are rules that respond to a specific event, filter an event, handle alert processing, and measure performance. Rule elements Rules contain the following elements: • • • • Data providers Criteria Responses Knowledge

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Data Providers Data providers identify the source of data, and are used to determine how the data is collected. Criteria Criteria isolate the specific data to collect from the source and establish the conditions for a rule match. Responses Responses specify what should be done when collected data matches the criteria that are defined for a rule. When a rule match occurs, MOM performs the actions specified as a rule response. For example, a rule that matches a specific event ID might specify that the event is stored in the database, generates an alert, and sends an e-mail message to a network administrator. Knowledge Knowledge consists of product knowledge and company knowledge. Product knowledge is information that is included with the MOM 2005 Management Packs. Company knowledge is detailed custom information that you can associate with a specific rule and condition. See Also: “Knowledge Base”. Event Rules MOM uses Event rules to monitor events and, in some cases, to specify that alerts are generated and responses are initiated. Most events and their associated alerts are stored in the operational database. The following order of precedence and event handling is applied to event rules: • • Event collection rules identify events with specific criteria to be collected from specific sources. Collection rules do not generate alerts or initiate responses. Missing event rules specify that an alert is generated or a response is initiated when an event does not occur during a specified period. Missing event alerts are stored in the operations database. Event consolidation rules group similar events on a managed computer into summary events that are stored in the operations database. Event filtering rules specify that certain events should be ignored. Filtering rules typically identify events that you do not consider significant for monitoring purposes.

• •

Alert Rules Alert rules specify a response for an alert or for a collection of predefined alerts. For example, you can specify that the High Priority Notification group is paged for all Critical Error alerts generated by the rules in the SQL Server Rule group.

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Performance Rules Performance rules define how performance counter data and Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) numeric data is processed. There are two types of performance rules: Measuring rules and Threshold rules. Measuring Rules Measuring rules collect numeric values from sources such as WMI or Windows performance counters. The sampled numeric measures are stored in the operations database. Measuring rules can also include responses. Threshold Rules Threshold rules specify that an alert is generated or a response initiated when a numeric measure meets or exceeds a defined threshold. Knowledge Base The knowledge base is a collection of information that associated with a rule or a rule group. This knowledge describes the meaning, importance, and possibly the resolution for a relevant condition or problem that is linked to a rule. When you view the properties of an alert in the Alert view, you can examine the knowledge base content that is associated with the rule that generated the alert. Another aspect of the knowledge base, called the company knowledge, contains information that is created and stored by the user. You can add information to the company knowledge when you create or edit a rule, or when you modify an alert. This custom, organization-specific knowledge is a valuable resource that reflects policies and procedures used by your IT group.

Search Results
Search Results contains the results of a rule search. You can create search criteria, search against rule groups and rules and store the results in named folders. You can search against Management Pack rules and rule groups using the following criteria: • • • • Name: specifies the name of the rule. Enabled: specifies whether or not the rule is enabled. Type: specifies the type of rule, such as Event Collection or Compare Performance Data. Rule Group: specifies the rule group folder in which the rule resides.

Override Criteria
Overrides provide the capability of changing the settings of the rules used on a specific target computer without having to create custom rules for the target computer. This feature is designed

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for the user who wants to use a Management Pack that requires changes to accommodate some of the computers in a management group. You can complete the following actions on individual computers by using overrides: • • • • Disable a rule. Override the threshold value of a performance threshold rule. Override a script parameter value that is specified in the script response of a rule. Override an override parameter in the advanced alert severity formula.

Overrides are represented as names. You can override different parts of a rule by specifying the name of the override in the appropriate location of the rule configuration. For each override name, the values to override are specified in a list of computer group or computer, value pairs. The order of this list is important for resolving conflicts in cases where a computer is a member of multiple computer groups and multiple overrides may be targeted. For a specific computer, the override value to use is calculated by checking the ordered list of computer group, value pair. If a computer is a member of a computer group, then the corresponding value is used as an override value. If that computer is not a member of any computer group, then the computer does not have an override for the specified override name.

Tasks
The following tasks are provided by default when you install MOM, and you can create custom tasks. General Tasks • • • • • • • • IP Configuration: displays the IP configuration data of the selected computer, including adapters, IP address, subnet mask, and Domain Name Server (DNS) and WINS data. Remote Desktop: opens a remote desktop session to the selected computer. Computer Management: opens the Computer Management snap-in. Ping: returns the computer name of the selected computer. Event Viewer: opens the Windows Event Viewer. Start MOM 2005 Service: starts the MOM service from the console. Stop MOM 2005 Service: stops the MOM service from the console. Test end to end monitoring: logs an event in the event log on the agent which creates an alert for the management server.

MOM Tasks

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Typically, tasks are run once from either the Operator console (console tasks) or the MOM runtime (runtime tasks). Console Task A console task is an action that is started in the Operator console and run against an item displayed in the console window, such as an alert, event, or computer. This type of task is used to automate actions that need to originate at the console. The action that is run as part of the task is specified in terms of a command line to execute. When a task is run against a selected item, the properties of that item are passed as context to the command line for execution. For example, if you want to use a Terminal Services to connect to a computer that generated an alert, you can create a console task that runs against the alert item. The command line to execute can be set to mstsc.exe $computername$. In this example, the variable $computername$ is replaced by the computer name associated with the selected alert. Runtime Task A runtime task is an action that is started and run on either on a MOM Management Server or a managed computer. The available targets for a task are the managed computers that are found through service discovery. A runtime task should specify the following: • A response instance that describes the action to take, which is the same kind of object that a rule contains as a response. The following response types can be selected for a task: script responses, command-line responses, managed code responses, and the file transfer response A target class name that specifies what type of entity this task runs against. This information is used by the user interface to present instances of that class, which are discovered as possible task targets. Where to run the task: • • • Run it on the Management Server regardless of the location of the target instance.. Run it on the managed computer where the target instance is located. (The task can not be run against a remote entity). Run it as close as possible to the location of the discovered entity: run it on the managed computer if the target has an agent, or run it on the Management Server.

When you want to start a task from the Operator console, select the item and then the task that you want to run against the item. These targets are the list of instances discovered for the specified class after service discovery. The user interface submits the task as well as the task target list. The MOM runtime handles task distribution according to the specified targets.

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Notification, Notification Groups, and Operators
Notifications are the messages configured for rules, and are notifications are organized as notification groups. When you create an operator you provide an operator name and specify how they should be notified, as well as when they are available to receive notifications. After you create an operator you can add them to an existing notification group. Depending on the Management Pack that is installed, notification groups might contain default groups configured to receive notifications from rules that are defined in the Management Pack. For example, the MOM Management Pack contains a group named Operators and two notification groups: Operations Manager Administrators and Operations Management Notification Testing.

Scripts
You can use either the MOM scripting interface or standard Microsoft scripting languages to create scripts that MOM can implement. Scripts can have parameters and parameters can have overrides. With scripts you can: • • • Customize monitoring and respond to events, alerts, and performance data. Extend event management functions and data collection capabilities. Extend rule capabilities and configure rules to run on a schedule. A rule response can launch one or more scripts.

MOM uses Microsoft Active Scripting through scripts and Automation COM objects. MOM invokes Active Scripting, identifies the language of the user-provided script, and then calls the appropriate scripting engine. To use other languages, install the custom scripting engine on the computers where the script will run and then configure the script appropriately.

Note
Objects that are automatically provided to scripts running in the Microsoft Windows Script Host environment are not present in the MOM scripting runtime. Similarly, MOM scripting objects are not meant to be used outside of the MOM scripting environment and runtime.

MOM scripts run within an instance of the MOMHost.exe process. The MOMHost.exe process and scripts run under the MOM Action Account, which is used to control their security privileges.

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Scripts are stored in the MOM Database Server and distributed with rules by the MOM Management Server. Management Packs can contain scripts created for a specific application or environment.

Computer Attributes and Service Discovery
Service discovery is the process of discovering roles, components, and relationships for managed computers. The process also obtains information about managed computers and their relationships. The information obtained by service discovery is used to: • • • Identify roles, instances, components, relationships, and attributes. Provide information such as the inventory of managed computers. Provide the information that can be used to group computers that share common properties. These groups are called computer groups and the formula used to define a computer group requires the information that is obtained from service discovery. Provide information that can be used for status monitoring. Provide information that can be used to create and present a diagram of the managed computers and their relationships. Provide information that can be used to define targets for specific tasks. When a user starts a task that is authored for a specific class of component, the instances found through service discovery provide the list of possible task targets.

• • •

Service Discovery Schema The service discovery schema is a specification of the types of entities and their relationships with other entities. Typically, the Management Pack author defines the service discovery schema for the application that needs to be managed. The service discovery schema consists of two key elements: Class and a Relationship Type. Service Discovery Population
Class and Relationship Type A Class represents the type of an entity. Some examples are: a Computer class, a SQL Server class, and an Exchange Routing class. Note Different classes might be related to each other for various reasons. For every instance where a class is related to another class, a relationship type is defined. For example, a MOMServer class and a MOMAgent class can be connected with the relationship type MOMServerManagesAgent class. This schema is stored in the operational database and is inserted during a Management Pack import.

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The service discovery schema itself does not contain any information about how to populate the classes and specified relationships. The Management Pack that defines the service discovery schema provides rules that are targeted to set of computers — these rules define how to populate the schema. The service discovery rules have script responses that contain the business logic for discovering the appropriate entities. Each data item delivered by a service discovery rule discovers a portion of the schema for a given scope. For example, you can write a service discovery rule that finds all instances of SQL Server on a specific computer. These rules send out discovery results by generating a discovery dataitem on the MOM runtime. The discovery dataitem is processed by the Database Connector (a component that processes runtime generated data for populating the database) and the discovery result is inserted into the MOM Database. This is done by deleting, updating, or adding instances of the classes and relationships that are specified in the service discovery schema.

Note
Discovery dataitem A discovery dataitem always contains a snapshot of the instances and their properties that are discovered for certain classes and relationship types for a given scope and time. As a result, service discovery rules only contain discovery information for an entity at a certain point in time. Because entities that need to be discovered are dynamic in nature, service discovery rules are often linked to a timed event provider to ensure that discovery occurs on a regular basis.

Registry-based Computer Attributes Registry-based computer attributes are a special case of service discovery schema that extends the Computer class by adding new properties. The Registry Based Computer Attribute definition also defines how that attribute is discovered and populated. Unlike the other parts of the schema, registry-based computer attributes do not require a service discovery rule that is specified in a Management Pack. During runtime, dynamically created rules are used to generate discovery data that populates any Computer class properties that were added because of a Registry Based Computer Attribute. The definition of a registry-based computer attribute specifies a registry path or a value for a specific computer. The property value of an instance of a Computer class becomes the value for that registry value on that computer. Registry-based computer attributes are used to find information about a computer, such as detecting what applications are installed. Computer groups use these attributes to group computers with certain applications installed. As a result, rules that monitor specific applications can be targeted to a computer group whose members only have a specific application installed.
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You can not specify the target computers for collecting computer attributes. Computer attributes are collected from all managed computers — both agent-managed and agentless managed.

Providers
A provider is the data source that a rule monitors. For example, an event provider sends data from an event log. Providers are imported with Management Packs and you can create custom providers for your rules. For example, Figure 2.8 shows the properties of a performance counter provider that MOM uses for a MOM Agent. Figure 2.8 Windows NT Performance Counter Provider for MOM Agent

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The Operator Console
The Operator console (Figure2. 9) provides the look and feel that you would expect from combining an MMC with a browser interface. Like the MMC, the toolbar is customizable and you can view all the panes or a single pane. By default, the multi-pane view is used when you first open the Operator console. In addition, right-click functionality is implemented where appropriate.

To open the Operator Console from the Windows menu bar:
1. From the Start Menu, select Programs, and then select Microsoft Operations Manager 2005. 2. From Microsoft Operations Manager 2005, click Operator Console.

To open the Operator Console from the Administrator Console:
• From the MOM 2005 Home page, click Start Operator Console. Figure 2.9 The default Operator console panes

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The Operator console gives an operations staff the interface needed to: • • • • • See the health of managed computers Obtain different views of the information about managed computers. Obtain detailed information about a specific event or alert. Work with alerts--for example, acknowledge an alert or assign a problem to another staff member. Run predefined tasks that are provided in the console.

Operator Console - MOM User
As noted earlier, the Operator console enables members of the MOM User group to view the specific information that their role requires and take appropriate action. Status monitoring is a fundamental concept that provides the foundation for all activities performed from this console.
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Status Monitoring
Status monitoring is used to indicate whether or not a managed computer is healthy at a given point in time. MOM updates the status of the managed computers and presents it in the Status Monitoring view. The status of different entities is exposed at the following levels: • Computer group level: the user can see if there is a problem in any of the computers by checking the health of a computer group. The health of the computer group is derived from the health of all of the computers contained in the computer group by using one of the rollup algorithms. Computer level: the status of a computer shows whether the applications, or server roles, running on the computer are healthy. The health of a computer is derived from the health of the hosted applications, such as SQL Server or Microsoft Exchange Server. Application level (server role): the status of the server role represents the overall status of all the application instances of a server role. For example, SQL Server health is dependent on all of the SQL Server instances running on a computer. Application instance level (server role instance):the health of the application instance is derived from the health of different areas of the application instance Sub group component: the health of a sub group component of an application instance is derived by reviewing the unresolved alerts, after alert suppression, that are associated with the sub group component. The status becomes the severity of the most severe unresolved alert that has an active problem state.

• •

In summary, the status of a managed computer is an alert severity value that specifies how severe the problem is in the managed computer environment. In the Operator console, status is color -coded to indicate alert severity.

Data Filtering
Data volumes and operator roles require a mechanism for filtering the information that is displayed in the Operator console. One filter is Group, which is determined by the console scope. Group Use the drop-down list by the Group label on the menu bar to select a group that you want to work with. This selection applies one level of filtering. For example, when you view the list for the MOM Administrator Scope for the MOM Management Pack, you can select one of the following folders: • • Microsoft Operations Manager 2005 Agentless Microsoft Operations Manager 2005 Agents

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• • • • • •

Microsoft Operations Manager 2005 Databases Microsoft Operations Manager 2005 Product Connector Servers Microsoft Operations Manager 2005 Report Servers Microsoft Operations Manager 2005 Reporting Database Servers Microsoft Operations Manager 2005 Servers Microsoft Operations Manager 2005 Virtual Servers

If you select “Microsoft Operations Manager 2005 Agents” as the group that you want to work with, you will only see the data related to agent-managed computers. You can then apply the various views that are associated with this data.

Note
By default, the Group data is not filtered. All the data for each group is displayed in a view.

Rule Group A second type of filtering is by rule group, which is determined by the Management Packs that are installed. At a minimum, the MOM Management Pack installed so you can filter information by the various MOM rule groups, such as Agent Deployment or Computer Discovery. For example, you can select the Alerts view (All: Alert Views by default) and expand the navigation tree down to Agent Deployment rule group. Figure 2.10 illustrates the group and rule group filtering options. The rule group hierarchy is shown in the Alert Views window and the drop-down list is displayed. Figure 2.10 Group and Rule Group filtering in the Operator console

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Views Views provide an additional level of filtering and a means for monitoring data from different perspectives. The views that MOM provides display dynamic information for each view in a results window. You can select a specific item in the results display, and depending on the view, additional details are displayed in a details window. Figure 11 shows the results and details windows for an Events view. (The scope is MOM Administrator Scope for all Groups.) Figure 2.11 Events view results and details window

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Filtering Typically, a tier 1 operator only needs to see a visual indicator that a managed computer is unhealthy. After seeing this indicator, they take an action, such as acknowledging the alert or notifying another support staff member. Perspective Each user in the MOM environment is interested in seeing different information. The information requirements of a MOM administrator, for example, are likely to be different than a tier 1 operator. If you are responsible for monitoring MOM performance, the Performance view is more relevant to your role than the Alerts view.
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MOM Views MOM provides the following views that you can use and customize when you’re working with the Operator console.

Note
The following view descriptions are based on the MOM Management Pack and the scope is MOM Administrator, which includes all computer groups.

Alerts The Alerts view is divided into two categories, Alerts and Service Level Exceptions. These views display all alerts in both categories. This view displays summary information in a results window and expanded information for a specific alert in a details window. State The State view shows aggregated information about alerts and their associated entities, such as computer groups, computers, and application instances. The State view uses the results, details window pair. Events The Events view is divided into two categories, Events and Task status for the tasks that you run from the Operator console. This view shows all categories of events that are generated and uses the results, details windows pair. Performance The Computer Performance view is generated in stages. First, select the computer that you want to work with from a list of computers in the initial view window. Then, select the performance counters that you want to graph. The final view displays the graph in the results windows for the view, and the accompanying details windows displays information about each counter in the graph.

Note
A Performance Data view is also available. This view will be described in detail in Chapter 3, “Monitor”.

Computers and Groups The Computers and Groups view uses two categories: Computer Groups and Computers. This view uses the results, details windows pair to display information.
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Diagram The Diagram view uses a single window to generate a topology diagram that is based on your management group and the Management Packs selected. My Views My Views displays any custom views that you create. You can nest your views and incorporate any of the views previously described. Public Views Public views provide another way of working with the views. All of the views described, excluding My Views, are displayed as navigational tree.

The Web Console
The Web console shown in Figure 2.12 provides a light-weight interface that provides essential functionality for distributed monitoring situations with limited views and alerts management capabilities. The views include Alerts, Events, and Computers. Depending on the selected view, you can see information such as computer attributes, event properties, and alert product knowledge or change an alert’s state.

To open the Web Console from Internet Explorer
• Type http://[computer name]:1272 in the Address bar.

To open the Web Console from the Administrator Console
1. In the Navigation pane, click Microsoft Operations Manager. 2. In the Detail pane, click Start Web Console. Figure 2.12 The Alerts view in the Web console

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The Reporting Console
The Reporting Console, shown in Figure 2.13 provides a front-end to the MOM Reporting Server, which applies report templates to the appropriate data that is stored in the MOM Reporting Database. These report templates are available for each of the Management Packs. The Reporting Database contains a copy of the operational data that is collected in the MOM Database.

To open the Reporting Console from the Administrator Console
1. From the Start Menu, Select Programs, and then select Microsoft Operations Manager 2005. 2. Click Reporting Console.

To open the Reporting Console from the Operator Console
• From the Go Menu, click Open Reporting Console.

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Figure 2.13 The Reporting Console

In addition to using the Reporting console to obtain and filter the historical data that is provided you can perform other tasks, such as: • • • • • Configure SQL Server Reporting Services. Apply security settings. Create custom folders for organizing reports. Specify alternate data sources. Export reports.

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MOM Wizards
MOM 2005 uses wizards as a way to reduce the complexity of tasks and decrease the amount of time required to complete a task. The following wizards are organized according to user role/group membership.

MOM Author
Import/Export Management Packs Purpose: To import or export a Management Pack and associated report. Start from: The Management Packs node in the navigation pane. Input Options: Whether the wizard action is to import a Management Pack and/or reports, or to export a Management Pack. Specify location of Management Pack, select import scope (Management Pack and report, Management Pack only, report only), identify Management Pack, specify import options (backup existing Management Pack, update existing Management Pack, replace existing Management Pack.) When exporting, specify the rule groups, views, tasks to be exported. Provide Management Pack name and specify whether an existing Management Pack is overwritten or appended. Results: Specified Management Pack and/or reports are imported, or the specified Management Pack is exported. Create Computer Group Purpose: To create a new computer group that contains the computers that you specify; or create a subgroup. Start from: The Management Packs/Computer Groups folder in the navigation pane, or from an existing computer group listed in the navigation pane. Input Options: Name and description, subgroups, included computers, excluded computers, search criteria, formula for determining group membership, state roll-up policy, Results: A computer group or subgroup that you can bind to a rule group. Create Task Purpose: To create a task. Start from: The Management Packs/Tasks folder in the navigation pane. Input Options: The type of task, the location where it is run, task configuration and parameters (options vary according to run location), name and description, and shortcut key. Results: A task that you can start from the Operator Console.
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Create Override Criteria Purpose: Define override criteria for the management group. Start from: The Management Packs/Override Criteria folder in the navigation pane. Input Options: A unique override name, criteria, and override order of precedence. Results: An override that can be used and shared by rules, scripts, or the MOM APIs.

MOM Administrator
Install/Uninstall Agents Purpose: To install an agent on a computer/group of computers, or remove agents from managed computers. Start from: The Administration/Computers node in the navigation pane. Input Options: To install agents, specify computer names or search criteria, account for installing agents, account for managing agents, and agent installation location. The agent also enables you to specify whether the rule type is “Include” or “Exclude”, and the types of computers that you want to install an agent on; for example, Servers only or Servers and Clients. To remove agents, the wizard requires that you specify an account with the appropriate permission level for removing the agent.

Note
Unless you create a discovery rule, all the specified computers will be flagged as agent-managed.

Results: New managed computers with agents installed on them or unmanaged computers that do not have agents installed. Create Console Scope Purpose: Create a console scope to define the context that users can work in using the Operator console. Start from: The Administration/Console Scopes node in the navigation pane. Input Options: Name and description, computer groups associated with the console scope, and users that will be associated with the console scope. Results: A console scope for Operator console users. Create MOM-to-MOM Connector Purpose: Enables you to create a new connection between two management groups.
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Start from: The Administration/Product Connectors node in the navigation pane. Input Options: Connector name, resolution state ID for the source management group, polling interval between the source and destination management groups, target Management Server or web service, alert forwarding and configuration forwarding properties, and failover configuration (services and priority). Results: A connection between two management groups that supports alert and configuration forwarding and is configured for fail over.

MOM User
Launch Task Purpose: Start a pre-defined task from the Operator console. Start from: The Tasks pane in the Operator console. Input Options: In most cases there are no input options, but in certain cases you can specify the target for the task. Results: Results and output are defined by the task creator.

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