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CODE SWITCHING In linguistics, code-switching is switching between two or more languages, or language varieties, in the context of a single conversation.

Multilingualsspeakers of more than one languagesometimes use elements of multiple languages in conversing with each other. Thus, code-switching is the use of more than one linguistic variety in a manner consistent with the syntax and phonology of each variety. Code-switching is distinct from other language contact phenomena, such as borrowing, pidgins and creoles, loan translation (calques), and language transfer (language interference). Borrowing affects the lexicon, the words that make up a language, while code-switching takes place in individual utterances. Speakers form and establish a pidgin language when two or more speakers who do not speak a common language form an intermediate, third language. On the other hand, speakers practice code-switching when they are each fluent in both languages. Code mixing is a thematically related term, but the usage of the terms code-switching and code-mixing varies. Some scholars use either term to denote the same practice, while others apply code-mixing to denote the formal linguistic properties of said language-contact phenomena, and code-switching to denote the actual, spoken usages by multilingual persons. In the 1940s and 1950s, many scholars considered code-switching to be a sub-standard use of language. Since the 1980s, however, most scholars have recognized it is a normal, natural product of bilingual and multilingual language use. The term "code-switching" is also used outside the field of linguistics. Some scholars of literature use the term to describe literary styles which include elements from more than one language, as in novels by Chinese-American, Anglo-Indian, or Latino/a writer. In popular usage code-switching is sometimes used to refer to relatively stable informal mixtures of two languages, such as Spanglish, Franponais or Portuol. Both in popular usage and in sociolinguistic scholarship, the name code-switching is sometimes used to refer to switching among dialects, styles or registers, such as that practiced by speakers of African American Vernacular English as they move from less formal to more formal settings. SOCIAL MOTIVATIONS FOR CODE-SWITCHING There may be many reasons that people code-switch. Code-switching relates to, and sometimes indexes socialgroup membership in bilingual and multilingual communities. Some sociolinguists describe the relationships between code-switching behaviors and class, ethnicity, and other social positions. In addition, scholars in interactional linguistics and conversation analysis have studied code-switching as a means of structuring talk in interaction. Some discourse analysts, including conversation analyst Peter Auer, suggest that code-switching does not simply reflect social situations, but that it is a means to create social situations. EXAMPLE (SPANISH AND ENGLISH) Researcher Ana Celia Zentella offers this example from her work with Puerto Rican Spanish-English bilingual [11] speakers in New York City. In this example, MARTA and her younger sister, LOLITA, speak Spanish and English with ZENTELLA outside of their apartment building. LOLITA: Oh, I could stay with Ana? MARTA: but you could ask papi and mami to see if you could come down. LOLITA: OK. MARTA: Ana, if I leave her here would you send her upstairs when you leave? ZENTELLA: Ill tell you exactly when I have to leave, at ten oclock. Y son las nueve y cuarto. ("And its nine fifteen.") MARTA: Lolita, te voy a dejar con Ana. ("Im going to leave you with Ana.") Thank you, Ana. Zentella explains that the children of the predominantly Puerto Rican neighborhood speak both English and Spanish: "Within the childrens network, English predominated, but code-switching from English to Spanish occurred once every three minutes, on average."

In linguistics, DIGLOSSIA refers to a situation in which two dialects or usually closely related languages are used by a single language community. In addition to the community's everyday or vernacular language variety (labeled "L" or "low" variety), a second, highly codified variety (labeled "H" or "high") is used in certain situations such as literature, formal education, or other specific settings, but not used for ordinary conversation. The high variety may be an older stage of the same language (e.g. Latin in the early Middle Ages), or a distinct yet closely related present day dialect (e.g. Norwegian with Bokml and Nynorsk, or Chinese with Mandarin as the official, literary standard and colloquial topolects/dialects used in everyday communication). Other examples include literary Katharevousa versus spoken Demotic Greek, the Dravidian Language Tamil of southern India, with its high and low registers. CODE-MIXING refers to the mixing of two or more languages or language varieties in speech. Some scholars use the terms "code-mixing" and "code-switching" interchangeably, especially in studies of syntax, morphology, and other formal aspects of language. Others assume more specific definitions of code-mixing, but these specific definitions may be different in different subfields of linguistics, education theory, communications etc. Code-mixing is similar to the use or creation of pidgins; but while a pidgin is created across groups that do not share a common language, code-mixing may occur within a multilingual setting where speakers share more than one language. A MIXED LANGUAGE or a FUSED LECT is a relatively stable mixture of two or more languages. What some linguists [9] have described as "codeswitching as unmarked choice" or "frequent codeswitching" has more recently been described as "language mixing", or in the case of the most strictly grammaticalized forms as "fused lects". In areas where code-switching among two or more languages is very common, it may become normal for words from both languages to be used together in everyday speech. Unlike code-switching, where a switch tends to occur [11] at semantically or sociolinguistically meaningful junctures, this code-mixing has no specific meaning in the local context. A fused lect is identical to a mixed language in terms of semantics and pragmatics, but fused lects allow less variation since they are fully grammaticalized. In other words, there are grammatical structures of the fused lect that determine which source-language elements may occur. A mixed language is different from a creole language. Creoles are thought to develop from pidgins as they become nativized. Mixed languages develop from situations of code-switching. LOCAL NAMES There are many names for specific mixed languages or fused lects. These names are often used facetiously or carry a pejorative sense. Named varieties include the following, among others. Chinglish Denglisch Dunglish Englog Franglais Franponais Greeklish Hinglish Konglish Manglish Maltenglish Poglish Porglish Portuol Singlish Spanglish Svorsk Tanglish Taglish

STYLE SHIFTING is a term in sociolinguistics referring to alternation between styles of speech included in a linguistic repertoire of an individual speaker. As noted by Eckert and Rickford. In sociolinguistic literature terms style and register sometimes have been used interchangeably. Also, various connotations of style are a subject of study in stylistics. Style-shifting is a manifestation of intraspeaker (within-speaker) variation, in contrast with interspeaker (betweenspeakers) variation. It is a voluntary act which an individual effects in order to respond to or initiate changes in sociolinguistic situation (e.g., interlocutor-related, setting-related, topic-related). William Labov is an American linguist, widely regarded as the founder of the discipline of variationist sociolinguistics. He has been described as "an enormously original and influential figure who has created much of the methodology" of sociolinguistics. He is employed as a professor in the linguistics department of the University of Pennsylvania, and pursues research in sociolinguistics, language change, and dialectology. Born in Rutherford, New Jersey, he studied at Harvard (1948) and worked as an industrial chemist (194961) before turning to linguistics. For his MA thesis (1963) he completed a study of change in the dialect of Martha's Vineyard, which was presented before the Linguistic Society of America. Labov took his PhD (1964) at Columbia University studying under Uriel Weinreich. He taught at Columbia (196470) before becoming a professor of linguistics at the University of Pennsylvania (1971), and then became director of the university's Linguistics Laboratory (1977). He has been married to fellow sociolinguist Gillian Sankoff since 1993. Prior to his marriage to Sankoff, he was married to sociologist Teresa Gnasso Labov.
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