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Mokhlesur Rahman Professor Department of Civil Engineering DUET
Soil classification according to their origin and mode
Organic Origin, Organic Soil
Inorganic Origin, Inorganic Soil
Black Cotton Soil
Lateritics, Coarse Grained Soil, Have not swelling properties
Lateritics, Fine Grained Soil, Have swelling properties
Water transported soil 1. Alluvial soil: If soil is deposited by running water. 2. Lacustrine soil: If soil is deposited by standing water. 3. Marine soil a. Offshore deposit, takes place in relatively still water below zone of wave action. b. Shore deposit, form from many different shore currents and wave action. Wind transported soil 1. Aeolian soil a. Dunes, in higher proportion, sand deposit. b. Loess, in higher proportion, silt deposit. Saturated loess is collapsible soil. c. Tuff, in higher proportion, ash deposit. Gravity transported soil Colluviums soil Talus (Formed by Landslides)
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Soil Mechanics – 1 CE - 6201 Glacier Transported soil 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Glacial till, form from melting ice-water depositing soil. Moraine, direct deposits of glacier. Drift Eskers, 10 m to 30 m high and 0.5 to several km long form small tiller. Drumlins, 10 – 70 m height and 200 – 800 m long. Erraties Hardpan, Glacier soil of hard stiffness. Varved clay, 3 mm or 1/8” thick or more.
The roles of soil classification system in geotechnical engineering
Classification and Index Properties (ω, ρ, γ, G, n, LL, PL, SL etc)
Classification System ("Language")
Engineering Properties (Permeability, Compressibility, Shrinkage Swell, Shear Strength)
Engineering Purpose (Highways, Airfields, Foundaiton, Dams etc)
Systems of soil classification The Unified Soil Classification System (USCS) The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) or The British Standard Institute (BSI) American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) International System (IS) Unified soil Bureau of Reclamation (USBR)
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006 0.002 0.06 0.1 Sand 0.05 0.6201 Soil Grain Size in mm 100 75 75 19 4.075 0.001 ASTM Gravel Medium Sand 2.0006 0.006 0.02 0.0002 VC C M IS Sand 2.005 0.75 2.0 Fine Sand 0.0 C M F Silt C M Clay FC Gravel 1.002 0.075 0.425 F Gravel Fines Silt and Clay 0.425 0.2 F Sand Silt and Clay 0.075 C AASHTO Gravel 2.425 0.0002 C M F MIT 2.2 0.0 0.75 4.0 F C F C Silt 0.0002 C USCS 75 F C M Sand 2.075 F C M Clay UF Glacial Silt 0.5 0.0 0.Soil Mechanics – 1 CE .0006 0.075 Silt Clay Collodial Clay 0.6 0.0 0.02 0.0 0.005 FAA Gravel Sand Silt Clay C M F VC FC UF FAA USCS AASHTO MIT ASTM IS - Coarse Medium Fine Very Coarse Fine Collidal Ultra Fine Federal Aviation Administration Unified Soil Classification System American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials Massachusetts Institute of Technology American Society for Testing and Materials International Standard 3 Courtesy By S M Nazmul Haque .
6201 Four type of common soil Gravel Sand Silt Clay Soil classification depending on cohesive properties Cohesive soil o Gravel o Sand o Non Plastic (NP) silt Cohesive soil o Plastic silt o Clay Uses of soil classification Foundation design Highway design Airport design Agricultural field (USCS system) (AASHTO system) (AASHTO system) (USBR system) Soil tests required for classification Grain size analysis o Sieve analysis o Hydrometer analysis Consistency tests o Liquid limit test o Plastic limit test Condition of General Design Economy Shear failure / shear strength Excess settlement / consolidation properties Effective Size This parameter is the diameter in the particle size distribution curve corresponding to l0% finer. ( ) 4 Courtesy By S M Nazmul Haque . The co-efficient of curvature. The effective size of a granular soil is a good measure to estimate the hydraulic conductivity and drainage through soil Determination of granular or sandy soil whether it is poor or well graded The co-efficient of uniformity.Soil Mechanics – 1 CE .
Otherwise Sand is poor graded. 30. respectively. in percent. Plasticity of soil The plasticity of a soil is its ability to undergo deformation without cracking or fracturing. For. Gravel when well-graded. A plastic soil can be molded into various shapes when it is wet. Sand when well-graded. “The moisture content. is defined as the liquid limit (LL). at which the soil changes from a plastic to a semisolid state and from a semisolid to a solid state are defined as the plastic limit (PL) and the shrinkage limit (SL).1 Where . On the other hand. D (mm) D60 D30 D10 0. Otherwise Gravel is poor graded. and For. These limits are referred to as Atterberg limits”. and 10% respectively.6201 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% % Finer by Mass 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0 10 1 Grain Size. especially clayey soils. are the diameters corresponding to percents finer than 60. at which the soi l changes from a liquid to a plastic state.Soil Mechanics – 1 CE . in percent. Atterberg limits or Consistency Limits of soil The moisture contents of a soil at the points where it changes from one state to the other are called consistency limits or Atterberg limits. Plasticity is an important index property of fine grained soils. 5 Courtesy By S M Nazmul Haque . The moisture content.
at which the soil changes from a semisolid to plastic state. in percent. The shrinkage limit is determined by the moisture content at which the soil does not undergo any further change in volume with loss of moisture (ASTM . State Water Content. at which the soil changes from a plastic to liquid state. PI PI = LL – PL. The liquid limit of a soil is determined by Casagrande‟s liquid device (ASTM.Soil Mechanics – 1 CE .D-427). Plastic limit The increasing moisture content.18 mm ( ) in diameter. is defined as the plastic limit (PL). at which the soil changes from a solid to a semisolid state is defined as the shrinkage limit (SL).6201 Atterberg Limits used for To describe the consistency of fine-grained soils To determines its state or consistency Four states are used to describe the soil consistency. semi-solid. The Plastic limit of a soil is determined by Casagrande‟s liquid device (ASTM. in percent. 6 Courtesy By S M Nazmul Haque .D-4318) and is defined as the moisture content at which the soil crumbles when rolled into a thread of 3. plastic and liquid To defining or classifying a soil type or predicting soil performance when used a construction material. Shrinkage limit The increasing moisture content. The soil in the plastic state can be molded into various shapes. Liquidity Index 0 Brittle Solid SL LI < 0 Semi Solid PL LI = 0 Plastic Solid LL Liquid 0 < LI < 1 LI = 1 LI > 1 W PL Stress . It offers no shearing resistance and can flow like liquids. solid.7 mm or ( ) inchh occurs at 25 blows.Strain Diagram of soil at various state W < PL W LL W > LL Figure: Water content and stress strain graph at various state Liquid Limit The increasing moisture content. in percent. is defined as the liquid limit (LL). Plasticity Index The difference between the liquid limit and the plastic limit of a soil is defined as the plasticity index.D-4318) and is defined as the moisture content at which a groove closure of 12.
Increasing Moisture Solid Semi-Solid Plastic Liquid Volume Shrinkage Limit Plastic Limit Liquid Limit Drying The ranges of Liquid limits and Plastic Limits The range of liquid limit can be from zero to 1000. The moisture content at which it takes 25 drops of the cup to cause the groove to close over a distance of 13. The cup is repeatedly dropped 10mm onto a hard rubber base at a rate of 120 blows per minute. at which the soil changes from a plastic to liquid state. 7 Courtesy By S M Nazmul Haque . with no. is defined as the liquid limit (LL).7 mm or ( ) inch occurs at 25 blows. The original liquid limit test of Atterberg's involved mixing a pat of clay in a roundbottomed porcelain bowl of 10-12cm diameter.6201 Liquidity Index The relative consistency of a cohesive soil in the natural state can be defined by a ratio called the liquidity index. The liquid limit (LL) is the water content at which a soil changes from plastic to liquid behavior. Determination of Liquid Limit & Plastic Limit Liquid Limit The increasing moisture content.53 in) width.5 millimeters (0.D-4318) and is defined as the moisture content at which a groove closure of 12. The test is normally run at several moisture contents. with most being less than 40. The number of blows for the groove to close is recorded. The Plastic Limit can range from Zero the 100 or more. It offers no shearing resistance and can flow like liquids.53 in) is defined as the liquid limit. Liquid limit is determined by plotting a „flow curve‟ on a semi -log graph. but most soils have LL less than 100. during which the groove closes up gradually as a result of the impact. of blows in log scale and the water content as ordinate and drawing the best straight line through the plotted points. in percent. The liquid limit of a soil is determined by Casagrande‟s liquid device (ASTM .Soil Mechanics – 1 CE . which is given by Where.5 millimeters (0. Soil is placed into the metal cup portion of the device and a groove is made down its center with a standardized tool of 13.
Soil Mechanics – 1 CE . A soil is considered non-plastic if a thread cannot be rolled out down to 3mm at any moisture.6201 Plastic limit The increasing moisture content. 22 mm Soil 54 mm 50 mm Hard Rubber Base 150 mm Hard Rubber Base 125 mm Liquid Limit Apparatus 8 mm 2 mm 20 mm 45° 10 mm 50 mm 20 mm 20 mm Casagrande Tool Divied Soil Cake Before Test Divied Soil Cake After Test 8 Courtesy By S M Nazmul Haque . in percent.18 mm or ( ) in diameter. at which the soil changes from a semisolid to plastic state.D-4318) and is defined as the moisture content at which the soil crumbles when rolled into a thread of 3. The Plastic limit of a soil is determined by Casagrande‟s liquid device (ASTM. The soil in the plastic state can be molded into various shapes. is defined as the plastic limit (PL).
The depth of penetration 3.5 mm 50 mm 50 mm Cylindrical mold Cone Penetrometer method The soil whose liquid limit is to be determined is mixed well into a soft consistency and pressed into the cylindrical mold of 5 cm diameter and 5 cm high. We can use what is termed the 'one-point method' if an approximate value of the limit is required. Sliding Rod Total mass = 80 0.Soil Mechanics – 1 CE .05 gm will be kept free on the surface of the soil. The liquid limit LL ( ) may be computed by using the formula.5 gm Calibrated Scale 30° 30. sliding rod and the disk is 80 ± 0. ( )( 9 ) Courtesy By S M Nazmul Haque . The cone which has a central angle of 30° and a total mass including cone. The formula used for this purpose is ( ) Where. of the cone is measured in mm on the graduated scale after 30 sec of penetration.6201 Liquid Limit One Point Method The determination of liquid limit as explained earlier requires a considerable amount of time and labor.
Significance Used in Unified Soil Classification System Used in AASHTO Soil Classification system Used for Silt-Clay Soil Classification 60 8) 50 U e in -L = PI 0.ML 0 MI or OI Inorganic Silts of Low Compressibility MH or OH Inorganic Silts of Medium Compressibility and Organic Silts 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Liquid Limit (%) 10 Courtesy By S M Nazmul Haque .6201 Where.Soil Mechanics – 1 CE . = The water content corresponding to the penetration y = Liquid Limit y = Penetration in mm Symbols used in the unified soil classification system Soil Gravel Sand Silt Clay Organic soil Peat Gradation Well graded Poorly graded Low Plasticity High Plasticity Symbol G S M C O Pt Symbol W P L H Plasticity Chart and its Significance A plasticity chart is used to differentiate the plasticity and organic characteristics of the finegrained soils based on liquid limit (LL) and plasticity index. L 9( L- 40 Plasticity Index (%) CL CI CH A P -L ine .73 ( LL 20 ) 0 I= Inorganic Clays of High Plasticity 30 Inorganic Clays of Medium Plasticity Inorganic Silts of High Compressibility and Organic Clays 20 Inorganic Clays of Low Plasticity ML or OL 10 Cohesionless Soil CL .
Water is added to make the soil soft but not sticky.6201 Field identification procedures for fine grained soil These procedures are to be performed on the below #40 sieve particles. if the dried pat cannot be powdered at all. A small part of moist soil of about 5 ml in volume is prepared. The dry strength is a measure of plasticity of the soil. The larger size particles.4 mm.Soil Mechanics – 1 CE . if the dry pat can be powdered. and low. The part of the soil is completely dried by air drying. high. When the pat is squeezed between the fingers. screening is not intended. the water does not appear at the surface. The reaction is termed slow if water appears and disappears slowly. the water appears on its surface which changes to a lively consistency and appears glossy. medium if considerable pressure is required. the water appears and glossy disappear from the surface. Dry Strength test It gives idea crushing characteristics. The pat is placed in the open palm of one hand and shaken horizontally striking by the other hand at bottom of the palm at several times during shaking. For field classification purposes. sun drying or oven drying. The dry strength depends upon the colloidal fraction of the soil. approximately 0. The strength is termed. The dry strength is determined by breaking the dried pat and crumbling it between fingers. If the soil gives a positive reaction. the quicker is the reaction. called quick if water appears and disappears quickly. Results Test Dilatancy Toughness Dry Strength ML Quick None None of low CL None to very slow Medium OL Slow Low MH Slow to none High CH None High High to Very High OH None to Very Slow Low to Medium Medium to High MI Quick to Slow None Low CI None Medium OI Slow Low Low to Medium Slow Medium Medium Low to to High Medium 11 Courtesy By S M Nazmul Haque . simply remove by hand the coarse particles that interfere with the tests. Dilatancy Test It is the reaction of shaking. For no reaction.
The water content at that stage is equal to the plastic limit and the resistance to moulding at that stage is called the toughness. Dual Symbol and Borderline Classification in USCS. Soils having between 50% and 12% passing the #200 sieve are classified as “Borderline” and have a symbol called dual symbol. The second part describes the nature of the fines. Coarse Grained Soils Fine Grained Soils ML MH OH CL CH OL Borderline Case Gravel GP SW SP Gravel GC SM SC Borderline Case GW GM Silt Sand Sand Clay 0 5 12 45 50 55 100 Percent Passing the #200 Sieve Dual Symbol for 5% to 12% finer particles Or GW GW GP GP GM GC GM GC SW SW SP SP SM SC SM SC Dual Symbol for 45% to 55% finer particles Or GM GM GC GC ML MH CL CH 12 SM SM SC SC ML MH CL CH Courtesy By S M Nazmul Haque .6201 Toughness test The pat is rolled on a smooth surface or between the palms into a thread of about 3 mm in diameter. The first part of the dual symbol indicates whether the coarse fraction is well graded or poorly graded.Soil Mechanics – 1 CE . a soil classified as a SP-SM means that it is a poorly graded sand with between 5% and 12% silty fines. Similarly. For example. until the 3 mm diameter thread just crumbles. The thread is folded and re-rolled to reduce the water in soil. a GW-GC is a well graded gravel with some clayey fines that plot above the Aline. due to evaporation by heat of hand.
2 .5 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Liquid Limit (%) 13 Courtesy By S M Nazmul Haque .2 . they do not completely describe a soil or soil deposit. do not examine the characteristics as color.7 . odor and homogeneity. In USCS. For the fine – grained fraction a) natural water content and b) consistency do not be noted. Plasticity Chart for AASHTO Soil Classification System 60 50 40 Plasticity Index (%) A-7-6 PI = LL 0 -3 30 20 A .2 .2 .6201 The limitations/criticism/drawback of USCS Although the letter symbols in the USCS are convenient. Adjectives such as rounded.5 and A .4 A .6 and A . for coarse-grained soils such items as o Grain shape o Mineralogical content o Degree of weathering o In situ density o Degree of compaction are do not express.4 and A . In USCS. angular and sub-granular are not used to describe in USCS.7 10 A .Soil Mechanics – 1 CE .6 A .5 and A .
very high moisture content. determine amount passing through the #200 sieve 50% or more retained on #200 sieve Highly organic soils (Pt) Fibrous texture.CL CL Color or odor Organic OH Inorganic MH CH Below "A" line or hatched zone on plasticity chart GM Limits plot in hatched zone on plasticity chart GM . Coarse Grained Run a Sieve Analysis %G>%S Gravel (G) %S>%G Sand (S) LL < 50 Low LL More than 12% pass #200 sieve Run LL and Pl on minus #40 sieve fraction LL > 50 High LL Above "A" line on plasticity chart Less than 5% pass #200 sieve Obtain Cc and Cu from grain size graph Well Graded GW Poorly Graded GP Between 5% and 12% pass #200 sieve Requires dual symbol based on gradation and plasticity characteristics GW GP GW CP GM GM GC GC More than 12% pass #200 sieve Run LL and Pl on minus #40 sieve fraction Less than 5% pass #200 sieve Obtain Cc and Cu from grain size graph Well Graded SW Poorly Graded SP Between 5% and 12% pass #200 sieve Requires dual symbol based on gradation and plasticity characteristics SW SP SW SP SM SM SC SC Below "A" line or PI <4 Color or odor Organic OL Limits plot in hatched zone on plasticity chart Above "A" line and PI >7 Below "A" line on plasticity chart Inorganic ML ML . color. leaves.SC Above "A" line and hatched zone on plasticity chart SC Unified Soil Classification System 14 Courtesy By S M Nazmul Haque . particles of vegetable matter (sticks. odor.Flow Chart of Unified Soil Classification System Soil Mechanics – 1 CE . In borderline cases. and so forth) More than 50% passes the #200 sieve Fine Grained Run LL and PL on minus #40 sieve material.GC Above "A" line and hatched zone on plasticity chart GC Below "A" line or hatched zone on plasticity chart SM Limits plot in hatched zone on plasticity chart SM . or fine grained. coarse grained.6201 Make visual examination of soil to determine whether it is highly organic.
determine amount passing through the #200 sieve 35% or Less passes the #200 sieve More than 36% passes the #200 sieve Silt-clay Material Run LL and PL on minus #40 sieve material. or fine grained. Silty PI < 10 Clayey PI > 11 LL < 40 A-4 LL > 41 A-5 LL < 40 A-6 A-7 LL > 41 A-1 Less than 50% pass #40 sieve Less than 15% pass #200 sieve. PI less than 6 A-1-a Greater than 51% pass #40 sieve Less than 10% pass #200 sieve. Granular Material Run a Sieve Analysis Less than 25% pass #200 sieve Run sieve analysis. In borderline cases. coarse grained.Soil Mechanics – 1 CE . Less than 50% pass #10 sieve. Non Plastic A-3 Silty PI < 10 Clayey PI > 11 PI equal to or less than LL minus 30 A-7-5 PI Greater than LL minus 30 A-7-6 LL < 40 A-2-4 LL > 41 A-2-5 LL < 40 A-2-6 LL > 41 A-2-7 AASHTO Soil Classification System 15 Courtesy By S M Nazmul Haque . Less than 50% pass #40 sieve. Less than 30% pass #40 sieve. Also LL and Pl on minus #40 sieve material A-2 Less than 25% pass #200 sieve Run LL and PL on minus #40 sieve material.6201 Flow Chart of AASHTO Soil Classification Make visual examination of soil to determine whether it is highly organic. PI less than 6 A-1-a Less than 25% pass #200 sieve.
It is not used in order to place a soil in a particular group that is done directly from the results of sieve analysis. )[ ( ) ( )( )] 16 Courtesy By S M Nazmul Haque . Group Index ( Where. the liquid limit and the plasticity index. =0 PI 30 Kaolinite 20 10 Chlorite 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Liquid Limit (%) Group Index The group index is a means of rating the value of a soil as a sub-grade material within its own group.L 0.Soil Mechanics – 1 CE .9( U = PI 40 Plasticity Index (%) Montmorillonite Illite ) ne . The group index is a function of the amount of material passing the # 200 sieve. It is a new factor used in the AASHTO soil classification system. the poorer is the quality of the material. The higher the value of the group index.20 i L -L A 73(L . the liquid limit and plasticity index.6201 Plasticity Chart for Classification of Clay Minerals 50 ) -8 ne LL i .
a Group Index the value of which is zero. say 15. When the calculated Group Index is negative.6 ≈ 16. stress in a linear function of strain. 17 Courtesy By S M Nazmul Haque . c) Yield stress models: the stress can be generate a strain only if Where.6201 The value of Group Index should be reported to the nearest whole number but not a fraction. then particle Group Index formula ( )[ ( )] When LL = 0. A Group Index the value of which is 20 indicates a „Poor‟ material. is a certain minimum stress necessary for causing strain or slip. dashpots and friction elements in various combinations. generally indicates a excellent sub-grade material. then particle Group Index formula ( )[ ] The good qualities of a sub-grade material are related as inversely proportional to its Group index. i. i. ( ) Where. The three basic rheological models of practical interest are shown in figure Spring Dashpot y a) Hookean model b) Newtonian model c) Yield Stress model These models characterize the stress – strain relationship in terms of the material constants known from experiments.e. When PI = 0. For example. b) Newtonian models: Represents a perfect viscous response of soil. is yield stress or frictional resistance. Soil Rheology Soil Rheology is the study of time dependent deformations of soil materials. composed of springs. called the „Rheological model‟.e.2 ≈ 15 or 15. stress is a linear function of the rate of change in strain with respect to time. Soil Mechanics – 1 CE . where. the real/physical soil system is placed by an ideal mechanical model. For the analysis. a) Hookean model: Represents a perfect elastic response of soil independent of time. K = Spring constant or modulus of elasticity. shall be reported as 0 (zero).
Soil Mechanics – 1 CE . 18 Courtesy By S M Nazmul Haque .0 the soil is brittle at het PL. ( ) Significances is the rate at which a soil mass loses shear strength with an increases in water content. Soil behaves liquid and is at LL LI = 0%.6201 Significance of Liquidity Index. Consistency Index is defined as Significances of Consistency Index Consistency Index shows the nearness of water content of the soil to its Plastic Limit. Consistency Index and Toughness Index of Soil Liquidity Index is defined as Significances of Liquidity Index It indicates the nearness of its water content to it. liquid limit. Soil behaves hard. vice versa. < 1.0. shear strength lower. is greater. it indicates a water content < PL. When CI = 0%. varies 0 to 3. Toughness Index is defined as Significances is a measure of shearing strength of the soil at PL. Soil is at PL LI = -ve. Flow Index Flow Index is the slope of the flow curve obtained between the number of blow (abscissa = log scale) and the water content in Casagrande‟s method of determination of the liquid limit as figure. at LL CI = 100% at LL = PL CI > 100% at semi – solid state CI = -ve at water content > LL LI high then CI low. When LI = 100%.
Plasticity Index (%) Montomor illonite 80 60 A (3) A (2) When A<0.25 Soil is Inactive Soil is Normal Soil is Active 40 Illite A (1) Kaolinite 20 Significance: Activity of soil gives information about type and effect of clay mineral of soil.Soil Mechanics – 1 CE . 19 0 10 20 30 40 50 Clay Fraction Courtesy By S M Nazmul Haque .25 A>1.6201 100 90 80 70 Moisture Content % 60 W1 (1) ( ) 50 ( ) W2 (1) W3 (2) 40 30 ( ) ( ) 20 W2 (2) 10 N1 10 N2 N3 0 No of Blow.75 to 1. N (Log Scale) Figure: Flow Index Activity of soil The activity (A) of a soil is the ratio between Plasticity Index and the percent of clay fraction (F) (less than 2 μm) present. The range of activity of soil is between 1 -2.75 A=0.
0 4. into viscous fluids.0 1. at least temporarily.0 – 2.0 > 16. both PL and LL increase. The increase in strength of the soil is due to the gradual reorientation of the absorbed molecules of water with passage of time is called thixotropy.6201 Soil Sensitivity: Soil sensitivity is the estimate of a soil's ability to maintain its original strength when bothered or remolded. Where. such a clay montmorillonite group and posses flocculent structure.0 – 4. When comparing the properties of two soils with equal volume of plasticity Index. the dry strength and toughness decrease. where as compressibility and permeability increases.0 – 8. Soils with high organic content have low Plasticity Index. soil is generally sands. it is found that as the liquid limit increases. Classification of Soils based on Sensitivity Sensitivity <1. The value of sensitivity varies in between 1 to 16. it may regain at least part of its original strength and stiffness. LL < 20%. ( ). Toughness Index is a measure of shearing strength at PL. Plasticity chart plot of PL and LL is extremely useful for classification of fine – grained soils.0 8. 20 Courtesy By S M Nazmul Haque .e.0 – 16. As grain size decreases. Thixotropy If a remoulded soil is allowed to stand without further disturbance and changed in water content.Soil Mechanics – 1 CE . Engineering use of Consistency Limit Both Plastic limit and Liquid limit gives the idea upon the type and amount of clay in a soil. Liquid Limit is a indicator of compressibility of a soil.0 2. Shrinkage Index is a indicator for amount of clay and directly proportional to clay fraction.0 Soil Type Insensitive Little sensitive Moderately sensitive Sensitive Extra sensitive Quick sensitive When sensitivity of soil is greater than 8 soil must be treated for construction because disturbance tends to transform them. i.
Soil Mechanics – 1 CE . Liquid Limit Plastic Limit Plasticity Index Plastic Limit Silt Clay Particle Size Decrease 21 Courtesy By S M Nazmul Haque . it is found that as the Plasticity Index increases. where as the permeability decreases but compressibility remains almost same. the dry strength and toughness increase.6201 When comparing the properties of two soils with equal volume of Liquid limit.
Explain the application of A –line on plasticity chart for unified classification. 34. 35. 2. 14. 31. 12. 18. 17. Define plasticity index and liquidity index. 3. What are the drawback / limitations / criterion for unified soil classifications? 22 Courtesy By S M Nazmul Haque . 32. 11. 36. 20. 15. 22. Define plastic limit and liquid limit. What are symbols used for unified soil classification? Draw plasticity chart.Soil Mechanics – 1 CE . State the cone penetrometer method with device for liquid limit determination. where soil classification used? What are the tests required for types of soil classification? On which condition general design on soil depended? How will you determine whether a gravel or sandy soil is poor or well graded? Define plasticity of soil. 27. 25. the plasticity charts are used? What are the tests used for field identification of soils? State dry strength test of soils in field. 21. Explain the application of hatched zone on plasticity chart for unified classification. 28. With example define the dual symbol for USCS soil classification. 24. 8. What are the ranges of liquid limit and plastic limit? Draw neat sketch of Casagrande device. 10. 26. 23. What are the main soil classification depending on origin and mode? What are modes of transported soil? What is water transported soil? Mention wind transported soils? Mention glacier transported soils. What are engineering field. 6. 33. Compare the results for different field test for organic and inorganic clay and silt. 5. 37. Define the consistency limits / Atterberg limits. Explain the borderline classification in USCS soil classification.strain diagrams of soil at different limit limits and plastic limits. For what methods. 30. State the Casagrande definition for liquid limit determination. 29. What are the roles of soil classification system in geotechnical engineering? What are the systems used of soil classification? What are the different soil size limits between USCS and AASHTO systems? What are the different soil size limits for ASTM and IS systems? Classify soil depending on cohesive property. Draw the stress . 4. 9. 7. 13.6201 Questions Soil Classification 1. State the Casagrande definition for plastic limit determination. 16. State dilatancy test of soils in field. 19. Define one point method for liquid determination.
What are the engineering uses of Atterberg’s limits? 58. What are the significances of consistency index? 52. What are the significances for group index values for practical purposes? 43. What are the effects of plasticity index on engineering properties? 23 Courtesy By S M Nazmul Haque . What is meant by “Soil Rheology” and “Rhecological model”? 49. 42.Soil Mechanics – 1 CE . State sensitivity of soil. 39. What are the significances of toughness index? 53. 46. What are the significances of liquidity index? 51. Draw the plasticity chart for classification of clay minerals. 57. Define group index with formula.6201 38. Draw the plasticity chart for AASHTO soil classification system. Define the different rhecological models with figures. 54. Define flow index with significance. A – 2 – 5. What are the difference between A – 7 – 5 and A – 7 – 6 soils? 48. Define A – 3 soil. State thixotrophy of soil. What are the difference between A – 4. What are the difference between A – 1 – a and A – 1 – b soil? 44. 56. Define partial group index formula. 40. 50. State activity of soil. A – 5 and A – 6 soils? 47. 55. 41. A – 2 – 6 and A – 2 – 7 soils? 45. What are the difference between A – 2 – 4.
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