# Soil Mechanics – 1 CE - 6201 Course Teacher: Dr. Md.

Mokhlesur Rahman Professor Department of Civil Engineering DUET Significance soil properties The following soil properties are of significance in most soil problems and therefore form the basis of a complete soil description and identification:        Shear strength (i.e. consistency for cohesive soil) Density (for cohesion less soil) Compressibility Permeability Color Composition (i.e. Grain size, Gradation, Shape, Plasticity, Mineralogy) Structure of soil

Shear Strength (Unconfined Compression Test)  The shear strength of a soil is its resistance to shearing stresses.  It is a measure of the soil resistance to deformation by continuous displacement of its individual soil particles  Shear strength in soils depends primarily on interactions between particles  Shear failure occurs when the stresses between the particles are such that they slide or roll past each other  Understanding shear strength is the basis to analyze soil stability problems like:–lateral pressure on earth retaining structures, –slope stability, and –bearing capacity.  Shear strength of soil is a fundamental property of undisturbed cohesive soils; it is ordinarily defined in terms of “Unconfined Compression Strength” but may be estimated from simple field test.  The strength can also be estimated from results of SPT value during a sampling operation.

The results of Unconfined Compression Strength and field test results can be used to describe the consistency of soil as follows:

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Soil Mechanics – 1 CE - 6201 Consistency Very Soft Soft Firm Stiff Very Stiff Hard Corresponding SPT Value 0–1 2–4 4–8 8 – 15 15 – 30 > 30 Unconfined Compression Strength (Tsf) 0 – 0.25 0.25 – 0.50 0.50 – 1.00 1.00 – 1.50 1.50 – 2.00 > 2.00 Field Test Squeezes between fingers when first are closed. Easily molded by fingers. Molded by strong pressure of fingers. Dented by strong pressure of fingers. Dented slightly by fingers strong pressure. Dented only slightly by pencil point.

Methods of investing shear strength       Unconfined compression test (for cohesive soil) Direct shear test Tri-axial compression test Vane test (for soft clay) Standard penetration test (for cohesion less soil) Penetrometer test

Density  Density is as important for cohessionless soils as strength for cohesive soils.  It can be found by comparing the soils actual void ratio with the range in void ratio from loose to dense for that soil.  It may be estimated from a field test, which measures the ease of a reinforcing rod to penetrate the soil. Density can also be correlated with SPT value. The correlation among the results are as follows: Density of Cohessionless Soil Very Loose Loose Firm Very Firm Dense Very Dense Related SPT Value 0–4 4 – 10 11 – 20 21 – 30 31 – 50 > 50 Relative Density 0 – 50 50 – 70 70 – 90 90 - 100 Field Test Easily penetrated with 0.5” reinforcing rod pushed by hand Easily penetrated with 0.5” reinforcing rod driven with 5 lb hammer Penetrated a foot with 0.5” reinforcing rod driven with 5 lbs hammer Penetrated only a few inches with 0.5” reinforcing rod driven with 5 lbs hammer

Compressibility Compressibility is determined by Direct Laboratory Test or is estimated from liquid limit and void ratio. The compressibility characteristics can be described as follows:

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Illite.Soil Mechanics – 1 CE . The size of the particles as defined by ASTM and their visual identification are as follows: Name Boulder Cobbles Coarse Gravel Fine Gravel Coarse Sand Medium Sand Fine Sand Fines Mineralogy Mineral Quartz Kaolinite.074 ≤ Familiar Example Larger than basket ball Grapefruit Orange or lemon Grape or Pea Rock salt Sugar or table salt Powdered sugar Passing #200 sieve Value of K (cm/sec) > to to to < Typical Soil Coarse Gravel Sand.20 – 0.76 – 19 2 – 4. shape mineralogy and plasticity.39 ≥ 0.425 0.6201 Term Slight or low compressibility Moderate or intermediate compressibility High compressibility Permeability of Soil Permeability is determined by direct laboratory and field tests or may be estimated as: Relative Permeability Very Permeable Medium Permeable Low Permeable Very Low Permeable Impermeable Color Color through not an important physical property itself but it is an indication of more important properties. gradation.19 0.074 – 0.40 Liquid Limit (LL) 0.76 0.30 31 – 50 ≥ 51 Courtesy By S M Nazmul Haque . Fine Sand Silty Sand Silt Clay Compressibility Index ( ) 0 – 0. For example:  Yellow & red color indicates → Residual soil  Black color indicates → Organic soil  Color change during excavation or boring → Layer change  Soil color is described usually with the aid of a chart called munsell color chart. Composition Composition means grain size.425 – 2 0. Montmorrilonite Gradation Two types 3 Soil Sand & Gravel Clay Size Limit (mm) ≥305 76 – 305 19 – 76 4.

permeability. plasticity. Describing soil structures (Macro Structure) The structure of the soil must be determined by careful observation. color. composition etc. 4 Courtesy By S M Nazmul Haque .Soil Mechanics – 1 CE . The following descriptive terms may be used:  Homogeneous (Uniform properties)  Stratified (Alternate layers of different soils)  Laminated (Repeating alternate layers less than thick)  Banded (Alternate layers in residual soil) It is important to recognize defects in a soil structure the following often observed:  Slickenside‟s (former failure planes)  Root holes  Fissures (cracks from shrinkage. such as strength.6201  Well graded soil (Uniformity of coefficient  Poorly graded soil  Uniformly graded  Gap graded for Sand and for Gravel and for both) Spherical Cubic Cylindrical Polygonal Semi Spherical Flake Sub Angular Angular Plasticity classification Term Non Plastic Slightly Plastic Medium Plastic Highly Plastic Plasticity Index (PI) 0–3 4–5 9 – 30 ≥ 31 Dry Strength Very low Slight Medium High Field Test Falls apart easily Easily crushed with fingers Difficult to crush Impossible to crush with fingers. density. frost action)  Weathering (Irregular discoloration) Honeycomb Structure Soil Description The soil should be described in essentially the order of significant properties.

Retaining structures contribution to the field of Geotechnical Engineering  Earth pressure of soil  Earth pressure at rest  Active earth pressure  Passive earth pressure  Permeability of soil  Seepage of soil 3.e. density of soil)  Compaction of soil  Moisture content of soil  Permeability of soil  Consolidation of soil So it requires a thorough knowledge of soil in engineering.e.6201 Example  Hard. Four contributions to geotechnical engineering are: 1. 2. The void space between the particles may contain air. moderately compressible. consolidation of soil.  Angle of internal friction of soil 4. composed of solid particles produced by the disintegration of rocks. Soil in terms of Engineering The term „Soil‟ in geotechnical engineering is defined as an unconsolidated material. low permeable. Retaining Structures 3. The solid particles may contain organic matter. The bonding of clay minerals could be of three types: 5 Courtesy By S M Nazmul Haque . brown. water or both.  Loose. micaceous. Foundation‟s contribution to the field of Geotechnical Engineering  Bearing capacity of soil and  Settlement of soil – i. shear strength of soil. Foundations 2. The soil particles can be separated by such mechanical mean as agitation in water. Stability of Slopes 4.e. blue gray. Different types of bonds those are responsible for the constitution of clay mineral The bonding of one element to the other could occur in several ways. Stability of slope‟s contribution to field of Geotechnical Engineering  Cohessionless of soil i. Underground structure‟s contribution to the field of Geotechnical Engineering  Overburden pressure of soil (i.Soil Mechanics – 1 CE . sandy silt. medium plastic clay. Underground Structures 1. banded. compressible.

Primary Valance bond: It holds together the atoms of molecule. Covalent Bond  Covalent bond develops between two atoms by sharing of electrons in their outer shell.  Likewise. each lacking two electrons. Secondary valance bonds 1.  Some elements have an excess or a deficiency of the electron in the outer shell. 6 Courtesy By S M Nazmul Haque .  For example.  Each atom lacks 2 electrons in the outer shells. may combine by sharing four electrons. Primary valance bonds 2. the electrons carrying a negative charge revolve about the molecules.  A molecule of sodium chloride is formed by ionic bond when an atom of sodium combines with an atom of chlorine.  In ionic bonds. the bond between two atoms of oxygen in an oxygen molecule is a covalent bond.  The atom which loses an ion becomes a positive ion is called cation and that which gains an ion becomes a negative ion is called anion. Hydrogen bond 3. an atom of sodium has an excess electron in its outer shell and an atom of chlorine has one deficient electron in its outer shell. the forces bind the positive ions and negative ions.  One atom joins another atom by adding some of the electrons to its outer shell or by losing some of electrons from its outer shell. two atoms.Soil Mechanics – 1 CE . may combine by sharing of a pair of electrons. These are two types  Ionic bond  Covalent bond Ionic bond  In an atom.  Two atoms.  For example.6201 1. each lacking one electron.

An electrical moment is developed inside the molecule.6201 2. Orientation effect 7 Courtesy By S M Nazmul Haque . it has no charge. 1. The most common example of the hydrogen bond is the bond between the hydrogen atoms and oxygen atoms in a water molecule. The hydrogen atom links one molecule of water to the other H + H + 105° 105° Hydrogen Bond H + O -2 H + O -2  Only two anions can approach the hydrogen cation close enough to form a hydrogen bond. Hydrogen Bond    The bond between the hydrogen cation and anions of two atoms of another element is called the hydrogen bond. In nature. A molecule is electrically neutral. which is developed due to any one of the following effects. 3. Secondary Valance Bonds       Secondary valance bonds are intermolecular bonds which develop between atoms in one molecule to atoms in another molecule. A molecule with such a structure is called a dipole.e. i.Soil Mechanics – 1 CE . two dipolar molecules orient themselves in such a way that net attraction occurs. The attractive forces so developed are known as Vander-waal a force.

the orientation effect is the most predominant effect. The positively charged ions are called cations and negatively charged ions are called anions. In other words. On removal from solution. Dispersion effect     It occurs between a fluctuating pole and another dipole. Induction effect  It occurs between an induced pole and another dipole. + (a) + + (b) + - + (c) - + 2. 8 Courtesy By S M Nazmul Haque .Soil Mechanics – 1 CE . O O H H O Diagonal Element Chemistry of Clay Minerals          A mineral is an inorganic chemical compound formed in nature. Thus. induction and dispersion effects in a water molecule are 77%. as shown in figure. 3. the cation and anion united to form the original solid compound.6201  It occurs between the oppositely charged ends of permanent dipoles. A common example of secondary valance bond is the attractive force between molecules of water. A crystal is a homogeneous borly bounded by smooth plan surface. 4% and 19% respectively. Atoms get transferred into ion by the gain or loss of electrons. The relative magnitude of orientation. soil particles are largely composed of mineral crystal. The ions consist of only one element or of two or more elements. As a solid it may occur in amorphous state or in a crystalline state. Many compounds lose their identity in solution by separately into ions. a atom which loses an electron becomes a positive ion (cation) and that which gains electrons becomes a negative ion (anions). which are not electrically balanced.

Oxygen atoms are at the tips of the atoms ( tetrahedron. OH OH Al or Mg OH OH OH OH 3 × (-1) 1 × (+3) Al or Mg =-3 =+3 =-3 = -4 3 × (-1) Net OH OH Octahedron Unit OH OH OH OH Simplified Representation Symbol Al – Octahedron + Al – Octahedron = Gibbsite Sheet G B 9 Courtesy By S M Nazmul Haque . whereas the silicon atom is at its centre as shown in figure. There is a net negative charge of 4. 1 × (-2) 1 × (+4) Si Si O O =-2 =+4 =-6 Net = -4 3 × (-2) O O Silicon Tetrahydron O O O O Simplified Representation Tetrahedron + Tetrahedron → Silica sheet The symbol of silica sheet is S ) or a magnesium atom ( ) 2. whereas ( ) or ( ) surrounded by six hydroxyls ( is at its centre as shown in figure. forming the shape of a tetrahedron. magnesium and iron. An octahedral unit consists of an Alluminium atom ( ) are at tips of octahedron.Soil Mechanics – 1 CE .  A silicon-oxygen tetrahedron unit  An aluminium or magnesium octahedral unit ) surrounded by four oxygen 1. There is a net negative charge of Al-octahedron of 3.6201 Basic structural units of clay minerals Clay minerals are complex silicates of aluminium. A tetrahedral unit consists of a silicon atom ( ). An individual octahedron unit cannot exist in nature. An individual tetrahedron unit cannot exist in nature. Two basic crystalline units form the clay minerals.

Soil Mechanics – 1 CE .Water Molecules + Secondary Valance Brucite Sheet Silica Sheet Serpntive Mineral (Two Layer Sheet) Halloysite Mineral (Two Layer Sheet) Mineral Kaolinite Isomorphous Substitution (Nature and amount) Al for Si 1 in Linkage between sheet (Type and Strength) 10 Specific surface 15 Potential exchange capacity meq/100g 3 Actual exchange capacity mE/100g 3 Courtesy By S M Nazmul Haque .6201 Mg – Octahedron + Mg – Octahedron = Brucite Sheet G S B Silica Sheet + Brucite Sheet = Silicon – Brucite Sheet S Silica Sheet + Gibbsite Sheet = Silicon – Gibbsite Sheet Symbolic Structures of Clay Minerals These are several clay minerals of which the following three groups are predominant    Kaolinite Illite Montmorillonite Others type  Serpentive  Halloysite Silica Sheet 10A Silica Sheet 10A Gibbsite Sheet Silica Sheet Pottasium Ions (Vander Wall forces) Gibbsite Sheet Silica Sheet Water Molecules (Vander Wall forces) Silica Sheet Gibbsite Sheet 7A K K Silica Sheet Gibbsite Sheet 7A Hydrogen Bond + Secondary Valance Silica Sheet 10A Gibbsite Sheet Silica Sheet 10A Gibbsite Sheet Silica Sheet Silica Sheet Kaolinite Mineral (Two Layer Sheet) Illite Mineral (Three Layer Sheet) Montmorillionite Mineral (Three Layer Sheet) Brucite Sheet Silica Sheet Brucite Sheet Silica Sheet Hydrogen Bond + Secondary Valance Brucite Sheet Silica Sheet K K K 4 .

11 Courtesy By S M Nazmul Haque . there would be a net unit charge deficiency of one positive charge per substitution. The link between different structural units of illite is through non-exchangeable Potassium ( ) and not through water. the soil sample used passing #200 sieve i. less susceptible to cleavage. The lattice of illite is stronger than that of montmorillonite . as the Potassium ions just fit in the silica sheet surfaces. therefore. Isomorphous Substitution  When one atom in a basic structural unit of clay mineral may be replaced by another atom without changing the crystalline form is known as isomorphous substitution. Illite swells and shrinks less than montmorillonite. the mineral has a larger negative charge than that in montmorillonite. and is. This is would occur if aluminium atoms are more readily available in water. As an aluminium atom has 3 positive charges whereas a silicon atom has 4 positive charges. owing to reduction of positive charges. illite bonds the units more firmly than in montmorillonite.6201 Illite 400 Al for Si 1 in 7.Soil Mechanics – 1 CE . The space between different structural units of illite is much smaller than in montmorillonite. clay soil.      Use of dispersing agent in hydrometer test   In hydrometer test. Isomorphous substitution generally increases the negative charge on the particle. Mg.     The properties of the mineral illite are somewhat intermediate between that of kaolinite and montmorillonite. there is always a substantial amount of isomorphous substitution of silicon by Aluminium in silica sheet. 1 in 6 Secondary valance + K – linkage (Non – Exchangeable) Secondary valance + Exchangeable ion linkage 90 150 25 Montmorillonite 800 100 100 Illite mineral has properties different from montmorillonite due to following reasons:  In illite. is considerably weaker than Hydrogen bond of kaolinite.e. The dispersing agent is used to neutralizing the electrical charges of very fine clay particles the electrical charges of very fine clay particles and thus to prevent formation of flocs for soil. swelling and shrinkage are more than in kaolinite. one silicon atom in a tetrahedral unit may be substituted by aluminium atom. Where isomorphous means same form. For example. Fe for Al Mg for Al. However. Consequently.

Attraction between cations in the double layer and the negatively charged ends of dipoles. The net effect of the forces due to attraction and that due to repulsion is that the forces of attraction decrease exponentially with an increase distance from the clay particles surface.Anion + + - Distance Diffuse Double Layer   Attraction between the negatively charged faces of clay particles and the positive end of dipoles. The positive charges (cations) attracted to a clay mineral surface also try to move away from the surface because of their thermal energy.   There are three general mechanisms by which these dipolar water molecules or dipoles can be electrically attracted toward the surface of the clay particles as shown in figure.6201 Example: Sodium Hexametaphosphate . The cations are in turn attracted by the negatively charged faces of clay particles. The layer from the clay particle surface to the limit of attraction is known as the diffused double layer as shown in figure.Soil Mechanics – 1 CE . Rigid Layer + Soil Particle Net Negative Charge Diffuse Layer + + + + Intensity of attraction - + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + Cation .( ) Phenomenon of diffused double layer in the context of soil water relationship    The faces of clay mineral carry net negative charges (anion). 12 Courtesy By S M Nazmul Haque .

The plastic property of clayey soils is due to the existence of double layer water. Two – layer sheets of clay minerals       Some clay minerals consist of repeating layers of two layer sheets. A three layer sheet consists of an octahedral sheet in the middle with one silica sheet at the top and one at the bottom.6201 Dipole of Water + Clay Particle Surface - Case (a) Oxygen + Case (b) O 105° O + O - Hydrogen H + H H Hydrogen H H - H + Case (c) Model Relative Location Dipole Dipolar Water Molecules in diffused double layer   Sharing of the hydrogen atoms in the water molecules by hydrogen bonding between the oxygen atoms in the clay particles and the oxygen atoms in the water molecules. [ ̇ ] The repeating layers are held together by hydrogen bonding and secondary valance forces. Repeated layers of these sheets from clay minerals.Soil Mechanics – 1 CE . Since the innermost layer of double layer water is very strong held by a clay particle.Water Molecules + Secondary Valance Brucite Sheet Silica Sheet Kaolinite Mineral Serpntive Mineral Two Layer Sheet Halloysite Mineral Three – layer sheets of clay minerals    The most common clay minerals with three – layers sheets are illite and montmorillonite. serpentine and halloysite clay minerals have two – layer sheets. The sheets are about 7 ̇ thick. it is referred to as absorbed water. Kaolinite. A two – layer sheet is a combination of a silica sheet with a gibbsite sheet or a combination of a silica sheet with a brucite sheet. The symbolic structures are as follows: Brucite Sheet Hydrogen Bond + Secondary Valance Silica Sheet Brucite Sheet Silica Sheet Hydrogen Bond + Secondary Valance Brucite Sheet Silica Sheet K K K Gibbsite Sheet Silica Sheet Gibbsite Sheet Silica Sheet 4 . 13 Courtesy By S M Nazmul Haque .

Substitution of this type by one element for another without changing the crystalline form is known as isomorphous substitution. It is very high in small particles. The magnitude of the electrical charge depends on the surface area of the particle. This proves that there is a flow of electron through the medium. Dissociation of hydroxyl ion ( Adsorption of anions (negative ions) on clay surface. The net negative charge may be due to one of the following seasons: Isomorphous substitution of one atom by another of lower valence. Presence of organic matter. this can be proved by inserting two electrodes in a beaker containing clay mixed with water. The symbolic structures are as follows: Silica Sheet 10A Silica Sheet 10A Gibbsite Sheet Silica Sheet K K Gibbsite Sheet Silica Sheet Water Molecules (Vander Wall forces) Silica Sheet Pottasium Ions (Vander Wall forces) 10A Silica Sheet 10A Gibbsite Sheet Silica Sheet Gibbsite Sheet Silica Sheet Illite Mineral Three Layer Sheet Montmorillionite Mineral Electrical charges on clay minerals             The particles of clay carry an electric charge.6201       Illite layers are bonded together by potassium ions. Absence of cations (Positive ions) in the lattice of the crystal. The electrically attracted water than surrounds the clay particles to form layer is known as diffuse double – layer water. The water molecules are dipolar and are attracted forwards the clay surface as shown in figure. A soil particle attracts the cations in the environment to neutralize the negative charge. The nature of clay soils in presence of water    The clay particles carry a negative charge on their surfaces. 14 Dipole of Water + Clay Particle Surface - - + O - Courtesy By H H S M Nazmul Haque + + . The negative charge to balance the potassium ions comes from the isomorphous substitution of aluminium for some silicon in the tetrahedral sheets. this phenomenon is known as adsorption. Montmorillonite layers are bonded together water molecule like illite instead of . When the electrodes are connected to an electrical circuit containing a battery and an ammeter. there is a deflection of the needle of the ammeter. The each sheet thickness is 10 ̇ . such as colloids which have very large surface area. ) into hydrogen ion ( ).Soil Mechanics – 1 CE .

When the soil is mixed with kerosene / Paraffin oil. Structural formula of clay mineral and their exchange capacity Name of Mineral capacity Kaoline Group  Kaolinite  Halloysite Illites Group 15 Courtesy By S M Nazmul Haque Structural Formula / Symbol Exchange (meq per 100 g) ( ) ( ) 3. Colloid means the property is influenced by surface force. The volume depends upon the particle size. Colloid size range is 1 mm to 1µm.  Specific surface area        The magnitude of surface area per unit mass is generally referred to as specific surface. However. The specific surface area is a good indication of the relative influence of electrical forces on the behavior of the particle. Plasticity of the clay soil is due to adsorbed water.Soil Mechanics – 1 CE . A clay particle is a colloid because it‟s very small size and irregular shape. it does not become plastic because this liquid is no polar which has no electromagnetic properties to react with clay minerals. the gravitational force is proportional to the volume of the particle. Thus. As the specific gravity of particles is approximately constant. This phenomenon is known as adsorption of water and the water so attracted to clay surface is called adsorbed water. As the particle size decreases the effect of surface forces on a particle becomes more predominant than the gravitational force. The surface also depends upon the particle size. the larger the particle size. the surface forces become more important only when the particle size is very small.6201   The plastic property of clay soil is due to diffuse double – layer water. Bonding or surface forces between particles depend upon the surface area of the particles and not upon the volume. Specific surface area are o Kaolinite = 15 o Illite = 90 o Montmorillonite = 800 Gravitational and surface fore on clay soil          The mass or gravitational force on a soil particle is proportional to its mass. the gravitational force on a particle is related to the particle size. the greater would be the gravitational force.8 . In other words. The specific surface is measured as the total area of the surface of particle grains expressed in square meters per gram.

Thus    Courtesy By S M Nazmul Haque . If he water is acidic (pH<7). where as that of hydrogen is unity. The base formula of the clay mineral altered by Base Exchange. Some cations are more strongly adsorbed than others. For example. 3 meq/100gm. the Base Exchange capacity is reduced. The phenomenon of replacement of cations is called Base Exchange. ( ) 40 Montmorillonite Group  Montmorillonite 100) ( ) 80 (70 – Base Exchange capacity                 The cations (positive charge) attracted to the negatively charged surface of the soil particles are not strongly attached. Therefore. It is usually expressed as meq/100 gm. 16 cations. The Base Exchange capacity of clay depends upon the pH of the water in environment. the base exchange capacity of the material is . If 100 gm of a dry material adsorbs 60 mg of calcium.e. calcium as a molecular weight of 40. Base Exchange is expressed in terms of total number of positive charges adsorbed per 100 gm of soil. These cations can be replaced by other ions and are therefore known as exchangeable ions. Then the soil particle and the exchange ions make the system neutral.6201  Illite ( ) . one mg of hydrogen is equivalent or 20 mg of calcium in Base Exchange capacity. However. Like wise ions can replace ions. One miliequivalent (meq) is equal to one milligram of hydrogen or its equivalent any other material which will replace one milligram of hydrogen. The Base Exchange capacity is the capacity of the clay particles to change the cation adsorbed on the surface. calcium is divalent in contrast to hydrogen which is monovalent. i. cations are more strongly attracted than ions can replace ions.Soil Mechanics – 1 CE . The adsorbed cations commonly found in soil. arranged in a series in terms of their affinity for attraction are as follows: For example.

8 × Surface area weight per unit M = Vρg = 462. there would be an exchange of ions for ions and the sodium clay would turn into the calcium clay. if calcium chloride is added to soil containing sodium chloride.76 for soil Unit weight of water = 1 gm/ Surface area per gm or specific surface area Courtesy By S M Nazmul Haque .56 ̇ = 92. Solution Specific Surface area Specific surface area for a unit.64 = 725 Base Exchange Capacity Element Unit Molecular Weight 17 Unit × Molecular Weight × ( ) Length = 8.6201  For example.  Problems A clay mineral has the following chemical formula ↓ ( ) Calculate the surface area per area per unit and change deficiency. A =L×B = 2(top and bottom) × 8. Thus The properties of the clay therefore change due to Base Exchange.Soil Mechanics – 1 CE .8 ̇ = 462.2 ̇ × 2. Or A clay mineral has the following chemical formula ↓ ( ) Calculate the Specific surface area and charge deficiency.2 ̇ =92.9 ̇ × 5.9 ̇ Width = 5.33 × = = = 724.8 ̇ × = 1277.56 × Surface volume per unit V = Ah ̇ × 10 ̇ = = 462.76 × 1 gm 1 ̇ = cm Specific Gravity = 2.

00 4. electrical equivalent per 367 gm mol wt.32 23.06 16.33 0.06 16.13 gm mol wt.043 equi/100gm = 43 meq/100gm 1eqie.00 Unit × Molecular Weight = = = = = = 53.0 2.00 367.97 24.94 129.00043 equi/gm = 0.67 24.00 = 7.0 4.00 1.16 384.62 15.00 = 45.00 1.00 28.40 = 192.00091 equi/gm = 0.091 equi/100gm = 91 meq/100gm 1eqie.33 4.67 0.00 = 8.00 = 2.41 187.00 12. Problem Compute the ion exchange capacity of saponite for following mineralogical formula ( ) ( ) ( ↓ ) Solution Element Al Mg Na Si O H Unit 2.00 Molecular Weight 26.Soil Mechanics – 1 CE .97 24.00 774.6201 Al Mg Na Si O H 1.33 0.32 23.00 26.67 6.00 5. electrical equivalent per 774.00 28.60 = 112. = 1000 meq.13 Ion exchange capacity = = = 0. 18 Courtesy By S M Nazmul Haque .00 Charge Deficiency = = = 0. = 1000 meq.

00 30.00 822.00 1. cation / Base Exchange Capacity in meq = Problem If one cubic meter of clay has a dry unit mass of 1600 kg. 19 Courtesy By S M Nazmul Haque . [ Solution Element Al Si O H Unit 4.00 Unit × Molecular Weight = 107. find the quantity of H and Ca if the Base Exchange in 3 meq/100 gm.06 16.0 10. . 1600 kg of soil can adsorb = kg of H = 10 meq/100 gm of clay.Soil Mechanics – 1 CE .00 = 10.36 gm mol wt.0 Molecular Weight 26.48 = 480.·.041 equi/100gm = 41 meq/100gm Problem Compute the Base Exchange capacity of clay if 100 gm of dry clay adsorbs 200 mgm of calcium.6201 Problem Compute the ion exchange capacity of Montmorillonite.88 = 224. Solution Since 100 gms of soil can adsorb 3 mgm of hydrogen. = 1000 meq. electrical equivalent per 822. Solution Molecular weight mass of or Ca = 40 in has one positive charge. the clay.00 8.00041 equi/gm = 0.97 28. Therefore one meq of Since 100 gm of dry clay adsorbs 200 mgm of Ca.36 ( ) ] Ion exchange capacity = = = 0. ion has two positive charges whereas the Ca 1eqie.

Soil Mechanics – 1 CE .065 equi/100gm = 65 meq/100gm Molecular Weight Element Al Mg Na Si Ca Cl Fe K O H Molecular Weight 26.06 16.00 = 8. Problem Compute the Base Exchange capacity of Kaolinite.24 = 288. electrical equivalent per 774.08 35. Solution Structural formula of kaolinite Element Al Si O H Unit 4.00 1.00 28. Since quantity of Ca = 0.13 gm mol wt.97 28.00 1.00 4.0 8.6201 The quantity of Ca that can be adsorbed is 20 times of H.048×20 = 0.00 516.00 18.88 = 112.00 = ( ) Unit × Molecular Weight = 107.96 kg. Various structural forms of soils and their significance in engineering behavior of soil 20 Courtesy By S M Nazmul Haque .12 Molecular Weight 26.97 24.46 55. = 1000 meq.00 1eqie.06 40.10 16.00 Ion exchange capacity = = = 0.32 23.00065 equi/gm = 0.85 39.

 The soil in nature has different structures depending the particle size and the mode of formation. 21 Courtesy By S M Nazmul Haque . i.  The first two types are for granular soils and type 3 and type 4 for cohesive soils. Single Grained Structure  Cohesionless soils such as gravel and sand are composed of bulky grains in which the gravitational forces are more predominant than surface forces. the particles settle under gravitational forces and take equilibrium as shown in figure. Each particle is in contact with each other in a close pocket. Honey Comb Structure  For fine sands or silts to get deposited such that the particles when settling develop a particle to particle contact that bridges over large voids in the soil mass as shown in figure. Dispersed Structure  Dispersed structure develops in clays that have been reworked or remolded. This is called a salt type flocculation.35.Soil Mechanics – 1 CE .  The following types of structures are usually found. type 5 and 6 are for mixed soils. Void ration varies from 0.90 to 0.    ii. Flocculated Structure  The clay particles have large surface area.    iv. Inter-particle contact develops between the positively charged edges and the negatively charged faces. have a negative charge on the surface face and a positive charge on the edges. the flocs of the clay particles formed by dominant attractive forces will give them mostly an orientation approaching parallelism. The particles wedge between one another into a stable condition and form a skeleton like an arch to carry the weight of the overlaying material. When deposition of these soils occurs. This results in a flocculated structure as figure.6201 The geometrical arrangement of soil particles with respect to one another is known as soil structure.  iii. If the clay particles are suspended in water with a high salt concentration.

b. However. Smaller the void ratio The higher the shear strength The lower the compressibility The medium the permeability 22 Courtesy By S M Nazmul Haque . v. The clay forms a matrix in which bulky grains float without touching one another. d. The dispersed structure is formed in nature when there is a repulsive force between particles. These particles form a framework or skeleton as figure. Single – Grained Structure a. the bulky grains are in particle to particle contact. c. the amount of clay particles is more as compared with bulky.Soil Mechanics – 1 CE .   vi.6201   The particles develop more or less a parallel orientation as figure. cohesionless particles is large compared with that of fine – grained. Clay Matrix Structure   Clay matrix structure is also a composite structure formed by soils of different types. When the amount of bulky. clayey particles. coarse – grained particles as figure.  Significance in engineering behavior i. in this case. Coarse-Grained Skeleton Structure  A coarser grained skeleton in a composite structure is formed when the soil contains particles of different types.

How soils are defined corresponding to Compressibility Index and Liquid Limit Test results for cohesive soil? 5. a. b. How typical soils are defined corresponding to permeability test results? 6. How typical soils are defined corresponding to color? 23 Courtesy By S M Nazmul Haque . v. c. Clay Minerals 1. Behavior as approximately similar as dispersed. How soils are defined corresponding to SPT values and Relative Density Test results for cohesion-less soil? 4. e. Honey Comb Structure a. How soils are defined corresponding to SPT values and Unconfined Compression Test results for cohesive soil? 3. iii. f. e.6201 e. Large void ratio The lower the shear strength The higher the compressibility The higher the permeability More deformation High void ratio and water content High shear strength Low compressibility Medium permeability Less deformation High void ratio and water content Low shear strength High compressibility Low permeability More deformation Have the property as thixotropy Flocculated Structure Dispersed Structure Coarse Grained Skeleton a. b. d. e. Less deformation ii. a. What are the significant properties for complete soil description and identification? 2. d. b. iv. Behavior as approximately similar as honeycomb structure Clay Matrix a. vi. d. c.Soil Mechanics – 1 CE . c.

6201 7. What is meant by “Base Exchange Capacity” of clay minerals? 39. Write down the structural formula / symbol with Base Exchange capacity for clay minerals. 41. Q – 18. 37. What are the effects for Secondary Valence bonds in clay soil? 18. Q – 21. 46. 15. 23. Why are dispersing agents used during hydrometer test? 27. 20. How is Hydrogen bond influenced in clay soil? 17. 28. 16. Why? 35. 32. How soils are defined corresponding to Plasticity Index and Dry Strength test results? 10. 21. Explain Covalent bond with example for clay soil. Write down the two examples for soil description according to the order of significant properties. Explain Ionic bond with example for clay soil. 25. How are typical soils defined by ASTM corresponding to size limits (mm)? 8. Draw the all three layered structural sheet of clay minerals. What are the reasons that the negative charge exists on clay surface? 33. 44. Q – 17. How is specific surface area for clay minerals measured? 36. What is isomorphous substation and give examples? 26. What is encompassed by the term “Soil” as used in engineering? 12. How are soils defined by gradation and shape and mineralogy? 9. Q – 19. Do the worked out examples: 27. Compare between Flocculated structure and Dispersed structure. Compare between Coarse-grained skeleton structure and Clay-matrix structure. “Clay soil exhibits plastic properties in presence of water but non -plastic in Kerosene”. 43. What is meant by diffused double layer? 30. 22. Compare the exchange capacity. 31. 28. 11. What are the reasons that the properties of Illite mineral differ from Montmorillonite? 29. Differentiate gravitational force and surface force on clay soil. specific surface. 29. Name the all clay minerals. Mention and explain the affinity series for attraction of absorbed cations. Illite and Montmorillonite minerals. Explain the single-grained and honey-comb structural form of soil. Explain the diffused double layer with figure. Q – 22. What are the basic structural units of clay minerals? Draw the units. 24. 38. bond type and isomorphous substitution for Kaolinite. Name at least four contributors and at least two contributions corresponding each contributor in the field of Geotechnical Engineering? 13. How will you measure the „Base Exchange Capacity‟ of clay minerals? 40. 42. Draw the significance of Single-grained structure in engineering behavior? 24 Courtesy By S M Nazmul Haque . 45. Explain the Octahedral unit of clay mineral. Q – 20.Soil Mechanics – 1 CE . Draw and explain the sketches of dipolar and structural water molecules in diffused double layer. Classify the types of bonds that are responsible for the constitution of clay minerals. Explain the tetrahedram unit of clay mineral. What is the main chemistry of clay minerals? 19. What is meant by structure of soil? Mention the structural forms of soils. What is the circuit test for negative charge on clay surface? 34. 14. Draw the all two layered structural sheet of clay minerals.

Mention the significant behavior of Honey-comb structure in Geotechnical Engineering. 25 Courtesy By S M Nazmul Haque . Mention the significant behavior of dispersed structure.6201 47. 48.Soil Mechanics – 1 CE . 49. Mention the significant behavior of flocculated structure.