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Mid Term-2010-2011 1. What are the tests required for types of soil classification?
Ans.: Soil tests required for classification Grain size analysis a. Sieve analysis b. Hydrometer analysis Consistency tests a. Liquid limit test, b. Plastic limit test
2. What are the systems used of soil classification?
Ans : Systems of soil classification The Unified Soil Classification System (USCS) The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) or The British Standard Institute (BSI) American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) International System (IS) Unified soil Bureau of Reclamation (USBR)
3. Draw the plasticity chart soil classification. Ans.:
e in 0
Plasticity Index (%)
CL CI CH
(L .73 =0
Inorganic Clays of High Plasticity
Inorganic Clays of Medium Plasticity Inorganic Silts of High Compressibility and Organic Clays
Inorganic Clays of Low Plasticity
ML or OL
Cohesionless Soil CL - ML
MI or OI Inorganic Silts of Low Compressibility
MH or OH
Inorganic Silts of Medium Compressibility and Organic Silts
Liquid Limit (%)
4. Name at least four contributors and at least two contributions corresponding each contributor in the field of Geotechnical Engineering? Ans.: Four contributions to geotechnical engineering are:
a) Foundations b) Retaining Structures c) Stability of Slopes d) Underground Structures a) Foundation’s contribution to the field of Geotechnical Engineering Bearing capacity of soil and Settlement of soil – i.e. consolidation of soil. b) Retaining structures contribution to the field of Geotechnical Engineering Earth pressure of soil Earth pressure at rest Active earth pressure Passive earth pressure Permeability of soil Seepage of soil 1 Courtesy By S M Nazmul Haque
Shear Strength) Engineering Purpose (Highways. Otherwise Sand is poor graded. 30.1 Where . solid. Compressibility. plastic and liquid 2 Courtesy By S M Nazmul Haque . 7.6201 5. semi-solid. Sand when well-graded. LL. γ. How will you determine whether a gravel or sandy soil is poor or well graded? Ans.Soil Mechanics – 1 CE . Foundaiton. 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% D60 % Finer by Mass 50% 40% D30 30% 20% D10 10% 0 10 1 Grain Size. What are the roles of soil classification system in geotechnical engineering? Ans : The roles of soil classification system in geotechnical engineering Classification and Index Properties (ω. For. Otherwise Gravel is poor graded. and 10% respectively. and are the diameters corresponding to percents finer than 60. PL. Dams etc) 6. What are the engineering uses of Atterberg’s limits? Ans. Airfields.: Determination of granular or sandy soil whether it is poor or well graded The co-efficient of uniformity. Atterberg Limits used for To describe the consistency of fine-grained soils To determines its state or consistency Four states are used to describe the soil consistency. The co-efficient of uniformity. SL etc) Classification System ("Language") Engineering Properties (Permeability. For. G. ρ. Gravel when well-graded. Shrinkage Swell. D (mm) 0. n.
Soils having between 50% and 12% passing the #200 sieve are classified as “Borderline” and have a symbol called dual symbol. Increasing Moisture Solid Semi-Solid Plastic Liquid Volume Shrinkage Limit Plastic Limit Liquid Limit Drying 3 Courtesy By S M Nazmul Haque .: Plasticity Index The difference between the liquid limit and the plastic limit of a soil is defined as the plasticity index. 8.6201 To defining or classifying a soil type or predicting soil performance when used a construction material. Define liquidity index and plasticity index? Ans. a soil classified as a SP-SM means that it is a poorly graded sand with between 5% and 12% silty fines. With example define the dual symbol for USCS soil classification.: Dual Symbol and Borderline Classification in USCS. which is given by Where. The first part of the dual symbol indicates whether the coarse fraction is well graded or poorly graded. 9. The second part describes the nature of the fines. Similarly.Soil Mechanics – 1 CE . Ans. For example. a GW-GC is a well graded gravel with some clayey fines that plot above the Aline. PI PI = LL – PL. Liquidity Index The relative consistency of a cohesive soil in the natural state can be defined by a ratio called the liquidity index.
Cohesive Soils 2. General Field test Properties Compaction control Shear Strength – (Soft Clay) Relative Density – (Granular Soil) Field density Permeability 4 Test Moisture – Density relation In place density Vane shear test Penetration test Core Cutting Sand replacement Pumping test Courtesy By S M Nazmul Haque . Non-cohesive soils 3. will you perform in the laboratory and field? What are the parameters. For. Where . The co-efficient of uniformity. 11. Otherwise Gravel is poor graded. 30. Unconfined Compression test 2. How will you determine whether gravel or a sand is poor or well graded? Determination of granular or sandy soil whether it is poor or well graded The co-efficient of uniformity. Otherwise Sand is poor graded. Direct Shear test 3. are the diameters corresponding to percents finer than 60. Gravel when well-graded. and For. What are the types of soil tests. Sand when well-graded.Soil Mechanics – 1 CE . will you find from those above tests? Laboratory test Properties Grain size distribution Consistency Test Sieve analysis and hydrometer test Liquid limit Plastic limit Plasticity index Consolidation Standard proctor.6201 10. Tri-axial test Compressibility Compaction Characteristics Unit Weight Shear Strength 1. Modified proctor Specific Gravity Corresponding Tests: 1. and 10% respectively.
say 15. The higher the value of the group index.2 ≈ 15 or 15. Group Index ( Where.Soil Mechanics – 1 CE . the poorer is the quality of the material. It is not used in order to place a soil in a particular group that is done directly from the results of sieve analysis. )[ ( ) ( )( )] Symbol G S M C O Pt Symbol W P L H The value of Group Index should be reported to the nearest whole number but not a fraction. the liquid limit and plasticity index. When PI = 0. Plate Beating test Footing Plate Bearing test Piles Corresponding Tests Vertical Piles Load Test Batter Piles Lateral Load Test Symbols used in the unified soil classification system Soil Gravel Sand Silt Clay Organic soil Peat Gradation Well graded Poorly graded Low Plasticity High Plasticity Group Index The group index is a means of rating the value of a soil as a sub-grade material within its own group. When the calculated Group Index is negative.6201 Soil Sampling and resistance of the soil Standard Penetration test to penetration of the sampler Split Barrel Sampling Bearing Capacity Corresponding Tests Pavement CBR. then particle Group Index formula 5 Courtesy By S M Nazmul Haque . The group index is a function of the amount of material passing the # 200 sieve.6 ≈ 16. the liquid limit and the plasticity index. shall be reported as 0 (zero). It is a new factor used in the AASHTO soil classification system.
6201 ( )[ ( When LL = 0. generally indicates a excellent subgrade material. For example. then particle Group Index formula ( )[ ] )] The good qualities of a sub-grade material are related as inversely proportional to its Group index. a GW-GC is a well graded gravel with some clayey fines that plot above the Aline. For example. Soils having between 50% and 12% passing the #200 sieve are classified as “Borderline” and have a symbol called dual symbol. Coarse Grained Soils Fine Grained Soils ML MH OH CL CH OL Borderline Case Gravel GP SW SP Gravel GC SM SC Borderline Case GW GM Silt Sand Sand Clay 0 5 12 45 50 55 100 Percent Passing the #200 Sieve Dual Symbol for 5% to 12% finer particles Or GW GW GP GP GM GC GM GC SW SW SP SP SM SC SM SC Dual Symbol for 45% to 55% finer particles Or GM GM GC GC ML MH CL CH 6 Courtesy By S M Nazmul Haque SM SM SC SC ML MH CL CH . The second part describes the nature of the fines. a soil classified as a SP-SM means that it is a poorly graded sand with between 5% and 12% silty fines. A Group Index the value of which is 20 indicates a „Poor‟ material. Dual Symbol and Borderline Classification in USCS. Soil Mechanics – 1 CE . a Group Index the value of which is zero. The first part of the dual symbol indicates whether the coarse fraction is well graded or poorly graded. Similarly.
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