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Electrical Wiring and Servicing of Electrical Appliances / Electrical Engineering Technician



Telugu Academy Publication : Vocational Course - fyctec






Intermediate Vocatioinal Course, 1st Year

(For the Course of E.W. & S.E.A. / E.E.T.)

Author Sri. Lt. K. PRASAD PEM&M Junior Lecturer, EWSEA, Govt. Jr. College, Falaknuma, Hyd - 53.

Editor Sri. M. PAUL PRASAD B.E. (Ele), Junior Lecturer, EWSEA, Govt. Jr. College, Falaknuma, Hyd - 53.

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Chapter Name

Page No.s





Electrical Current - Ohm’s Law Kirchoff’s Law



Units of work, power and energy



Effects of electric current



Electro magnetic induction



Fundamentals of Alternating currents




Magnets : 1.1 Introduction : Magnet is the substance which attracts magnetic mterial such as iron, nikel, coblat steel, manganese etc. The magnetic properties of materials were known from ancient times. A mineral discoverd around 800 B.C. in the town of Magnesia was found to have a wondrous property. It could attract pieces of iron towards it. This mineral is called Magnetite after the place where it was discovered. Further, it was found that thin strips of magnetitie always align themselves in particular direction when suspended freely in air. For this property, it was given the name ‘ Leading Stone’ or ‘Lead stone’. Later, it was found that magnetite is mainly composed of oxides of iron( Fe3 o4). These are now known as magnets and the study of their property is called MAGNETISM. William Gilbert did the first detailed study of magnets and their properties in 1600. Magnets are now widely used for variety of purposes. Magnets form an essential component of all generators used for the production of electricity, transmission and utilization of electric power. They are also used in electric motors that are an essential component of many machines and gadgets that operate on electricity. Modern electronic gadgets, like television, radio, tape recorder. electric door bells also make use of magnets. Working of may of these devices also depends on the magnetic effect of electric current. Here we are going to learn some fundamental definations and principles about magnets. 1.2 Magnetic Pole - Magnetic Axis - Pole strength Magnetic Pole : When a bar magnet is dipped into iron fillings or iron dust, there are two regions where fillings mainly get attracted. These two regions are called pole of a magnet or the strongest part of the magnet near the ends are called poles.


Elements of Electrical Engineering

The poles will not be at the ends. but they are nearer to the ends. When suspended freely in air, the end pointing North is called North Pole and the end pointing South is called South Pole.







Magnet showing poles

Bar magnet showing N & S direction

Magnetic poles do not exist Separately. It means we can never separate or isolate a north pole of amagnet from its South Pole. Magnetic poles always exist in opposite pairs. Magnetic Axis An imaginary line passing through magnetic north and South pole of a bar magnet is called Magnetic axis

Magnetic Equator X N



Magnet showing Axis and Equator Between the two poles there is a region showing no attraction. This region is called Magnetic equator. This is also called Neutral Line. Magnetic axis and the neutral line will be mutually at 900 and the neutral line bisects the magnetic axis.

Magnetism Pole Strength


The power of the magnet to attract or repell is called pole strength of the magnet. The greater the pole strength, the higher the power of the magnet. The pole strenght doesn’t depends on size of magnet. The magnet may be biggest in size but may be less powerful, and vice versa. The pole strength is expressed interms of unit poles or webers. One unit pole emanates one weber of flux 1.3 Properties of Magnet : 1) 2) The magnet always attracts magnetic substances.( iron, steel, cobalt, nickel etc) The magnet has two poles and when it is freely suspended, it comes to rest pointing North and South directions. This is called directive property of a magnet. Like poles repel and unlike poles attract each other. If a magnet is broken into pieces, each piece becomes an independent magnet A magnet losses its properties when it is heated, hammered or dropped from height. A magnet can impart its properties to any magnetic material. This means when a bar magnet is rubbed over an un magnetised piece of iron or steel, it changes into a temporary magnet. Repulsion is the surest test of magnetism. Magnetic force can easily pass through non - magnetic substances.

3) 4) 5) 6)

7) 8)

1.4 Shapes of Magnets : Magnets are made in different shapes according to use and application. The common shapes are given below.


Elements of Electrical Engineering

Bar Magnet ‘U’ Shape 1.5 Uses of Magnets : The magnets are widely used in many ways for example 1) To findout N-S direction at any place on earth 2) To find out the direction at any point on sea ( navigation) 3) To detect magnetic materials. 4) For electrical machines 5) In measuring Instruments etc. 1.6 Classification of Magnet : Classification of Magnets

Natural Magnets lead stones Permanent Magnets Bar U- shaped Magnet Magnet

Artifical Magnets

Temporary Magnets

Horse Shoe Compass Electromagnet Magnet Magnet



Natural Magnets: The magnets found in nature Such as lead stone which can be used in navigation is known as Natural Magnets. The natural magnet has a chemical composition of Fe3 O4. Artificial Magnets : The magnet prepared by Artificial methods or by man made methods is known as Artificial magnet. It is further classified as i ) Permanent Magnet and ii) Temporary or Electromagnet. Permanent Magnet : The magnet which retains the magnetic properties for a long period (indefinitely) is known as Permanent Magnet in many applications we need permenet magnets. Most permanent magnets are made of ALNICO, an alloy of Aluminium, Nickel and Cobalt. Permanent magnets of different shapes and sizes are being made form ferrite. These being light, strong and permanent. Most of the electrical measuring instruments, Such as ammeters, voltmeters galvnometers etc contain a permanent magnet. 1.7 Electromagnet Magnetism and electricity were considered to be two separate phenomena for a long time. However in 1820, the Danish physicist Hans Christian Oerested ( 1777 - 1851) made an important discovery that established a relation between electricity and magnetism. Manual method is used to prepare magnets of small strength only like compass needle. To prepare strong magnets, electrical method is to be used. If a coil of insulated copper wire be wrapped round on a cylinder of card board ( forms a solenoid ) the bar to be magnetised inserted in the cylinder and a strong electric current passes through the coil, the bar will be found to be magnetised. or Electro magnets are made by winding the coils of insulated copper wire over a softiron or steel pieces. The core becomes a powerful magnet as long as current is passing.


Elements of Electrical Engineering

If the piece is of steel, when the current is stopped and the bar be removed, it becomes a permanent magnet. If the piece is of soft iron, it will be a strong magnet. 1.8 Applications of Electromagnets : Electro magnets are widely used in Industries and also in many situations in dialy life. They are used in cranes to lift heavy loads of scrap iron and iron sheets. 1) One of the most importent uses of electromangnets is in generators and motors, Where they are used to create the intense magnetic fields which are necessary for the conversion of machanical energy into electrical energy and vice versa. The coils wound on the field poles are to create the magnetic field. 2) The fact that certain materials get struck, to magnets is used to make i) magnetic door closers ex. in refrigerators in which a weak magnetic strip all round the door ensures that the door remains firmly shut 2) Magnetic latches or catches, used in windows , cupboard doors 3) magnetic strickers 4) magnetic clasps in handbags 5) magnetic pin, paper, clip holders and so on. 3) Electromagnets are used to separate magnetic substances, like iron nickel and cobalt, from non - magnetic substance, like copper. Zinc, brass, Plastic and paper. They are also used to remove ‘foreign bodies’like iron fillings from the eyes of a patient. They are used in all electrical machines, transformers, electric bells, telegraphs, telephones, speakers, audio and video tape recorders and players, relays etc. 4. Data( in computer hard disks, floppies and tapes) and audio visual signals ( video tapes) can be stored by coating special surfaces with magnetic material. In all these, the particles of the magnetic coating get alligned in a particular way by a magnetic field produced by a recording head, much the same way as domains get alligned in the presence of magnetic field. The differently alligned particles then represent data, sound or audio visual signals. The same principle is used to store information in the magnetic stripes found on credit cards, ATM cards, some air line and train tickets, telephone cards etc.

Magnetism 1.9 Comparison of Magnetic Properties of soft iron & Steel : Soft Iron 1) It can be highly magnetised 2) It loses its magnetism as inducing magnet is removed i.e. its magnetism is temporary 3) It is used for making temporary magnets (electromagnets) Steel


1) It can not be magnetised very highly 2) It does not lose its magnetism as the inducing magnet is removed. The magnetism is permanent in nature. 3) It is used for making permanent bar magnet, horse shoe magnet etc.

1.10 Comparison Between Electromagnet and Parmanent Magnet : Electromagnet 1. Polarity can be changed easily. 2. Strength can be varied . 3. cost is more. 4. Suitable in case of motors and generators of large size. 5. Electric bells, signals, Indicators can be made. 6. Can be used in lifiting work, holding the job. 7. Can not be used in Navigation. 8. Can not be used in cycle dynamo and motor cycle magnetos Permanent magnet 1. Polarity can not be changed easily. 2. Strength cannot be varied. 3. cost is less. 4. not suitable for larger size motor and generators. 5. not possible. 6. Not possible. 7. Mostly used in Navigation as a magnetic needle. 8. can be used in cycle dynamo and small toys.

8 1.11 Rules to findout polarity : Endrule :

Elements of Electrical Engineering

1. Looking at the end of the bar, if the current in the coil is counter - clock wise in direction that end will be a north pole. If it is clock wise it will be South pole. This rule is used to findout the polarity of the electromagnet.

Coil Carrying Currents Hand Rule: (or) Helix Rule : Hold the thumb of the right hand at right angles to the fingers. Place the hand on the wires withthe palm facing the bar and the fingers pointing in the direction of the current. The thumb will point the N - pole of the bar. This rule is used to find the polarity of the poles of an electromagnet. Right hand thumb rule, or right hand palm, rule is used for determining the direction of magnetic lines of force around straight conductor.

Hand Rule Ampere Rule : Imagine a man swimming in the circuit in the direction of the current with his face to the bar, his left hand points towards north pole of the bar. It is used for finding the direction of lines of force around a wire carrying current. Ampere rule can also be used for finding direction of magnetic needle.



Ampere’s Swimming Rule 1.12 Magnetic Field : The region around a magnet, in which the force of attraction and repulsion can be detected is called a magnetic field. The magnetic field is filled with the magnetic lines of force. Magnetic lines of force is nothing but the path along which iron fillings will re - adjust in a magnetic field. 1.13 Magnetic Lines of force: It is a closed continious curve in a magnetic filed along which an isolated North pole could travel is called lines of force. or the paths along which iron fillings will re-adjust in a magnetic field will be the magnetic lines of force or flux or It is a closed curve starts from North pole and ends at south pole of a magnet. A line of force has no real existence, it is only imaginary. The lines of force are also called magnetic lines of force or magnetic flux. The magnetic flux is expresses in webers. One weber is equal to 108 lines of force. To carry the electric current we generally use copper or aluminium cables because the resistance of these metals is low compared with the reisstance of other materials. Similarly, to carry a magnetic flux. We generally use iron or soft steel material because the reluctance of these materials is low compared with the reluctance of other materials.

10 1.14 Flux Density :

Elements of Electrical Engineering

The number of lines of magnetic flux per unit area, represented by letter B.

Flux (φ ) Flex density B = Area ( A)

webers / metre 2

1.15 Properties of Magnetic Lines of Force : Force: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. They are closed continious curves. They travel from north to south outside the magnet and from south to north inside the magnet. They contract laterally, that is they bend along the length of a magnet. They mutually repel each other. They never intersect with each other. They are imaginary and have no real existence.

Typical field pattern of different Magnets : 1.16 Field Pattern of An Isolated N - Pole: The flux emanates from N - pole and reaches an isolated south pole at a far of place. This is only imaginary.



South and North poles showing field pattern 1.17 Field Pattern of Bar magnet :

Bar Magnet showing how iron fillings arrange themselves in line along the lines of force.

The flux emanates from ‘N’ - pole and reaches ‘S’ - pole outside the magnet and inside from south to north of the magnet and they do not cross each other. Each line forms a complete loop. The magnetic field is always thought of a flux or current of magnetism which goes around its circuit. The magnetic flux going through a magnetic circuit is not as real as an electric current flowing through an electric circuit, but can be treated in a similar way. The magnetic lines can be thought of like a bundle of stretched rubber bands.


Elements of Electrical Engineering

1.18 Field pattern of ‘U’ Shaped Magnet :

Note that there is no magnetism at the bends. Fig shows how iron fillings allign themselve with the magnetic field of horse shoe magnet

1.19 Magnetic Field Strength : Field intesity or magnetising force (H) at any point is the force exerted over a unit N - Pole of 1 weber placed at that point. Suppose ‘N’ is the pole and it is required to find the field strength at point ‘p’ at a distance of dm from N. Let the pole strength of the pole be ‘m’ webers. Imagine a unit N pole placed at point ‘P’. By applying inverse square law, the force ( replulsion here) between the two poles is give by.
F= m1 N / wb 4π µ d 2



dm m/wb n/wb

F = H or m H= N / wb (or AT / m) 4πµ0 d 2

The field strength is a vector quantity.

Magnetism 1.20 Inverse Square Law : ( Law of Magnetic force - Attraction or Repulsion ) The force between two magnetic poles are : 1) Directly proportional to the product of the pole strengths.


2) Inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the two pole ( inverse square law) 3) Inversely proportional to the absolute permeability of the surrounding medium Let A and B are the two poles placed at a distance of dm. Let m1 and m2 be the pole strengths of A and B poles in webers.

dm m1 m2

Force between two poles according to coulomb’s law of magnetism can be expressed by
m1 m2 or d2 m m F = k 1 2 2 newtons d F=

Where K is a constant and depends on the medium. If medium is air or 1 vaccum the value of K is equal to 4π µ and in any other medium with µ r 0 1 relative permeability its value equal to 4π µ µ . Therefore 0 r


Elements of Electrical Engineering

F= F=

m1 m2 newtons in air medium 4π µ0 d 2 . m1 m2 Nw in other medium 4 π µ0 µ r d 2 . 1


The phenomenon of magnetism depends upon a certain property of the medium called its permeability. 1.21 Unit Magnetic pole or pole strength :
1 Let m1 = 1, m2 = 1 and d =1 m the force F = 4π µ Newtons. Hence

a unit magnetic pole may be defined as the pole which when placed in air at a distance of one meter from a similar and equal pole strength repel with a force
1 of 4 π µ newtons - 63340 Nw. or One Unit magnetic pole may be 0

defined as the strength of the magnet that it exerts a force of a dyne when placed at a distance of one cm from another unit pole in a medium of unit permeability. 1.22 Some Importent Fundamentals: Magnetic Reluctance : It is the opposition offered by a magnetic path to the establishment of a magnetic flux, it is just like a resistance in electrical circuit. Its unit is AT / Wb. or Reluctance is the resistance offered by a substance to the magnetic flux. The reluctance of iron and steel is low A piece of iron in a magnetic field offers less reluctance than the air to the magnetic lines. The lines thus becomes denser in the iron, making it a magnet. This explains the attraction of iron and steel by a magnet. Residual Magnetism : When a magnet is moved away from certain magnetic materials like soft iron, its magnetic field no longer influences the domains. ( The magnetised regions are called domains. Actaully domains are found inside all magnetic materials )



inside them. Their domains, therfore rearrange themselves and point in different directions once again. As a result, these materials lose their temporary magnetisation. In some cases, however, some of the domains retain the allignment. When this happens, the materials remains weakly magnetic even after the magnet ( i.e. the magnetic field is removed) is removed. You will notice this when you remove a nail or pin from a magnet. The nail or the pin will show weak magnetism and pick up small magnetic objects. The magnetism left in a magnetic material after being temporarily under the influence of a magnetic field is called Residual Magnetism. Demagnetisation : When we strike a steel needle with a magnet, we allign the domains inside the needle and thus magnetise it. If the allignment of the domains is distrubed, the needle will lose its magnetism or it will become demagnetised. A permanent magnet loses its magnetism (or demagnetised) if it is heated or hammered. Retentivity : The power of retaining magnetism when the inducing force ( main magnet) is removed is called retentivity and the magnetism retained is called ‘Permanent’ or residual Magnetism’. The retentivity of steel is greater than that of soft iron. This retaining ability is also called ‘ Coer civity’. Under the influence of main magnet the soft iron pieces are more powerful than the steel pieces. Susceptibility : The power of acquiring the magnetism in the presence of inducing force (main magnet) is called the susceptibility. The Susceptibility of soft iron is greater then that of steel. Magnetic Leakage : It is that part of magnetic flux which follows a path which is ineffective for the purpose desired, Just like leakage current in the electric circuits.

16 Permeability :

Elements of Electrical Engineering

It is the ratio of magnetic flux produced , by a magnetic force of a material or medium, to the magnetic flux which would be produced by the same magnetic force in a perfect vaccum or it is the ratio between flux density to flux intensity. It is denoted by µ and µ = B / H. it is only a ratio and no units. 1.23 Problems : 1. Two unlike magnetic poles are placed in air at a distance of 20 cm from each other and their pole strengths are 5 m wb and 3 mwb. Determine the force of attraction between them. N m1 = 5 mwb 20Cm S m2 = 3 mwb

m1 = 0.005 wb ; m2 = 0.003 wb ; d = 0.2 m force


0.005 × 0.003 ×107 m1 m2 = = 23.77 4π µ 0 d 2 4 π × 4π × 0.2 2


(∴µ 0 = 4 π × 10 −7 )

2. Two poles of which one is 6 times stronger than the other exerts on each other a force of 8N when placed 100 cm a part in air. Find the pole strength ? Let the strength of one pole be ‘m’ wb. and the strength of other pole = 6m . wb Distance = 100 cm = 1 mtr.




4π µ0 µ r d 2

m1 m2


m × 6m × 107 4 π × 4π ×12

6m2 × 107 = 8 × 4π × 4π × 1 8 × 16π 2 1263.30 = = 2.105 6 ×107 6 x 107 ∴ m = 4.586m.wb or 0.00458 wb m2 =
3. If two similar poles are separated by a distance of 1 cm repel each other by a force of 10-5 Newtons. Find the pole strength of each of them.
f = 10−5 NW ; m1 = m2 = m2 ; d = 1cm =10 −2m f= m1m2 m2 ×107 ; 10−5 = 4π µ0 d 2 4π × 10−2

4π × 10−2 ×10 −5 ∴m = = 3.5 × 10 −8 wb 7 10



( )



4. A magnet in the shape of square cross sectional area has a pole strength of 0.5 x 10 -3 and cross sectional area of 2 cm x 3 cm. calculate the strength at a distance of 10 cm from pole in air. pole strength = m = 0.5 x 10 -3 wb distance = d = 10 cm = 0.1 m
m Field strength H = 4π µ µ d 2 N / wb r 0
0.5 ×10 −3 × 10 H= Nw / wb 2 4π × 4 π × (0.1)
∴ H = 3166.28 Nw / wb


Elements of Electrical Engineering

5. Two identical poles having pole strengths 1 x 10-3 wb repel each other with a force of 6.33 Nw when placed in air. Determine the distance between them.

m = m2 = 1×10−3 wb; 1

µ r = 1 ( Air);

F =6.33 Nw d =? 1×10−3 ×1×10−3 ×107 6.33 = 4π ×4π ×1 × d2

4π µ0 µr d

m m2 1

; 2

∴d2 =

1× 10 −3 × 1×10−3 × 107 = 10cm π 16 2 ×6.33×1 d = 3.162 cm


A pole of strength 0.005 wb placed in a magnetic field experiences a force of 2.37 Nw. Find the intensity of magnetic field m = 0.005 wb ; F = 2.37 NW ; H=?

Field strength H = F / M
H= 2.37 = 474 Nw / Wb 0.005

Farads / meters

Magnetism 1.24 Assignment : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. What is a Magnet ? Define pole, Magnetic axis and pole strength Explain the properties of magnet. How do magnets classfied ?


How do you prepare a magnet by electrical methods and explain its applications. Compare permanent magnet with electromagnet. Define end rule, where do you apply this rule. Define hand rule and explain its application. Define Ampere rule Describe magnetic field. What is magnetic current ( or flux ) Define flux density. Draw the magnetic field pattern of a bar magnet. Draw the magnetic field pattern of a a horse show magnet. Mention various applications of a magnet. What are the laws of magnetism. What is ‘Field intensity’ ? State the Inverse square law of magnetism. State four properties of magnetic lines of force. Define pole strength. Define Magnetic Resistance ( Not - for syllabus ) Explain Residual Magnetism ( Not for Syllabus ) What is ‘demangnetism’ ? ( Not for syllabus ) Define permeability.( Not for syllabus ) Define Relentivity. ( Not for syllabus )

20 1.25 Solve the problems : 26.

Elements of Electrical Engineering

Two poles of strengths 2 wb and 3 wb are placed in air at a distance of 50 cm. Calculate the magnitude of the force. ? ( F = 1.5 X 10 6 N ) Two poles one of which is 8 times as strong as the other with a force of 9 Nw, when placed 110 cm a part in air. Find the strength of each pole ? ( 4. 634 m. wb ) A pole of strength 1 m is placed in a magnetic field experiences a force of 6.33N. Find the Intensity of the magnetic field ?



Electric Current - OHM’s Law Kirchoff’s Law


2.1 Electric Current : All electricity comes from the charges carried by the electrons and protons of the atom. Electricity is actually the effect of either the imbalance of these charges on a body or the movement of charges. The flow of electric charges constitutes an electric current or simply current. The flow of charge is due to transfer of negatively charged particles called electrons. The current in the metal wire, is due to the flow of electrons. Study of electricity may be classified into two parts 1) The static electricity, which deals with the physical phenomenan produced by charges at rest, and 2)The current electricity, which describes the physical affects due to charges in motion or it is electricity in action or electric currents, that carryout the tasks of electrical science in a broad sense. The flow of electric current along a conductor resembles to the flow of water. Weather we are considering the flow of water or electricity we always have to deal with three things. a) b) c) Current ( flow of electricity usually along a conductor ) Pressure ( that which causes the current to flow) Resistance (that which opposes or regulates the flow of current)

Like wise, an inter connected system of water pipes corresponds to an inter connected system of electrical conductors and equipment, known as the electric circuit. 2.2 Conductors , Semiconductors, Insulators : Conductors : Materials that conduct electricity are called good conductors or simply conductors. good conductors offer very low resistance to electric current or conductros are those material which readily allows the flow of electrons through it with least resistance.


Elements of Electrical Engineering

Conductors are widely used for wiring circuits in domestic and commercial applications, for winding of motorised appliances, for Generation, transmission and distribution equipments. Metals are good conductors of electricity. But not all metals conduct electricity equally well. Silver conducts electricity better than any other metal, But being expensive copper and alumium are widely used as conductors. Some non - metals like graphite are also conductors of electricity. Semiconductor : Semi conductor is that material which behave both as conductor and also insulators at different temparature, which are generally used in the field of electronics like T.V.s Taperecorders, mobile phones, in various applications. Eg. Silicon, Germanium. Insulator : Materials which conduct almost no electricity are called bad conductors or insulators. Insulators have high resistance or Insulator is that material which do not allow the flow of electrons through them. These are also called dieelectric material Eg. Mica, Paper, Wood , Dry air, Dry cloth, Procelein etc. Insulators play an important role in electric circuits and equipments. The insulation on wires ensure that a low - resistance circuit is not created in case the wires touch i.e. it prevents a short circuit. The insulation on wires also protects us from electric shocks. That is why the tools used by electricians. Such as line tester, screw drivers, and pliers have insulated handle. 2.3 Conventional Electric Current flow : Conventional current is that which flows from +ve to - ve through the external resistance when connected to a source of supply. Electron current flow is that which flows from - ve to + ve through external resistance. the unit of electric current is ‘Ampere’.

Flow of Electric Current

Electric Current - OHM’s Law Kirchoff’s Law 2.4 Idea of electric potential :


If we wish to cause a current of electricity to flow from one point to another, we must rise the potential of the first point above that of the second. then the pressure is setup proportional to the difference in potential. This difference of potential tends to send a current from the higher potential to the lower as in the case of water. A battery or generator may be thought of as a pump which pumps the electricity up from the lower level to the higher, and keeps one side of the line at a higher potential than the other, thus setting up pressure between these two points. Accordingly, the electric power company runs two wires to a consumer house and simply agrees to keep the difference in the potential between them. Even the battery acts as a pump to keep left hand side continually at a higher potential than the right hand side. A B C

Fig. showing difference of potentials The difference of potential (Referring to the fig) between A and B is spoken as the fall of potential from A to B, or as the drop in potential from A to B. The same applies to B and C or any other two points. The difference of potential between two points in an electric circuit is called the drop in potential for that part of the circuit contained between those two points and is the cause of any current flowing between these two points. X



Potential difference


Elements of Electrical Engineering

with reference to the above fig the terminal A is attached to the high - potential side of the generator, since it is marked ( + ) , and B is attached to the low potential side of the generator, Since it is marked ( -). The current therefore flows from A through R, then through lamp to B, and back to low potential side of the generator. The generator must continualy raise electricity up to the high potential side to make up for what flows away from that side to the low potential side. If no electricity is allowed to flow away from A to B, the generator has to raise no more electricity up to the potential of A. It merely has to keep up the pressure. The term potential is sometimes used instead of voltage to designate electrical pressure. When two points in an electric circuit have a different voltage ( pressure), the difference between these points is called the difference in potential or the voltage drop. In the same way, the pressure between two points in a pipe carrying water is spoken of as the drop in pressure or the difference in head. 2.5 Electrical Resistance : It is defined as the property of a substance due to which it opposes the flow of electrons through it. Its unit is ohm ( Ω ) Let us, try to understand Resistance. In the case of both water and electricity there may be a great pressure and yet no current. If the path of the water is blocked by a valve turned off, these will be no flow ( current). Yet there may be a high presure. If the path of electricity is blocked by an open switch, there will be no current ( amperes), though the pressure ( volts) may be high. There is therefore, something in addition to the pressure, that determines the amount of the current, both of water and electricity. This is the resistance of the pipes and valves in the case of water and the resistance of the wires and various devices in the case of electricity. The greater then resistance, the less the current under the same pressure. R = 1Ω 1A 1V Unit of resistance We say a wire has one ohm resistance when a pressure of one volt forces a currnt of one ampere through it.

Electric Current - OHM’s Law Kirchoff’s Law 2.6 Law of resistance :


The Resistance ‘R’ offered by a conductor depends upon the fallowing factors 1) 2) 3) 4) It varies directly as its length (L ) It varies inversely as the cross section (a) of the conductor. It depends upon the nature of the material It also depends upon the temparature of the material. Let us sum up R =

Where ‘ δ ’ (Rho) is a constant represents the a nature of the material and is known as specific resistance or resistivity of a material. 2.7 Specific Resistance : Specific resistance of a material is the resistance between the opposite faces of 1 - cm cube of the material. Good conductors will have low vlaues of ‘ δ ’ and vice versa. The reciprocal of resistivity is conductivity. The higher the conductivity the better is the conductor. Specific resistance is measured in ohm - cm or ohm - inch or micro ohm - cm 2.8 Specific Resistance of some metals : Although copper, on account of its low resistivity, is the metal most widely used for electrical conductros, aluminium, and even galvanized iron are some times used. The reistivity of aluminium is 170 Ω / mil - foot at 200C, about 1.6 times that of copper. But its low specific gravity more than counter balances this, So that for equal lengths and weights aluminium wire has less resistance than copper and for this reason is coming into more general use.



Elements of Electrical Engineering

The resistivity of iron and steel is about 7 times that of copper. These materials, therefore, can be used only where a conductor of large cross section can be installed, as in thecase of a third rail or where a very little current is to be transmitted as in the case of a telegraph. 2.9 Effect of temparature on resistance temparature coefficient of resistance : Temparature Coeffecient : Temparature coefficient of a material may be defined as the increase in resistance per ohm of original resistance per degree contigrade rise in the temparture. Metals increase in resistance when their temparature is raised and decrease in resistance when cooled As the temparture is decreased resistance also decreases increas in resistance for 10 c rise in temp Original resistance ( at 0 0 C )
Rt = R0 (1 + α 0 t )and α = Rt − R0 Rot


R0 = Conductor resistance at 00 c . Rt = Conductor resistance at t0 c. t = rise in temparature. α 0 = Temparature co - efficient and resistance at 00 C

for all pure metals this co - efficient is nearly, the same lying between the values 0.003 and 0.006 and depends upon the intial temparature. Coefficient of Resistance : ‘ α ‘ is called positive, if the resistance increases with the temparature, and it is negative if the resistance decreases with the temperature. For metals and alloys α is positive and for carbon, electrolytes and Insulators it is negative. For example : The resistance of copper wire and eureka wire is directly proportional to the temparature i.e. as temparature increases resistance increases and vice versa, this is called positive temparature co - efficient of resistance.

Electric Current - OHM’s Law Kirchoff’s Law


The internal resistance of a battery and carbon is inversely proportional to the temparature i.e. as temparature increases the resistance decreases. This may be known as negative temparature co - efficient. 2.10 Ohm’s Law : This law is named after the German Mathematician George Simon ohm who first enunciated it in 1827. Ohm’s law states that the ratio of the potential difference (v) between any two points of a circuit to the current (I) flowing through it is constant provided the temparature remains constant. The constant is usually denoted by resistance(R) of the circuit. Hence R =
ohms =

volts Ampers

V= voltage between two points I. = Current flowing , R = Resistance of the conductor.



volts ohms

V = IR Volts = Amperes x ohms

Amper =

ohm’s law can be applied to an electric circuit as a whole or it can be applied to any part of it. This is an importent law in electrical engineering. This law is applicable for d.c. circuits only. Basic Circuit components : Resistor, inductor and capacitor are the three basic components of a network. A resistor is an element that dissipates energy as heat when current passes through it. An inductor stores energy by virtue of a current through it. A capacitor stores energy by virtue of a voltage existing across it. The behaviour of an electric device may be approximated to any desired degree of accuracy of a circuit formed by inter connection of these basic circuit elements. Resistor : A Resistor is a device that provides resistance in an electric circuit. Resistance is the property of circuit element which offers oppositin or hindrance to the flow of current and in the process electrical energy is converted


Elements of Electrical Engineering

in to heat energy. A Physical device whose principle electrical characterstic is resistance is called resistor. Inductors : The electrical element that stores energy in association with flow of current is called inductor. The basic circuit model for the inductor is called inductance. Practical inductors are made of many turns of thin wire wound on a magnetic core or an air core. A unique feature of the inductance is that its presence in a circuit is felt only when there is a change in current. Capacitors : A capacitor is a device that can store energy in the form of a charge separation when it is suitably polarized by an electric field by applying voltage across it. In a simplest form a capacitor consists of two parallel conducting plates separated by air or any insulating material such as mica. It has the characterstic of storing electrical energy (charge) which ca be fully retrived in an electric field. A significant feature of the capacitor is that its presence is felt in an electric circuit when a changing potential difference exists across the capacitor. The presence of an insulating material between the conducting plates does not allow the flow of d.c. current, thus a capacitor acts as an open circuit in the presence of d.c. current. The ability of the capacitor to store charge is measured in terms of capacitence. 2.11 Resistance in series :

Resistances connected in series

Three bulbs glowing very dim

Electric Current - OHM’s Law Kirchoff’s Law


Let R1 R2 R3 be the resistances connected in series. ‘V’ be the applied voltage. ‘I’ be the current passing through the circuit. In series circuit. i) ii) iii) Current remains same in each branch of resistance and line. i.e I = I1 = I2 = I3 Applied voltage is the sum of the branch voltages. i.e. V = V1 + V2+V3 Hence total resistance is the combined resistance of all i.e. R = R1 + R2 + R3

Applications of series circuits : Series circuits are commonly seen in applications, such as street lamps, and airport run way lamps, Another example of an every day occurence is lighting at temples and houses during festival and decoration of christmas trees. When one of the lamp in the string burns out, all the bulbs do not glow because the circuit is no longer complete for the current flow. The fused bulb cause an open circuit for current flow. If a string contains 10 bulbs and if it is connected to a 200 volts source, 20 v will appear across each bulb. If one bulb burns out, then 200 v will appear across the remaining 9 bulbs, and 22.2 volts will appear across each bulb. This increased voltage can burn out another bulb and so on. In the case of airport run way lamp and street lamps, normally constant current variable voltage sources are used to avoid burning of bulbs and to maintain continious illumination. When one of the bulb burns out, a device at the lamp automatically short circuts the defective lamp, thus allowing other bulbs to glow continiously The variable voltage source will automatically reduce the voltage across the circuit reducing the current flow through the lamps ( normal rated current is maintained) thus preventing furthur burning out of lamps.

30 2.12 Resistance in parallel : R1 I1 I I2 I3 R2 R3

Elements of Electrical Engineering


Resistances connnected in parallel

Three bulbs glowing very bright Let R1 R2 R3 are the resistances connected in parallel. ‘V’ be the voltage applied across all resistances. ‘I’ be the current among all branches.

In Parallel Circuit: i) ii) iii) Voltage remains same in each branch i.e. V = V1 = V2 = V3 Current is devided into separate branches i.e. I = I1 + I2 + I3 Total Resistance in all branches

1 1 1 1 = + + R R1 R2 R3 as per ohms law I = V i.e. R 1 1 1  V V V I = + + or I = V  + +  R R R  R1 R2 R3 2 3   1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 = + + or = + + V R1 R2 R3 R R1 R2 R3


All bulbs, fans etc will be connected in parallel to the supply voltage.


Electric Current - OHM’s Law Kirchoff’s Law Applications of parallel circuits :


Parallel circuits are widely used in the light distribution circuits in homes and factories. These circuits are supplied from constant voltage - variable current sources. Parallel circuits are also used on ships for their service distribution systems, where many branch circuits are connected in parallel across the busbars. In home and factory distribution circuits, all parallel circuits are connected to the main circuit and each parallel circuit will have a fuse in it. In actual practice, almost all distribution electrical circuits are parallel circuits. 2.13 Resistance in series parallel combination :

R2 R1 R

Resistance of series parallel combination In this type of connection both series and parallel connections are used. Hence both the rules are applicable to this circuit. In this figure Resistance R2 and R3 are in parallel and R1 is in series to this parallel combination. Practical applications of series parallel circuits : Series parallel circuits are common features of many electronic circuits. They are used in a variety of situations where different voltages and currents are required. Voltage dividers: In many electronic devices, like radio receivers and transmitters, television sets, the circuit requires different voltages at different points. These different voltages have to be obtained from a single voltage source. The most common method of meeting these requirements is given by the use of voltage dividers.

32 2.14 Problems :

Elements of Electrical Engineering

A manganin wire of resistance 1000 ohms, length of 200m has a cross sectional area of 0.1 mm2. Calculate its resistivity. Given R = 1000 Ω L = 200 m ; A = 0.1 mm2 = Required : δ = ?
0. 1 2 m 10 6

R= solution : =


or δ =

Ra ; L Ω−m

δ =

1000 × 0 . 1 10 6 × 200

δ = 50 × 10

2) The resistance - temparature coefficient of phosphor bronze is 39.4 x 10-4 at O0c. Find the temparature co - efficient at 1000 c. Given : α 0 = 39 . 4 x 10 -4 ; t = 1000 c Required : α 100 = ?

Solution :α 100 =

α0 39 .4 × 10 −4 = 1 + α 0 t 1 + 39 .4 × 10 − 4 × 100 α

= 28 .26 × 10


3) Determine the resistance of 91.4 mts annealed copper wire, having a cross section of 1.071 cm2, resistance of copper having 1.724 micro - ohm - cm at 200C ? Given : L = 91.4 mts, a = 1.071 cm 2 : = 91400 cm R=?

δ = 0.00001724 Ω − Cm


Electric Current - OHM’s Law Kirchoff’s Law


Solution :

∂ 1 0.000001724 × 91400 = a 1.071 R = 0.147 Ω R=

4) Find the resistance at 200 of annealed copper wire of 1 mm2 cross section and 100m long with a resistivity of 1.73 x 10 -6 cm.

Given : l = 100 m = 10 4 cm ; Required : Solution : ∴ R = 1 . 73 Ω

a = 1mm


= 0 .01 cm 2

R at 20 0 C . R=



1 . 73 × 10 4 10 6 × 10 1

5) Find the resistance of a coil of copper wire of 150 m length of 3 sq mm cross section. The resistivity of copper is 1.724 x 10-8 Ω -m
Give : l = 150 m , Required Solution :

a = 3 sq . mm = 3 × 10


sq . mm


l = 1 . 724 × 10 − 8 Ω − m = ? Resistance R =



1 . 724 × 10 − 8 × 150 3 × 10 − 6

R = 50 × 1 . 724 × 10

∴ R = 0 . 86 ohms

6) Calculate the length of copper wire of 1.25 mm dia has a resistance of 4 Ω , If the specific resistance of the material is 1.73 x 10 -8 Ω -m

Given : L = ? Ra a l 2 4 × 3 . 14 × 1 . 25 × 10 ∴l = 4 × 1 . 73 × 10 − 8 Solution R = or L

δ l


= 283 . 54 mts


Elements of Electrical Engineering

7) The field winding of a motor has a resistance of 45 ohms at 00 C. What is its resistance at 500 C ? The temparature co - efficient of resistance for copper is 0.00428 per 0 C at 00C ? R = 45 Ω at 0 0 C . α : : = 0 . 00428

Given : Required Solution Resistance


at 50 0 c = R = 45 (1 + 0 . 00428 × 50 R = 45 × 1 . 244 = 55 . 98 or R = 56 Ω

R at 50 0 C = ? We know R t = R 0 (1 + α 0 t )


8) A coil of wire has a resistance of 40 Ω at 250 C. What will be its resistance at 550C. The temparature co - efficient of the material is 0.0043 per 0C at 00c. We know R 1 = R 0 (1 + α Let t)


R25 is the resistance at 250 C = 40 Ω R55 is the resistance at 550 C - ?

α 0 is the temparature coefficient at 00 C.
R0 (1 + 0.0043× 55) 1.2365 = R0 (1 + 0.0043× 25) 1.1075 1.2365 = 1.1075 ∴ R55 = 44.68 Ω R25 × 40 × 1.2365 1.1075

R55 = R 25 ∴ R55 =

Electric Current - OHM’s Law Kirchoff’s Law


9) If the temparature co - efficient of copper at 200 C is 0.00393 , find its resistance at 800 C. If the resistance of electromagnet at 200 C is 30 Ω Given: Solution is R20 = 0.00393 and R20 = 30 Ω The relation between R20, R80 and R20 R80 = R 20 (1 + R20 (80 − 20)) R80 = 30 ( 1 + 0.00393 x 60 ) R80 = 37.08 ohms

10) The current passing through a lamps is 0.5 amp and the supply voltage is 250 volts. Calculate the resistance of filament lamp. Given : I = 0.5 amps; V = 250 volts Required:
Solution ∴ R=

: R = V as per ohms law I

250 = 500 Ω 0 .5

11) A 230 volts tester has a resistance of 23 Ω . What would be the minimum rating of the fuse in the electric circuit for using the tester ? Given : V = 230 volts R = 23 Ω Solution : As per ohms law I = Required : I = ?
V 230 = = 10 amps R 23


Elements of Electrical Engineering

Note : The rating of the fuse means the maximum current the fuse allows to pass through it, beyond which the fuse melts, thus disconnecting the circuit. 12) An electric Iron takes a current of 2.2 amp form 220 volts supply. What is its resistance. Given : I = 2.2 amps V = 220 Volts Solution : Required = R = ?
R= V 220 = = 100 Ω 2.2 I

13) A battery of neglegable resistance is connected to a coil of 20 Ω resistance. What must be the battery emf in order that a current of 1.5 amp may flow the circuit. Given : Required: Solution : R = 20 Ω I = 1.5 amp V=? V = IR = 20 x 1.5 = 30 volts R=20 Ω


Circuit 14) The potential difference between the terminals of an incandescent lamp is 220 volts and the current is 0.22amp. What is the resistance of the lamp? Given Required Solution : P.d = 220 volts ; I = 0.22 amp :R=? : R=
V 220 = = 1000 Ω I 0.22

Electric Current - OHM’s Law Kirchoff’s Law


15) Three resistances of 2, 10 and 20 Ω are connected in series. Find the equavalent value of resistance. R1 = 2 Ω , R2 = 10 Ω , R3 = 20 Ω Rt = R1 + R2 + R3 = 2 + 10 + 20 = 32 ohms.


10 Ω

20 Ω

Series Circuit 16) Three resistances of 2, 10 and 20 Ω are connected in parallel. Find the equavalent resistance. R1 = 2 Ω R2 = 10 Ω

R3 = 20 Ω Parallel Circuit R1 = 2 Ω , R2 = 10 Ω , R3 = 20 Ω 1 1 1 1 = + + ; R R1 R2 R3 10 + 2 + 1 13 = 20 20 or 1 1 1 1 = + + R 2 10 20 R = 20 13

R = 1 . 61 Ω


Elements of Electrical Engineering

17) Find the total resistance of the fallowing circuit. R2 = 2 Ω B1 R1 = 3Ω A B R3 = 4 Ω C1 R4 = 6 Ω Series parallel combination Resistance between R2 and R3. i.e. B1 and C1 =
      4  + 6 × 6 3  = 4  + 6  + 6 3 


R5 = 6 Ω R6 = 6 Ω D

2× 4 8 4 = = 2 + 4 6 3
R 5 )× R R 5 )+ R
4 4

Resistance between BB1=

(R 2 R 3 + (R 2 R 3 +


15 7

Resistance between AD i.e. R1 + ( R betn B1 C1)+ R betn D.
=3+ 15 + 6 = 78 7 = 11 . 5 Ω 7

18) Calculate the effective resistance of the fallowing combination of the resistance and the voltage drop across each resistance when P.D. of 60 volts is applied between A and B.
3Ω 18 Ω








60 V

Series parallel combination

Electric Current - OHM’s Law Kirchoff’s Law


Resistance between D and C.
= 1 1 2 +1 3 1 + = = = ∴ R =2Ω 3 6 6 6 2

Resistance between D and P = 2 + 18 = 20 Ω Resistance A and B
= 20 1 1 1 1 1 1+ 4 5 = + = + + = = = 4Ω 20 5 R R1 R2 20 5 20

I =

V 60 = = 15 amps R 4 60 = 12 amp 5 current = 15 − 12 = 3 amps

current in 5 Ω resistance = Remaining

i) Voltage drop across 5 amps resistance will be same = 60 volts (V = IR ) ii) Voltage across 18 Ω resistance = 18 x 3 = 54 volts iii) Voltage across parallel circuit DC = 60 - 54 = 6 volts. 2.15 Kirchhoff’s laws : The current in various branches of large network can not be found out by ordinary methods. By applications kirchoff’s laws, complicated networks can be solved. Gustav Robert Kirchoff( 1824 - 1887) a German physicist, published the first systematic description of the laws of circuit analysis. These laws are known as Kirchoff’s current law (KCL) and Kirchoff’s voltage law ( KVL). His contribution forms the basis of all circuit analysis problems.


Elements of Electrical Engineering

1) Current law : or point law It States that , in any net work of wires carrying currents the algebraic sum of the currents meeting at Junction ( or point) is zero. It is also called as point law. I1 I5 I4 I3 I2

Five conductors carrying current and meeting at a point

or I1

I1 +

+ I4

I4 -







I2 - I3 - I5 = 0

This can also be defined as the total currents flowing towards a Junction is equal to that total currents flowing away from the junction. 2) Mesh law or voltage law : In any closed electric circuit, the sum of potential drops ( I.R) is equal to the sum of the impressed e.m.f.s.
A I1 R1 I1 B3 I2 R3 I3 I2 R1 R4 I2 R2 I1 C R3 R2 D


Three resistors connected in delta R1 i1 + R2 i2 − R3 i3 = 0 From the circuit ABCDE I 2 R4 + I 2 R3 = E

wheat stone bridge

Electric Current - OHM’s Law Kirchoff’s Law 2.16 Explanation of Elements of D.C. Network :


CIRCUIT: A circuit is that which allows a current to pass through it. It consists of a number of branches. JUNCTION: Junction is that point where different paths of current meet, O,A,B,C are junctons. BRANCH : Branch is a part of a circuit or network. AB is one branch. BC is another branch or network. A C

Network O B

LOOP : Any closed circuit is called loop. OABC is a loop. NETWORK: The connection of parameter ( R-L-C) in different ways is called an Electrical network. CURRENT DIRECTION: In comming currents will be towards the Junction point and outgoing currents will be away the junction point. ACTIVE NETWORK : The circuit which consists of parameters ( i.e. R,L,C) with source of e.m.f is called an Active network. PASSIVE NETWORK : Any circuit which consists only parameters ( R,L,C) and no.source of emf is called passsive network. PARAMETERS: The Resistance, Inductance, capacitence are called the parameters of the circuit. LINEAR CIRCUIT : A linear circuit is that in which the values of its parameters are constant.


Elements of Electrical Engineering

Non - Linear Circuit : Non - Linear circuit is that in which the values of its parameters change with the voltage or current. 2.17 Application of Kirchoff’s laws to the wheat stone bridge : Wheat stone bridge is used to measure the unknown resistance in a given network. It consists of four arms. If the current in the galvanometer is zero it is called a balanced. Circuit, then the products of the resistance of opposite arms are equal. Suppose the value of current through the galvanometer is not zero then the kirchoffs laws are applied to find the currents and values of unknown resistance then it is called an ‘unbalanced’ bridge circuit.
B I3 R1 I1 A I2 R4 D R2



R3 I2+I 1-I 3

Wheat stone bridge Problems : 19) AB = 3 Ω , BC = 6 Ω , CD = 12 Ω and DA = 10 Ω 2 volt cell is connected between B and D and a galvanometer of resistance 20 Ω between A and C. Find the current through the galvanometer ?
A 10Ω I1 D I-I1 12Ω C I-I2 3Ω B 6Ω I-I1+I 2




Wheat stone bridge

Electric Current - OHM’s Law Kirchoff’s Law


Let I be the current passing through the cell, and various currents are shown in the sketch. Consider the closed circuit DACB. We get - 10 I1 - 20 I2 + 12 ( I - I1) = 0 or 12 I - 22I1 - 20 I2 = 0 ---------- (1) Consider the closed circuit ABCA -3 ( I - I2) + 6 ( I - I1 + I2) + 20 I2 = 0 6I - 9 I1 + 29 I2 = 0 ------------ ( 2) Again consider closed circuit DABED. -10 I1 - 3 ( I 1 - I2) = 2 or -13I1 + 3I2 = 2 --------------- ( 3) Solving equation (1) and (2) we get
− 39 I2 2 And substituting in (3) gives I1 =

I2 =

1 = 0.78 mA 13

∴ The current passing through the galvnometer is 0.78 m. amp.

20) A Battery of emf 10 volts and internal resistance 0.5 Ω is connected in parallel with another battery of 12 volts and internal resistanced 0.8 ohm. The terminals are connected by an external resistance of 20 Ω . Find the current in each battery and the external resistance.?


Elements of Electrical Engineering

AB x 12V 0.8 Ω



y 10V 0.5Ω




Network Let X and y be the currents flowing from sources A and B respectively. Assuming the clockwise direction of current as negative. In mesh ABCFG - 0.8 x - 20 ( x + y ) = 12 volts or - 5.2 x - 5y = 3 ---------------------- (1) In mesh BDEG -0.8x + 0.5 y = 12 - 10 - 0.8x + 0.5y = 2 -------------------(2) Solving (1) and (2) we get x = -1.74 amp and y = 1. 216 Current in source = 1.74 amp. Current in source = 1.216 amp current in 20 Ω resistor = 0.524 amp.

Electric Current - OHM’s Law Kirchoff’s Law 2.18 Star delta transformation : Concept of transformation :


By the application of kirchoffs laws some problems cannot be solved and finds great difficulty due to number of equations. Such problems can be simplified by using star - delta or delta - star transformations. TRANSFORMATION FROM STAR TO DELTA Star [Y] RB A RA RC C B
Three resistor connected in star

A R AB RCA R BC Delta [ ]


Three resistor connected in delta

The figure show two systems of connections of resistances. In star or ‘Y’ connection there is a common point for all the three resistors, and in delta or mesh connection the three are connected in series to form the loop and the junctions are takenout to form three supply points. The common point in star connection is called ‘Neutral’. The delta connection will have no neutral point Assuming that the star connection is to be converted into delta connection. If the two networks are to be identical the resistance between any pair of lines will be the same when the third loop is opened. Tranformation form( Y to ∆ )


RA RB + RB RC + RC RA R R = R A + RB + A B RC RC

RA RB + RB RC + RC RA R R = RB + RC + B C RA RA R R + RB RC + RC RA R R RCA = A B = RA + RC + A C RB RB


Elements of Electrical Engineering

How to remember : The equivalent delta resistance between any two points is given by the sum of star resistances between those terminals plus the product of these two star resistances devided by the third resistor.

Transformation from ( ∆ to Y )

and RC =

How to remember : As seen from the above expression it should be remembered that resistance of each line of the star is given by the product of resistances of the two delta sides that meet at its end divided by the sum of three delta resistance. 2.19 Network theorems : A Network consists of a Three resistor connected in starnumber of branches or circuit elements, considered as a single unit. A network is considered as passive network if it contains no source of emf. The equaivalent resistance of such a network can be calculated by dividing the voltage applied to the network by the current flowing in it. When the network contains a source of emf it is called an active network. There are certain theorems that have been developed for solving the network problems. These theorems either simplyfy the network ifself or render their solution very easy and can be applied to a.c. circuits also. When applied to a.c. circuits, the ohmic resistance of d.c. circuits are replaced by Phasor impedence. Some important theorems which are very useful in solving some complicated circuits are discussed below.

Electric Current - OHM’s Law Kirchoff’s Law


2.20 Thevenin’s and norton’s theorems : Thevenins theorem is stated as fallows : The current through a load resistor R connected across any two points A and B of an active network( containing resistors and one or more source of emf is obtained by dividing the potential difference between A and B, with R disconnected by ( R + r) where ‘r’ is the resistance of the network measured between points A and B with R disconnected and sources of emf replaced by their internal resistances”.



Consider a network shown in fig(a). A & B are the two points of the network which consists of resistors having resistances of R2 and R3 and a voltage source of emf v and internal resistance R1. The current through the load resistance R connected across AB has to be calculated. Suppose the load resistance R is disconnected as shown in Fig.(b). Then current through There is no current through R2, therefore the voltage drop across AB
R3 = V1 and (R1 + R3 ) V1 R3 (R1 + R3 )

Voltagedro p across R3 =
= V1 = V1 R3 (R1 + R3 )


Elements of Electrical Engineering



The network with load disconnected and the voltage source V replaced by its internal resistance R1 is shonw in fig(c). Now, the resistance of the network between A and B = r = R2 + (R1 R3 / R1 + R3 ). As per the definition of the venins theorem, the active network enclosed by the dotted line in fig(d). Consisting of a source having an emf equal to v1 ( the open circuit potential difference between A and B ) and an internal resistance r given by the fallowing relationship. current through R = I V1 (r + R )

2.21 Norton’s Theorems : Norton’s theorem is Similar to Thevinins theorem. While thevinin’s theorem is based on the idea of an equivalent source of emf. norton’s theorem is based on the idea of an equivalent current source. Nortons theorem can be stated as fallows. Any arrangement of the sources of the emf and the resistances can be replaced by an equivalent current source in parallel with a resistance r. The current from the source is the short circuit current in the orginal system and r is the equivalent resistance of the network between its two terminals A and B. When all sources of emf are replaced by their internal resistances.

Electric Current - OHM’s Law Kirchoff’s Law




Consider the network shown in Fig. Let v1 be the potential across AB when load resistance R is disconnected, as shown in Fig(a).

In short circuit I Sc = 1 1 1 1 and = + + r R1 R2 R3 v1 v1 V2 V3 = + + r R1 R2 R3


consider the load resistance R connected as shonw in Fig(c) then
V1 = I sc 1 1   +  r R = I sc × r × R (r + R )

Now, the network shown in fig(a) can be replaced by a current source driving a current I through the load R as shown in fig(d). Then we have.

I sc × r (r + R )

Elements of Electrical Engineering

The current through the load, I = 2.22 Superposition theorem :

The superposition theorem is applied to simplify complicated networks when two or more sources of emfs are present. The theorem is started as fallows.

Network containing more than once source of emf

In any network containing more than one source of emf, the resultant current in any branch is the algebraic sum of the currents which should be produced by each emf acting alone, all other sources of emf being replaced by their respective internal resistances ( or impedences in case of a.c. circuits) 2.23 Problems : Transformation from ( ∆ to Y ) : Transform the given circuit into star type connection.




Three resistors connected in delta

Electric Current - OHM’s Law Kirchoff’s Law converting ABC triangle ∆ to equivalent star.


=1/3Ω = 1Ω

= 1/2Ω

1× 2 1 1× 3 1 = Ω Rb = = Ω 2 + 3+1 3 2 + 3+1 2 2×3 Rc = =1Ω 2 + 3+1 A Transformation from (Y to ∆ ) Ra =

Ra=1 Ω

Rc= 3Ω

Rb= 2 Ω

C Converting star values into equivalent ∆ A



Rcb Rbc




Elements of Electrical Engineering

Rab =

3 3 (1× 2) + (2 × 3) + (3 ×1) =11Ω Rbc = 1 (1× 2) + (2 × 3) + (3 ×1) = 11 Ω Rca = 2 2 2.24 Assignment :

(1× 2) + (2 × 3) + (3 ×1) = 11 Ω

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16)

What is current ? Define conductor, semi conductor and Insulators with examples. What do you understand by electric potential. Define Resistance ? Explain the laws of resistance. What is specific resistance ? Explain temparature co - efficient of resistance. Define ohms law How are the resistances connected. Explain series and parallel combination of resistances w.r.t. V,I and R. Define kirchoff’s laws. What is a circuit ? What is a Junction ? What is a loop ? Mention the equation for the transformation of Delta circuit to star circuit? Mention the equation for the tranformation of star circuit to delta circuit The resistance of a conductor 1mm2 in cross - section and 10 m in length is 0.173 Ω . Determine the specific resistance of the material. The temparature co -efficient α of phospher bronze is 39.4 x 10-4 0c, Find the coefficient α for a temparature of (a) 200 C and (b) 1000 C.

Electric Current - OHM’s Law Kirchoff’s Law 17)


Find the current in each branch of the net work shown in fig using kirchoffs laws.


What will be the current drawn by a lamp of 250 volts, 25 watts when connected to 230 volts supply?
2Ω 2.3 3Ω 4Ω 10 Ω

I=5A 6Ω



Find the equivalent resistance of the circuit given above. Find the circuit through 6 Ω resistor. Three resistors 10 Ω , 20 Ω and 30 Ω are connected in star. Determine the value of equivalent resistance in delta connection.



Elements of Electrical Engineering

Introduction : Engineering is a Applied Science witha very large number of physical quantities like distance, time, speed, temparature, force, voltage, resistance etc. In order to cover the entire subject of Engineering six Fundamental quantities i.e. mass, length, time, current, temparature and luminious intensity have been selected, which need to be assigned proper and standard units. In this chapter, we shall focus our attentions the mechaical, electrical and thermal units of work, power and energy. 3.1. WORK : Work is said to be done when force acting on a body causes the body to change its state. Work is done (mechanical work) when a body changes its state of rest or uniform motion in a straight line. This work done is stored in the body in the form of energy. Work done = Force x distance moved Work = Fs The mechanical unit of work is joule. When a force of one newton acts for a distance of 1 metre, then work done is equal to 1 joule. 1 Joule = 1 Newton x 1 meter or 1J = 1 Nw – M

The electrical unit of work is watt-see or kwh one watt-sec of work is said to be done in a circuit with one ampere current for one second (coloumb) and one volt P.D across the circuit. Work done = VIT= VQ Watt-see It maybe noted that work done or energy possessed in an electrical circuit or mechanical system or thermal system is measured in the same same units i.e. Joules.

Units of work, Power and Energy 3.2 Power :


In stating the rating of electrical apparatus it is customary to give not only the voltage at which it operates, but also the rate at which it produces or consumes electrical energy. The rate of producing electrical energy is called the power,and is measured in watts and kilowatts. Thus a lamp may be rated 100 watts at 230 volts. Rate of doing work is called power or power is the rate at which energy is expanded or the rate at which work is performed. It is the work done per second of time .
Power =
Power =

work done Time Taken
W watts. t

Where ‘W’ is the total number of joules of work performed or total joules of energy expanded in ‘t’ seconds. W VIt I 2 Rt V 2t = = = t t t R 2 V or P = VI = I 2 R = R P= The mechanical unit is H.P.(Horse power) . It is also termed as metric H.P. the electrical unit is watt. One metric H.P. is equal to 735.5 watts.One watt is also equal to one joule/second. The practical unit in electrical engineering is K.W.(kilo-watt). A young and energetic horse can do a work of 75 kg-M/see or 4500 kg-m/ minute. The power required to keep a continuous current of electricity flowing is the product of the current in amperes by the pressure in volts. this gives the power in watts. Watts = amperes x volts. The Bigger unit is kilowalt 1kw = 1000 watts


Elements of Electrical Engineering

To determine the power in an electric circuit : If we wish to know the power that is being consumed in a certain part of an electric circuit, we have to insert an ammeter to measure the current in that part of the circuit and multiply the ammeter reading by the voltmeter reading. This gives power directly in watts. Watts = volts x amperes Use of the watt meter : Instead of using two separate instruments, an ammeter and a voltmeter, to measure the power consumed in a certain part of a curcuit, we may use a single instrument called a wattmeter. This instrument is a combination of an ammeter and a voltmeter. Ammeter has a low resistance to carry current and a voltmeter has a high resistance to carry the voltage. 3.3 Energy : Energy is capacity for doing work. Energy may exists in several forms and may be changed from one form to another. For example a lead acid battery changes chemical energy into electrical energy on discharge and vice versa on charge. A generator changes mechanical energy into electrical energy etc. Energy of a person or an engine or an electric motor is known to us only when it does some work. Electric Energy : If an electric lamp of 100-watts, gives light continuously for , say 16 hours, the electrical energy consumed is 100 x 16 = 1600 watts hours. The Joule or watt second is very small unit of electrical energy, so for commercial purpose energy is measured in watt hours(wh)and kilowatt hours (kwh). The kilo watthour is called board of trade unit (B.O.T.) 1. B.O.T. unit = 1kwh = 1000 wh = 36,00,000 joules

Units of work, Power and Energy 3.4 Conversion of units : Thermal to electrical : Thermal Energy :


Heat is a particularly important form of energy in the study of electricity, not only because it effects the electrical properties of the materials but also because it is liberated whenever electric current flows. This liberation of heat is the conversion of electrical energy to heat energy. The thermal energy was orginally as singned the unit ‘calorie’. One calorie is the amount of heat required to raise the temparature of one gram of water through 1oC. If ‘S’ is the specific heat of a body, then amount of heat required to raise the temparature of m gm of body through OoC is given by Heat gained = (msθ )calories It has been found experimentally that 1 calories = 4.186 joules so that heat energy in calories can be expressed in joules. Infact, the thermal unit calorie is obsolete and unit joule is preffered these days. For heating equipments, the term thermal efficiency is used. It is the ratio of useful heat to the total heat produced.
Thermal η = Useful heat Total Heat − losses = Total Heat Total heat
VIt K . Cal 4200

Total heat produced electrically = 1 Joule = 4.2 calories
∴ Calories =

1 × Joules = 0.42 × Joules 4. 2

Calorie is the bigger unit, compared to joule. Heat produced in calories = H = mst m = mass of the substance in grams. S = specific heat of the substance

58 S = 1 for water and

Elements of Electrical Engineering

t = change in temperature i e . (t2 – t 1) in oc. H = 0.24 VIt Calories = 0.24 I2Rt Calories
V2 t calories = 0.24 R

3.5 Problems : 1)A force of 10 Newtons is pulling a weight, through a distance of 4 meters calculate the work done. Work done = force x distance = 10 Nw X 4mts = 40 Nw-m or joule. 2) If a table on the floor is pulled with a force of 4 Nw through a distance of 3mts in 6seconds, calculate the rate at which work done or calculate the power of the person who pulled the table.

Power =

Work done 4× 3 = = 2 N w − m / Sec Time Taken 6

Note :-

(1) Newton-meter=joule
Newton × Metres Joules = Nw − m / sec = = Watts Seconds Seconds


Units of work, Power and Energy


3) If an engine does a work of 150kg-m in 4 seconds. Calculate the H.P. of the engine. H.P. of the engine =

work done in kg − m / sec 75
= work done in kg − m Time in minute × 4500

150 / 4 1 = Hp = 0.5 H . p. 2 75

Newtons = kgs x 9.8 4) A 220 volts lamp takes a current of 0.3 amps and gives light for 100hours. Calculate its power in watts and in H.P. Watts = volts x amperer = 220 x 0.3 = 66 watts
H .P. = Watts 66 = = 0.0897 H .P. 735.5 735.5

5)A 220 volts electric lamp takes a current of 0.3 amps and gives light continiously for 16 hours. Calculate the energy consumed in (a) Joules (b) watt hours (c) Kilo-watt hours or B.O.T. units or Simply units (a) Energy = VIt Joules Joules = Volts x amperes x Seconds = 220 x 0.3 x (16 x 60 x 60)= 3801600 Joules Joules = watts x seconds (b) Watt-hour = watts x hours = (220 x 0.3) x 16 = 1056 wh (c) kilo-watt-hours=


Elements of Electrical Engineering

kwh =

wh Joules = 1000 1000 × 60 × 60 = Joules 3801600 = =1.056 kwh 36 ×105 36 ×105

The fundamental unit of electrical energy is joule, but, as it is very small, the kwh or Board of trade unit (B.O.T.unit) or unit and has become the practical unit . 3.6 Billing for the electrical energy consumption or the calculations for the electrical energy consumed : General procedure An electric heater takes a current of 1.5 amps at 240 volts and works for 3 hours per day. Calculate the monthly electric bill at the rate of 75 paise per unit. Add Rs 2/- as monthly sent for the energy meter.

Kilo-watt-hours = kwh = units =

240 × 1.5 × 3 perday 1000

= 1.08 units/day units/month = 1.08 x 30 days = 32.4 units /month cost of the electrical energy consumed in a month =
Rs. 32.4 × 75 = Rs. 24.30 / − paise 100

meter sent = Rs 2/- p.m Total monthly electrical bill = Rs 24.30 + Rs 2/- = Rs 26.30/-Ps

Units of work, Power and Energy


7). In a house there are 4 lamps of 60 watts each working for 6 hour/day and 2 tube lights working for 8 hours/day and 4 Fans of capacity 60 watts each working for 14 hours/day, and two eletric irons of ½ kw capacity each used 1½ hours/ day. The house is closed every Sunday, calculate the monthly electrical bill based on a tariff of 75 paise per B.O.T. unit. You may take 4 Sundays/month and add Rs 2/- Per monthly rent for the energy meter. Energy consumed by lamps Energy consumed by Tube Lights Energy consumed by Fans Energy consumed by Elect. Irons 4 x 60 x 6 = 1440 Wh/day 2 x40 x 8 = 640 wh / day

4 x 60 x 14 = 3360 wh / day 2 x 500 x 3/2 = 1500 wh / day 6940wh/ day

Working days in a months

= 30 – 4 Sundays = 26 days

∴ Kwh / month =

6940 × 26 = 180.44 units / month 1000

Cost of electrical energy consumed =

180.44 x

75 100

Rs. 135.33 Ps Meter Rent = Rs 2/- per month ... Monthly Elect. Bill = Rs 135.33 + Rs 2/- = 137.33/8) An Electrical installation consists of 10 light points of 60 watts each, 12 lamps of 40 watts each ,6 fans of 60 watts capacity each, and a pumpmoter of ½ H.P. Assuming that 50% of lights and fans are used for 6 hours per day and the water pump works for 4 hours dialy, calculate the kwh consumed/month and the monthly electrical bill based on a tariff of 70 paise/unit. Add Rs 2/- as

62 monthly rent for the energy meter. Total power of light points Total power of lamps Total power of fans

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10 x 60 = 600 watts 12 x 40 = 480 watts 6 x 60 = 360 watts Total = 1440 Watts

... 50% of 1440 watts = 720 watts watt-hours/day = 720 x 6 = 4320 wh . taken by lights and fans power taken by pump moter = ½ x 735.5 x 4 = 1471 wh/day
∴ Total Wh consumed /day = 4320 + 1471 = 5791 Wh

... Kwh/month =

5791× 30 = 173.73 units 1000 70 = Rs 121.611/100

cost of energy consumed/month = 173.73 x

meter rent = Rs 2/- per month ... Total monthly Elect.Bill = Rs 121.611 /- + Rs 2 /- = Rs 123.611/(metric) 9) A man lifts a head of 100kg through a height of 2 mts in 3 seconds. Calculate the energy spent or workdone. Also find out his power. Work done or energy spent = Force x distance moved = 100 x 2 = 200 kg mtr Newton-meter = 98 x kg-mtr = 9.8 x200 = 1960 Nw-m Kg − mts / sec 200 8 = = H .P. Horse power = 75 3 × 75 9

Units of work, Power and Energy Energy spent in joule = energy spent in Nw – mtr = 1960 joule Joules 1960 = = 653.33watts electric power = watts = Seconds 3


10) A 1000 w immersion heater is used to heat the water . If the heater is in the water for 15mts on connecting to the mains, the temperature of water raised by 500c . calculate the mass of water in kg. Assume no losses Heat absorbed by water = ms (θ 2 −θ = m x 1 x 50 = 50 m I 2 Rt K .cal heat given by the heater = 4200
1000 ×15 × 60 9000 or 50 = 4200 42


m = 4.3 kg

... weight of water = 4.3 kg.

11) A house has to be wired comprising the fallowing points. a) Light points 20 no‘s of 60 watts each. b) Fan points 8 No‘s of 100 watts each c) Bell point 2 No‘s of 40 watts each d) Wall plug points 4 No‘s of 500 watts each Supply voltage is 400 volts A.C.,calculate the fallowing : i) ii) iii) iv) Total load for light and fan connections. Total load for power connections. Size of main switch for light and main connections. Size of main swich for power connection.

64 v) vi)

Elements of Electrical Engineering No of circuits proposed for light connections. No of circuit proposed for power connections 20 x 60 = 1200 watts 8 x 100 = 800 watts 4 x 60 = 240 watts 2 x 40 = 80 watts 2,320 watts = 2 kw

Light point load = Fan point load = Wall plug load = Bell point load = Total load =

Power plug point load = 4 x 500= 2000 watts Current for light load Current for power load = =

2320 = 5.8 Amps 400

2000 = 5 Amps 400

As the total load will be distributed on three, phase. So on each phase current become 6amps approximately. So for mains a I.C.T.P. 15 Amps 500volts switch will be used and for separate light and power. Separate I.C.D.P. switch of 15 amp will be used. For no. of circuits total no. of light points is 34. So, as per I.E. rules which state that each circuit should have 8 points. total circuits proposed are 4. And power as per I.E. rules. There should be only two points on each circuit. So proposed circuits for power will be 2. Hence i) Total light load = 2320 W ii) Total power load = 2 Kw

Units of work, Power and Energy iii) Size of main switch for light = I.C.D.D. 15 amp. iv) Size of main switch for power = I.C.D.P. 15 amp v) No. of circuits for light load = 4 vii) no. of circuits for power load = 2


12) Calculate the bill of electricity charges for the following load fitted in an electrical installation. 1) 20 lamps 100 watts each working 6 hours/ day. 2) 10 ceiling fans 120 watts each working 12 hours/day. 3) 2 kw heater working 3 hours/day Rate of charges for light and fans is 20 paise per unit and heater and motor 15 paise/unit. Light load =
1000 × 20 × 6 1000

= 12 kwh
120 ×10 ×12 1000

10 ceiling fans 120 watts each 12 hrs/day = Total light load = 12 + 14.4 = 26.4 kwh Power load :

2 kw heater 3 hrs/day = 2 x 3 = 6 kwh / day 2 B.H.P. motors having 85% efficiency Motor input =
2 × 746 ×100 watts 85


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2 × 746 ×100 4 Load for 4 hrs/day = 13 × 1000 × 1 = 7.021 Kwh

Total power load = 7.021 + 6 = 13.021 kwh 26.4 × 20 = Rs.5.28 / − Cost light = 100 13.021×15 Rs. 39.063 / − = = Rs.1.95 / − Power = 100 20 Total cost = 5.28 + 1.95 = Rs. 7.23 /Ps.

13) Calculate the power of a pump which can lift 100 kg of water to store it in a water tank at a height of 19m in 25 S? (Take the value of g = 10 m/s2 ) In lifting water, the pump works against gravity. Work done = mgh = 100 kg x 10 m/s2 x 19m = 19000 J Power = w/t = 19000 J / 25 S = 760 Watts.

Units of work, Power and Energy 3.7 Assignment : 1) Define work and write its units. 2) Define power and write its units. 3) Define Energy and write its units. 4) What is the meaning of B.O.T? 5) What is




6) How to convert H.P. into watts? 7)What is the relation between the mechanical units and electrical units of power? 8) Give the name of 10 domestic appliances. 9) A force of 10 Newtons is required to push a cycle through a distance of 4 meters. Calculate the work done in 1) Newton Metres and 2) Kg metres. Ans. 1) 40 Nw-m 2) 4.077 kg-mts

10) A domestic installation consists of the following a) Six 60 watts lamps working for 8 hours/day b) four tubelight working for 10 hours/day. c) three fans of 60 watts each working for 12 hours/day d) Two electric irons of ½ kw each working for 2 hours/day. Calculate the monthly electric bill at the rate of 75 paise/kwh. Meter rent is Rs. 2 /- p.m. Ans :196.40 /-


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11) An office of electrical installation comprises the following loads. Calculate the energy charges paid to the supply authority for the month of November. Energy consumption10 paise/unit for power load and 20 paise unit for lighting load, Air conditioner, Pump, heater. Calculators are connected to the power circuit. The office worked for 25 days of that month except security section which worked on all days. 60 No.’s 4 ft. 40 watt tube light works 8 hours / day 4 No.s 60 watt lamps, 12 hours/day for security purpose 16 No.’s , 60 watts ceiling fans 6 hours/day, 1 No. 1000 watt Air conditioner for 5 hours/day 1 No 750 watt lamp 2 hours/day 2 No.’s Electric calculator 500 watt 1 hrs/day One electric heater 1500 watts for 2 hrs/day. Metre rent at Rs. 2/- and 10/- surcharge on charges also made by Authorities. Ans. Rs. 189.16 Ans. For lighting 710.4 kwh Rs. 142.08 /For power 262.5 kwh Rs. 26.25 /-

Effects of Electric Current


4.1 Heating effect of electric currrent : When electric current(i.e. flow of free electrons) passes through a conductor, there is a considerable ‘friction’ between the moving electrons and the molecules of the conductor. The electrical energy supplied to the conductor to overcome this ‘electrical friction’ (which we refer it as resistance) is converted into heat. This is known as heating effect of electric current. The heating effect of electric current is utilised in the manufacture of many heating appliances such as electric heater, electric kettle, electric toster, soldering iron etc. The basic principle of these appliances is the same. Electric current is passed through a high resistance(called heating element), thus producing the required heat. The heating element may be either nichrome wire or ribbon wound on some insulating material that is able to withstand heat. 4.2 Joule’s law : According to Joules law, the heat produced in a current carrying conductor is directly proportional to the square of the current and to the resistance of the conductor and to the time of flow of current.
∴ Heat Pr oduced ( H ) α I 2 Rt I 2 Rt calories J ∴ H = Heat produced in calories. ∴H =

I = Current in Amperes R = Resistance of the conductor in ohms. T = Time for flow of current in seconds and J = Joules mechanical equivalent of heat which is a constant. i.e. = 4.2 Joules / calories. 1 calories of heat = 4.2 Joules. 1 Joules = 0.24 calories Joules = 4.2 x calories Calories = 0.24 x Joules


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Calories is the amount of heat required to rise the temporature of 1 gm of water through 1 0 c. 4.3 Practical applications of heating effects of electric current : The heat produced in a high resistance wire is utilized in the following appliances: 1) Soldering Iron 2) Electric Iron 3) Electric Kettle 4) Electric stove 5) Immersion water heater 6) Geyser 7) Drying machine 8) Domestic oven 9) Cooking set 10) Industrial furnaces 11) Electric welding and Brazing 12) Electric lamps 13) Radiator or Room Heater 14) Incumbator etc. 4.4 Problems : 1) A wire of resistance 10 Ω is kept in water in a tin and a current of 2 amperes is passed through this wire for half an hour. Calculate the heat received by water. Heat produced H = 0.24 I 2 Rt calories. = 0.24 x 22 x 10 x 30 60 Calories. = 1728 Calories. = 1.728 Kilo - Calories. 2) The mass of water in a calorimeter was 250 gms. A coil of resistance 15 ohms was immersed in water and a current of 2 amperes is passed through this wire for 15 minites. Calculate the final temparature of water, if its initial temparature was 250 C. neglect all losses. Heat produced in Calories = H = 0.24 I 2 R t = 0.24 x ( 2) 2 x 15 x 15 x 60 = 12, 960 Calories.

But in physics heat = Mass x Specific heat x change of temp in 0 C. Mst calories and where t = (t2 - t1) 0 C 12,960 = 250 x 1 x ( t2 - t1)

Effects of Electric Current
12,960 0 ∴ t = 250 × 1 = 51.84 C


( t2 - t1) = 51.84 0 C. 3) An immersion water heater of resistance 25 ohms is kept in awater bucket and connected to 230 volts supply mains. Mass of water is 10 kg. Initial temparature is 250 C. Find the time taken for the water to reach boiling point. neglect all the losses.

V2 Heat produced H = 0.24 x t = M x s x ( t2 - t1) R
∴t ∴t or t = = m × s × (t2 − t1 )× R 0.24V 2

10,000 ×1× (100 − 25) × 25 = 1476.84 sec onds 2 0.24 × (230 ) 1466.84 = = 0.41 hours. 60 × 60 0.41× 60 = 24.6 min utes

4)On the name plate of electric kettle, it is written as 750 watts and 220 volts, Determine the thermal efficiency of the kettle, If it takes 20 minutes to raise th temparature of one kg. of water from 200 C to boiling point. Thermal efficiency of kettle =
output in calories ×100 Input Calories

Calories actually utilized by water ×100 In take calories by the kettle m × s × (t2 − t1 )×100 1000 ×1× (100 − 20 ) = = 0.24 × I 2 R × t 0.24 × 750 × 20 × 60 1000 = = 37.037 % 27 =


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4.5 Magnetic effects of electric current : H.C. Oersted demonstrated that whenever current passes through a conductor, a magnetic field is created arouind the conductor throughout its length. or A current carrying conductor has a magnetic field associated with it. This accidental discovery was the first evidence of a long suspected link between electricity and magnetism. The production of magnetism from electricity ( which we call electro magnetism) has opened a new era. The operation of all electrical machinery is due to the applications of the magnetic effects of electric current in one form or the other. To detect the presence of such a field you can carryout the fallowing activity Make a simple electric circuit consisting of a long straight wire, a battery and a plug key. Arrange the circuit so that the straight wire is placed parallel to and over the compass needle. Now switch on the circuit. As the current passes through the wire, the needle gets deflected. If the current flows from North to South, the north pole of the needle moves towards east. If the current is reversed then the needle moves from South to North. A compass needle placed under a long straight line pointing towards north in which current flows from north to South. the compass needle is shown deflecting - its north pole moving towards east.

Deflection of compass needle magnet

Effects of Electric Current


The current in this wire flows from South to north. The north pole of the needle is seen deflecting towards west. Conclusions from oersted’s experiment : 1) 2) 3) Whenever current is passed through a straight conductor, it behaves like a magnet. The magnitude of magnetic effect increases with the strength of current. The magnetic field setup by conductor is at right angles to the direction of flow of current. The reason for this statement is that magnetic needle sets itself at right angle to the conductor carrying current. The direction in which the north pole of magnetic needle will move depends upon i) the direction of current in conductor ii) the relating position of conductor with respect to magnetic needle. It means it it will depend upon wheather the conductor is above needle or below needle.


Ampere Rule : ( For finding the direction of movement of magnetic needle)

Ampere’s Swimming rule Imagine a swimmer swimming in the direction of current and always looking at the magnetic needle such that current enters from his feet and leaves from his head. Then the direction in which the left hand of swimmer points gives the direction of movement of north pole of freely suspended magnetic needle.


Elements of Electrical Engineering

From Figure, the swimmer is swimming in the direction of current and looking at needle. His left hand is pointing towards west. Hence, the north pole of magnetic needle will deflect towards west. If a current carrying conductor is placed at right angles to the lines of force of a magnetic field a mechanicle force will be exerted on the conductor. The magnitude of teh mechanical force ca be calculated by using Ampere’s law. 4.6 Magnetic field around a straight conductor :

Magnetic field arround a straight conductor Take a flat cardboard and over it fix a white sheet of pape. In the middle of the card board make a hole and through it pass a thick wire as shown in fig. connect the ends of a wire to a battery through a connecting wire. Plot the magnetic lines of force around the conductor with the help of plotting compass. It is observed that the lines of force are in the form of concentric circles. The direction of lines of force will be clock wise. If the experiment is repeated but the current is passed in opposite direction, the lines of force will be in anti clock wise direction. Further more, it is found that on increasing the strength of current, the number of magnetic lines of force around conductor increases. This inturn, increases the magnetic strength of conductor.

Effects of Electric Current


4.7 Rule for Determining the direction of Magnetic Lines of force around straight conductor : Right hand thumb rule : Imagine you are holding the conductor with the palm of your righ hand, such that thumb points in the direction of flow of curent. Then the direction in which fingers curl around conductor gives the direction of magnetic lines of force.

Finding the direction of magnetic lines of force In. fig. The fingers are curling in anti - clock wise direction when thumb is pointing in the direction of current. Therefore the direction of magnetic lines of force is anti - clock wise. 4.8 Properties of Magnetic Lines of force around straight conductor : 1) The magnetic lines of force are in the form of concentric circles. 2) The plane of magnetic lines of force and hence, magnetic field is at right angle to the plane of conductor carrying current. 3)The direction of magnetic lines of force reverses withthe changes in the direction of flow of current. 4)On increasing the magnitude of current in conductor, the number of magnetic lines of force increases. 5)Magnetising force at ‘p’ due to a long straight current carrying conductor at a distance of ‘r’ meters is

1 2π R

Elements of Electrical Engineering


AT / m

P r meters Magnetic lines around a straight conductors 4.9 Magnetic field due to a current in a circular coil : Take a drawing board and fix over it a white sheet of paper. Make two holes A and B in drawing board and pass through it a thick copper coil. Connect the ends of coper coil to a dry cell through a Switch and variable resistance close the circuit and plot magnetic lines of force with the help of plotting needle.

Magnetic field around a circular coil It is seen that magnetic lines of force around A are in anti - clock wise direction, Whereas that around B are in clock wise direction. However the magnetic lines of force near the centre of coil become almost parallel. As these lines of force seem to enter the coil from the side of the experiment, we can say that face of coil towards the experiment acts as south pole. Conversely, the face opposite to experiment acts as north pole.

Effects of Electric Current


If we relate the above observation to the flow of current in the coil, then we can say that if the current flows in the coil in clock wise direction facing the experimenter, then that face of the coil will act as south pole. In the same way, if the current in coil facing experimenter is in anti - clock wise directin, then that face of the coil will beleave like north pole.

Fig .1

coil coil carrying experimenter carrying current current

experimentar Fig .2

4.10 Properties of magnetic lines of force around circular coil : 1)Magnetic lines of force are circular around the points where the current enters or leaves circular coil. 2)Within the space enclosed by the coil the magnetic lines of force are in same direction. 3)Near the centre of coil the magnetic lines of force are parallel. When the magnetic lines of force are parallel. The magnetic field is said to be uniform. 4) The magnetic lines of force are at right angles to the plane of coil. It means if coil is in vertical plane, the magnetic lines of force are in horzontal plane. 5) With the increase in strength of current in coil, the magnetic lines of force increase. This in turn, increases the strength of magnetic field. 6) Magnetising force at the centre of a circular coil of radius ‘r’ metres. H= I/2r and H = AT / m for a single turn coil
NI AT / m for a ' N ' turn coil 2r

78 4.11 Magnetic field in a solenoid :

Elements of Electrical Engineering

An insulated copper coil wound around some cylindrical cardboard or plastic tube, Such that its length is greater than its diameter and behaves like a magnet when electric current flows through it is called solenoid.








Insulated copper Magnetic field in a solenoid When an electric current is made to flow through it, then each turn of the coil behaves like a magnetic. In fig the current is flowing into the coil in clock wise direction, therefore the left hand side of each turn of the coil acts as south pole, where as right hand side of each turn of the coil acts as north pole. Thus the situation becomes similar to small bar magnets placed end to end with their opposite poles facing each other, Such that they collectively act as a bar magnet. Thus, solenoid beheaves like a bar magnet. From this it is clear that if the number of turns in solenoid increaes, then the magnetic effect also increases. The strength of magnetic field of the solenoid depends upon the fallowing factors : 1)It is directly proportional to the number of turns in solenoid. It means the more the number of turns, the more is the magnetic strength of the solenoid. 2)It is directly proprotional to the magnitude of current flowing through solenoid. It means the more the magnitude of current, the more is the magnetic strength of the solenoid. 3) It is directly proportinal to the diameter of coil. It means the wider the coil, the more is the magnetic strength.

Effects of Electric Current


4)It depends upon the nature of material on which the coil is wound. It has been found that if solenoid is wound on soft iron, then due to magnetic induction, it gets highly magnetised. Thus strength of magnetic field strongly increases, In such a situation solenoid is called electromagnet. It beheavs like magnet as long as the current flow through it. Magnetising force at the centre of a long solenoid H = If it is a short sole noid H =
NI AT / m 2l NI AT / m 2l

4.12Force on a current carrying conductor in a magnetic field : Immediately after oersted’s discovery of electric currents producing magnetic fields and existing forces on magnets, Ampere suggested that magnet must also exert equal and opposite force on a current - carrying conductor. The force due to a magnetic field acting on a conductor can be demonstrated by the following activity.

A current carrying rod, AB . experiences a force perpendicualr to the length and the magnetic field A current carrying rod, AB . experiences a force perpendicualr to the length and the magnetic field. Take a small aluminium rod AB. Suspend it horizontally by means of two connecting wires from a stand, as shown in fig. Now, place a strong horse shoe magnet in such a way that the rod is between


Elements of Electrical Engineering

the two poles with the field directed upwards. If a current is now passed in the rod from B to A, you will observe that the rod gets displaced. This displacement is caused by the force acting on the current - carrying rod. The magnet exerts a force on the rod directed towards the left, with the result that the rod will get deflected to the left. If you reverse the current or inter change the poles of the magnet,. the deflection of the rod will reverse, Indicating there by that the direction of the force acting on it get reversed. This shows that there is a relationship among the directions of the current, the field and the motion of the conductor. In the above , activity, you considered the direction of the current and that of the field perpendicualr to each other and found that the force is perpendicular to both of them. the three directions can be illustrated through flemings left hand rule. 4.13 Fleming’s left hand rule : Stretch the fore finger, the central finger, and the thumb of your left hand mutually perpendicular to each other. If the fore finger shows the direction of field and the central finger that of the current, then the thumb will point towards the direction of motion of the conductor. We have studied that current is simply a flow of charges. This means that moving charges in a magnetic field would also experience a force. The direction of the force on a moving positive charge is exactly the same as that on a current and is given by flemings left hand rule.

Flemings left hand rule

Effects of Electric Current 4.14 Electrical Motors :


An electric motor is a device that converts electrical energy to mechanical energy. Electric motor is used as an importent component in electric fans, washing machines, refrigerators, mixers and blenders. A coil of wire wrapped around an axle is placed between the two poles of the magnetic field as shown in fig. When a current passes through the coil, enters at the point X and leaving at Y the two arms which are perpendicular


Brushes sliding contents


Fig. showing the working of electric motor to the direction of the magnetic field, experience force according to flemings left hand rule. Since the directions of the currents in the two sections are oppsite to each other, the forces acting on them will also be opposite to each other. These force push one section ( the arm CD) up and the other ( the arm AB) down. Mounted free to turn about an axis, the coil rotates anti clock wise. At half rotation, the current in the loop is reversed in direction by means of sliding contacts and a split ring commutator. As a result, it is Q which now contacts, the brush X and P contacts Y. The reversal of the current reverses the forces so that, the side of the coil which was previously pushed up is now pushed down, and the side previoiusly pushed down in now pushed up. The coil, therefore rotates half a turn more where the current is again reversed. In this way a reversing process is repeated at each half turn, giving rise to a continious rotation.


Elements of Electrical Engineering

4.15 Field due to two parallel conductors :

Current in the same direction

Current in the opposite direction

When the currents are in the same direction the magnetic lines between the currents are neutralised and the conductrs try to come closer due to attraction. In the second case when the currents are in opposite direction the magnetic lines outside the conductors neutralize and the conductors try to go further due to repulsion. Ampere : If two long straight parallel conductors carry some unknown but equal curents and if their common length is one metre and the distance between them (centre to centre) is also one metre and if that mutual force acting between them is 2 x 10 -7 newtons, then the value of that unknown current is one ampere. 4.16 Magnetic Circuit : Magnetic circuit is the path fallowed by magnetic flux. Magnetic flux fallows a complete loop or circuit comming back to its starting point. It is possible to establish magnetic flux in a definite limited path by using magnetic material of high permeability. In this manner, the magnetic flux forms a closed circuit exactly as an electric current does in an electric circuit. The amount of flux produced in a magnetic circuit depends upon the property of magnetic material opposing the production of flux and this property is called reluctance of the material. Magnetic circuits are found in all electrical machines in transformers, in motors and in many other devices.

Effects of Electric Current


4.17 Flux : Group of magnetic lines of force is called flux. 1 wb = 10 8 lines. 4.18 Magneto motive force ( M.M.F) : This is similar to emf. in electric circuit. It is the force which drives the flux in magnetic paths. Its unit is Ampere - turn ( AT ) MMF = Amperes x No. of turn = Magnetising force x length of circuit = HL - AT

4.19 Reluctance (OR Magnetic Resistance) : Whenever we wish to setup an electric current in a circuit, we always have to overcome the resistance of the electric circuit, which opposes the flow of current. Similarly we have seen that there is always magnetic resistance, which we call reluctance, and which always opposes the setting up of the magnetic flux in the circuit just as the resistance of an electric circuit depends upon the material and dimensions of the circuit. So the reluctance of a magnetic circuit depends upon the material and dimensions of the magnetic circuit. 4.20 Relation between MMF, Flux and Reluctance OR Ohm’s Law for magnetic circuit: In the magnetic circuit we have magnetic pressure setting up a magnetic flux against the resistance offered by the magnetic reluctance.
Magnetic flux = Reluctance = magnetomotive force magnetic reluctance

MMF Flux ampere − turns Magnetic lines = reluctance Ampereturns = magnetic lines × reluctance

84 4.21Comparison between : Electric Circuit

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Magnetic Circuit

2)E.M.F is the source to pass current 3) Current in Amperes; current density in A/m2 4) current
EMF Resistance

2) MMF is the source to pass flux ( MMF is caused by flow of current) 3) φ is in webbers; flux density wb/m2 4) Flux =
MMF Reluctance

5) Resistance = R = and is constant


L 5) Reluctance = µ µ A 0 r

It veries as µ r is variable 6) Permeanance = 1 / Reluctance 7) Energy is required to establish the flux only and not for maintaning it. 8) There is leakage of flux 9) There is no magnetic insulator. The flux passes through all the mediums. 10) There is no actual flow of flux. It is only the effect. Hence the word “ Flow of flux” is misleading.

6) Conductance = 1/ R 7) Energy is wasted as long as the current lasts 8) No leakage of current 9) Current can be insulated i.e. it cannot pass through all the mediums 10) Current flow is true flow

Effects of Electric Current 11) Equivalent circuit

85 11) Equivalent circuit.

4.22 Flux density and magnetising force : Flux Density : It is the flux lines per cross sectional area normal to the flux lines. It is mentioned in webbers per square metre. It is denoted by letter ‘B’.
Flux density = Flux webbers = Area meter 2

Magnetising force : The magnetising force ( H) is really the magnetic pressure required to send a given number of lines through 1 inch of the magnetic circuit. It is similar to the voltage required to send a given electric current through a mile of wire of given dimension. H is the no. of ampere-turns required to send a given number of lines through one inch of a given circuit.
NI Ampere turns per meter length. L 4.23 Magnetisation of magnetic meterial B - H curve : H=

Consider a solenoid with iron core. If current is passed through the solenoid a magnetic field will setup and its value inside the coil will be given by the equaNI AT / m . And Flux density in the iron core will be B = µ 0 µ r H . L the flux density increases with the increase in H, the magnetising force, which is proportional to the current through the coil. A graph can be drawn to show the relation between B and H or current. Such a graph for a given material is called a magnetisation curve. It is also defined as the graph drawn to show the

tion H =


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relation between the flux density and magnetising force of any given magnetic circuit. Such a graph is called B - H curve.

A coil carrying an electric current used to magnetised steel rod inside the coil As shown in the above figure, wind an insulated wire around a given iron bar and pass alternting current through it. Already you know that H = AT/ L = NI/L AT per meter and flux density B = φ / a webbers / sq.m keeping this in view, let us plot - B - H curve as shown above. At the time of starting, when current is zero flux produced also is zero. As the current is increasing i.e. H is increasing, the flux or flux density B is also increasing. Therefore the curve rises slowly upwards. But when the iron get saturated at Bmax, it cannot produce any more flux however we may increase the current. Therefore the curve has become slightly horizontal. We call this point as the saturation point. Now, Suppose the direction of current - reverses. As the current has reversed, it is slowly decreasing , when the current is decreasing, the flux or flux density ‘B’ is also decreasing, but it is not retracing its original path. This is due to the rate of decreasing of flux density is lesser than previous rate of its increase. This is called flux density. ‘B’ is lagging behind the magnetising force H. This property of lagging of B behind H is called hysteresis. Therefore we see that though the current is zero in the reversed direction, the flux density is not zero and it is equal to OA. This is called residual magnetism or Residual flux. Now, to bring this residual flux back to zero we have to pass the current in the same reverse direction up to ‘D’. At ‘D’ we see that “B” is zero. So this current OD is called co-ercive force. This property of retaining magnetism against some external force is called co-ercivity, of the iron. Now, If we still increase the current, the flux density goes on increasing in the reverse

Effects of Electric Current


direction till saturation now after saturation; again the current direction reverses. So in this way H and B will be goining on changing. This graph is known as B - H curve or magnetic reversal or Hysteresis loss. As the frequency of supply is 50 cycles / sec. There will 50 magnetic reversals / seconds these 50 cycles of magnetisation per second will produce heat inside the iron bar. This heat cannot be utilized for practical purpose. This production of heat is called a loss of energy. This loss of energy is directly proportional the area of the hysteresis loop. More area more loss and less area less loss. 4.24 Cycles of Magnetisation : Make a winding of N turns on a steel bar specimen and make the connections as shown in fig. V is the battery from which a current is drawn into the coil through an Ammeter A, and a variable field Rheostat R connected in series. For different values of H(I) the flux densities are calculated depending upon the demensions of the bar and a magnetisation curve ‘oa’ is drawn. Now the current is reduced from maximum to zero and the curve ab is drawn. Here when H = 0 i.e. I = 0. B has some value. Change the direction of current and increase the current from zero the maximum ( i.e. the reverse direction) duly calculating the value of B. Draw the curve bed. At this stage reduce the current to zero again and plot the curve de. again change the direction of current to original direction and increase the current to its original maximum value. The entire curve a b c d e f a is called cycle of magnetisation. I B A Coercivity b Retentivity V R Fig- V Cycle of magnetisation or B - H curve -H d B c o e Bmax H(I) a

88 Coercive Force :

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Magnetising force needed in the opposite direction to bring the flux density to zero ( to wipe out the residual magnetism ) is called the coercive force. OC representes coercive force for the specimen to scale. The maximum value of the coercive force is called coercivity. Residual Magnetism : Ob is the value of flux density when the current is reduced to zero from its positive maximum value. This value ob represents to a scale the residual magnetism or retentivity of the magnetic material. Hysteresis Loop : The curve a b c d e f a ( cycle) is called hysteresis loop. The are a of loop represents energy waste per unit volume in the specimen due to the changing mangetic condition in one cycle. Hysteresis loss : The energy can be stored in a spring and can be released to do the work. On the same lines, the process of magnetisation and demagnetisation of a ferro magnetic material in a symmetrically. Cyclic condition involves a storage and release of energy which is not completely reversible. As the material is magnetised during each half cycle, it is found that the amount of energy stored in a magnetic field exceeds that which is released upon demagnetisation. According to weber Ewings’ theory of magnetism when a magnetic material is magnetised some energy is wasted to bring its molecules stright. If the material has no retentive power the energy spent can be recoverd by decreasing the magnetising force to zero as in the case of a spring which release its stored energy on removing the retaining force.
Energy waste d = 1


∫ H . dB −



∫ H . dB

( Hysteresis loss ) = Energy stored − Energy released

Effects of Electric Current


overfull cycle hysteresis loss = Area of total hysteresis loop Hysteresis loss / cycle = Area of loop 4.25 Steminz constant : To obviate the need of finding the area of the hysteresis loop in order to compute the hysteresis loss in watts, stemin obitan an emperical formula. ph = v. f µ Bmas x - watts where the value of x lies between 1.5 to 2. 5 depending on the material The parameter of is also depends on the material η is called steminz hysteresis co - efficient. 4.26 Chemical Effects of electric current : Whenever an electric current flows through some liquid or solution or water, the current reacts with that solution and the solution or water is de - composed into its constituents. This effect of electric current is called the chemical effects of electric current. The vice versa is also true. That is if two or more chemical substances react with each other as in the case of cells electric current is produced. The decomposition of water into oxygen and hydrogen is the example of the chemical effects of electric current. Chemical effects of electric current passing through electrolytes is electrolysis, Faraday did many experiments on electrolysis and stated his two laws. 4.27 Electrolysis : Electrolysis is the name given to the chemical decomposition which occurs in electrolysis when electric current passes through them. Consider a solution of copper sulphate (CuSo4). When CuSo4 is dissolved in water, its molecules splitup into Cu ++ ions and So4-- ions. CuSo4 ==> Cu ++ + So- -4


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Let copper plates connected to battery be placed into this solution. These plates are called electrodes. These electrodes connected to the positive pole of the battery is known as anode, while the other connected to the negative pole of the battery is called cathode. The Cu ++ ( Positive copper ions ) go to the cathode and the negative sulphate ions So-4 go towards the positive electrodes i.e. anode. The movement of the ions constitutes a flow of electric current through the external circuit the current due to the motion of the electrons. Whn So4-- ions reaches the anode, it gives up its charge and ceases to be an ion. The two electrons given by So--4 ion enter the anode and become part of the electron stream in the external circuit. Similarly Cu++ ion reaches the cathode, it gives up its charge and make up its defiency of two electrons from the cathode. This whole process is called electrolysis. 4.28 Electrolyte : The current can pass through some liquids and also it cannot pass through some other. For example: Pure distilled water, Kerosene oil, alchol are insulator of electric current and dilute acide, alkali, salt solutions are conductors. These conductors are called electrolytes. 4.29 Faraday’s laws of electrolysis : Faraday determined two laws which goven the phenomenon of electrolysis. First Law : Whenever current ( D.C.) passes through an electrolytic solution, the solution is decomposed and the amount of mass liberated from it at an electrode is directly proportional to the quantity of electricity passed through that solution. Quantity of electricity = Q = Current in Amps X time in seconds

Effects of Electric Current Q in coloumbs = Current in Amps X time in seconds Q = It
∴ From the first law mass liberated m α It i.e. m α ZIt gms


Where ‘Z’ is a constant, and it is called the electro - chemical - equivalent ( E.C.E.) of that substance which is liberated at the electrode. Z=
m = mass liberated in gms / coulomb. It

E.C.E. of silver = 0.001118 g = gms/ coulomb. E.C.E. of copper = 0.0003265 gms / coulomb. 4.30 Problems : 1) Given that the E.C.E. of silver is 0.001118 gms / coulomb, Find the time taken for a current of 2 Amps. to pass through a silvernitrate solution to liberate silver of mass 10 gms.

m gms It m 10 10 7 ∴t= = = sec onds ZI 0.00118× 2 1118 × 2 = 4472.27 sec = 1.242 hours. Solution Z=
2) Determine the quantity of electricity to be passed through a silver nitrate solution to liberate silver of mass of 15 gms from it and deposit on the cathode.


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solution m = Z × It = ZQ Quantity of Electricity Q = m z

6  15  15 ×10 coulombs = = 1118  .001118  ( Z = 0.001118) = 13416.816 coulombs

Second Law : If a number of different electrolytes are connected in series and if the same amount of current is passed through all of them simultaneously for the same time then the amount of masses in gms. Liberated through all these electrolytes are directly proportional to their chemical equivalent weights. 4.31 Cells- It’s Components - Definition of Battery : Cell : In electrical engineering , a cell means a container, which contains some chemical substances which react with each other and a potential difference is created between the two terminals Anode and cathode and if these two terminals are Joined externally by a wire, an electric current is passed through this wire, this is called a cell. Components of a cell : 1) Glass container 2) Copper plate ( + Ve) Anode : 3) Zinc Plate ( - Ve) Cathode 4) Dilute Sulphuric Acid.

Copper plate - Anode Glass container Components of a cell

Dilute sulpuric acid H2So4 Amalgamated Zinc plate - cathode

Effects of Electric Current Battery :


The combination of cells is called Battery. One cell can not be called as a battery. If some cells are connected in Series or in parallel or both in series and parallel connection then only be called as Battery. 4.32 Primary Cells - Defects and remedies Dry cell : Primary Cell : The Voltaic cell is called as primary cell.

Chemical Changes in a cell Working of simple voltaic cell : Dry Cell

The Actual chemical reaction starts at the Zinc plate. Positive Zinc ions come out from the zinc plate and go to the electrolyte. i.e. dilute H2 So4 thus making the Zinc plate -Ve with respect to the electrolyte then a potential difference is established betweent the Zinc plate and the + Ve plate ( copper). The potential difference thus established between the anode ( copper plate ) and the cathode(Zinc plate) is called Electro motive force(E.M.F) of the cell. Now, when the emf is established between the two plates i.e. anode copper and cathode Zinc and if we cannect these two plates outside with wire through some resistance, then the current passes from + Ve to - Ve outsides the plates and - ve to + ve inside the cell through the electrolyte. In this way the simple voltage cell supplies the load current. When the cell supplies load current, The zinc of the cathode is eaten away and Zinc Sulphate is formed,


Elements of Electrical Engineering Which is represented by the equation Zn + H2 So4 = Zn So4 + H2

The Hydrogen gas is liberated and goes towards the + ve plate i.e. anode, and accumulates on the +ve plate. This hyhdrogen gas accumulation on + ve plate slowly increases and the hydrogen bubbles completely encircles the copper plate throughout and thereby the complete anode is cut off from the solution. When the +ve plate is cut off from the solution, the flow of current stops. This defect is called “polarisation”. Polarisation creates two defects. 1) 2) The internal resistance of the cell increases. Back EMF is setup and the main E.M.F is reduced, hence the current decreases.

There is a remedy for this defect. The remedy is that a depolarizing agent is kept in the electrolyte which reacts with the hydrogen gas and there by a new substance is formed and hydrogen dis - appears. There is one more defect, which is called “ Local action” due to the presence of impurities in Zinc which produce local cells and create (eddy) currents. The remedy for this local action is that the complete surface of the Zinc plate is amalgamated. 4.33 Dry cell : The tourch light cell or a transformer cell or a quartz watch cell etc. can be called as a dry cell. This is a primary cell. If this primary cell is discharged once connot be charged again. Truely it can not be dry. It has to be wet. If it is completely dry it can not work. We have to pour some drops of water in it so that it can work. But still it is called dry cell. Dry cell is nothing but the modification of the leclanche cell

Effects of Electric Current Vent







Dry Cell In the figure what you see is a Zinc cyclinder in which a paste is there, ‘W’ which consists of a plaster of paris , flour, zinc chloride salt ammoniac and water. The next to this paste is “B” which is another paste composed of carbon and oxide of manganese, Zinc Chloride, saltammoniae and water. In the centre is a rod. ‘C’ which is made of carbon, which acts as positive terminal and the bottom of the zinc cylinder as negative terminal. There is a hole at the top called ‘Vent’. Through this hole the hydrogen gas escapes outside, so that it cannot reach and encircle the postive electrode i.e. the carbon rode. “C”. This entire thing is covered with mill board. This is known as what is a dry cell. The internal resistance is less. The EMF cannot be more than 1.5 V. 4.34 Secondary cell, Difference between primary and secondary cells : Secondary cell : The primary cells make use of a chemical process which is not reversible. The cells have to be replaced after giving active service, e.g dry cells have to be discarded when discharged. The secondary cells on the other hand work on a reversible electro - chemical process, i.e. the cells have to be electrically charged before putting into service. These are discharged during active service i.e. while supplying current for a circuit. When completely discharged, the cells can be recharged by feeding electrical energy into the device. The


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other major advantage is the capacity of supplying electrical energy. Which is higher in the case of secondary cells. In other words a secondary cell can supply more current for a long period as compared to a primary cell and can be recharged again and again. Difference between Primary Cell 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Secondary Cell

If charged once, cannot be 1) If discahrged , can be recharged recharged For recharging, whole material 2) It can be easily charged by giving d.c. is to be replaced supply. These are light in weight Mostly used for intermittent work with low current rate Low life For example, Daniel cell cell. Leclanche cell, Dry cell etc. 3) heavy in weight 4) Can be used for conditions rating with heavy load currents. 5) High life 6) Lead acid cell : Nickel iron

4.36 Lead acid Cell - Principle of working : P and Q are two lead plates called Electrodes p is positive Anode and “Q” is negative cathode. P Q

Dilute Sulphuric Acid(H2 So4) Charging of cell

Glass vessel

Effects of Electric Current


Now Suppose , we connect a battery across the electrodes. Plate “P” to positive terminal of the battery and plate “Q” to the negative terminal of the battery then the current starts from the positive terminal of the battery and enters into the positive plate ‘P’ i.e. anode of the cell. And inside the cell the current flows from anode to the cathode and from cathode, it comes out and goes to the negative terminal of the battery. This process is called charging. During this charging process, the hydrogen gas appears at the cathode Q and the oxygen at the positive plate ‘P’. This oxygen at “P” reacts with this lead plate and forms the dark brown lead Peroxide ( pbo2) and at the positive plate, the hydrogen gas bubbles rise to the surface and escape, to the atmosphere without reacting with the negative plate ‘Q’. So that the negative plate remains the same. This charging of the secondary cell has to continue non stop for some hours so that the cell is fully charged. How can we say the cell is fully charged ? If the emf of the cell becomes 2.2. volts and the specific gravity of the electrolyte beocmes 1.21 or as we say 12.10 ; then we can say that the celll is fully charged and ready to work.



Discharging of Cell Now the battery has been removed in Fig. and a resistance and Ammeter is connected in series are connected across the terminal ‘P’ and Q. Current (D.C) starts from “p” and passes through the external load resistance and ammeter, and enters into the negative plate ‘Q’ and inside the cell it travels rom negative to positive.


Elements of Electrical Engineering Note the direction of current is completely reversed to that of charging.

This process of supplying load current is called discharging. What happens during discharging ? When the cell is discharging i.e. supplying current to the load, the lead peroxide which was formed on the positive plate during charging, will slowly disappear form “p” and because of chemical reaction taking place on both the plates; Pb So4 is formed on both the plates ‘P’ and ‘Q’. And some traces of lead monoxide ( Pbo) are also formed on both the electrodes ‘P’ and ‘Q’. If the EMF falls to 1.8 volts and if the specific gravity of the electrolyte comes down to 1180, we can say that the cell has been completely discharged. If we still furthur discharge the cell, It will be completely spoiled. An insoluble substance known as lead sulphate is formed which will completely ruin the cell. Also we should never short circuit the cell; i.e. we should never join the two electrodes ‘P’ and ‘Q’ by simply wire of low resistance. This short circuit causes heavy current to flow which firms suphates, disintegration of active material and buckling of the plates. 4.37 Chemical Changes for plante type plates : Plante type plats means positive plate pale “P” is coated with Pbo2 and negative plate is coated with spongy lead. Discharging process : At the time of discharging hydrogen gas appears at the + ve plate and oxygen appears at - ve plate. This is just reverse to charging. The Hydrogen at the + ve plate combines with the peroxide there as indicated by the following equation. Pbo2 + H2 = Pbo + H2 0 -------------------------I Pbo + H2 So4 = Pb So4 + H2 0 ------------------II The oxygen reacts at the negative plate as fallows. Pb + 0 = Pbo --------------------------------- III Pbo + H2So4 = Pb So4 + H2 o ---------------IV

Effects of Electric Current Charging process :


In charging oxygen is liberated at the positive plate and hydrogen at the negative plate ( Just reverse to discharging) the oxygen at the + ve plate combines with Pbo-----I Producing Pbo2. Therefore Pbo + O = Pbo 2 -------------V And Pb So4 is converted to Pbo as fallows. Pb So4 + O + H2o = Pbo 2 + H2 + So4 ------------VI The Hydrogen at the negative plate combines with the products there in 3 and 4 equations above as fallows : Pbo + H2 = Pb + H2 o ---------------------- ( VII) Pb So4 + H2 = Pb + H2 So 4 -------------- ( VIII ) By equation 6 and 8 density of the electrolyte is increased and by the equations 2 and 4 density is decreased. By knowing the speicific gravity of the electrolyte, We can easily deterimine the condition of the cell. This is the best test to know the condition of the cell. 4.38 The two Efficiencies of a cell : The efficiency of a cell can be expressed in two ways : One is called “ Energy efficiency “ and the second one is called “ Quantity efficiency “. Energy efficiency is expressed in Ampere hours. 1) Quantity efficiency or Ampere - hour efficiency.


Amperes × hours given out × 100 Ampere hours taken in

100 2)

Elements of Electrical Engineering Energy efficiency or watt - hour efficiency


Watts × hours given out × 100 Watts × hours taken in Volts × Ampers × hours given out ×100 volts × hours × Amperse taken in Watts × hours discharged ×100 watts × hours charged

or or

4.39 Methods of Charging and Maintaenance of lead acid cells : Methods of Charging : In general, There are two methods of charging batteries or Accumulators ( the name accumulator, as it accumulats, means adds or stores the electrical energy ) From d.c. supply there are two methods of charging a lead acid battery. 1) 2) Constant current method. Constant voltage method.

Constant current method : Constant current method of charging is usually adopted for initially charging the new batteries. According to this method charging current is kept constant throughout by adjusting the external resistance R. This method of charging is defective to the extent that it does not take into consideration the state of charge of the battery. Usually high, charging rate is required for fully discharged battery in the begining and this rate of charging should go down as battery approches its fully charged rate. This draw back is removed when we charge the battery according to constant voltage method. Constant voltage method : In this method, charging voltage is held constant throughout the charging. Charging current in the begining is high which however reduces as the back emf of the battery increases. This is the most common method of charging. The battery is charged till the cells are gassing freely and the specific gravity of the

Effects of Electric Current


electrolyte and the terminal voltage of cells remain constant. The fully charged battery has fallowing indications. Specific gravity of electrolyte Voltage of cell 1260 to 1280 2.1 volts

Where specific gravity can be determined by hydrometer and voltage by cell tester accurately.
AC 220 Rectifier Battery OR
V V v

AC 220

6V 9V 12V


Battery charging from AC supply. 4.40 Maintenance of lead acid cells : Care and maintanence of lead acid cells is most importent. Other wise the batteries will get spoiled. The fallowing points should be observed : 1)If the voltage of the lead acid cell comes down up to 1.8 volts percell, the battery should not be used. It should be kept aside. As we studied earlier an insoluble substance called, lead sulphate is formed which will damage / spoil the cell. 2)See that , always the plates are submerged inside the electrolyte. The level of the electrolyte should be always 15 mm above the top lever of the plates.


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The plates should never be exposed to air. Now and then we should pour disfilled water in the cells to keep the level of the electrolyte constant. Because the electrolyte gets evoparated after some time. 3)Never leave the discharged battery in that discharged condition for a long time. Other wise, it completely gets spoiled. 4) Keep the cell in dry and clean position. 5) The charge and discharge should be at normal rates 6)While charging , vent plug should be kept loose for passing out of the evolved gases if any. 7) The naked flame, near the battery, while charging , should be avoided. 8)While preparing electrolyte , water should not be poured into the acid, but acid should be poured in water drop by drop.

Effects of Electric Current 4. 41 Assignment : 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) State Joules law


Give the names of 5 electrical Appliances where heating effect is utilised State Right hand thumb rule. Define flemings left hand rule. Sketch the magnetic field of a solenoid. Compare the electrical circuit with magnetic circuit What is B - H curve Define faradays laws of electrolysis. Define cell

10) What are the two defects in a simple voltaic cell and describe rem edies. 11) Write the differences between primary and secondary cells. 12) What are the two efficiencies of a cell. 13) What is constant current system of charging a battery. 14) What is constant voltage system of charging a battery ? 15) What is a battery? 16) What are the components of a cell ? 17) What is chemical effect of electric current. 18) Define flux density and magnetising force. 19) What is reluctance ? 20) What do you understand by magnetic effect of electric current?


Elements of Electrical Engineering

5.1 Concept of Electromagnetic induction : The phenomenon of electro - magnetic Induction was discovered by oersted in 1820. Later faraday tried and succeeded in converting magnetism into electricity. All the electrical machines like generators, motors, Transformers etc work on faradays laws of Electromagnetic Induction. Therefore it is necessary to have the knowledge of electro magnetic Induction. 5.2 Faraday’s Laws of electromagnetic Induction : First Law : It states that whenever the magnetic flux linked with a circuit changes an emf is always induced in it or whenever a conductor is made to rotate in a magnetic field, hence cuts the magnetic flux and an emf is induced in the conductor. Second law : It states that the magnitude of the induced emf is equal to the rate of change of flux flux linkages i.e. It depends on number of turns of the coil and rate of change of flux. Let N = No. of turns of coil

φ 1 = Initial value of flux through the coil ( wb ) φ 2 = Find value of flux through coil ( in wb )
t = Time in seconds during which the flux changed from φ 1 to φ

Flux linkage means the product of flux and the number of turns associated with it. Initial flux likages = N φ 1

Electro Magnetic Induction Final flux linkages = N φ



Nφ 2 − N φ 1 volts t N (φ 2 − φ 1) Induced emf = e = t

The same can also be put in the differential form i.e.
dφ volts dt Usually a minus sing is given to right hand side expression to signify the fact that the induced emf sets up current in such direction that magnetic flux produced by it is in opposite direction. e=N ∴e = − N dφ volts dt

5.3 Flemings right hand rule: Flemings Right hand rule can be used to findout the direction of induced emf in a conductor cutting magnetic flux. Hold the thumb and the first two fingers of the right hand mutually at right angles. Place the fore finger in the direction of the flux and turn the hand so that the thumb points in the direction of motion. The second finger will point in the direction of the induced emf.

Flemings Right hand rule


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The direction of the induced emf is such that it tends to oppose the change in flux which induces it Magnitude of induced emf : e = Blv Volts


= Uniform magnetic field in webers = Length of conductor in mts. = Velocity of the conductor in mts / sec

Direction of induced emf : Direction of induced emf depends upon fleming Right hand rule : Forece on a current carrying conductor is F = BIL Newtons.

B = Field Intensity in wb / m2 I = Current in Amps L = Length of conduct in mts. Field intensity inside a solenoid.
H= NI amper turns / mts L

5.4 Types of E.M.F’s Dynamically and statically Induced E.M.F’s : The emf produced by electromagnetic induction can be devided into two types. 1) 2) Dynamically induced emf ( motionally) Statically induced emf ( No motion )

The magnetic flux through a circuit or coil or conductor may be changed by various means, and by that change of flux linkages causing the production of induced emf.

Electro Magnetic Induction Induced emf


Dynamic Conductor rotates Flux rotates


Self (one coil)

Mutual (two coils)

Statically Induced EMF : If an emf is induced without moving either the conductor or the flux, such an In transformers and reactors static emf is induced emf is called statically induced emf. This is classified into two types. 1) 2) Self induced emf ( Current changes in the coil itself ) Mutually induced emf ( Action of neighbouring coil )

Self Induced EMF : It is defined as the emf induced in the coil due to increase or decrease of the current in the same coil. If the current is constant no. emf is induced. When a current is passed to a circuit due to self induced emf the flow of current in the circuit is opposed .

Establishment of magnetic field when a coil is carrying current

108 Mutually Induced EMF :

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Mutual Induction Coil ‘B’ is connected to galvonometer. coil ‘A’ is connected to a cell. The two coils are placed close together. The coil connected to a supply is called primary coil A. The other coil ‘B’ is called secondary coil. The coil in which emf is induced by mutual induction is called secodary coil. When current through coil ‘A’ is established by closing switch ‘S’ then its magnetic field is setup which partly links with or threads through the coil ‘B’. As current throug ‘A’ is changed the flux linked with ‘B’ is also changed. Hence mutually induced emf is produced in ‘B’ whose magnitude is given by faraday’s law and direction by lenz’s law. The property of inducing emf in one coil due to change of current in other coil placed near the former is called mutual induction and this property is used in Transforers and Induction coils. 5.5 Inductance : Inductance is defined as the property of the coil due to which it opposes the change of currrent in the coil. This is due to lenz’s law. 5.6 Self Inductance : Self inductance is defined as the webers turns / ampere of the coil and is denoted by the letter ‘L’ and its units as Henry( H). The expression of self Induction by definition. is L =
Nφ web - turns / Amp I

Electro Magnetic Induction



= No. of turns of a coil. = Current in Amps = Self Inductance = Flux in webers


5.7 Mutual Inductance : When current in coil ‘A’ changes, The changing flux linking coil ‘B’. Induces emf in coil ‘B’ and is known as mutually induced emf. Mutual inductance between two coils ‘A’ and ‘B’ is the flux linkages of one coil B due to one ampere of outset in the other coil ‘A’ Let N1 N2 I1 I2 A = No. of turns of coil ‘A’ = No. of turns of coil ‘B’ = current in coil A = current in coil B. = Area of cross section of coil.

φ2 , φ 1 = Flux linking with coil A and B.
Hence by definition of expression of mutual inductance ( m) = N2 φ 2 henry and M =
N1 N 2 A µ L




5.8 Self Induction : Self Induction is the phenomenon by which an alternating emf is induced in a coil when an alternating current flows, through that coil.

110 5.9 Mutual Induction :

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The process of production of an e.m. f in one circuit when the current changes in another circuit( kept close to first circuit) is called “ Mutual Induction” 5.10 Coeficient of coupling : The co- efficient of magnetic coupling indictes that there is mutual induction ( m) between the two or more coils. so also each coil will have its own self induction( L). Thus coefficient of magnetic coupling between two coils are more coils is given by the equation. K= m L1 L2 K = co efficient of magnetic L1 = Self Inductance of coil (1) L2 = Self Indutance of coil (2) M = Mutual Inductance between two coils 5.11 Energy Stored in a Magnetic Field : Energy stored = 1/2 LI2 Joules L I T = Inductance of coil = Current passing through the circuit = Time taken

5. 12 Lifting Power of a Magnet : The Principle of lifting power of a magnet is employed in iron ore industry and steel plants for transportation purposes. B2 A The expression for the lifting power of a magnet is given F = 9.81× 2 µ F= Force of attraction between two poles

Electro Magnetic Induction A B = Area of pole in m2 =Flux density in wb / sq. m


Lifting power of magnet 5. 13 Problems : 1) Find the average value of induced emf in a coil of 800 turns when the magentic flux changes uniformly from 0.0020wb to 0.0025 wb . in 0.1 sec. Solution: N φ = Chan ge of Flux = 0.0025 - 0.0020 = 0.0005 wb and dt = 0.1 sec.
∴ C = 800 x

0.0005 ∴ e = 4 volts 0. 1


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2) If the direction of the flux of 0.0003 wb linked with a coil of 100 turns is reversed in 0.01 sec . Find the emf induced in the coil ?
dφ volts dt As the flux changes from 0.003 wb up in one direction, 0.0003 wb in 0.01 sec. then d φ = ( 0.0003) - ( -0.0003) = 0.0006 wb dt = 0.01 sec

Solution : Induced emf e = N


0.0006 dφ = 6volts = 100 x 0.01 dt

∴e = 6 volts 3) A straight conductor 8 mts long is moved at rigt angles to on a uniform field of 1 wb / m2 at a speed of 0.5 m / sec . Calculate the emf induced in volts. solution : Given B = Flux density = 1 wb / m 2 L = 8 mts , V = 0.5 m / sec e = B L V volts e = 1 x 8 x 0.5 = 4 volts

4) In a coil with 700 turns and a current of 6 amp produced a flux of 6 x 10-5 wb. Find. Find the Inductance of the coil. solution : N = 700, φ = 6 x 10-5 wb , I = 6 amps self Inductance L = L=
Nφ Henry. I

700 × 6 ×10 −5 Henry. 0.0007 Henrys I 5) An air cored torridal coil has 450 turns and a mean length of 0.942 m and a cross sectional area of 5 x 10 -4 m2. Calculate the self inductance of the coil.
Solution : N = 450 , µ r = 1 ( air as medium ) L = 0.942 m, A = 5 x 10 -4 m2 L 4 × 3.1×10 − 7 ×1× 5 ×10 − 4 × 450 2 = 0.942 L = 000135 Henry L=

µ 0 µ r AN 2

Electro Magnetic Induction


6) The shunt field winding of a D.C. motor has 900 turns and its resistance 80 Ω when voltage is 240 volts. The flux created is equal to 1 m wb. Calculate the self inductance of the shunt field winding. Solution: N = 900 , φ = 1 m wb, V = 240 volts, R = 80 Ω
l= Nφ V 240 and I = , I = = 3Ω I R 80 900 × 0.001 Hence L = = 0.3 Henry 3

7) A coil of 600 turns produced the Flux of 0.05 wb and self Inductance of coil is 0.001 Henry at normal current. Find out the current in the coil. Solution : L = 0.001H, N = 600 turns φ = 0.05wb L=
600 × 0.5 Nφ ∴I = 300 Amp 0.001 = 0.001 = I I

8) Two indentical coils of 400 turns each lies in parallel plane and produced the the flux of 0.004 wb. If the current of 8 amp is flowing in one coil, Find the mutual Inductance between coil ? Solution : N2 = 400 turns, φ = 0.04 wb I = 8 amps.
∴ M=

N 2 φ 400 × 0.4 = = 2 Henry I 8

9) The winding of a transformer have an Inductance L 1 = 8 H, L2 = 0.8 H, and mutual Inductance is 0.56. Find the co - efficient of coupling i.e. k = ? Solution :L 1 = 8 H , L2 = 0.008 H, m = 0. 56 K= m 0.56 = = 0.7 L1 L2 0.8 × 0.08

co - efficient of magnetic coupling 0.7


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10) The field winding of a D.C. shunt generator possesing an Inductance of 1.0435 H. The exiciting voltage is 230 volts and current passing through the coil is 4.6 amp. Calculate the energy stored in the magnetic field ? Solution : L = 1.0435 H, I = 4: 6 amp Energy stored in a coil is 1/2 LI 2
1.0435 x 4.62 1 = 11. 84 Joules

= 1/2 x

11) A solenoid 1.5 m in length and 15 cm in dia has 400 turns. Calculate the energy stored in magnetic field when a current of 2 amp flows in the solenoid? Solution : l = 1.5 m , dia = 15 cm , N = 400 I = 2 amp ; µ 0 = 1 (Air )

4π ×10 −7 ×1× π 0.152 400 2 × × L 1.5 4 1 2 4 −7 4π × 0.15 × 16 ×10 ×10 L= 6 ∴L = 0.0023 Henry 1 Energy store = LI 2 2 1 1 = × 0.0023 / 1× = 0.0002875 Joules 2 22 L= =

µ 0 µ r AN 2

Electro Magnetic Induction 5.14 Assignment : 1) Define Faradays law of Electromagnetic Induction. 2) Define Flemings Right handrule. 3) What do you understand by Dynamically induced emf? 4) Self induced emf - Define? 5) What is Inductance? 6) Define Self Inducatnce and Mutual Inducatnce? 7) What is Self Induction? 8) Define Magnetic coefficient of coupling? 9) Give the equation for energy stored in as magntic filed? 10) Write the formula for lifting power of a Magnet? 11) Write the expression for induced emf in a coil? 12) What is Lenz’a law?



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6.1 Introduction: We have dealt so far with cases in which the currents are steady and is in one direction; this is called direct current ( d.c.) the use of direct currents is limited to a few applications. e.g. charging of batteries, electroplating, electric traction etc. For large scale power distribution there are however many advantages in using alternating current (a.c.) In an a.c. system, the voltage acting in the circuit changes polarity at regular intervals of time and the resulting current (called alternating current) changes direction accordingly. The A.C. system has offered so many advantags that at present electrical energy is universally generated, transmitted and used in the form of alternating current. Even when d.c. energy is necessary, it is common practice to convert A.C. into D.C. by means of rotary converters or rectifiers 6.2 Alernating Current : The alternating current is that current which flows in a conductor in one direction for some time and immediately it flows, in the opposite directiion for sometime. The shape of the wave form obtained decides the type of alternating qunatity or current or voltage. 6.3 Production of Alternating E.M.F. : Alternating voltage may be produced by rotating a coil in a magnetic field as shown in figure. P R



b B


Production of alternating emf

Fundamentals of Alternating Currents N, S = Magnets AB = Load P,Q, R,S = Rectangular a,b = carbon brushes


The Value of the voltage produced depends upon the number of turns of the coil, strength of the field and the speed at which the coil rotates. The emf induced depends upon the faradays laws of electro magnetic Induction. which state that whenever a conductors cuts across a magnetic lines of force or flux an emf is induced in it. Also the magnitude of the induced emf is directly proportional to the rate of change of flux linkages. ∴The Production of induced emf dφ volts dt 6.4 Advantanges of A.C. over D.C. : e= −N A.C. means alternating current, the current or voltage which alternates its direction and magnitude every time. Now a days 95% of the total energy is produced, transmitted and distributed in A.C. supply the reasons are the fallowing. 1) 2) 3) 4) More voltage can be generated than D.C. ( Up to 33,000 volts, when D.C. 650 volts only ) A.C. voltage can be decreased or increased with the help of static machine called the “Transformer” A.C. transmission and distribution is more economical as line material (say copper) can be saved by transmitting power at higher voltage. A.C. Motors for the same horse power as of D.C. motors are cheaper, lighter in weight, require lesser space and require lesser attention in operation and maintanence. A.C.can be converted into D.C. easily. When and where required but d.c. can not be converted to A.C. so easily and it will not be economical.


6.5 Different wave forms : The shape or curve obtained by plotting the instantaneous values of voltage or current is called its wave forms. The different wave forms are as shown in the fig:

118 e e

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-e e



Square Wave


Triangle Wave

sawtooth Wave



Impulsive Wave

Different wave forms 6.6 Cycle : One complete set of positive and negative values of an alternating quantity is called a cycle OABCD is a cycle in fig.

o 6.7 Periodic Time :


The time taken by the wave to complete a cycle is called periodic Time it is denotted by ‘T’ If 50 cycle are obtained in one second then the time period or periodic time for one cycle is 1/ 50 second or 0.02 seconds.

T = 1/f

T = 1/f Time Period

Fundamentals of Alternating Currents 6.8 Frequency :


The number of cycles per second is called frequency or periodicity.
Frequency = No. of cycles Time in seconds

The unit of frequency is hertz and the symbol used is Hz. It is reciprocal of the time period.

6.9 Instantaneous value :

1 1 or F = F T

The magnitude at a given time is called the instaneous value. For example at time op the instantaneous value is PR. It varies from instant to instant on the wave. Small letters ( i and v ) are used to indicate instantaneous value of current and voltage. or The value at any particular instant is called instataneous value.
R O 3 π /2 P 2π

=> Time Instantaneous value 6.10 Average Value : It is the steady state current ( D.C. ) which transfer across any circuit the same charge as it is transferred by that alternating quantity ( A.C.) the average value Iav over the complete cycle is zero. Therefore the average value is obtained for half cycle only or the average of the instant value in one half of the cycle is known as the average value
Average value = l1 + l 2 + l3 ...... n

Vav = 0. 637 Vmax


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Instant value

6.11 R.M.S. Value : The RMS value of alternating current is given that steady d.c. current which produces same heat as that produced by the alternating current passing through on given resistance for the same period of time. Ir. m.s = 0.707 Imax 6.12 Maximum Value : This is also called crest value, peak value or amplitude. It is the highest value attained by the current or voltage in a half cycle.
Max. Value

6.13 Form Factor : Form factor of an A.C. is the ratio between R.M.S. value and mean value or Average value.

= =

R.M .S value Mean value 0.707 × max . value = 1.11 0.637 × max .value

Fundamentals of Alternating Currents 14- Peak Factor : It is the ratio of maximum, value to R.M.S. Value


Peak factor =

Max.value Im = = 2 =1.414 R.M .S .Value I m / 2

6.15 Phasor Representation : Electrical quantities like voltage and current are represented by means of vectors with the length representing the magnitude and the arrow representing the direction. The vectors are assumed to rotate in anti - clock wise direction. A.C. Current ( Say 15 amps)
15Amps 15Amps

250 Volts

250 Volts

A.C. Voltage (Say 250 volts ) A.C. Current with 15 Amp current and applied voltage 250 V

250 Volts


A.C. Voltage drawing lagging current




A.C. Voltage drawing leading current

9 250V

122 6.16 Phase :

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The angular displacement between two or more alternating quantitites is known as phase or The meaning of phase is to indicate the reltive position between voltage and current components. The components may rise or fall at the same time may lag the other or lead.

6.17 Phase Difference : The difference between two sinusoidal quantities or the phases of these qunatities at a given instant of time.

6.18 Problems : 1) Determine the average value, form factor,crest factor of sinusoidal emf given by equation. V = Sin wt Solution : Max. value = 100 for a sinusoidal wave form.

Average value = 0.637 ×100 = 63.7 R.M .S . value = 0.707 ×100 = 70.7 RMS value 70.7 Form factor = = =1.11 Avc. value 63.7 Peak value 100 crest factor = = =1.414 RMS value 70.7

Fundamentals of Alternating Currents


2) The equation of an Alternating current is 41 sin 628 t. Determine a) its max. value (b) RMS value (c) Average value (d) Form factor. Solution : Imax wt F = I = 41 Sin 628 T = 41 = 628 t or w = 628 ( or )

628 = 100 H z (∴ W = 2 π N ) 2π I 41 I rms = max = = 28 . 99 Amp 2 2 2 × I max 2 × 41 = = 26 . 11 Amp I av =



I 28 . 99 Form Factor = rms = = 1 . 11 I av 26 . 11 3) A sinusoidal alternating voltage of 50 Hz has an r.m.s. value of 200 volts. Write down the equation for the instantaneous value?

v 200 = = 282 . 2 volts 2 2 W = 2 π F = 2 × 3 . 14 × 50 = 314 rev / sec V = V max sin wt V max = V = 282 . 2 sin 314 t .
4) A coil has an induced max. voltage of 250 volts and is rotating at an angle of 600 with the field direction. What would be the instantaneous value of voltage. Solution : Max. voltage = Emax = 250 volts
Angle φ e = Emax sin φ e = 250 × sin 600 3 = 216.25 volts 2 e = Instantaneous voltage 216.25 volts e = 250 × = 600

124 6.19 Assignment : 1) 2) 3) 4)

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What is cycle and Time Period ? What is an Aleternating current ? What are the various wave forms? Define 1) Instantaneous value 2) RMS value 3) Form factor and 4) peak factor. 5) What is phase ? 6) The equation of a.c. is e = 240 sin 628 t find i) R.M.S. voltag ii) Ave. Voltage iii) Frequency. ( Ans 169.68 volts, 152. 88 volts, 100 c/s ) 7) The sine equation of a.c. is an fallows ? e = 120 sin 314 t calculate max. voltage and Frequency ? ( Ans 120 voltss , 50 c / s )