This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
NON-DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION PROCEDURE
4,000MW Coal Based Power Plant Project at Mundra
21. 04. 2008
DOOSAN PROJECTS INDIA PRIVATE LIMITED
Page 1 / 28
DOOSAN PROJECTS INDIA PRIVATE LIMITED
01. Radiographic Testing Procedure.
02. Ultrasonic Testing Procedure.
03. Magnetic Particle Examination Procedure.
04. Liquid Penetrant Examination Procedure.
Attachments: Format of Radiography Offering Report. Format of Ultrasonic Test Report. Format of Magnetic Particle Test Report. Format of Dye Penetration Test Report. Format of Radiography Interpretation Report.
Page 2 / 28
Reference 4. Safety Page 3 / 28 . Radiographic Testing Procedure. Construction Equipments and Instruments 5. CONTENTS 1. Procedure 6. Scope 3.DOOSAN PROJECTS INDIA PRIVATE LIMITED 01. Purpose 2.
ASME Section I : Power Boiler.. 2. 3. References ASME Section V : Non-destructive examination. Page 4 / 28 . ASME B31.DOOSAN PROJECTS INDIA PRIVATE LIMITED 1. Purpose Purpose of this procedure is to define the technical requirements and modes of operation to be met as well as the results to be obtained by the erector concerning the Radiogrphy Test by using Ir-192 sources for the welds with thickness from 2 mm to 75 mm.1 : Power Piping. Scope The scope of this procedure is limited to Radiogrphy Test to be conducted at 4. General The weld ripples or weld surface irregularities on both the inside (where accessible) and outside shall be removed by suitable process to such a degree that the resulting radiographic image due to any irregularities cannot mask or be confused with the image of any discontinuity. 4.000MW Ultra Mega Power Project at Mundra Site site.
1 Equipment Gamma radiation with Isotope IR 192 shall be used for thickness up to 75mm. Stage of Examination The time of inspection shall meet the requirements of codes and/or contracts.DOOSAN PROJECTS INDIA PRIVATE LIMITED 5. Page 5 / 28 . 7. The Recommended Brands are AFGA/KODAK/INDU with coding D4/D5/D7 or AX/80/100 and equivalent. For less than 6mm thick job SLOW FILM/D4 or equivalent to be used. before PWHT) (3) After repair (4) Other time upon agreements. Testing Equipment 7.2 Film Type Radiography film may be of fine grain medium speed high contrast type. (2) After PWHT (In case of small diameter tubes which is agreed by CGPL. 7. The time of inspection are as follows: (1) After welding and visual inspection if PWHT not applied. 6. Personnel All operator and personnel engaged in radiographic examination shall be in accordance with SNT-TC-1A or equivalent standard.
D = Distance from source of radiation to object being radio graphed. scratches dirt etc. Page 6 / 28 . All Screens shall be handled carefully to avoid dents.5 Geometrical Unsharpness a) Ug = F × D／d where Ug : geometric unsharpness F = Source size.0 to 4. Under no circumstances two different radiography techniques shall be used to take a radiograph of a particular joint. Either a calibrated densitometer or a certified step-wedge density strip shall be used for measuring density of radiographs. 7.13mm thick lead screens will be used for both front and back for IR 192. 7.DOOSAN PROJECTS INDIA PRIVATE LIMITED All films to be used for radiography shall be visibly in good condition and with in the period of usefulness as indicated by the manufacture’s recommendations. on active surface. d = Distance from source side of object being radio graphed to the film.3 Screens Normally 0. 7.4 Radiographic Density Only single Radiography technique shall be employed to take weld radiography. The transmitted film density through the radiographic image of the body of appropriate penetrameter and area of interest shall be between 2. The screens shall be cleaned with a solvent. the maximum projected dimension of the radiating source in the plane perpendicular to the distance D from the weld or object being radio graphed.
txd Ug +t t = Thickness of the specimen.070 (1.0 mm) 0.030 (0.5 7.6 Technique a) Single Wall Single Image In this technique the radiation penetrate one wall thickness only and this technique is recommended for open joints.040 (1.5 mm) 0.76 mm) 0.020 (0. d = Diameter of the source c) Exposure time calculation Time = Film factor x SFD2 x 2N x 60 Rhm x 1002 x source strength in Ci Where N = Thickness/ Half value Layer of steel RMH for IR 192 = 0.75 mm) b) Source to film distance: SFD = Where D = Source to film distance.DOOSAN PROJECTS INDIA PRIVATE LIMITED Maximum geometric unsharpness Material Thickness (inch) Under 2 (50 mm) 2 through 3 (50 to 75 mm) Over 3 through 4 (75 to 100mm) Greater than 4 (100 mm) Ug maximum (inch) 0. When complete coverage is Page 7 / 28 .
In elliptical form geometrical reason two exposures is radio graphed on 90° rotations in this technique. The radiation beam may be offset from the plane of weld at an angle sufficient to separate the images of the source side and the film side portion of the weld so that there is no overlap of areas. Only source side penetrameter shall be used. a minimum of three exposures to be taken 120° apart Cassette with film & Lead screen Source b) Double Wall Single Image In this technique the radiation penetrate double the wall thickness this technique is recommended for joints.DOOSAN PROJECTS INDIA PRIVATE LIMITED required for circumferential welds. Cassette with film & Pb screen Source c) Double Wall Double Image In this technique the radiation penetrate the entire weld at a desired angle so as to get full image on a single film. Page 8 / 28 .
Generally this technique is recommended for the major diameter where placing the source at center is possible. Lead location markers will be placed on the specimen at clearly marked interval.DOOSAN PROJECTS INDIA PRIVATE LIMITED Source at angle Radiation Weld Film d) Panoramic In this technique the radiation penetrate entire weld on 360°.7 Identification of Radiographs Location markers which are to appear as radiographic image on film shall be placed on the part not on the exposure holder cassette and their locations shall be marked on the surface of the part being radio graphed in manner permitting the area of interest on the part providing guidance on the radiograph that the technique coverage of the region being examined has been obtained. And the film is wounded the entire circumference of weld and radio graphed in one time. Page 9 / 28 . Weld Source Film 7.
Din wire type penetrameter may also be used on the basis of the material thickness and type The ASME wire type penetrameter shall be used as per ASME SEC V DIN 54109 wire type penetrameter shall be used as per Din standard.9 Sensitivity Requirements Radiographic sensitivity shall be 2% or better when using Din wire type penetramerts. The segments are to be marked on the welds by using yellow chalk or permanent marker for easy traceability. Page 10 / 28 .e.8 Image Quality Indicators (IQI) The image quality indicator used will be ASTM plaque or ASTM wire type as specified by ASME SEC V. All location markers for DWDI shall be positioned prior to radiography commencing and shall remain in position throughout radiography of that weld of successive exposures.) steel for steel Aluminum for Aluminum etc. 7. 7.10 Material for Penetrameter The material of the penetrameter shall be of similar radiographic density to that of material under examination (i. 7.DOOSAN PROJECTS INDIA PRIVATE LIMITED Location markers shall be placed according to that illustration in ASME SEC V Article 2.
14 Film Processing (Developing) The Temperature of the dark room in which the film is processed shall be maintained 20°C and the Relative Humidity of the room should be 50-60%. Distance between each film must maintain 12. Processing will be manual. Where in accessibility prevents placement of the penetrameter on the source side penetrameter may be used on film side and letter “F” shall be placed adjacent to the penetrameter. Agitation must be done with Stainless Steel Stirrer and stirring shall be done for 15 to 20 sec during each minute of developing to eliminate air void and to help development of film evenly.11 Location for Penetrameter The wire type penetrameter shall be placed on the source side across the weld so that the wires are at 900 to the weld seam. Page 11 / 28 .12 Back Scattering Check The Lead Letter “B” shall be kept at the back side of the cassette .The size of the Lead Letter Shall be ½” Height x 1/16” Thick. 7.DOOSAN PROJECTS INDIA PRIVATE LIMITED 7. After developing. if the lead letter appears lightly. it indicates Back Scattering .13 Number of penetrameters Penetrameter shall be placed so that one is visible on each radiograph if the density of the radiograph through the length of the area of interest varies by place on the area of interest. 7. A calibrated safe light (Red) of 15 Watts output shall be placed at a distance of 1.2 meters. 7. then there is no back scattering. When more than one film is used for an exposure a penetrameter image shall be present in each radiograph expect where complete panoramic exposure is taken there equally spaced 3 penetrameter shall be placed at 1200 each.If the Lead Letter does not appear.7 mm overlap.
Solutions should be checked immediately before the immersion of films.0 Safety Date & time of radiography to be taken should be informed to all concerned well in advance.15 Film Fixing The hanger along with film is to be agitated at two minutes interval. 8. Page 12 / 28 . Radiation Warning symbols must be displayed at the location of the radiography places. dosimeter and survey meter must be available with people executing the radiography. For developing. During fixing the temperature must be maintained between 190 to 210C.DOOSAN PROJECTS INDIA PRIVATE LIMITED Normal developing time is 5 – 8 minutes at 200C. 7. Radiation Warning Slogans should be written legibly in English and the local languages and must be displayed at the location of the radiography places. Logbook for temperature and developing time shall be maintained. visual check should be there about the surrounding and other agencies working nearby should be informed. Flash lights to be displayed to caution the surrounding people and passer by. While doing radiography. The area of radiography should be cordoned off. Temperature below 200C will retard the action of the chemicals sufficiently to produce under development while excessively high temperature (above 220C) can soften emulsion on the film. We must agitate the films initially for minimum 45 seconds and 15 to 20 sec after subsequent interval to ensure uniform and rapid fixation fixing time will be 15 min (Approx). Before starting of radiography operation.
the lower the exposure received. Safer Working Distance The greater the distance from radiation source. The safe distance from the radiation source will be calculated from the approved chart and the inverse square law is used to calculate radiation intensities at various distances from source I1 I = D2 D21 Where I and I1 are intensities at distance D and D1 .The End - Page 13 / 28 .DOOSAN PROJECTS INDIA PRIVATE LIMITED Source strength should be known and accordingly barrication distance can be calculated Before doing the radiography the available format to be filled by the radiographic agency and concerned site in charge and it has to be submitted to the Safety Department.
DOOSAN PROJECTS INDIA PRIVATE LIMITED 02. Calibration 11. 7. 3. CONTENTS 1. 5. 6. 4. Acceptance Standards 14. Purpose Scope Reference Equipment Equipment Calibration Transducer Couplant Personnel Qualification Surface Preparation 10. 8. Ultrasonic Testing Procedure. Rejection Level Page 14 / 28 . 2. 9. Testing 12. Recording 13.
receiving. Equipment The ultrasonic instrument should be of pulse echo type having “A” scan presentation and should be capable of generating.DOOSAN PROJECTS INDIA PRIVATE LIMITED 1. 3. Section Ⅴ. 4. Page 15 / 28 . ASME B31.0 MHz. Section Ⅰ.0 MHz to 5. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code .1 Power Piping ASTM E317.000MW Ultra Mega Power Project at Mundra Site. 2. Purpose Purpose of this procedure is to define the technical requirements and modes of operation to be met as well as the results to be obtained by the erector concerning the Ultrasonography Test. amplifying and displaying high frequency electrical pulses usually from 1. Scope The scope of this procedure is limited to Ultrasonic Testing to be conducted at 4. References ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code .
60° & 70° probe shall be used. Couplant Lubricating oils and grease shall be used as a couplant. 9. Straight beam transducers of diameter 10 to 25 mm with frequency of 2 MHz shall be used to check the base material 7. both 45° & 60° and 70° probe shall be used. Equipment Calibration Instrument shall be calibrated as per ASTM E317. BIS etc.DOOSAN PROJECTS INDIA PRIVATE LIMITED 5. For thickness above 12 mm. 8. Transducers Miniature Angle beam transducers with a frequency of 2 to 5 MHz shall be used. Surface Preparation In general. Page 16 / 28 . All welding undercuts are to be ground. Personnel Qualification The Ultrasonic Testing (UT) personnel shall be qualified and certified in accordance with a written procedure conforming to nationally recognized Non Destructive Testing (NDT) personnel qualifications practice such as SNT-TC-1A. 6. weld reinforcement shall be properly dressed to avoid unwanted indication. Welding spatters are to be removed on the weld as well as adjacent areas of the weld. or filled and ground. For thickness below 12 mm.
the gain at calibration shall be used. Page 17 / 28 .3 Move the search unit to get the maximum signal from ½ T hole. 10. Recording Any indication exceeding 50% of DAC shall be marked. 11. However. This line is called the DAC curve.6 Mark the four points on CRT and connect these points by a smooth line. for evaluating flaw.2 Position the search unit such that 75% of amplitude signal is obtained from ¼ T hole of half skip distance. Each scanning pass shall overlap at least 10%. 10. Scanning rate shall not exceed 150mm per second. Calibration 10. Testing Mark the half skip distance and full skip distance on the job on either side of weld. 12.5 Move the search unit to get the maximum signal from 1¼T hole.1 Calibration block with side drilled hole shall be used as per section V. Additional 6dB shall be given for scanning. Scanning shall be done with minimum two angles. 10.DOOSAN PROJECTS INDIA PRIVATE LIMITED 10. Move the search unit between half skip and full skip by giving slight oscillation.4 Move the search unit to get the maximum signal from ¾ T hole. 10. 10.
Rejection Level Indications from cracks. Acceptance Standard Defect Indication % DAC Above 50% Above 50% Above 50% Length of Defect Indication 6mm 1/3 T 19mm Material Thickness Up to 19mm Above 19mm and Up to 57mm Above 57mm In any length of 12T the sum of aggregate of defect length should not exceed T where T is the thickness of lower plate used. lacks of fusion or incomplete penetration are unacceptable. 14. Any defect indication exceeding acceptance levels are considered as NOT ACCEPTABLE.DOOSAN PROJECTS INDIA PRIVATE LIMITED 13. Distance between any two adjacent defects should not be less than the length of the larger defect otherwise both the defects are considered as single defect and defect length is considered totally including the gap between the two. .The End - Page 18 / 28 .
Magnetic Particle Examination Procedure. Lifting Power of Yokes 10. Reference 4. Surface Preparation 7. Procedures 11. Scope 3.DOOSAN PROJECTS INDIA PRIVATE LIMITED 03. CONTENTS 1. Calibration of Equipment 8. Safety Page 19 / 28 . Magnetizing Field Adequacy and Direction 9. Demagnetization 12. Purpose 2. Examination Medium 6. Construction Equipments & Instruments 5.
4. Article 7. Page 20 / 28 . Purpose Purpose of this procedure is to define the technical requirements and modes of operation to be met as well as the results to be obtained by the erector concerning the Magnetic Particle Test. 3. using one or more of the techniques listed below 1. Construction Equipment and Instruments A suitable and appropriate means for producing the necessary magnetic flux in the part shall be employed. which are finely divided ferromagnetic particles. References 1) ASME SEC V. Examination Medium Dry Particles.DOOSAN PROJECTS INDIA PRIVATE LIMITED 1.000MW Ultra Mega Power Project at Mundra Site. The temperature of the part shall be check by using temperature sticks (Thermo chalk). Prod Technique 2. are used for the examination. Yoke Technique 5. The color of the particles (dry powder) shall provide adequate contrast with the surface being examined. 2. Magnetic Particle Examination shall not be performed if the surface temperature of the part exceeds 600°F. Scope The scope of this procedure is limited to Magnetic Particle Test to be conducted at 4.
When a clearly defined line of particles is not formed. Magnetizing Field Adequacy and Direction The Magnetic Particle Field Indicator shall be used to verify the adequacy or direction of the magnetizing field. If coatings are left on the part in the area being examined. Surface Preparation Prior to Magnetic Particle Examination. calibration shall be done prior to first use. paint removers. Page 21 / 28 . or whenever the equipment has been subjected to major electric repair. scale. sand or grit blasting. If equipment has not been in use for a year or more. or damage. Cleaning may be accomplished using detergents. grease. vapor degreasing. the surface to be examined and all adjacent areas within at least one inch shall be dry and free of all dirt.DOOSAN PROJECTS INDIA PRIVATE LIMITED 6. by positioning that on the surface to be examined. it must be demonstrated that indications can be detected through the existing maximum coating thickness applied 7. The unit’s meter reading shall not deviate by more than ±10% of full scale. welding flux and spatter. 8. relative to the actual current value as shown by the test meter. or other extraneous matter that could interfere with the examination. the magnetizing technique shall be changed or adjusted. lint. or mechanical cleaning methods. de-scaling solutions. oil. A suitable flux or field strength is indicated when a clearly defined line of magnetic particle forms across the copper face of the indicator when the magnetic particles are applied simultaneously with the magnetizing force. Calibration of Equipment Each piece of magnetizing equipment with an ammeter shall be calibrated at least once a year. organic solvents. or is not formed in the desired direction. periodic overhaul.
Lifting Power of Yokes The Magnetizing force of yokes shall be checked at least once a year. The dry powder shall be applied uniformly by a powder squeeze bulb. Page 22 / 28 . Prod spacing shall not exceed 8 inch. A weight need only be verified again if damaged in a manner that could have caused potential loss to the material. Prod Technique – Direct or rectified magnetizing current shall be used for Prod technique. The removal may be with light blow of air. Each direct current or permanent magnetic yoke shall have a lifting power of at least 40 lb at the maximum pole spacing that will be used.The method used for performing the examination shall be the continuous method. Magnetization of surface shall be performed in two perpendicular directions with Sufficient over lap assure 100% coverage.DOOSAN PROJECTS INDIA PRIVATE LIMITED 9. 10. Each alternating current electromagnetic yoke shall have a lifting power of at least 10 lb at the maximum pole spacing that will be used. the current shall be 90 amp/inch to 110 amp/inch of prod spacing. The current shall be 100 amp/inch to 125 amp/inch of prod spacing for sections ¾ inch thick or greater. or whenever a yoke has been damaged. Care shall be exercised so as not to disturb the particles adhering to a possible indication. a check shall be done prior to first use. For sections less than ¾ inch thick. Procedures The Magnetic particle inspection consists of magnetizing the area to be inspected and then applying the magnetic particle to the surface of the test area. Magnetic flux leakage caused by cracks and other discontinuities will attract the magnetic particles and the resulting pattern will be characteristic of the type of discontinuities present. The current shall remain on during the application and removal of the excess particle from surface. Each weight shall be weighed with a scale from a reputable manufacturer and stenciled with the applicable nominal weight prior to first use. If a yoke has not been in use for a year or more.
shall be used. Demagnetization When residual magnetism in the part could interfere with subsequent processing or usage. or permanent magnet yokes. alternating or direct current electromagnetic yokes. hand gloves are mandatory Work permits to be obtained before start of work Ensure the area is free from oil and grease Ensure that no persons heart comes in contact with magnetic flux Ensure that proper work instruction and pep talk is given to the work men on regular basis . the part shall be demagnetized any time after completion of the examination.The End - Page 23 / 28 . The current shall be 600 to 800 ampere per 3 to 4 inch yoke spacing. Safety PPEs – Safety helmet. 12. safety shoe. 11.DOOSAN PROJECTS INDIA PRIVATE LIMITED Yoke Technique – This method shall only be applied to detect discontinuities that are open to the surface of the part. For this technique.
CONTENTS 1. Scope 3. Development of Penetrant 9. Application of Liquid Penetrant 7. Reference 4. Safety Page 24 / 28 . Purpose 2.DOOSAN PROJECTS INDIA PRIVATE LIMITED 04. Inspection 10. Removal of Excess Penetrant 8. Post Cleaning 11. Procedure 5. Liquid Penetrant Examination Procedure. Surface Preparation 6.
References ASME SEC V. 5) Development of penetrant. 7) Post cleaning Page 25 / 28 . 2. 3) Excess penetrate removal-Primary Cleaning. Purpose Purpose of this procedure is to define the technical requirements and modes of operation to be met as well as the results to be obtained by the erector concerning the Dye Penetrant Test. 3.000MW Ultra Mega Power Project at Mundra Site. Procedure A liquid penetrant is applied to a surface to be examined. 6) Inspection. 4) Penetrant removal by Cleaner Moistened Cloth-Secondary Cleaning. By means of a blotting action developer draws out penetrate from defects giving an indication of the defect. Scope The scope of this procedure is limited to Dye Penetrant Test to be conducted at 4. The excess penetrant is wiped off and then developer is applied to the surface.DOOSAN PROJECTS INDIA PRIVATE LIMITED 1. it penetrates into surface defects such as cracks or pinholes. 1) Surface preparation – cleaning 2) Application of liquid penetrant. 4. This procedure consists of the following steps. Article 6.
Inspection The interpretation shall be performed seven minutes after the application of the developer to a maximum of thirty minutes. Page 26 / 28 . Development of Penetrant The non. Before applying the developer the can shall be agitated by shaking.DOOSAN PROJECTS INDIA PRIVATE LIMITED 5. paint etc. Care shall be exercised to avoid over spraying. scale. The dwell time for the penetrate shall be a minimum of 5 minutes. Developer must be applied by maintaining a distance of one foot from the surface of the weldment subjected to the testing. which may mask indications. Using a chemical called cleaner which is a part of Liquid Penetrant Test kit does chemical pre cleaning. slag. Surface Preparation The surface to be tested shall be free of any dirt. 6. 9. grease. spatter. 7. This pre cleaning can be done by chemical and mechanical means. Application of Liquid Penetrant The penetrant may be applied by spraying or brushing and area shall include the weld and adjacent base metal for at least ½ an inch on either side of weld. Pre cleaning by mechanical means can be done by using power tools such as buffing wheels or grinding wheels. Removal of Excess Penetrant The excess penetrant shall be removed from the surface after the required dwell time by first wiping with clean dry lint free cloth and then with cleaner moistened lint free cloth. 8.aqueous developer shall be applied by spraying. The temperature of the item to be examined shall be from 160 to 520C.
Safety PPEs – Safety helmet. Ensure that work permits are obtained before start of work.DOOSAN PROJECTS INDIA PRIVATE LIMITED 10. Container shall be placed at least 20mtrs away from the source of ignition. safety goggles. safety shoe. Post Cleaning Post cleaning shall be carried out after examination and it shall be done with lint free cloth/paper moistened with solvent. 11. cloth rakes etc to be removed after the work is completed. Dust mask and hand gloves are mandatory. Ensure that cotton waste. Page 27 / 28 . Ensure that these waste are stored far away from source of ignition and send to dumping yard.
DOOSAN PROJECTS INDIA PRIVATE LIMITED Attachment.The End - Page 28 / 28 . .