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A Novel Algorithm for Cross Level Frequent Pattern Mining in Multi datasets:

Table of Contents:
Abstract List of Keywords Introduction Literature Survey Existing System Drawbacks in Existing System Proposed System System Design Advantage of Proposed System Requirement Specification Modules Modules description Conclusion References

We consider the problem of discovering association rules between items in a large database of sales transactions. We present two new algorithms for solving this problem that is fundamentally different from the known algorithms. Empirical evaluation shows that these algorithms outperform the known algorithms by factors ranging from three for small problems to more than an order of mag-nitude for large problems. We also show how the best frequent pattern mining has become one of the most popular data mining approaches for the analysis of purchasing patterns. There are techniques such as Apriori and FP-Growth, which were typically restricted to a single concept level. We extend our research to discover cross - level frequent patterns in multi-level environments. Unfortunately, little research has been paid to this research area. Mining cross - level frequent pattern may lead to the discovery of mining patterns at different levels of hierarchy. In this study a transaction reduction technique with FP-tree based bottom up approach is used for mining cross-level pattern. This method is using the concept of reduced support.


This discusses the theories and algorithms for the maintenance of frequent pattern space. Frequent patterns", also known as frequent item sets, refer to patterns that appear frequently in a particular dataset. Frequent patterns are denied based on a user-denied threshold, called the support threshold". Given a dataset, we say a Pattern is a frequent pattern if and only if its occurrence frequency is above or equals to the support threshold. We also denies the collection of all frequent patterns as the frequent pattern space" or the space of frequent patterns". Frequent patterns are a very important type of patterns in data mining. Frequent patterns play an essential role in various knowledge discovery tasks, such as the discovery of association rules, correlations, causality, sequential patterns, partial periodicity, emerging patterns, etc. In the last decade, the discovery of frequent patterns has attracted tremendous research attention, and a phenomenal number of discovery algorithms, such as are proposed. The maintenance of the frequent pattern space is as crucial as the discovery of the pattern space. This is because data is dynamic in nature. Due to the advance in data generation and collection technologies, databases are constantly updated with newly collected

data. Data updates are also used as a means in interactive data mining, to gauge the impact caused by hypothetical changes to the data and to detect emergence and disappearance of trends. When a database is often updated or modified for interactive mining, repeating the pattern discovery process from scratch causes significant computational and I/O overheads. Therefore, effective maintenance algorithms are needed to update and maintain the frequent pattern space. This Thesis focuses on the maintenance of frequent pattern space for transactional datasets. We observe that most of the prior works in frequent pattern maintenance are proposed as an extension of certain frequent pattern discovery algorithms or the data structures they used. Unlike the prior works, this Thesis lays a theoretical foundation for the development of effective maintenance algorithms by analyzing the evolution of frequent pattern space in response to data changes. We study the evolution of pattern space using the concept of equivalence classes. Inspired by the evolution analysis, novel maintenance algorithms are proposed to handle various data updates.

Apriori-based algorithms Apriori is the most influential algorithm for frequent pattern discovery. Many Discovery algorithms are inspired by Apriori. Apriori employs a candidate- generation-verification" framework. The algorithm generates its candidate patterns using a level-wise" search. The essential idea of the level-wise search is to iteratively enumerate the set of candidate patterns of length (k + 1) from the set of frequent patterns of length k. The support of candidate patterns will then be counted by scanning the dataset. One major drawback of Apriori is that it leads to the enumeration of a huge number of candidate patterns. For example, if a dataset has 100 items, Apriori may need to generate candidates. Another drawback of Apriori is that it requires multiple scans of the dataset to count the support of candidate patterns. Different variations of Apriori are proposed to address these limitations. Introduced a hash-based technique in to reduce the size of candidate patterns. proposed to speed up the support counting process by reducing the number of transactions scanned in future iterations. The idea of is that a transaction that does not contain any frequent pattern of length k cannot contain any frequent pattern with length greater than k. Therefore, such transactions can be ignored for subsequent iterations.

FP-tree-based algorithms: To address the shortcoming of the candidate-generation-verification framework, Fp tree-Based algorithms, which involve no candidate generation, are proposed. Examples of Fp tree-Based algorithms include FP-growth described in is the state-of-the-art Fp tree-Based discovery FP-growth mines frequent patterns based on a structure, Frequent Pattern Tree (FP-tree). FP-tree is a compact representation of all relevant frequency information in a database. Every branch of the FP-tree represents a projected transaction" and also a candidate pattern. The nodes along the branches are stored in descending order of the support values of corresponding items, so leaves are representing the least frequent items. Compression is achieved by building the tree in such a way that overlapping transactions share prefixes of the corresponding branches. Demonstrates how FP-tree is constructed for the sample dataset given a support threshold First, the dataset is transformed into the projected dataset". With FP-tree, FP-growth generates frequent patterns using a fragment growth technique". The fragment growth technique enumerates frequent patterns based on the support information stored in FP-tree, which effectively avoids the generation of unnecessary candidate patterns. Inspired by the idea of divide-and-conquer, the fragment growth technique decomposes the mining tasks into subtasks

that mines frequent patterns for conditional datasets, which greatly reduces the search space. Details of the technique can be referred to. FP-growth significantly outperforms both the Apriori-based and partition-based algorithms. The advantages of FP-growth are: rst, FP-tree effectively compresses and summarizes the dataset so that multiple scans of dataset is no longer needed to obtain the support of patterns; second, the fragment growth technique ensures no un-necessary candidate patterns are enumerated; lastly, the search task is simplified with a divide-and-conquer method. However, FP-growth, like other pre x-tree based algorithms, still the undesirable large size of the frequent pattern space. To break this bottleneck, algorithms are proposed to discover the concise representations of frequent pattern space
Data mining Technology:

Generally, data mining (sometimes called data or knowledge discovery) is the process of analyzing data from different perspectives and summarizing it into useful information - information that can be used to increase revenue, cuts costs, or both. Data mining software is one of a number of analytical tools for analyzing data. It allows users to analyze data from many different dimensions or angles, categorize it, and summarize the relationships identified. Technically, data mining is the

process of finding correlations or patterns among dozens of fields in large relational databases. While large-scale information technology has been evolving separate transaction and analytical systems, data mining provides the link between the two. Data mining software analyzes relationships and patterns in stored transaction data based on open-ended user queries. Several types of analytical software are available: statistical, machine learning, and neural networks. Generally, any of four types of relationships are sought:

Classes: Stored data is used to locate data in predetermined groups. For example, a restaurant chain could mine customer purchase data to determine when customers visit and what they typically order. This information could be used to increase traffic by having daily specials.

Clusters: Data items are grouped according to logical relationships or consumer preferences. For example, data can be mined to identify market segments or consumer affinities.

Associations: Data can be mined to identify associations. The beer-diaper example is an example of associative mining.

Sequential patterns: Data is mined to anticipate behavior patterns and trends. For example, an outdoor equipment retailer could

predict the likelihood of a backpack being purchased based on a consumer's purchase of sleeping bags and hiking shoes. Data mining consists of five major elements:

Extract, transform, and load transaction data onto the data warehouse system.

Store and manage the data in a multidimensional database system. Provide data access to business analysts and information technology professionals.

Analyze the data by application software. Present the data in a useful format, such as a graph or table.

Different levels of analysis are available:

Artificial neural networks: Non-linear predictive models that learn through training and resemble biological neural networks in structure.

Genetic algorithms: Optimization techniques that use processes such as genetic combination, mutation, and natural selection in a design based on the concepts of natural evolution.

Decision trees: Tree-shaped structures that represent sets of decisions. These decisions generate rules for the classification of a dataset. Specific decision tree methods include Classification and Regression Trees (CART) and Chi Square Automatic Interaction Detection (CHAID) . CART and CHAID are decision tree techniques used for classification of a dataset. They provide a set of rules that you can apply to a new (unclassified) dataset to predict which records will have a given outcome. CART segments a dataset by creating 2-way splits while CHAID segments using chi square tests to create multi-way splits. CART typically requires less data preparation than CHAID.

Nearest neighbor method: A technique that classifies each record in a dataset based on a combination of the classes of the k record(s) most similar to it in a historical dataset (where k 1). Sometimes called the k-nearest neighbor technique.

Rule induction: The extraction of useful if-then rules from data based on statistical significance.

Data visualization: The visual interpretation of complex relationships in multidimensional data. Graphics tools are used to illustrate data relationships.

EXISTING SYSTEM: In the Existing system the Top-down approach is used. The

Existing has implemented to find large 1 frequent pattern for all levels using new method CCB-tree.

Drawbacks in Existing System:

1) Top-down Approach 2)In this algorithm cant reduce the search spaces without losing any patterns. 3)There is no Reduction based frequent pattern mining for single concept level.

PROPOSED SYSTEM: Level-Crossing:

One approach to multilevel mining would be to directly exploit the standard algorithms in this area Apriori and FP-Growth by iteratively applying them in a level by level manner to each concept level. In this paper, we introduce a new study in discovery of frequent patterns based on the FP-tree. Our approach is different from FP-Growth algorithm which needs to recursively generate conditional FP-trees such that a large amount of memory space needs to be used. Our approach minimizes I/O costs by applying transaction reduction technique and applying the resulted transactions in FP-tree as input to subsequent iterations of the mining process. Our method adopts a bottom-up approach, with a leaf to root traversal, so as to identify frequent patterns existing between arbitrary classification levels. Our method reduces the search spaces without losing any patterns. A new approach to mine frequent patterns for multi datasets has to be considered. Work has been done in adopting approaches originally made for single level datasets into techniques usable on multilevel datasets.

In this work, we attempt to reduce the unwanted patterns and transactions using transaction reduction technique and applying the resulted transactions in FP-tree as input to subsequent iterations of the mining process. Our method adopts a bottom-up approach, with a leaf to root traversal with single FP-tree generation, so as to identify frequent patterns existing between arbitrary classification levels. Our method reduces the I/O costs and search spaces without losing any patterns.


1)Bottom-Up Approach 2) In this algorithm we reduce the search spaces without losing any patterns. 3)Here a new algorithm for transaction reduction based frequent pattern mining in single concept level.











Requirement Specification: Hardware Requirements: System Hard Disk Monitor Mouse Keyboard Ram : Pentium IV 2.4 GHz : 160 GB : 15 VGA color : Logitech. : 110 keys enhanced : 1 GB

Software Requirements: Os Language : Windows Xp,7 : .Net

Data Base

: Sql server 2005

Modules Multilevel Association mining Find frequent item set(Apriori algorithm) CCB- Tree mining FP-Tree generation Frequent pattern generation Performance evaluation

Modules Description

Multilevel Association mining: In data mining, association rule learning is a popular and well researched method for discovering interesting relations between

variables in large databases. It is intended to identify strong rules discovered in databases using different measures of interestingness. e.g., promotional pricing or product placements. In addition to the above example from market basket analysis association rules are employed today in many application areas including Web usage mining, intrusion detection, Continuous production and bioinformatics. As opposed to sequence mining, association rule learning typically does not consider the order of items either within a transaction or across transactions. Find frequent item set Apriori is the most influential algorithm for frequent pattern discovery. Many Discovery algorithms are inspired by Apriori. Apriori employs a candidate- generation-verification" framework. The algorithm generates its candidate patterns using a level-wise" search. The essential idea of the level-wise search is to iteratively enumerate the set of candidate patterns of length (k + 1) from the set of frequent patterns of length k. Using this we can find the frequent item set.

CCB- Tree mining :

CCB Tree Algorithm has been used to find multilevel frequent 1 pattern for all levels. CCB Tree starts from Left most initial node and deletes the minimum support count to provide the reduced transaction table.

FP-Tree generation: A FP-tree is a compact data structure that represents the data set in tree form. Each transaction is read and then mapped onto a path in the FP-tree. This is done until all transactions have been read. Different transactions that have common subsets allow the tree to remain compact because their paths overlap. The diagram to the right is an example of a best-case scenario that occurs when all transactions have exactly the same item set; the size of the FP-tree will be only a single branch of nodes. Frequent pattern generation: FP-tree, the next phase is to generate candidate item sets and find frequent patterns. Cross-level frequent pattern with bottom up approach starts from the leaf nodes of an existing FP-tree and traverses each branch upwards until it reaches its root. We begin by scanning the tree and identifying its leaf nodes. A pointer to each leaf is then inserting into the leaf node array. We now perform a bottom up scan of each leaf node until we reach the root. Meanwhile each node visited is conserved into temporary buffer for recording the passing path when a node with support count is visited. Candidate Generation keeps the path from starting node.

Performance evaluation: In this module we can evaluate the performance of the result of this process in the graph. In this graph we can conclude the result perfectly. Its easy to analyze bye the users.


Mining frequent item sets without candidate generation Implements In many cases, the Apriori algorithm signicantly reduces the size of candidate sets using the Apriori principle. However, it can suffer from two-nontrivial costs: (1) (2) (3) Generating a huge number of candidate sets, repeatedly scanning the database and checking the candidates by pattern matching. Devised an FP-growth method that mines the complete set of frequent item sets without candidate generation. FPgrowth works in a divide-and-conquer way. The rst scan of the database derives a list of frequent items in which items are ordered by frequency descending order.

Algorithm for Efficient Multilevel Association Rule Mining Implements Over the years, a variety of algorithms for finding frequent item sets in very large transaction databases have been developed. The problems of finding frequent item sets are basic in multi level association rule mining, fast algorithms for solving problems are needed. This paper presents an efficient version of apriori algorithm for mining multi-level association rules in large databases to finding maximum frequent item set at lower level of abstraction. We propose a new, fast and an efficient algorithm (SC-BF Multilevel) with single scan of database for mining complete frequent item sets. To reduce the execution time and increase throughput in new method. Our proposed algorithm works well comparison with general approach of multilevel association rules. An Efficient Algorithm for Mining Multilevel Association Rule Based on Pincer Search Implements
Discovering frequent item set is a key difficulty in significant data mining applications, such as the discovery of association rules, strong rules, episodes, and minimal keys. The problem of developing models and algorithms for multilevel association mining poses for new challenges for mathematics and computer science. In this paper, we present a model of mining multilevel association rules which satisfies the different minimum support at each level, we have employed princer search concepts, multilevel taxonomy and different minimum supports to find multilevel association rules in a given transaction data set. This search is used

only for maintaining and updating a new data structure. It is used to prune early candidates that would normally encounter in the top-down search. A main characteristic of the algorithms is that it does not require explicit examination of every frequent item sets, an example is also given to demonstrate and support that the proposed mining algorithm can derive the multiple-level association rules under different supports in a simple and effective manner

Fast Algorithm for Mining Multi-Level Association Rules in Large Databases Implements Association rule mining finds interesting association among a large set of data items. With massive amount of data continuously being collected and stored. Many industries are becoming interested in mining association rules from their databases. The discovery of interesting association relationship among huge amount of business transaction records can help in much business decision making process, such as catalogue design, cross marketing and loss leader analysis.

An Efficient Approach for Incremental Association Rule Mining

Implements we study the issue of maintaining association rules in a large database of sales transactions. The maintenance of association rules can be mapped into the problem of maintaining large itemsets in the database. Because the mining of association rules is time-consuming, we need an efficient approach to maintain the large itemsets when the database is updated. In this paper, we present efficient approaches to solve the problem. Our approaches store the itemsets that are not large at present but may become large itemsets after updating the database, so that

the cost of processing the updated database can be reduced. Moreover, we discuss the cases where the large itemsets can be obtained without scanning the original database. Experimental results show that our algorithms outperform other algorithms, especially when the original database need not be scanned in our algorithms.

Transaction databases in many applications contain data that has built-in hierarchy information. In such databases, users may be interested in finding association among items only at the same level and we extended the scope of study of mining level-crossing association rules from large databases. A transaction reduction technique based method is used to reduce the unwanted candidates and transactions and applying the resulted transactions in FP-tree as input to subsequent iterations of the mining process. We adopted a bottom-up approach, with a leaf to root traversal with single FP-tree generation, so as to identify frequent patterns existing between arbitrary classification levels. Our method reduces the I/O costs and search spaces without losing any patterns. Performance Evaluation demonstrates the viability of our new method. In future, an efficient algorithm can be generated to reduce the redundancy in cross-level association rules.

[1] T.Eavis and XI Zheng, Multi-Level Frequent Pattern Mining, in Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009, pp. 369 383. [2] Dr.K.Duraiswamy and B.Jayanthi, a Novel preprocessing Algorithm for Frequent Pattern Mining in Mutidatasets, International Journal of Data Engineering,Vol. 2, No. 3, Aug 2011. [3] Han, J., Fu, Y., Discovery of Multiple-Level Association Rules from Large Databases, in Proceedings of the 21st Very Large Data Bases Conference, Morgan Kaufmann, P. 420-431, 1995. [4] Yinbo WAN, Yong LIANG, Liya DING, Mining Multilevel Association Rules from Primitive Frequent Item sets, Journal of Macau University of Science and Technology, Vol.3 No.1, 2009 [5] Thakur, R. S., Jain, R. C., Pardasani, K. R., Mining Level-Crossing Association Rules from Large Databases, in the Journal of Computer Science 2(1), P. 76-81, 2006. [6] R.E.Thevar, R.Krishnamoorthy, A New Approach of Modified Transaction Reduction Algorithm For mining Frequent Item set, proceedings of IEEE Workshop on Data mining and Artificial Intelligence, 2008. [7] Rajkumar.N, Karthik.M.R, Sivanada.S.N, Fast Algorithm for mining multilevel Association Rules,IEEE Trans. Knowledge and Data Engg., Vol.2 pp. 688-692, 2003. [8] Pratima Gautham, Pardasani, K. R., Algorithm for Efficient Multilevel Association Rule Mining, International Journal of Computer Science and Engineering, Vol.2 pp. 1700-1704, 2010