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Department of Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering, University of Moratuwa

Project Presentation

Intracranial Hematoma Detection
G.K.I. Abayarathna : 050001A Gartheeban Ganeshapillai : 050131V E.D.R. Kumara : 050234N W.M.D. Soysa : 050440R Supervised By: Dr. A. A. Pasqual
Final Year Project Presentation – Y05
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May 22, 2009

Department of Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering, University of Moratuwa

What – Whom - How
 Intracranial Hematoma (IH) is a highly fatal, albeit treatable, secondary injury.  Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI), the most prevailing cause of fatality in an accident, is one of the prime causes of IH.  Post-surgery complications is another prominent cause for IH, which requires continuous monitoring.

Final Year Project Presentation – Y05
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May 22, 2009

Department of Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering, University of Moratuwa

Incidence
In USA, on average 2 out of 1000 people suffer by IH. In Sri Lanka, on average 10 patients undergo surgery for IH, daily at National Hospital, Colombo alone, most of them transferred from peripheries only after showing external symptoms. There are only 4 teaching hospitals with the facilities to treat IH, in Sri Lanka.
Final Year Project Presentation – Y05
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May 22, 2009

Department of Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering, University of Moratuwa

Solution!
 Affordable,  Portable,  Safety abiding, device to assist in  on-site detection,  continuous monitoring, and  prioritizing the CT scan
Final Year Project Presentation – Y05
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May 22, 2009

Department of Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering, University of Moratuwa

Objective
Indicating the existence of extra-cerebral hematomas

Deliverables
Indication Visual imaging Comparison and analysis

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May 22, 2009

Department of Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering, University of Moratuwa

Problem
Multiple claims address the problem with disparate technologies, and we set out to find the most viable!

Final Year Project Presentation – Y05
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May 22, 2009

Department of Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering, University of Moratuwa

Tasks
1. Research to understand the problem and background 2. Experiment to find viable methods for detection, ascertainment and visualization 3. Development of a prototype – proof of concept 4. Design of semi-automatic algorithms 5. Enhance the accuracy, performance and implement machine-learning on the availability of adequate data 6. Field test
Final Year Project Presentation – Y05
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May 22, 2009

Department of Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering, University of Moratuwa

Intracranial Hematoma (IH)
Intracranial bleeding occurs when a blood vessel within the skull is ruptured or leaks. Leads to increases in intracranial pressure. Severe increases in intracranial pressure can cause potentially deadly brain. Early identification, prior to neurological deterioration, is the key to successful surgical treatment. Continuous monitoring and serial scans are used to detect delayed hematomas.
Final Year Project Presentation – Y05
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May 22, 2009

Department of Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering, University of Moratuwa

Types of IH
 Extra-cerebral.
 Epidural hematoma  Subdural hematoma  Subarachnoid hematoma

 Intra-cerebral.

Final Year Project Presentation – Y05
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May 22, 2009

Department of Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering, University of Moratuwa

Near Infra-red (NIR)
Between 750 – 850 nm wavelength Water has a low absorption Oxyhemoglobin (HbO2) and deoxyhemoglobin (Hb) have detectable absorption. Greater concentration of hemoglobin in an acute hematoma  Extra vascular blood absorbs NIR light more than normal brain tissue due to greater hemoglobin concentration.
Final Year Project Presentation – Y05
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May 22, 2009

Department of Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering, University of Moratuwa

Bidirectional Associative Memory (BAM)
 A recurrent neural network.  Used to establish hetero-association.  Popular for recognizing predetermined patterns such as characters.  Adopted for post detection integration – to identify and filter out improbable detections.
Final Year Project Presentation – Y05
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May 22, 2009

Department of Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering, University of Moratuwa

Others
 Optical Density
o ▲OD = log (I1/I2) o ▲ OD = log Io/Il - log Io/Ih = log Il/Ih

 Threshold detection  Pre-detection integration
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May 22, 2009

Department of Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering, University of Moratuwa

iHD Terminal
 Sensor & Data Acquisition Subsystem  Processing & Controlling Subsystem  Input Output Subsystem  Power Management Subsystem  Communication Subsystem  Firmware
Final Year Project Presentation – Y05
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May 22, 2009

Department of Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering, University of Moratuwa

iHD Mobile Application
 Data collection and Management  Normalization  OD Calculation  Threshold detection  Post detection integration  Visualization
Final Year Project Presentation – Y05
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May 22, 2009

Department of Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering, University of Moratuwa

Continuous scan
 Continuous scan over injured side and healthy side.  Approximately, 200 x 400 samples in 7 seconds over 16cm.  Automatically stopped after 10 seconds
Final Year Project Presentation – Y05
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May 22, 2009

Department of Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering, University of Moratuwa

Localized scan
 On four predefined locations on the head.
    A : Frontal area B : Temporal area C : Parietal area D : Occipital area

 First on the left side, followed by the right side.  400 samples per scan.

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May 22, 2009

Department of Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering, University of Moratuwa

Sampling

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May 22, 2009

Department of Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering, University of Moratuwa

Transfer
 Over any media supporting serial profile.  Eg: RS232, Bluetooth.  Layered Communication architecture.  Communication protocol specification.
Final Year Project Presentation – Y05
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May 22, 2009

Department of Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering, University of Moratuwa

Data management
 Additional data such as Record ID, MO ID, etc are stored.  Data is stored in XML.  Maximum compatibility and extensibility.
Final Year Project Presentation – Y05
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May 22, 2009

Department of Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering, University of Moratuwa

Analysis
 Normalization used to account for unequal number of samples.  Threshold based semi-automatic detection  BAM based filtering

Final Year Project Presentation – Y05
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May 22, 2009

Department of Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering, University of Moratuwa

Design - algorithms
 Direct visual comparison with reference scans  Optical Density (OD) calculations  Adopting radar system principles
 Instead of few localize scans, continuous scan over whole length  For each subject scan calculate corresponding reference value from reference scans by averaging  Variable threshold to detect a hematoma for a given probability of error.

 Post detection integration to eliminate improbable cases  Threshold detection to identify hematomas semiautomatically
Final Year Project Presentation – Y05
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May 22, 2009

Department of Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering, University of Moratuwa

Visualization
 Intensity based color maps.  Semi-automatic detection and visualization.  Approximate estimation of the location of hematoma.
Final Year Project Presentation – Y05
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May 22, 2009

Department of Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering, University of Moratuwa

Safety
 Following FDA regulations  Heating
 Cell damage is probable above 41˚C.  Cerebrum temperature is 35˚C, which gives 6˚C buffer.  NIR of 50 mW/sq cm contributes to 0.5˚C (sunlight 50mW/sq cm).

 LED Output
 Light output of an LED is 30% of the input  850 nm LED uses 50 mA continuously. Around 40mW per LED.

 Use of PWM
 50 mW/sq cm applied for 0.5 s will be able to penetrate more than 25 mW/sq cm applied for the full 1 second.  However it generates the same amount of heat.
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May 22, 2009

Department of Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering, University of Moratuwa

Best practices followed …
 Modular design in hardware
Isolated sensor, LED, communication and I/O subsystems

 Rapid prototyping for enclosure
Elegant, user-friendly design

 Design of communication protocol and abstraction
To structure the communication

 Use of .Net 3.5 platform
For broader availability, usability, and code reuse

 Use of OOP
Code reuse, organization, and maintainability

 Hosted at http://fyp.theebgar.net
Project repository, Knowledge base, Public Gateway
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May 22, 2009

Department of Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering, University of Moratuwa

Results
 700 mV through healthy side on reception, with the noise floor at 50 mV, maximum of 1.2 OD can be identified.  Hair absorption is high, needs higher power transmission  5 minutes for complete scan: Each scan takes 10 seconds, and data-transfer is instantaneous  Analysis in iHDMA is almost instantaneous taking less than 2 seconds for calculations on 400 samples.
Final Year Project Presentation – Y05
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May 22, 2009

Department of Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering, University of Moratuwa

Clinical Trials
 To assess the efficacy of the iHD  To obtain the statistical data of the area and concentration of hemoglobin
    Subjects : patients undergoing surgery due to IH. Scheduled on 23rd May, at National Hospital, accident ward Testing duration : 5 minutes Procedure: Scanning before undergoing the surgery and a follow up trial after the surgery is conducted with a duration of another 5 minutes, when possible. 2 areal scans done in each side of the head of the patient, and another 8 single scans on specific locations.
May 22, 2009
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Final Year Project Presentation – Y05

Department of Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering, University of Moratuwa

Financial Statement
Prototype cost
Item Bluetooth module Microcontroller Sensor and LED

Total R&D cost
Cost Item 7000 Components 500 Enclosure 2000 Imported components Cost 5000 25000 20000

Components
PCB Dual cell Enclosure Miscellaneous

300 Optical filters
300 Miscellaneous 1500 16000 1000 28600

55000
5000 110000

Final Year Project Presentation – Y05
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May 22, 2009

Department of Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering, University of Moratuwa

Problems faced
Power and safety
FDA regulations Hair absorption Ambient noise

Compactness of the device Detection and false alarm Field testing
Final Year Project Presentation – Y05
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May 22, 2009

Department of Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering, University of Moratuwa

Future directions
2D solution : Using an array of LEDs and sensors Compact design : Using surface mount components and aluminum body Modulated signal and matched filter : To improve accuracy Quick results : Performing basic calculations in the microcontroller
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May 22, 2009

Department of Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering, University of Moratuwa

Glimpses

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May 22, 2009

Department of Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering, University of Moratuwa

DISCUSSION

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May 22, 2009

Department of Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering, University of Moratuwa

THANK YOU

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May 22, 2009