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CONGO (KINSHASA) [ADVANCE RELEASE]
U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey
S. Minerals in the National Economy The mining and mineral processing sector accounted for an estimated 13. The Government renegotiated the contract for the Tenke Fungurume project with Freeport McMoran Copper & Gold Inc. 2011). p. 25%. b. 6. About 450. industrial diamond. Shedd. In September 2010. Mining rights are vested with the Government. 2010. p. and the companies’ efforts to determine the mine of origin. Olson. 2010). 2011. the Mwenga. and Sud-Kivu. p.S. 80948–80950). Congo (Kinshasa) accounted for about 47% of the world’s cobalt reserves. mined copper. p. Banque Centrale du Congo. and the Shabunda Territories. Tredway. 10. Niobium (columbium) production decreased by an estimated 58%. sulfuric acid. De Koning. and tin. the FDLR and Mai-Mai still controlled some mines and engaged in retaliatory attacks. Spittaels and Caesens. which established a certification system to reduce the trade in conflict diamond. of Canada in October 2010 (Mining Journal. tin. In April 2010. Companies that sold products containing cassiterite. refined cobalt. By December 2009. By the end of 2010. tantalum. 3% each. Edelstein. columbite-tantalite. copper. In Sud-Kivu Province. the smelters that processed the minerals. tantalum. 2010a. or wolframite that originated in Congo (Kinshasa) or adjoining countries were also required to submit annual reports to the SEC describing the due diligence measures taken. In July 2010. p. The country was not a globally significant consumer of minerals or mineral fuels (Carlin. p. the Government suspended mining in the eastern Provinces of Maniema. Securities and Exchange Commission. Yager The Democratic Republic of the Congo [Congo (Kinshasa)] played a globally significant role in the world’s production of cobalt. 2010. Most of the military units in control of the mines were former rebels from the Congres National pour la Défense du Peuple (CNDP) and Congo (Kinshasa)—2010 [ADVANCE RELEASE] were poorly integrated into the national army (Global Witness. gold. Congo (Kinshasa) was a signatory to the Kimberley Process. diamond. by an estimated 36%. tantalum. mined cobalt. the Kalehe. gem-quality diamond. The Government imposed the ban in an attempt to remove military and rebel groups from the local mineral trade (De Koning. Under the proposed regulations. the U. and tungsten production. 18). by 19%. 5%. Government Policies and Programs The Parliament of Congo (Kinshasa) passed a mining code in July 2002 that replaced Ordinance No. tin. 14%. 2011. gold. the Government succeeded in removing FDLR and Mai-Mai forces from mining areas in the Fizi. 2011a. 2011. by an estimated 27%. Crude petroleum production also played a significant role in the domestic economy. Congress passed the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act. p. the Government decided to terminate 24 of the contracts. The suspension remained in effect at the end of 2010. by 41%. and tungsten (De Koning. 2011 (U. The Government also launched military operations in 2010 to take control of mines in eastern Congo (Kinshasa) from the Forces Démocratiques pour la Libération du Rwanda (FDLR) and the Mai-Mai militia. the majority of the mineral trade in eastern Congo (Kinshasa) was under the control of Congolese military units. In May 2007. The revised code encourages private sector development of the mineral industry. the country’s share of the world’s cobalt production amounted to 51%. columbite-tantalite. 2011. by an estimated 55%. 2011. or wolframite were required to disclose whether these minerals originated from Congo (Kinshasa) or adjoining countries. by an estimated 42%. In 2010. 2010b. 30). 2011. most of the remaining contracts were cleared as acceptable or were successfully renegotiated. 2010. 81-013 of April 2. which accounted for most domestic niobium. by 16%.S. and tungsten. 21). the national Government imposed a $60 per metric ton tax on the export of unprocessed copper and cobalt ore to encourage domestic copper and cobalt beneficiation (Metal Bulletin. The U. tin.1 . the government of Katanga Province imposed a tax of $5 per kilogram on shipments of cassiterite and its coproducts to other Provinces. tantalum. the Government initiated a review of more than 60 previously negotiated mining contracts that were signed between 1998 and 2005. Nord-Kivu.4% of the gross domestic product in 2009 (the latest year for which data were available). and the manufacturing sector. niobium (columbium). the principal role of the Government is to encourage and regulate the development of the industry. The SEC was required to issue regulations in final form by April 15. 4%. and zinc. Production In 2010. Silver mine production restarted in 2010. however. by an estimated 22%. the production of refined copper in Congo (Kinshasa) increased by 57%. all companies registered with the SEC that sold products containing cassiterite. The reports also were required to describe products that contained conflict minerals and to be published on the companies’ Web sites (Global Witness. cement.The Mineral Industry of Congo (Kinshasa) By Thomas R. 40). 11. by an estimated 25%. which contained provisions concerning the use of minerals to finance military operations in eastern Congo (Kinshasa). and copper and tin. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) issued proposed regulations in accordance with the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act in December. In October 2009. undated. tantalum. Papp. 7. most of the miners produced gold. 2010).000 artisanal miners were estimated to be employed in eastern Congo (Kinshasa) in 2010. 1981. of the United States and Lundin Mining Corp.
output increased to 120. 3%. 2011). and tin. Katanga Mining Ltd. The proposed smelter would have a capacity of 800. First Quantum Minerals Ltd. and 8. Province du Katanga Division Provinciale des Mines. crude petroleum exports increased in value by 35% from 2004 to 2009. Katanga planned to increase capacity to 310.—BHP Billiton Ltd. By 2015.437 t of cobalt metal compared with 41. the negotiation of a purchase agreement for hydroelectric power.714 t in 2009. p. of Australia was considering a joint venture with the Government to build a new aluminum smelter in Bas-Congo Province. c). In 2010. Banque Centrale du Congo. the development of Inga 3. 26).225 t of contained cobalt in hydroxide from 70. tantalum. tantalum. production amounted to 47. gold. copper production could increase to between 175.. The company planned to increase capacity at Luilu to 150. and variability in power frequency (Katanga Mining Ltd. Most or all Congolese diamond.000 t/yr. and the port.Structure of the Mineral Industry La Générale des Carrières et des Mines (Gécamines). diamond. First Quantum announced plans to sue Eurasian Natural Resources Corp.. Tenke Fungurume was a joint venture of Freeport McMoran (56%). Banque Centrale du Congo. processing constraints at Luilu.—Mining at the Tenke Fungurume project started in the second quarter of 2009. 9). 2011. such as cobalt carbonate and cobalt hydroxide. produced cobalt and copper. 2010.000 t/yr of cobalt metal (Katanga Mining Ltd.000 metric tons per year (t/yr) in its first phase and would consume electricity produced from between 1.054 t of copper in concentrate compared with 1. 22. Depending on favorable results of expansion studies. In 2009. The cement producers Cimenterie de Lukala and Interlacs were privately owned and Cimenterie Nationale SARL and Cemenkat were Government owned.534 t of cobalt metal in 2009. 2010b. the share of Congolese copper and cobalt production that was refined prior to export was 60% and 7%. undated. Artisanal and small-scale miners accounted for most Congolese output of diamond. and tungsten production was exported prior to downstream processing (table 1. 38%. First Quantum Minerals Ltd. In 2010. First Quantum was also engaged in a legal dispute with the Government over the Kolwezi Tailings project (Mining Journal. and imports.001 t of refined copper and 2.000 t/yr by 2012 or 2013. Gécamines produced 20.2 [ADVANCE RELEASE] estimated cost of the smelter was $3 billion. 176–177). a lack of investment. niobium. The mine’s capacity was 115.271 metric tons (t) of refined copper and 9. copper capacity was likely to be increased to 130. Production was limited by the lack of sulfide ore from the KTO Mine. Mineral Trade Exports were estimated to be about $4. fuel. tantalum. respectively. Lundin Mining Corp. other cobalt and copper mining companies were privately owned. niobium. In May 2010.964 t of refined copper and 2. The share of diamond in total exports decreased to 5% from nearly 53% in 2004. and spare parts.000 and 220. Artisanal and small-scale miners also played a significant role in the country’s cobalt mine production. Cobalt accounted for 39% of the total value of exports. 2011. Gécamines’ joint ventures included its partnerships with Enterprise Generale Malta Forrest SPRL (EGMF) to produce cobalt and copper at U.. and tungsten. Katanga increased the capacity at Luilu to 110. 4.200 t/yr of cobalt in cobalt hydroxide. 46% of Congolese copper production was refined domestically compared with 5% in 2007 (table 1. power outages. p.95 billion. About 43% of domestic cobalt mine production was exported after processing to intermediate products. copper. The company’s production was constrained by aging equipment. Petroleum products accounted for nearly 14% of total imports in 2009. p. First Quantum announced plans to contest the Government’s decision (Njini. 19–20).000 t/yr of refined copper. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MINERALS YEARBOOK—2010 . the Government annulled First Quantum’s mining rights to the Frontier and the Lonshi Mines and forced the company to shut down production in late August. p. $4. and a new deepwater port at Banana. of China and state-owned company Société de Développement Industriel et Minier du Congo. Cobalt and Copper.580 t of contained cobalt in 2009. undated. The Government subsequently awarded the Frontier and the Lonshi Mines to a joint venture of Fortune Ahead Ltd. 2010.500 megawatts (MW) of installed capacity from the proposed Inga 3 hydroelectric power station on the Congo River.000 t/yr of cobalt by the end of the second quarter of 2011. and crude petroleum. Katanga also produced 6. 2011. the KTO and the T17 Mines and the Luilu refinery.015 t of copper in concentrate and 745 t of cobalt metal in 2010. crude petroleum. $1 billion (International Rivers. 2). Most of the decrease was attributable to increased production of and prices for cobalt and copper. of Canada produced copper at the Frontier Mine. which was a state-owned company. 2. In December 2010.000 t/yr in 2011. The Government annulled First Quantum’s mining rights for the Kolwezi Tailings project in August 2009 because of an alleged breach of contract.000 t/yr of refined copper and nearly 8. The value of copper exports also increased because of the increasing share of copper production that was refined prior to export. and Gécamines (20%) (Tredway.508 t of copper in concentrate compared with 92. tin. production was 52. and cobalt and copper exports increased at a much faster rate. and tungsten. p. The project depended on Government approval. ENRC purchased a majority share in the project in August. plc (ENRC) of the United Kingdom for $2 billion over the Kolwezi Tailings cobalt and copper project.37 billion in 2009.000 t/yr of copper and 8. Commodity Review Metals Aluminum. 5%.000 t/yr of refined copper from 70.353 t in 2009. The Government held an 80% share in the large-scale diamond producer Société Minière de Bakwanga (MIBA). Aluminum production could start in 2016 at the earliest. and poor infrastructure. 176–177).S. The 11. to 11% from 19%. niobium. 2011. In 2010.000 t/yr of cobalt in cobalt hydroxide. In 2010. Other mineral exports included germanium. 11%. In 2010. gold. tin. Lundin (24%).184 t of refined copper and 3.600 and 2. of Switzerland produced copper and cobalt at the KOV. 2010. p.
p. The company planned to complete the study by mid-2011.300 and 2. In 2010.100 t of copper in blister.000 t/yr by 2011 and to increase cobalt production to between 5. 40%. of Australia purchased Anvil’s share in the Dikulushi Mine. of India). Increases in the amount of ore processed were offset by decreases in ore grades and recovery rates.564 t.. Société Minière du Katanga SPRL (Somika) produced about 3. Contained cobalt output at STL decreased to 4. Increases in production were attributable to increases in recovery rates and the amount of ore mined and processed. The life of the mine was estimated to be 14 years (Anvil Mining Ltd. Mawson West was also considering mining a high-grade zone in the Dikulushi deposit and the nearby Kazimbula deposit (Avery. b. Production could start at Kapulo in the second half of 2012 (Avery.058 t (La Générale des Carrières et des Mines. The estimated capital cost of the project was between $130 million and $150 million (Metorex Ltd. and contained cobalt.800 t. Anvil and Mawson were engaged in a joint venture to develop the Kapulo project.300 t. 2011).500 t in concentrate in 2010. Mawson West restarted production from a stockpile at Dikulushi in late June. and Bolfast Co.the Luiswishi Mine and La Société pour le Traitement du Terril de Lubumbashi’s (STL) tailings treatment plant in Lubumbashi. In 2010. p. In late March 2009. resources at Shaba were estimated to be 8. which would produce 20. The cost of the project was estimated to be between $40 million and $50 million.000 t/yr by 2013. La Générale des Carrières et des Mines. 2011.000 t/yr in cathode and carbonate by the end of 2012. which produced copper from 1977 to 2002. CuCo completed the expansion in September.500 t/yr of cobalt in concentrate at Kisanfu. contained copper output decreased to 2.590 t in 2009. Anvil Mining Ltd.232 t in 2010 from 4.800 t/yr copper and 11.1 million metric tons (Mt) at a grade of 2. Ruashi Mining SPRL (Metorex Ltd. Depending on the results of the study. Congo Loyal Will Mining sprl of Hong Kong produced about 16. of Australia reopened the Kinsevere Mine. Congo Dong Fang International Mining sprl of China. Decreased output was attributable to a furnace relining in the first half of 2010 (Metal Bulletin. CuCo completed a drilling program for copper at Kisanfu (Wallop. 20%) was the second-ranked producer of cobalt in Congo (Kinshasa). ENRC produced 17.371 t of refined copper and 2.800 t (Province du Katanga Division Provinciale des Mines. In the first quarter of 2010.545 t from 437 t. about 1. Anvil placed the mine on care-and-maintenance status because of sharp decreases in copper prices. Chemaf SPRL produced copper and cobalt at the Etoile Mine and the Usoke Avenue copper SX/EW and cobalt carbonate plants.224 t from 1. the company planned to increase output to between 2.000 t/yr of copper from a new mine with an estimated life of 7 years. Metorex was engaged in a feasibility study on reopening the Kinsenda Mine.512 t in 2009 as the mine reopened. Mutanda Mining sprl (Glencore. of Australia and Gécamines planned to produce 35. Anvil also held a 90% interest in the Dikulushi copper-silver mine. In 2010. Copper and cobalt output increased by 61% and 16%. 75%) produced cobalt and copper from the Ruashi Mine. 2010c).3 . output increased to 29. 9. Metorex could produce 22. which has a copper content of about 95%.400 t of cobalt. 2011.144 t of copper.000 t/yr of refined copper and between 4. of Canada was producing nearly 1. about 13.. 2011). and contained cobalt production increased to 2. The new 11. Province du Katanga Division Provinciale des Mines.580 t of contained cobalt from 21.424 t of cobalt in concentrate compared with 9. the company planned to produce at the rate of 4. was produced by numerous companies in Katanga Province. The Kapulo project included the Safari North. of which 15. 2010. 2011). about 1. 2011. Anvil planned to complete a new SX/EW plant at Kinsevere with a capacity of 60.000 kilograms per year (kg/yr) silver. Chemaf produced 25. because of increases in the amount of ore mined and processed. Metorex planned to produce 36. Groupe Bazano. Groupe Bazano SPRL. About 3.600 t of cobalt in hydroxide and 1.776 t was refined. 2011. ENRC produced copper and cobalt at the Mukondo Mountain Mine and the Luita SX/EW plant.000 t/yr of copper in concentrate at the Kipoi Central deposit during a period of about 3 years. 2010c).200 t/yr of ENRC’s cobalt production would be refined at a new SX/EW plant (Mining Journal.5% copper and 8 grams per metric ton (g/t) silver. In November.900 t/yr. 2010a.000 t/yr of copper in concentrate at Kinsenda. refined copper and cobalt carbonate were produced at a solvent extraction and electrowinning (SX/EW) plant.. La Générale des Carrières et des Mines.000 and 6. Metal Bulletin. Cobalt production amounted to 3. contained copper production at Mutanda amounted to 16. CuCo Resources Ltd. which is located near Lake Mweru in Katanga Province. 2010b. 4. nearly 5.454 t from 2.. Copper blister. In 2010. 8).538 t of copper in 2010. 2010. Resources in the stockpile were estimated to be sufficient for between 12 and 14 months of production. which was placed on care-and-maintenance status in November 2008 because of the worldwide economic crisis. of South Africa.744 t was in carbonate. 2010.000 and 5. the plant was likely to reach full Congo (Kinshasa)—2010 [ADVANCE RELEASE] production capacity by yearend. p. and Gécamines.198 t of contained cobalt in 2009. contained copper production at Luiswishi increased to 7. and the Shaba deposits. Tiger Resources Ltd. 2010. Concentrates from Kisanfu were sold to Société Minière du Katanga SPRL (Somika) for further processing.545 t of cobalt in 2009. Mining Journal. 40%. In 2010. Volcano Mining SPRL mined about 2. The company planned to increase refined copper production to 75. 2010d). Mawson West Ltd.000 t/yr of refined copper in the second quarter of 2011.000 t/yr and cobalt production to 8. respectively. 36–37.000 t/yr of contained cobalt starting in 2011 (Metorex Ltd.880 t of copper and 6. In 2010. 2011).200 t. which would require the opening of a new cobalt SX/EW plant (Harrison. Chemaf planned to increase refined copper production to 35. Production then would be shut down at the existing plant.. of which 2. Metal Bulletin. 42). 2011). In 2010. CuCo Resources Ltd. Shalina Resources Ltd. and Rubamin SPRL (a subsidiary of Rubamin Ltd.832 t.. In April 2010. 2011).639 t.960 t of refined copper and 8. 1. Production at Kinsevere remained nearly unchanged at 16. 2010.790 t of refined copper and 3. In 2008. Gécamines was also engaged in a joint venture with Glencore International plc of Switzerland and Groupe Bazano sprl to produce copper and cobalt from the Mutanda Mine. the Safari South.
The Kibali Mine was expected to open by January 2014. and Sud-Kivu Province. The Bisie Mines in the Walikale Territory in Nord-Kivu were the largest Congolese cassiterite mines. 2010). of which about 900 t was mined at U. Gold produced in mines in the southern part of Sud-Kivu was exported to Burundi across Lake Tanganyika (De Koning. p.000 t/yr by 2016. 8). Mwana Africa plc of the United Kingdom engaged in drilling at its Zani Kodo project in 2010. was reportedly reopened in 2008 by Krall Metal Congo (KMC) of Austria. At Lugushwa. In early 2010. Banro also held the Lugushwa deposit.200 kg in 2018. 2011. and Mitwaba Territories in Katanga Province amounted to 1. Banro Corp. 2011). Nord-Kivu. of Canada engaged in drilling at the KGL Somituri project in the fourth quarter of 2010. the Government awarded mining rights to Société Minière du Kivu (Africa Mining Intelligence.5 Mt at a grade of 1. 19 t. In 2009. Somika planned to build smelters at Kalemie and Lubumbashi (Spittaels and Caesens. In 2010. 2010. In March 2010. 8. the life of the mine was estimated to be 16 years.. The company hoped to increase contained gold resources at Namoya to at least 62 t (Banro Corp. 2010)..687 t.368 t. and the Malemba Mine. 17–18).53 g/t gold. 2010. 28 t. 11).4 [ADVANCE RELEASE] to complete a resource estimate by the end of February 2011 (African Mining. columbite-tantalite exports from Nord-Kivu Province increased to 281 t from 87 t in 2008. About 72% of the columbite-tantalite exported from Nord-Kivu Province in 2009 was mined within the Province (Province du Nord-Kivu Division Provinciale des Mines.652 t. 287 t (Province du Nord-Kivu Division Provinciale des Mines. p. Kilo Goldmines Ltd.. at least 1. Production for the scheduled 21-year life of the mine was expected to be nearly 5. and Katanga Province. 6). Production was likely to decline after 2018. 2011. Kilo Goldmines Ltd. 10–12). 28. Manono. The companies planned to start construction at Kibali in mid-2011. Namoya. most of the reported gold exports from Burundi and Uganda reportedly were reexports from Congo (Kinshasa). of Canada was building a new mine at Twangiza in Sud-Kivu Province. Nord-Kivu Province.7 g/t gold. and the Kipoi North deposits starting in 2014.331 t in 2008. mines in Nord-Kivu accounted for at least 6. 2009. Tiger could build a new SX/EW plant that would process ore from the Kileba South. De Koning. p. 1.—The Lueshe pyrochlore mine.. Maniema Province. 2010. By the end of 2011. the Kipoi Central. Sud-Kivu Province. In July. and for a 30-MW hydroelectric plant to supply power to the mine. The capacity of the plant was expected to reach 85. Congolese military forces maintained control over the Lugushwa and the Mukungwe Mines in Sud-Kivu Province. and from Sud-Kivu Province. Gold. $134 million (Banro Corp. which accounted for a majority of domestic niobium production between 2000 and 2003. which was a former CNDP unit. The FDLR illegally taxed miners at the Lubamba Mine in Sud-Kivu Province. The Government reportedly sent forces to remove the 212th Brigade from Bisie (Global Witness. 8.400 kg in 2016.652 t from 6. 18. It is unclear whether recent decreases in reported gold exports from Burundi and Uganda represented decreases in Congolese production or the gold trade moving further underground (De Koning. the company planned to increase capacity to more than 9. p. Tin. 2010). and Kamituga. 2009. 2011. military forces obtained revenue from illegal taxation of miners. The company planned to continue drilling in the first quarter of 2011 and 11. Mwana estimated that resources at Zani Kodo were 11. In the first 6 months of 2010. p. and exports from Sud-Kivu Province decreased to 187 t from 440 t. 48 t. De Koning. p.—Artisanal and small-scale miners produced gold in the Ituri District of Orientale Province. Niobium (Columbium) and Tantalum. 2011). Columbite-tantalite was exported mostly through Goma in Nord-Kivu Province and Bukavu in Sud-Kivu Province. 70%) since 2004. In March 2010. Substantial amounts of columbite-tantalite were produced by artisanal miners in the Tanganyika District in Katanga Province. p. Mwangachuchu Hizi International and other mining companies produced columbite-tantalite at Bibatama in Nord-Kivu Province using labor-intensive methods.400 kilograms (kg) of gold in 2014. the Government of Katanga granted mining rights for the Katonge. production from the Kisengo Mine amounted to nearly 75 t of columbite-tantalite. p. De Koning. the ownership of the mine was disputed by KMC and Société Minière du Kivu (GfE Metalle und Materialien GmbH of Germany. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MINERALS YEARBOOK—2010 . and Sud-Kivu Province in eastern Congo (Kinshasa). 2010b). In 2009.mine was expected to open in the first half of 2011. The life of the second stage of the project was estimated to be 10 years (Foster Stockbroking Pty Ltd. cassiterite exports from Nord-Kivu Province amounted to 4. production from Bisie accounted for about two-thirds of reported Congolese cassiterite exports. 2010. Maniema. the Bisie Mines were controlled by the 212th Brigade of the Congolese military forces. Most gold exports were undeclared. 2011. In the first 6 months of 2010.004 t. and 17.1 Mt at a grade of 3. Banro planned to open a new mine in late 2011 with a capacity of between 2.300 kg/yr. 20). Congolese armed forces engaged in conflict with a local militia for control of the Moba Mine in Shabunda Territory. Depending on the results of the study. The 212th Brigade was estimated to obtain between $14 million and $29 million per year from the illegal taxation of local miners. cassiterite exports from Nord-Kivu Province decreased to 10. 28.S. the Mayi Baridi Mine.—Artisanal and small-scale miners produced cassiterite in Katanga. 1. and the Mayi Baridi Mines to Mining Mineral Resources sprl (MMR). Capital costs for the mine were estimated to be $377 million. p. 3 t. Mining Journal.400 kg/yr. the Katonge Mine. In the first 10 months of 2009. the Government ordered KMC to stop mining operations at Lueshe. In 2009. AngloGold Ashanti and Randgold Resources Ltd. In the fourth quarter of 2009. 2010.. and Sud-Kivu Provinces. Tiger also planned to complete a feasibility study on the second stage of the project in 2011. 2011. the Kisengo. 16. In 2009.500 and 3. 24 t. 1.908 t. p. cassiterite production from Malemba Nkulu.300 kg/yr.640 t of the cassiterite exported from Goma. Reserves were estimated to be 82.543 t from 13. AngloGold Ashanti and Randgold planned to produce 12. to 4. at least 656 t. Reserves at Kigali were estimated to be 286 t of contained gold (Moto Goldmines Ltd. which had contained gold resources of 84 t. which was a subsidiary of Somika. 7. of the United Kingdom each purchased a 45% share in the Kibali gold project. In 2010. In September 2009.
.000 and 700.485 carats in fiscal year 2009.331 t in 2010 from 443. cassiterite shipments shifted to Lubumbashi. Tungsten. Tullow Oil plc of Ireland held Blocks 1 and 2 in the Lake Albert basin. 30). 2010. 2010. Diamond was mined primarily in Kasai-Occidental. 2010). the Kinsevere. 9. p. the Ruashi. of which 1. of South Africa mined diamond from alluvial deposits at the Kasai Central project. and the Tenke Fungurume Mines. The Kipoi and the Kapulo Mines are expected to open in 2011 and 2012. Pangea Diamondfields plc of the United Kingdom held the Longatshimo River and the Tshikapa River projects. The opening of the Kibali and the Twangiza Mines is expected to result in increased gold production. Pangea announced that it was merging its diamond assets with IGE Resources AB. p.550 t in 2009. Diamond production could also increase if sufficient funds are available to reopen the Mbuji-Mayi Mines.—Wolframite was mined in Maniema. The Government also awarded Block 3 to SacOil Holdings Ltd. The Government also planned to grant nearly 80% of MIBA’s concessions to artisanal miners (La Prospérité.000 carats. 2010. which was nearly unchanged from that of 2009. p. By July 2011. MIBA mined mostly industrial and near-gem-quality diamond at Mbuji-Mayi in Kasai-Oriental Province before shutting down the mines in November 2008 because of declining diamond prices. 2011. De Koning. and Orientale Provinces. Spittaels and Caesens. Matthysen and Nimpagaritse. and decreases in wolframite prices (Cuvelier.—National cement production increased to 527. Namakwa Diamonds Ltd. the Mukondo Mountain. cassiterite exports to Nord-Kivu and Sud-Kivu Provinces shut down because of the $5 per kilogram tax imposed by the Provincial Government. cassiterite production amounted to at least 2. Province du Nord-Kivu Division Provinciale des Mines. In late 2010. the T17. and the Lumbembe projects. artisanal and small-scale diamond production was 16. 2010). 2010). In 2010. In fiscal year 2010 (which ran from the end of September 2009 through the end of September 2010). such as Burundi (about $350 per metric ton). The cost of increasing production to 12 million carats per year was estimated to be between $150 million and $200 million. and at the Kasai-Lumbembe.000 t/yr. p. Namakwa mined 40. 2010). The peak of production on Idjwi Island was reportedly in 2007. About 68% of the wolframite exported from Nord-Kivu Province in 2009 was mined in Maniema Province. to 168 t from 440 t. EGMF held a 98.75%). wolframite exports from Nord-Kivu decreased to 304 t from 548 t in 2008. In 2009. HeidelbergCement purchased majority shares in Cimenterie du Lukala and Intelacs. By late September. a total of 4. Rwanda (about $300 per metric ton) and Uganda (nearly $200 per metric ton) (Renaissance Capital LLC. p. In 2010.25%). Soco International plc of the United Kingdom (38. the Longitshimo. 6). and Foxwhelp Ltd. In 2010. 2011. Heidelberg planned to increase the total capacity of the plants to about 1. and Sud-Kivu Provinces. the Kasai North. 2010. the Government granted $10 million to restart mining operations at Mbuji-Mayi. The company planned to increase its production for fiscal year 2011 to between 196. In late June 2010. of which about 1.25 Mt was attributable to Katanga Province and 0. Resources at Kasai Central were estimated to be 2. Many artisanal miners abandoned the wolframite mines in the last 4 months of 2009 and moved to cassiterite mining in Kalehe and Walikale Territories because of poor working conditions resulting from heavy rains.8 million carats.11 million carats (Namakwa Diamonds Ltd. of the British Virgin Islands. Artisanal miners also produced wolframite on Idjwi Island in Sud-Kivu Province.—Crude petroleum was produced by Perenco plc of the United Kingdom and its joint-venture partners.4 million metric tons per year (Waerp and Arnoldson.000 and 240.34 Mt in 2010. The development of these projects depends heavily upon political and economic stability and favorable conditions in world 11. Cement prices were estimated to be about $400 per metric ton in eastern Congo (Kinshasa) compared with $130 per metric ton in Tanzania and $120 per metric ton in Kenya.—Artisanal and small-scale miners accounted for most Congolese output of diamond. Nairn.000 carats per year. 2010. including the Kamole Mine.5 . 28.579 t in 2009. the Government awarded to Blocks 1 and 2 to Caprikat Ltd.7% share in Interlacs and an 80% share in Cimenterie du Lukala. the KTO. the company planned to start producing between 200. which had a combined capacity of about 500. respectively. Industrial Minerals Cement. In February 2010. Congolese cement prices were also substantially higher than those in neighboring landlocked countries with high power and transportation costs. which had combined resources of more than 9 million carats in alluvial deposits. IGE had converted the exploration licenses at Longatshimo River and Tshikapa River to exploitation and small mining licenses (IGE Resources AB. labor disputes. and power supply problems.55 Mt to the eastern Provinces. and from Sud-Kivu. Kasai Oriental. Mineral Fuels and Related Materials Petroleum.016 t was mined in Punia Territory and 996 t in Kindu Territory (Matthysen and Nimpagaritse. Soco drilled its first well in the onshore Nganzi Block in the western part of the country (Petroleum Economist. p. and state-owned Cohydro (15%). of South Africa and Block 5 to a joint venture of Dominion Petroleum Ltd. 13–14.former state-owned company Congo-Etain’s mine sites in Manono Terrritory. an additional $10 million was expected to be granted to MIBA in January 2011. Prices for Congo (Kinshasa)—2010 [ADVANCE RELEASE] the industrial diamond produced by MIBA decreased to $6 per carat from $32 per carat. of Bermuda (46. 2011).104 carats compared with 20. Nord-Kivu. 2010. 28. Mines in Kailo and Kindu Territories reportedly accounted for most of the wolframite mined in Maniema Province.05 million carats. Congolese cement demand was estimated to be about 5. decreased production from mines. In Maniema Province. 35). Diamond. Outlook Cobalt and copper output in Congo (Kinshasa) is expected to increase substantially in the near future. the company’s cost of production was about $15 per carat. Production is likely to increase at the Etoile. 28.
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Quarterly operations updates—Tenke Fungurume— Fourth quarter December 31. Geological Survey Mineral Commodity Summaries 2011. 57–63. Banque Centrale du Congo. Ruben. [undated]. 2011. Gemstones: U. Copper: U. 2010c. 2011. Canada. African dams briefing 2010: Berkeley. Barry. no. 9163.php. September 2. Annual report 2010: Vancouver. Consolidated unaudited interim results for the period ended 31 December 2009: Rosebank. tin. Metorex Ltd. Cuco will expand cobalt concs production at Kisanfu: Metal Bulletin. 9136. 67 p. 246. at http://www. Metorex Ltd. 14–17. Pangea Diamondfields plc.. 162–163. British Columbia. 2010b. Ken. 2010. p.W. 9154. 144 p.php? id=5509&rubrique=LaUne.com/investors. 108 p. 4 p. ENRC—A leading diversified natural resources group. 17 CFR parts 229 and 249 conflict minerals. no. no.gecamines. CuCo Resources Ltd. Carlin. Africa Mining Intelligence. proposed rule: Federal Register. First Quantum Minerals Ltd. and Arnoldson. p. and Nimpagaritse. Mawson’s unique approach to Congo: Australia’s Paydirt. 2010. Petroleum Economist. Western Australia. IGE Resources AB press release. 9159. J.. p. Canada. Geological Survey Mineral Commodity Summaries 2011. no. Waerp. 12 p.. Co output: Metal Bulletin. in The Democratic Republic of the Congo—A Mining Journal special publication: Mining Journal. Kilo Goldmines Ltd. p. D. Australia. Metorex Ltd. 3. August 23. Sweden. K. It is unclear whether sufficient markets could be found for minerals produced in Nord-Kivu and Sud-Kivu Provinces when the suspension is lifted because of concerns about conflict minerals. International Peace Information Service..W. 2011. 2010. 2010a.B. International Rivers. Northern Katanga. Alex. 2010. v. Mining Journal. Johannes Krall: Africa Mining Intelligence. Annual report 2010: Rosebank.A. De Koning. Banque Centrale du Congo. 82 p. 2011. 2 p. in The Democratic Republic of the Congo—A Mining Journal special publication: Mining Journal.. 2010. 2010. 7. 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000 8. 26.Zero.000 Petroleum.600 120. mine output.000 4. the majority of production is from artisanal mining. 5 Reported data.800 25.000 230.223 1. 5 5 kilograms do.100 31.500 5. including brick clay. r 5 Congo (Kinshasa)—2010 [ADVANCE RELEASE] 11.500 3.000 1.000 116.401 2. bituminous 124.947 25.300 606 146.182 440. au contente Niobium (columbium) and tantalum: Columbite-tantalite concentrate: Gross weight6 nb contente Ta contente Pyrochlore concentrate: Gross weight6 nb content Silver.083 113.196 27. concentrate: Gross weight6 W contente Zinc.500 5 r r r e r. 3 Metal. are produced.632 2.970 360.TaBLE 1 CONGO (KINSHASA): PRODUCTION OF MINERAL COMMODITIES1 (Metric tons unless otherwise specified) Commodity2 METALS Cobalt: Mine output.233 thousand carats do. mine output. Revised.277 18.146 801 20.049 238. Cu contente Smelter.523 411.500 3.000 1. mine output. 6 Reported exports from Nord-Kivu and Sud-Kivu Provinces. Ditto.000 15. crude thousand 42-gallon barrels 9.275 25. 3 includes mine production and reprocessed tailings. 7 an estimated 20% of total diamond is gem quality. crude Tin. Co contente.697 2. but available information is inadequate to make reliable estimates of output. tourmaline and crude construction materials.000 850.000 237. do. crushed e 2006 2007 2008 2009e 2010e 27.000 10.000 150.000 120.000 -38. Zn content INDUSTRIAL MINERALS Cement. 2011. ge content gold.300 r 43. 5 r r.000 550.354 443.000 2.000 -2.300 25. may not add to totals shown. mine output.100 550 142.500 r 5 61.816 8.546 527.998 1. mine output.700 6.500 10.000 -262.009 8.600 716 370 13. 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 sulfuric acide MINERAL FUELS AND RELATED MATERIALS Coal.500 530.000 r r r 527 120 140 119 59 34.831 519. estimated data are rounded to no more than three significant digits. concentrate: Gross weight6 sn contente Tungsten.000 r 468 110 130 80 40 -120.800 40 16.000 35.000 -166.000 5.000 r r r.900 385 200 13.000 5 350 80 95 --5. 1 Table includes data available through November 4.000 217.917 2.903 9.000 128. mine output.331 16.000 428 98 120 --76.300 290 150 15.914 28. 4 Salable refined production only. 2 In addition to the commodities listed. 52 12 14 --67.000 9. Co content4 Copper: Mine output. 5 r r r e r.034 2.500 3.265 25.195 9. -.700 1.878 3. hydraulic Diamond:7 artisanal Large-scale Total Lime stone.000 250.586 5 5 r r 5 e kilograms r r 19. electrowon (low grade) Refined germanium. do.335 12.800 975 500 16. 5 r r.174 600 18.242 110. Ag content steel.000 14.800 6.000 250.382 5 e r Estimated. excludes white alloy and matte.7 .948 25.042 28.550 16.000 15.633 104.365 9.000 120.212 20.
do.000 copper. 115. see footnotes at end of table.TaBLE 2 CONGO (KINSHASA): STRUCTURE OF THE MINERAL INDUSTRY IN 2010 (Metric tons unless otherwise specified) Major operating companies and major equity owners Cimenterie de Lukala (heidelbergCement ag. and Shangalowe Mines Ruashi Mine Etoile Mine Luiswishi Mine near Lubumbashi Do. 115. La société pour le Traitement du Terril de Lubumbashi (STL) [OM Group Inc. Ruashi Mining SPRL (Metorex Ltd. 5. 4. Congo Loyal Will Mining sprl Congo Dong Fang International Mining sprl Rubamin sPRL Tenke Fungurume Mining SARL Katanga Mining Ltd. Do.500e cobalt. 87. 50. 40 kilometers south of Kinshasa Lubudi plant.000 copper. Location of main facilities Lukala plant near Kinshasa Kimpese plant. La Générale des Carrières et des Mines (Gécamines). Do. Do.000e copper. 80%) Chemaf sPRL (subsidiary of shalina Resources Ltd. 40. 12. KTO. Do. Do. 11. 1. Do.000 bituminous. and La Générale des Carrières et des Mines (Gécamines). 10.500e cobalt. 70. Do. Kamoya Central.000e cobalt. 50. Coal Copper and cobalt: Mine Do.000 copper.000 copper. 2. Blister Do.000e cobalt. Do. 36.. KOV. 24. Kalumines1 Mines in Kolwezi and Likasi Districts Dikulushi Mine Big hill tailings treatment plant at Lubumbashi 10.8 [ADVANCE RELEASE] Mine at Kisanfu Plant in Lubumbashi do. 60%. Kamoya South. 55%) Cimenterie nationale saRL Cemenkat [Enterprise Malta Forrest SPRL (EGMF) and La Générale des Carrières et des Mines (Gécamines)] interlacs (heidelbergCement ag. 13.200 cobalt.500 cobalt. Do. 25%.000 cobalt in ore. Do. 55%. 4. 300. and société de Développement Industriel et Minier du Congo do.000 cobalt. 1. 6. 80%) Chemaf sPRL Central African Mining and Exploration Company plc (CAMEC) Commodity Cement Do. 27. and T17 Mines Kinsevere Mine Mutoshi Mine1 Kakanda concentrator Kamfundwa.500 copper.000 cobalt.000.000 copper.75%. Do. 16. Frontier Mine1 Lonshi Mine in Katanga Province1 Tenke Fungurume Mine 84. Enterprise Generale Malta Forrest SPRL (EGMF).000. 36. 16. Do.000e copper. Katanga Province Kabimba plant near Lubumbashi Katana plant in Sud-Kivu Province1 Luena Mine annual capacity 420. 60. Do.000 copper.000 copper.000 copper.000 copper in ore. Do. Central African Mining and Exploration Company plc (CAMEC) La Générale des Carrières et des Mines (gécamines) Ruashi Mining SPRL (Metorex Ltd. U. Refined Do. 4.500 copper.800 copper. Do. Rubamin sPRL Mawson West Ltd. 800. Plant in Likasi Tenke Fungurume plant Luilu plant shituru plant Fonderie Electrique de Panda cobalt plant Ruashi plant Usoke plant in Lubumbashi Luita plant near Lubumbashi 2.75%) Katanga Mining Ltd.S. Do.000 cobalt.000 copper.000 copper..000e copper.000 cobalt. 70%) do. 9.000e copper in ore. Anvil Mining Ltd. 4.000 copper. Do.000 copper.000. 8.000 cobalt. Do. 2. 26. 16. 110. 25.000. Do.. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MINERALS YEARBOOK—2010 . Do. La Générale des Carrières et des Mines (gécamines) Fortune ahead Ltd. 5. between Likasi and Kolwezi. 4. Do. 20%] CuCo Resources Ltd. 57. 5.) Compagnie Minière du Sud Katanga [Enterprise Generale Malta Forrest SPRL (EGMF). 9. 40%] TEAL Exploration and Mining Inc. Tenke Fungurume Mining SARL (Freeport McMoran Copper & Gold Inc. La Générale des Carrières et des Mines (gécamines) do..300e copper.000 copper.000 copper. 50. Do..000.400e cobalt in ore.100e copper. and Lundin Mining Corp.
do. Lubi. do. na. 11. artisanal miners and Congolese military forces artisanal miners Forces Démocratiques pour la Libération du Rwanda Congolese military forces Mining Processing Congo (MPC). artisanal miners Commodity Diamond Location of main facilities Mines at Mbuji Mayi in Kasai-Oriental Province1 Mines at Aketi in Orientale Province. Do. thousand Perenco REP (subsidiary of Perenco plc) and Congolaise des hydrocarbures 42-gallon barrels do. Do. Bandundu. Do. Sodexmines. 20% (which was owned by Mwana Africa plc)] do. do. (subsidiary of Perenco plc).e 4. Do. Libwa. 440. Tungsten na.. Do. Do. na. na.000 zinc in zinc oxide. na.000. of which: artisanal miners do. Various sites Mufa and Mukungwe Mines Mines in Kalehe and Mwenga Districts Mines in Fizi District Mines in Lubero District in Nord-Kivu Province Bibatama in Nord-Kivu Province Mines at Bibatama in Nord-Kivu Province and Shabunda in Sud-Kivu Province Kifuku. Do. Mwambe. 17. Congolese military forces do. and Forces Démocratiques pour la Libération du Rwanda. Mwangachuchu Hizi International artisanal and small-scale miners 5. 12. Muanda International Oil Co. 1. crude Do. 1.000. Ditto.000e wolframite. 1. and Tshlala offshore wells Dikulushi Mine1 Kilimasimba quarry near Lubumbashi Sulfuric acid plants at Kolwezi and Shituru Plant in Lubumbashi Plant at Kambove Bisie Mines in Nord-Kivu Province Kalima Mines in Maniema Province Mines in Katanga Province Mines near Shabunda in Sud-Kivu Province Kasese Mines in Maniema Province Mines in Mwenga and Uvira Districts in Sud-Kivu Province and in Walikale District in Nord-Kivu Province Mines at Lemara. artisanal miners. NA Not available. Do.800. Tin Do.200e cassiterite. do. Motoba. Do.650. at Bakongo. Nsiamfuma. Liawenda. kilograms artisanal miners do.000 cassiterite. Do. Petroleum.000. Chemaf sPRL La Générale des Carrières et des Mines (gécamines) Chemaf sPRL Central African Mining and Exploration Company plc (CAMEC) Congolese military forces artisanal miners do.200. 120. and Katanga Provinces Mines at various sites in Ituri District Includes in Sud-Kivu Province: annual capacity 10. Muanda.e gold Do. 1 not operating at the end of 2010. Zinc Congo (Kinshasa)—2010 [ADVANCE RELEASE] 15. Congolese military forces. and at various sites in Bas-Congo. at Tshikapa in Kasai Occidental Province. Do. Silver stone. Kinkasi. 36.000. Lutunkulu.. Teikoku oil Co.3%. Moko.000. 5.7% kilograms Mawson West Ltd. do. 14.e niobium (columbium) and tantalum Do.TaBLE 2—Continued CONGO (KINSHASA): STRUCTURE OF THE MINERAL INDUSTRY IN 2010 (Metric tons unless otherwise specified) Major operating companies and major equity owners carats Société Minière de Bakwanga (MIBA) [Government.480. na. crushed sulfuric acid Do. na. Makelekese. 80%. Mibale. do. 11. 7. and other companies artisanal miners 3. 50%.000. La société pour le Traitement du Terril de Lubumbashi e Estimated. Mushangi. 840e cassiterite 500e cassiterite.9 .000. do. 27.000e cassiterite. Equateur. oDs Ltd. Do. Do.000e cassiterite. and Tshibue in Kasai-Oriental Province. and Sibeka Group. Do. Bakwachimuna. and Tubimbi and in Kalehe Territory Processing plants at goma Mines at Kamole in Sud-Kivu Province and various sites in Nord Kivu and Mainiema Provinces Big hill plant at Lubumbashi na. and Tschiende onshore wells GCO. na. 32.200. Ltd..
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