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A Seminar report on

Work Study
By Akshat Jain Submitted to: Mechanical Engineering Department


It gives me a great sense of pleasure to present the B.Tech Seminar report undertaken during B. Tech. Third Year. I owe special debt of gratitude to respected Mr. k for his constant support and guidance throughout the course of my work. His sincerity, thoroughness and perseverance have been a constant source of inspiration for me. It is only his cognizant efforts that mine endeavour have seen light of the day. I also do not like to miss the opportunity to acknowledge the contribution of all dignitary Staffmembers of college of engineering roorkee for their kind assistance and cooperation during the development of my Seminar report. Last but not the least, I acknowledge my friends for their contribution in the completion of the seminar report. Apart from my efforts, the success of this project depends largely on the encouragement and guidelines of many others. I take this opportunity to express my gratitude to the people who have been instrumental in the successful completion of this report.

Akshat Jain Mechanical Engineering. B. Tech(3rd year)

This is to certify that I have read this report and that in my opinion it is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a seminar report.

Signature Seminar Guide


1. Work Study 2. Method Study Or Work Measurement

3. Approach to Methods Design 4. Multiple Activity Chart 5. Micromotion Study

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15. Conclusion 16. References

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Work Study
Definition by ILO: Is a generic term for techniques, particularly method study and work measurement, which are used for the examination of human work in all its contexts, and which lead systematically to investigation of all the factors which affect the efficiency and economy of the situation being reviewed, in order to seek improvements.

Work study investigates the work done in an organization and aims at finding the best and the most efficient way of utilizing the available resources (man, material, money and machinery) to achieve best possible quality work in minimum possible time. - which involves least possible time and causes least possible fatigue to the worker

Origin of Methods Engineering Methods engineering grew out of the pioneering developments of the Gilbreths (Frank B, and his wife, Lillian M.) who developed many of the tools of motion study as a part of formulation a systematic approach to the analysis of work methods. Frank B Gilbreth first become interested in methods analysis as an outgrowth of his observations of brick-laying. Gilbreth, who in 1885 was employed as an apprentice bricklayer, soon observed that a journeyman bricklayer used one set of motions when laying bricks slowly, another set when working at average speed, and still a different set when working at rapid speed. As a result of his observations, he invented an adjustable scaffold and developed a set of motions that greatly increased the number of bricks that could be laid in a


Method Study Systematic recording & critical examination of the way of doing a work as a mean for developing more effective methods & reducing costs. Work Measurement Establishing the time required by a qualified worker to carry out a specified job at a defined level of performance

Work Measurement Establishing the time required by a qualified worker to carry out a specified job at a defined level of performance Recording Techniques - : 1. Process Charts 1. Outline Process chart (or operation process chart) 2. Flow Process chart (Man type; Material type; Equipment type) 3. Multiple activity chart 4. Two handed process chart (or Left hand-Right hand chart) 5. SIMO chart (Simultaneous Motion Cycle chart) 2. Diagrams 1. Flow diagram 2. String diagram 3. Cyclegraph 4. Chronocyclegraph 3. Models

Approach to Methods Design

Charles E. Geisel States that in order to design a system (method) thoroughly, eight elements must be considered. 1. Purpose: The function, mission, aim or need for the system. 2. Input: The physical items, people, and/or information that enter the system to be processed into the output. 3. Output: That which the system produces to accomplish its purpose, such as finished steel, assembled toasters, boxes, and so forth. 4. Sequence: The steps required to convert, transform, or process the input to the output. 5. Environment: The condition under which the system operates, including physical, attitudinal, organizational, contractual, cultural, political, and legal environment. 6. Human agents: The people who aid in the steps of the sequence without becoming a part of the output. 7. Physical catalysts: The equipment and physical resources that aid in the steps of the sequence without becoming part of the output. 8. Information aids: Knowledge and information resources that aid in the steps of the sequence without becoming part of the output.

Multiple Activity Chart

In those operations involving the combination of a person and a machine, a person and several machines, or any combination of people and machines where delays are prevalent, the multiple activity chart provides a convenient technique for analyzing the combined activity. Very often the objectives of this type of analysis are to attain the maximum utilization of a machine, to attain the optimum person to machine relationship, or to bring about the best balance of crew activity. For this reason, the time factor is an important consideration and necessitates the use of a graphical representation involving time. Use of Videotape In the past, the experienced methods engineer found that one of the most important aids was the use of motion pictures. There are many situations in which it is difficult to observe all of the action taking place because of the high speed of activities or the complexity of the operation. Having observed slow-motion motion pictures, we are familiar with the fact that one can take motion pictures at high speed and then, by projecting them at normal speed, slow the action down. By the same token, we can take the pictures at slow speed and project them at what appears to be high speed. In using motion pictures, methods engineers may have had several objectives in mind. First and foremost, they may have wanted a permanent record of the work as it was being performed. Or they may have wished to use the film for analysis purposes, commonly referred to as micromotion or memomotion studies, discussed in some detail in sections that follow.

Micromotion Study
Micromotion study, which was originated by Frank B. Gilbreth, is one of the most exacting forms of work analysis available for job improvement. It is an analysis technique making use of motion pictures (or videotape) taken at a constant and known speed. The film becomes a permanent record of both the method being used and the time consumed in doing the work. Although micromotion study formerly made use of motion pictures, very few companies today are using them. As indicated earlier, videotape equipment has been developed so extensively that it has virtually supplanted the use of the motion picture camera. Further it is so cheap and easy to use that it makes the older approach archaic. Micromotion study provides a valuable technique for making minute analyses of those operations that are short in cycle, contain rapid movements, and involve high production over a long period of time. Thus it is very useful in analyzing operations such as the sewing of garments, assembly of small parts and similar activities.

Work study is beneficial for: 1. To reduce ineffective time 2. To set standard time for a job 3. To improve methods of doing jobs 4. It helps in man power planning 5. It helps in estimating labor cost 6.It helps in budgeting

1) 2) 3)