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Carburettor » » » » » » » » » » Introduction………………………………………………………………………………….... History & Development…………………………………………………………………… Operation……………………………………………………………………………………….. Main open-throttle circuit………………………………………………………………. Choke……………………………………………………………………………………………… Float chamber…………………………………………………………………………………. Carburettor adjustment………………………………………………………………….. Eliminating the disadvantages of a carburettor……………………………….. Manufacturers………………………………………………………………………………… Types of Carburetors………………………………………………………………………. Spark plugs » » » » » » » » » » » Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………. What is the function of a spark plug………………………………………………… What is a resistor plug…………………………………………………………………….. What exactly is a spark plug "heat range"……………………………………….. What is the operating temperature of a spark plug tip……………………. What engine parameters affect the operating temperature of a spark plug……………………………………………………………………………………….. Is the correct spark plug gap important…………………………………………… What is pre-ignition………………………………………………………………………… What is detonation…………………………………………………………………………. Fouling……………………………………………………………………………………………. Hotter or Colder Plugs……………………………………………………………………..

» Various racing spark plugs………………………………………………………………. » Automobile spark plug…………………………………………………………………….

» References……………………………………………………………………………………….
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 In 1896. It feeds the engine with a mixture of air and petrol in a controlled volume that determines the speed. because a carburettor must provide the ideal fuel/air mixture under a wide variety of different circumstances and engine Rpm range. Most carburettors contain equipment to support several different operating modes. Unhappy with the performance and power. » Operation: – The fundamental function of a carburettor is fairly simple. England experimented early on with the wick carburettor in cars. but the implementation is fairly complex. This is carried out by the deployment of a butterfly valve.The Carburettor » Introduction: The carburettor is the control for the engine. acceleration and deceleration of the engine. Sometimes but not very often. The carburettor controls the amount of fuel in relation to the amount of air that enters the engine. » History & Development:  The carburettor was invented by the Hungarian engineer in 1893. The ratio of fuel and air the carburettor delivers can be changed by selecting different jets and adjusting the position of the needles. The carburettor is controlled by a slide connected to the throttle cable from the handlebar twist grip which adjusts the volume of air drawn into the engine.  This version completed a 1. 2 . called circuits.  Frederick William Lanchester of Birmingham. A system of fixed holes (jets) and. they re-built the engine the next year into a two cylinder horizontally opposed version using his new wick carburettor design. adjustable needles control the volume of fuel (petrol) to match the volume of air.000 mile tour in 1900 incorporating successfully the carburettor as an important step forward in automotive engineering. the manufacturers restrict the speed of the scooter for certain countries by fitting a reducing washer to the entrance of the carburettor. which is linked in turn to the throttle pedal in the vehicle. a single cylinder 5hp (4kW) internal combustion engine with chain drive. Frederick and his brother built the first petrol driven car in England.

so as to hardly restrict the flow at all. However. and thus ceases to function during idle. Most carburetted (as opposed to fuel-injected) engines have a single carburettor. through which the air passes. This valve controls the flow of air through the carburettor throat and thus the quantity of air/fuel mixture the system will deliver. – The main circuit requires a reasonable airspeed through the carburettor throat to function. primarily higher performance engines. "carb" for short) is a device which mixes air and fuel for an internal-combustion engine. » Main open-throttle circuit: – As the throttle is progressively opened. This in turn affects the engine power and speed. The pipe is in the form of a venturi . or can be rotated so that it (almost) completely blocks the flow of air. its pressure falls. where the idle circuit steps in. The throttle is connected with a bowden cable or a set of rods and ball joints. can have multiple carburettors. to the accelerator pedal on a car or the equivalent control on other vehicles or equipment. 3 . so another method of introducing fuel into the airflow is needed.it narrows in section and then widens again. The Bernoulli effect shows that as the velocity of a gas increases. and this high speed and thus low pressure in the middle sucks fuel into the air stream through a nozzle (a "jet") located in the centre of the throat. – The carburettor (or carburettor. This reduction in vacuum reduces the flow through the idle and off-idle circuits. Just after the narrowest point is a butterfly valve or throttle . The venturi (sometimes two venturi nested in the same barrel) makes the air reach a higher velocity at the middle than at the ends. the manifold vacuum reduces since there is less restriction on the airflow. – This is where the venturi shape of the carburettor throat comes into play. the carburettor's "throat" or "barrel". most cars built since the early 1980s use fuel injection instead of carburetion.a rotating disc that can be turned end-on to the airflow.– A carburettor basically consists of an open pipe. Carburettors are still found in small engines and in older or specialized automobiles such as those designed for stock car racing. though some.

more fuel to air . Here. But other factors do come into play. or manually operated. the carburettor has a "float chamber" (or "bowl") that contains a quantity of fuel ready for use. – Blocked "Jets" on the other hand allow less fuel to enter the engine and weaken the mixture giving rise to overheating and also poor running. except for the fact that it is closed off before both idle and main circuits. – The choke may be automatically controlled by a thermostat. special vent tubes allow air to escape from the chamber as it fills. » Carburettor adjustment: – The ratio of Fuel to Air is determined by the size of the holes in the "JETS" within the carburettor and is set by the engine designers. the inlet is opened allowing the fuel to flow under the fuel pump's pressure. is administered to the engine (necessary to compensate for the condensation of fuel inside a cold engine).Mixture screw. a "choke" is used. » Float chamber: – To ensure a ready supply of fuel. Usually. a richer mixture . If the float drops. 2. off-idle. Also a blocked air filter will have the same effect of restricting the air and forcing more fuel into the engine causing fuel wastage through inefficiency and poor running of the engine. 4 . – To achieve this. These are: 1. it is sometimes necessary to make adjustments to match the characteristics of the engine. It converts fuel from fuel pump pressure to atmospheric pressure. The "choke" for example restricts the airflow in the carburettor and thus more fuel. ignition and combustion happens less readily. a float controls an inlet valve. the low pressure caused by the restriction sucks fuel through all the fuel circuits . Although the carburettor is set by the manufacturer.idle.Tick-over. in turn. Thus. and some of the fuel vapour condenses on the cold intake manifold and cylinder walls. This is a device that restricts the flow of air at the entrance to the carburettor. this controls the volume of fuel that enters the engine when accelerating from a low engine speed. and main.is required. this controls the speed of the engine when the twist grip is closed to stop the engine from stalling.» Choke: – When the engine is cold. – This works similarly to a toilet tank. This functions similarly to the throttle being closed.

selecting a main jet with a different size hole will affect the volume of fuel it will pass. This restricts the flow of the fuel/air mixture and reduces power. to allow the fuel to pass through the jet. icing can occur even with temperatures as high as 38°C (100°F) and humidity as low as 50 percent. contributes to the temperature decrease in the carburettor. If water vapor in the air condenses when the carburettor temperature is at or below freezing. one can apply carburettor heat. there is a disadvantage to its use: the use of carburettor heat causes a decrease in engine power (sometimes up to 15 percent!). It is an anti-icing system that preheats the incoming air before it reaches the carburettor. Ice generally forms in the vicinity of the throttle valve and in the venturi throat. » Eliminating the disadvantages of a carburettor: – Carburettor ice occurs due to the effect of fuel vaporization and the decrease in air pressure in the venturi. ice may form on internal surfaces of the carburettor. which causes a sharp temperature drop in the carburettor.Size of the main jet. including the throttle valve. The reduced air pressure. 5.Height of slide needle controls how quickly the needle is lifted from the main jet. the engine will suddenly stop with little or no warning. If the float needle becomes worn it may cause the carburettor to leak and overflow. because the heated air is less dense than the outside air that had been entering the 5 . 4. Carburettor heat is intended to keep the fuel/air mixture well above its freezing temperature to prevent the formation of carburettor ice. due to the sudden cooling that takes place in the carburettor. This temperature drop can be as much as 20°C (70°F). – However. as well as the vaporization of fuel. However. If enough ice builds up. For example when a new exhaust is installed or a custom air filter it is likely that a higher ratio of fuel to air will be necessary and therefore a main jet with a larger hole will be required.The height of the float and float needle controls the amount of fuel available in the carburettor. As a preventive measure against carburettor icing. – Carburettor ice is most likely to occur when temperatures are below 20°C (70°F) and the relative humidity is above 80 percent.3.

so the movement of the piston controls the amount of fuel delivered.engine. -Briggs and Stratton. a division of the Ford Motor Company. Often a drip tray is used to collect the spilt fuel and eventually route it outside of the aircraft. In 1955 they joined with their major pre-war rival Solex Carburettors and over time the Zenith brand name fell into disuse. -Zenith: Zenith Carburetters was a British company making carburettors. This is a significant hazard as there is a danger of petrol leaking onto a hot engine or exhaust and potentially start a fire or cause an explosion. -Autolite. -Weber owned by Magneti-Marelli. » Types of Carburetors: 6 . Since the needle is tapered. As a result fuel can overflow outside of the carburettor body into the engine compartment. -Carter. regulating the passage of fuel. – In most carburettored engines. depending on engine demand. -Walbro and Tillotson for small engines. as it rises and falls it opens and closes the opening in the jet. -Rochester (A General Motors subsidiary. » Manufacturers: Some manufacturers of carburettors: -Solex: The Solex Company was founded by Marcel Mennesson and Maurice Goudard to manufacture vehicle radiators. -Pier burg. This also enriches the mixture as the carburettor does not compensate for air temperature. As a cold engine reaches normal operating temperatures. -Holley. These were fitted to several makes of early cars including Delauney-Belleville and buses of the Paris General Omnibus company. it loses horsepower due to the difference in air density. conical metering rod (usually referred to as a "needle") that fits inside an orifice ("jet") which admits fuel into the airstream passing through the carburettor. This piston has a tapered. also sold Weber/Magneti-Marelli carburettors under license). the air/fuel mixture going through the inlet system is also heated again to aid the vaporisation of the fuel droplets 'sucked' out of the nozzle in the carburettor. – Another disadvantage of most carburettors is that the fuel bowl can flood. -SU: The SU carburetters featured a variable venturi controlled by a piston.

the leading edge takes a position between 2 different sized discharge holes that are found on the main discharge nozzle. . -Vacuum Feed called “Vacu-Jet”. -The float is found in the bowl.Gas tank must have a vent hole to provide atmospheric pressure to “push” fuel to carburetor. -Newest design of carburetors for small engines.  Flo-Jet Carburetors: Gravity feed system .As the throttle closes to idle.Fuel flows by gravity to the carburetor. atmospheric pressure is employed to help get the fuel to the carburetor. .The smaller hole now becomes an area of lower pressure and fuel continues to flow--just enough for the engine to idle. -Choke valve is also different: (There are many problems with this choke system including sticking open and closed. (As fuel flows into the bowl. allowing more air/fuel mixture into the engine allowing an increase in horsepower within the same sized engine. -The float is attached to a needle valve. . . yet remain low enough to prevent flooding and/or leaking). work together to turn on and off fuel flow to the main discharge nozzle).Vacu-Jet carburetors require a richer mixture setting because the fuel system “lags” behind the fuel requirements of the engine at the high speeds that most small engines run at. along with its seat. The larger of the holes now becomes an area of high air pressure and the flow of fuel ceases. -Float level. (should be high enough to allow an ample supply of fuel at full throttle. . 7 . (The needle.Only “true” fuel system contains a diaphragm type fuel pump and a “constant level” fuel chamber. especially when remotely controlled).The venturi can be made larger.Again.  Vacu-Jet Carburetors: Fuel tank is below the carburetor .-Gravity Feed called a “Flo-Jet” by Briggs & Stratton.  Pulsa-Jet Carburetors: . it raises and lowers the float). -Pulse Feed called “Pulsa-Jet”.

leaving many people confused. Numerous questions have surfaced over the years. A spark plug is an electrical device that fits into the cylinder head of internal combustion engines and ignites compressed aerosol gasoline by means of an electric spark. The simplest gauges are a collection of keys of various thicknesses which match the desired gaps and the gap is adjusted until the key fits snugly. and can be used as a valuable diagnostic tool. Internal combustion engines can be divided into spark-ignition engines. A spark plug gap gauge is used to set the gap. The spark gap may be adjusted by the technician installing the spark plug. and compression-ignition engines (diesel engines). using. Compression-ignition engines may use glow plugs to improve cold start characteristics. or race mechanics in understanding. Spark plugs have an insulated wire which is connected with an induction coil or magneto circuit on the outside. Spark plugs are typically designed to have a variable spark gap. with another terminal on the base of the plug. This electrical spark ignites the gasoline/air mixture in the combustion chamber. Spark plugs are the "window" into the engine. Electrical energy is transmitted through the spark plug. 8 . hobbyist. The experienced tuner can analyze these symptoms to track down the root cause of many problems. Like a patient's thermometer. and troubleshooting spark plugs. a spark gap inside the cylinder. or determine air/fuel ratios. which require spark plugs to begin combustion. This guide is designed to assist the technician. which compress the fuel/air mixture until it spontaneously ignites. » What is the function of a spark plug? The spark plug has two primary functions: 1) To ignite the air/fuel mixture. jumping the gap in the plugs firing end if the voltage supplied to the plug is high enough. the spark plug displays symptoms and conditions of the engine.Spark plugs » Introduction: Spark plugs are one of the most misunderstood components of an engine. and forms. The information contained in this guide applies to all types of internal combustion engines.

or race car. the center electrode is split inside the insulator body and a resistive element is inserted between the two pieces of the center electrode. but high enough to prevent fouling. the heat range is a measure of the spark plug's ability to remove heat from the combustion chamber. These deposits will accumulate and foul the plug gap. » What exactly is a spark plug "heat range"? The heat range has nothing to do with the actual voltage transferred through the spark plug. Ignition voltage and current are conducted through this resistor to reduce radio interference from the electromagnetic field that is generated each time the spark jumps the electrode gap inside the cylinder. the gas volume around the insulator nose. The temperature of the end of the plug's firing end must be kept low enough to prevent pre-ignition. The heat range is determined by the insulator nose length and its ability to absorb and transfer combustion heat. the ceramic around the tip will blister and the electrodes will melt. In identical spark plug types. they can only remove heat. boat.making the plug "hotter" than a similar plug with a shorter nose. truck. Engine temperature will affect a spark plug's operating temperature. Preignition and detonation caused by the overheatede tip are likely to cause engine damage. Rather. the plug tip temperature must remain between 450° C and 850° C. The spark plug works as a heat exchanger by pulling unwanted thermal energy from the combustion chamber and transferring heat to the engines cooling system. the insulator area surrounding the center electrode will not be hot enough to burn off carbon and combustion chamber deposits. A longer the nose on a spark plug forces the heat from the tip to travel farther before it is absorbed by the cylinder head. and the materials/construction of the center electrode and porcelain insulator. which reatins more of the heat in the plug tip .2) To remove heat from the combustion chamber. » What is a resistor plug? In a resistive plug. The heat range of a spark plug is defined as its ability dissipate heat from the tip. leading to a misfire. » What is the operating temperature of a spark plug tip? Whether a spark plug is installed in a lawn mower. but not the plug's heat range. 9 . Spark plugs cannot create heat. When the tip temperature exceeds 850°C. If the tip temperature is below 450°C. the difference from one heat range to the next is the ability to remove 70°C to 100°C from the combustion chamber.

70°-100°C.The borderline between the fouling and operating regions (450°C) is called the spark plug self-cleaning region. resulting in pre-ignition. humidity. This is the temperature at which the accumulated deposits burn off of the center insulator. Higher intake volumes result in leaner mixtures and hotter plug tips. » Is the correct spark plug gap important? 10 . a colder plug using a narrower gap and higher ignition voltage is required. » What engine parameters affect the operating temperature of a spark plug? Air/Fuel mixture: Rich mixtures reduce the tip temperature.install a cooler plug. A function of temperature only. the self-cleaning region has no relationship to spark quality or intensity. causing fouling and poor drivability. Engine speed and load: Increases in firing-end temperature are proportional to engine speed and load. towing. the spark plugs will help you achieve an optimum air/fuel ratio. or pushing loads . Compression ratio/forced induction: As effective compression ratio increases through engine modifications or forced induction. and barometric pressure all affect air density and intake volume. Lean mixtures increase both tip temperature and combustion chamber pressure. Weather: Temperature. Ignition timing: Advancing the ignition timing by 10° increases the plug tip temperature by approx. when consistanly traveling at high engine speeds or hauling. It is important to read the spark plugs frequently while tuning after engine modifications.

insufficient engine cooling.008" from the stock setting because the gap surfaces between the ground and the center electrode may not be parallel for larger changes. » Fouling: Causes of Carbon Fouling:     Continuous low speed driving and/or short trips Spark plug heat range too cold Air-fuel mixture too rich Reduced compression and oil usage due to worn piston rings / cylinder walls 11 . the flame front goes supersonic and/or collides from different directions. Pre-ignition and detonation are separate events. During normal combustion. high compression. but pre-ignition frequently leads to detonation. uncontrolled burning of the air/fuel mixture while the piston is still rising. » What is pre-ignition? Defined as: The ignition of the fuel/air mixture before the pre-set ignition timing mark.Always use factory recomended gaps unless the engine has been modified. When altering the gap size for high performance ignition modifications. and can quickly burn the end of the spark plug. which will foul the plug. the flame front propagates across the cylinder at a controlled subsonic speed with the piston near TDC. or carbon in the combustion chamber. Excessive heat is usually what causes engine damage when detonation is ignored. lean air/fuel mix. Changing the gap can lead to intermittent misfirng. » What is detonation? Detonation involves rapid. The shock wave resulting when the detonation flame front strikes the top of the piston causes the piston to rattle in the cylinder. During detonation. a spark plug that is too hot. never go more than +/. This is caused by hot spots in the combustion chamber. low octane fuel. The manufacturer has designed the complete ignition system as a package. which results from advanced ignition timing. Higher compression or boosted engines generally require a smaller plug gap and a higher ignition voltage. The sound of this shock wave and the sound of the rattling piston is what people commonly refer to as ping. This rapid detonation strikes the top of the piston as it is still being pushed upward in the cylinder by the crankshaft. Detonation radically increases cylinder pressure and temperature. the voltage and timing of the spark from the ignition system is tailored for a specific plug gap.0.

In some cases. the spark plug may need to be cleaned / replaced and the fouling cause identified. the longer the insulator. the insulator nose can usually be cleaned by operating the engine at higher speeds in order to reach the self-cleaning temperature. Heat travels a shorter distance and allows the plug to operate at a lower temperature. A colder plug is required when an engine is modified for performance. This is called carbon fouling. Carbon deposits will begin to burn off from the insulator nose when the self-cleaning temperature is reached.) Nose length determines heat range. the firing end temperature will stay below 450°C and carbon deposits will accumulate on the insulator nose. the spark will travel the path of least resistance over the insulator nose to the metal shell instead of jumping across the gap. This means the plug has a higher internal temperature and is determined to be a hot plug. the less heat absorbed and the further heat has to travel into the cylinder head water passages. and the engine will not operate correctly. When the heat range is too cold for the engine speed. The borderline between fouling and optimum operational performance is 450 degrees Celsius which is the plug's self-cleaning temperature(accumulated carbon and combustions deposits are burned off. When enough carbon accumulates. Causes of Overheating:         Spark plug heat range too hot Insufficient tightening torque and/or no gasket Over-advanced ignition timing Fuel octane rating too low (knock is present) Excessively lean air-fuel mixture Excessive combustion chamber deposits Continuous driving under excessively heavy load Insufficient engine cooling or lubrication » Hotter or Colder Plugs: There are three basic determinations for spark plugs: good. If the spark plug has completely fouled. If the selected spark plug heat range is too cold. This usually results in a misfire and further fouling.  Over-retarded ignition timing Ignition system deterioration Pre-delivery fouling: Carbon fouling occurs when the spark plug firing end does not reach the selfcleaning temperature of approximately 450°C (842°F). fouled or overheated. the spark plug may begin to foul when the engine speed is low or when operating in cold conditions with rich air-fuel mixtures. 12 . A cold plug has a shorter insulator nose and absorbs more combustion chamber heat.

subject to heavy loads or run at high rpms for long periods. will reduce pre-ignition(ping) and reduces the chance of firing end burn-out. » Various racing spark plugs: 13 . The colder plug removes heat more quickly. Engine temperature affects the spark plug's operating temperature but not its heat range.

Automobile spark plug: electric part generating sparks to ignite an internal combustion engine.Center electrode: central current conductor. 14 .Resistance: device that controls the strength of the current. . .Hex nut: hexagonal piece of metal used to screw in a spark plug.Gasket: spot where two part join together. . . .Ceramic insulator: pottery support for the parts that conduct electricity.Spline: hollow channel. . . .Spark plug body: metal part of the spark plug.» Automobile spark plug: .Spark plug gap: space separating the current conductors.Ground electrode: current device that unites the electrodes. . .Terminal: place where a current-conducting wire is attached.

mht .mht -http://www.\spark plug\Spark Plug.htm -Racing_Spark_Plugs_Performance_Applications.mht -http://www.\spark plug\NGK Spark Plugs USA.http://www.pdf -Carburetors_Types.\carburettor\The Working Principle Of Simple Carburettor. Thesaurus and Encyclopedia.definition of carburettor by the Free Online Dictionary.\carburettor .htm -http://www.\spark plug\Automobile spark plug.» References: -http://www.ppt 15 .