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Sanitary Operations: Cleaning and Sanitizing
In Module 5 we outlined the need to design, construct and use food processing equipment and utensils that are easy to clean. In this module we will discuss the part of the GMP that requires you to properly clean that equipment along with the rest of the processing facility. This module will help you understand the GMP requirements for: • General maintenance and sanitary condition of buildings, fixtures and facilities. • Proper selection and use of cleaning and sanitizing chemicals. • General cleaning and sanitizing procedures. • Proper cleaning and sanitation of food contact surfaces. • Storage and handling of cleaned equipment and utensils. These requirements are found in Subpart B, Section §110.35 of the GMP regulation. There are 44 pages, 5 GMP TVs, 10 links to Internet resources, and 6 questions in this Module. We’ll continue to use the GMP TV to provide some examples of good and bad practices.

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The GMP requires that you keep your facility and all equipment, utensils and food contact surfaces clean and sanitary, but it does not tell you how to do it. So we will begin this Module with detailed information on how to properly clean and sanitize and then follow with a discussion of the specific GMP requirements. Before we discuss how to clean and sanitize, it is important to understand the definitions of cleaning, sanitizing, and food contact surfaces. Cleaning means the removal of dirt, food residue, and any other materials from a surface, utensil, or equipment using detergents or other cleaning aids and either mechanical or detergent scrubbing actions, followed by rinsing. Sanitizing means the application of a chemical or heat to a clean surface that will kill microorganisms. The definitions section of the GMP regulation states that: Sanitize means to adequately treat food-contact surfaces by a process that is effective in destroying vegetative cells of microorganisms of public health significance, and in substantially reducing numbers of other undesirable microorganisms, but without adversely affecting the product or its safety for the consumer. Food contact surfaces are defined in the GMP as those surfaces that contact human food and those surfaces from which drainage onto the food or onto surfaces that contact the food ordinarily occurs during the normal course of operations. Food-contact surfaces include utensils and food-contact surfaces of equipment. Because food contact surfaces represent the highest risk of direct food contamination, they may need to be cleaned and sanitized more often and more vigorously than other areas of your processing facility. Food contact surfaces may include employee garments, gloves, and hands in addition to equipment and utensils.

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How To Clean
Remove Soil: Let’s start with cleaning, which is the process of removing the soil from the plant and processing equipment. The soil that we want to remove can include food debris made up of fats, carbohydrates, proteins and minerals, dirt, and other undesirable material which build up on food contact surfaces and provide nutrients that bacteria can use to grow and multiply. After cleaning, a sanitizer is applied to destroy microorganisms that may be left on the surface. It is important to remember that a sanitizer will lose its effectiveness against bacteria unless food debris has been completely removed from equipment and food contact surfaces. There are two basic types of cleaning methods: manual and Clean-In-Place (CIP). Manual Cleaning is not just a brush and bucket! It involves selecting the right cleaners, using the right method to apply cleaning agents, and then using whatever mechanical action is needed to remove the soil from the food contact surface. Clean-In-Place (CIP) is a method of cleaning enclosed pipes and equipment that uses re-circulation of cleaning and sanitizing solutions. This method is used for equipment that cannot be easily broken down for cleaning.

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Use The Right Tools
Whether you use a manual or clean-in place system, developing an effective cleaning and sanitizing program requires that you have the right tools for the job. These tools should include: • Plenty of potable water (both hot and cold water may be needed). • Detergents appropriate for use in food plants. • Acceptable cleaning tools such as brushes, pads, brooms, foam applicators, and sprayers. • Approved sanitizing solutions that will kill microorganisms but not contaminate food. • Effective cleaning and sanitizing procedures for your facility and all of its equipment and utensils. • Trained employees to conduct cleaning & sanitizing procedures properly. • Monitoring activities to verify that procedures are effective. Let’s look at each of these items in more detail.

food debris. you will end up trying to wash utensils and equipment in a soupy mixture of water. If you don’t remove the heavy soil. Some firms may have to treat their water to achieve these qualities.module 7 • page 5 of 44 Water Is Essential For Cleaning Water Quality: You must have an adequate water supply to clean soiled equipment. Water Temperature: The temperature of the water is also important.a very ineffective way of cleaning. have a neutral pH (near pH 7). and detergent . A desirable water supply must be free of microorganisms (clean and potable). Check the label on the cleaner that you use to see if the manufacturer recommends an appropriate water temperature. A good water supply includes both an adequate amount of hot and cold water and adequate water pressure. you need to remove large particles and any heavy soil that has built up during food handling or processing. You can do this by physically removing large scraps of food and by scraping any areas that have food debris that is difficult to remove. The GMP requirements for delivering hot and cold water to conduct cleaning and sanitizing activities were covered in Module 4. and a low mineral content. Pre-Cleaning: Before you use water for cleaning equipment. Some cleaners may not be effective if the water is too hot or too cold. .

• The type of surfaces that you are cleaning.module 7 • page 6 of 44 Detergents and Their Use Now that you have determined that you must have an adequate supply of potable water at a suitable temperature and with enough pressure. • The type of cleaning equipment that you will be using. and some make fats easier to dissolve in water. Detergents have different ingredients that aid in cleaning. Some reduce the hardness or alkalinity of the water. It is important to check the label instructions and match the detergent to the type of soil to be removed. There are many different products available and you should consult with your supplier to find the right product for your situation. and • The amount of water available and its chemistry (hard or soft water). . others tie up metals in the water. This will depend on: • The type of soil or food debris to be cleaned. which increases wetting ability. you need to decide on what type of detergent you will use.

which binds equally well to water and fats or oils. One ingredient in many detergents is called a surfactant. Most detergents are designed to work best in hot or warm water.module 7 • page 7 of 44 How Detergents or Cleaners Work In order to select the right detergent for the right job. or ingredients like enzymes may be needed to dissolve or break down proteins. Specially formulated detergents that are alkaline. foam. contain wetting agents. which can then be washed away with water. Special Additives: Additional ingredients may be added to some products to make them more effective for specific types of cleaning. alkaline ingredients like strong caustic soda or potash. it is necessary for you to understand just how detergents work. . They bind to fat to form soap. Other detergents that contain weak or strong acids dissolve mineral deposits. and are designed to chemically remove certain types of soil or food debris. and dissolve the food debris to be removed so that it can be washed away with water. Basic Ingredients: Certain ingredients in the detergent make the residue that you are trying to remove dissolve better in water. Foods like milk that are high in protein can be very difficult to remove—especially if they have been heated. which can then be washed away with water. For example. Chemical Agents: Other ingredients are either alkaline or acidic. or milder agents like phosphates are used to remove fatty material. These ingredients promote physical cleaning by helping to wet. Most detergents are composed of a mixture of ingredients that are formulated for specific types of dirt or food residue.

module 7 • page 8 of 44 Biofilms and Detergents Biofilms: Sometimes. These bacterial communities are known as biofilms. some types of bacteria can produce a substance that protects them from their environment and helps them to stick to food contact surfaces. may be needed to remove these biofilms. If a biofilm develops on a food contact surface. There are many different cleaning products available for use in food processing plants. in addition to other ingredients. Harmful bacteria can be dislodged from the biofilm during processing and contaminate food products. it cannot be easily seen or detected and it is very difficult to remove. You should talk to your supplier to determine what products will be most effective for your particular needs. . no matter what you do to clean. Removing Biofilms: Specially formulated detergents that contain an oxidizing agent such as chlorine or peroxide. Once you determine what products to use. it is important to remember to follow all manufacturers directions when using them and make sure that they are stored properly.

Contaminated food is eaten by customers Foodborne illness occurs and customers get sick . Stress cracking and clouding can also occur when hard plastics are exposed to corrosive cleaning agents for prolonged periods of time. it will be much more difficult to keep them clean. crack. Caustic alkaline or acidic cleaners may be effective in removing food debris. you also need to consider the type of surface you are trying to clean. but are not so aggressive that they pit. Higher grades of stainless steel are likely to be more resistant to corrosion over time. copper.module 7 • page 9 of 44 Choose An Effective Cleaner That Won’t Damage Equipment While it is important to use a detergent that will remove all dirt and food debris. which is why it is a preferred material for handling foods that are acidic. or high in fat or water. but they can also be corrosive to softer metals such as aluminum. For this reason it is important to use cleaning agents that are effective and get the job done. or lower grades of steel. rust. If cleaning agents cause the surfaces that are being cleaned to deteriorate. corrode or otherwise damage your food contact surfaces. salty.

The “directions for use” on the label of your cleaning agent should outline recommended dilutions and contact time. pans. and scrubbing. Soaking: If you need to extend contact time. and how long they need to stay in contact with the item to be cleaned. temperature. not all equipment can be submerged in a detergent solution. This is one reason why most state and local regulatory agencies require a two or three compartment sink equipped with hot water so that one of the compartments is dedicated to washing the equipment or utensils. cutting boards and other small pieces of equipment. However. there are several factors that need to be considered including: contact time. Each item can be soaked in a solution of the detergent and warm water for as long as necessary. concentration. That is why a dirty pan is easier to clean after it has been soaked in warm soapy water. You need to consider how cleaning agents will be applied. It takes time for them to penetrate the soil or food debris on the food contact surface that you want to clean. Let’s review them. Larger pieces of equipment. .which will be discussed later. You should always refer to these directions when using any cleaner. the most common way is to use a soak tank or sink for portable items such as utensils.module 7 • page 10 of 44 Cleaning Basics For both manual and CIP cleaning. walls. Contact time: Detergents or cleaners do not work instantly. and other vertical surfaces which require an extended contact time might need to be cleaned using a foam application .

Concentration: There is an optimal concentration of detergent for each cleaning task. It is not enough just to pour water with detergent on the surface of the equipment to be cleaned. If the temperature is too high. You must also use some sort of brush.module 7 • page 11 of 44 Cleaning Basics Temperature: As discussed earlier. the detergent may not work properly. soil could be baked onto equipment. a detergent. Some detergents tend to degrade at higher water temperatures. Scrubbing: Manual cleaning requires water. and a physical scrubbing action in order to release the food debris that your detergent has loosened. If the water temperature is too cold. pad or other tool and physical labor! . each detergent has an optimum temperature at which it performs the best. check the “directions for use” on the container when deciding how much to use. Again.

They can be used for many different tasks because they readily conform to the surface being cleaned and may only require light pressure to loosen food debris. It is important to use pads that are designed for the type of material to be cleaned. For most situations you will need to scrub the item or surface to be cleaned with a brush. and some of the things to consider when deciding which tools to use. When selecting brushes you should consider how they will be used. pad or other cleaning tool to loosen all of the dirt and food debris so that it can be washed away. but scrubbing is usually necessary to finish the job. They are also useful for cleaning utensils and hard to reach areas such as under the lip of a processing table. Pads should be designed for use in food establishments and made of a synthetic material that will not be damaged by cleaning chemicals. or other cleaning tools that are too abrasive can cause damage such as scratching and rusting. which could then contaminate food products over time with harmful bacteria or other microorganisms. Let’s look at two of the most common types. This damage could increase the chance that bacteria will attach to the surface and form a biofilm. . Softer bristles may be needed to clean curved surfaces or things that may be susceptible to scratching. brushes. This is especially true if the soil has dried or been cooked onto the surface. Brushes with stiff bristles may be appropriate for flat or difficult to clean surfaces. Avoid Damage: Pads. Pads are popular cleaning aids.module 7 • page 12 of 44 Cleaning Tools and Scrubbing Scrubbing is Essential: There are no detergents that are ideal for every situation. Applying the right detergent for the recommended time can loosen or begin to dissolve dirt and food debris. Types of Cleaning Tools: There are many different types of cleaning tools. Brushes should be designed for use in food operations and constructed of a material that is easy to clean and will not be damaged by the detergents that you are using.

For example. pads or brooms can actually be a source of contamination if they are not routinely cleaned and sanitized. They also retain moisture and water which will promote the growth of bacteria that could contaminate the surface or item that you think you are cleaning. brushes. . you should also consider how easy your cleaning tools are to use. single-use paper towels should be used if surfaces need to be wiped. This concept will be discussed in more detail in Module 8. Cleaning tools should also be dedicated to a specific job. brushes with long handles can make scrubbing easier and for others more difficult. brooms or squeegees used to clean the dirtiest areas of your plant such as floors or drains should never be used on equipment or food contact surfaces.module 7 • page 13 of 44 Cleaning Tools Design Considerations: Since scrubbing is such an important part of the cleaning process. Tools to Avoid: Some cleaning tools such as sponges. Cleaning tools that are awkward or cause user fatigue may decrease your employee’s motivation to clean as thoroughly as possible. Disposable. These items are very difficult to clean and sanitize. Using different colored cleaning tools for different jobs can be an effective way to make sure that the right tool is used for the right job. wiping cloths and mops should never be used for routine cleaning in food plants. Keep Your Cleaning Tools Clean: Damaged or dirty brushes. For some cleaning tasks.

.module 7 • page 14 of 44 Cleaning Tools GMP TV: Click on the images in the GMP TV below for additional information on cleaning tools.

floors and walls. . tables. Using too much of the cleaning product or leaving it on surfaces too long can make cleaning more difficult and damage your equipment. all of this information is typically found in the “directions for use” on each detergent container label. and you may still need to manually scrub the equipment for the detergent to be effective. that require a longer contact time for detergent to work. Again. Some important things to consider when using foam detergents is that you need an applicator.module 7 • page 15 of 44 Foam Application Systems Not all equipment can be washed or soaked in a sink. the foam needs a certain amount of contact time. conveyors. The foam tends to cling to vertical surfaces to allow enough contact time for the detergent to do its work. How Foamers Work: A foam application system combines air with a foaming detergent that has the consistency of shaving cream when it is applied. a foam application system can be used. and is highly visible to ensure that you have uniform coverage of the surface to be cleaned. coolers. If you are cleaning large pieces of equipment like processing machinery. Use Foam Detergents Properly: It is important to follow manufacturer directions. Let’s take a look at some foam application systems in the GMP TV on the next page. This type of application can also produce a consistent detergent concentration.

module 7 • page 16 of 44 Foam Application Systems GMP TV: Click on the Photos in the GMP TV below to learn more about different types of foam applications. .

a Clean-In-Place or CIP system. neither manual or foaming application of a detergent would be effective. These detergent solutions are pumped through equipment lines at pre-determined intervals for routine cleaning. pipes or fluid lines used to convey milk or other liquid food products. These types of food processing systems are typically cleaned without disassembling each section using the second method of cleaning that was briefly mentioned before .module 7 • page 17 of 44 Clean-In-Place Systems For some types of cleaning jobs. . It is important to follow manufacturers directions for these systems and select the proper cleaning and sanitizing chemicals to prevent product contamination. It may be necessary to periodically disassemble the entire system for more thorough cleaning. valves. specially formulated low foaming detergents are usually required for cleaning. This is usually the case for closed processing systems such as heat exchangers. For CIP systems.

. Summary: Whether you are using a manual or CIP system. This problem will be even worse if high pressure is directed at or near floor drains. Pressure Washers: Pressure washers are widely available and it is tempting to consider using them for cleaning food processing areas to remove dirt and food debris. The FDA Food Code and most local and state regulations have specific requirements for the installation and operation of equipment such as dishwashers. food debris and harmful bacteria like Listeria that are likely to be on the floor.module 7 • page 18 of 44 Other Types of Cleaning Equipment and Pressure Washing Cleaning Machines: Some food processing facilities may use special types of cleaning equipment such as automated dishwashers. you need to choose the right detergent and application system for the types of soils and equipment at your facility. rack washers. This equipment should be operated according to the manufacturers directions and properly maintained so that it cleans your equipment adequately without damaging it. or other types of cleaning cabinets. You should always check the directions on the label of your detergents to make sure that you are using the proper amount. Cleaning in food processing areas generally starts from the top down (walls to equipment to floor). pressure washers should not be used because of the potential for re-contaminating cleaned areas. which are likely to contain harmful bacteria. a mist will be created that contains the water. storing or processing. the right water temperature. tote washers. However. These contaminants will then settle on and re-contaminate the surfaces that have already been cleaned. dirt. You also need to make sure that your detergents are properly labeled and stored so that they will not contaminate the food you are receiving. When a high pressure spray hits the floor. and an effective application method.

Microorganisms can be destroyed by heat.module 7 • page 19 of 44 Sanitizing or Disinfection After cleaning. ultraviolet (UV) light. or radiation. Heat may be an option for sanitizing certain pieces of equipment or utensils. you need to apply a sanitizer to kill any bacteria or other microorganisms that may still be present. Remember. sanitizers are less effective when food debris is present. chemicals. Food contact surfaces must be completely free of food residue before sanitizers are applied. Traditionally the words disinfect and disinfectants were used to respectively describe the procedures and agents used to kill microorganisms and reduce their numbers to a safe level. ceilings and other parts of the plant. but is not appropriate for large pieces of equipment. heat and chemicals. are commonly used in food processing or storage facilities. . walls. Two of these options. or the floors. In the GMP regulation. the word sanitize has the same meaning as disinfect. and in this course. and the disinfectants or agents used to kill harmful microorganisms are called sanitizers.

there are also many different types of sanitizers that can be used in food processing facilities. (24k pdf) Type of Sanitizer Chlorine Advantages Kills most microorganisms Effective at low temperature Test strips determine concentration Relatively inexpensive Does not form films Kills most microorganisms Less affected by organic material Solution color indicates activity Dissipates slowly & leaves residue Non corrosive Residual activity if not rinsed Less affected by organic material Test strips determine concentration Can be applied as foam Kills most microorganisms Stronger oxidizer than chlorine Less affected by organic material Less corrosive than chlorine Kills most microorganisms Stronger oxidizer than chlorine & chlorine dioxide Disadvantages May corrode metal & weaken rubber Irritating to skin. and that the chemicals are stored properly. eyes & throat Unstable. Choosing A Sanitizer: The following table describes the advantages and disadvantages of common sanitizers that are approved for use in food processing facilities. you can only use chemical sanitizers that have been approved for use in food facilities. dissipates quickly Loses strength with organic material May be unstable at high temperature May stain plastic & porous materials Inactivated above 120ºF (49ºC) May be unsuitable for CIP Inactivated by most detergents Ineffective for certain microorganisms Effectiveness varies with formulation May be inactivated by hard water May be unsuitable for CIP Unstable and cannot be stored Potentially explosive and toxic Relative high initial equipment cost More expensive than many sanitizers Unstable and cannot be stored May corrode metal & weaken rubber Potentially toxic Inactivated by organic material More expensive than some sanitizers Inactivated by some metals May corrode some metals Not as effective against yeast & molds Iodine Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (Quats or QAC) Chlorine Dioxide Ozone Peroxy Compounds Works well on bacteria in biofilms Kills most microorganisms Relatively stable in use Effective at low temperature Suitable for CIP Continued . Click here to print out this chart for future reference.module 7 • page 20 of 44 Choosing A Sanitizer Using Sanitizers: Just like detergents. and specific requirements or regulations may vary from state to state. it is essential that you follow directions provided on the manufacturers label. As always. If not used properly. By law. sanitizers could make the food you produce unsafe and harm your employees.

119. Florida Sea Grant Report No. May damage some materials Less affective against yeast & molds pH sensitive Effectiveness varies by microorganism More expensive than some sanitizers May corrode some metals Unsuitable for CIP due to foaming Acid-Anionic Sanitizers Adapted from Sanitation Control Procedures Manual.module 7 • page 20 of 44 Hot Water 171 to 190ºF (77 to 88ºC) Carboxylic Acid Kills most microorganisms Penetrates irregular surfaces Suitable for CIP Relatively inexpensive Kills most microorganisms Sanitize and acid rinse in one step Low foaming. 2000. Gainesville. . suitable for CIP Stable if organic material is present Less affected by hard water Sanitize and acid rinse in one step Very stable Less affected by organic material Can be applied at high temperature Not affected by hard water May form films or scale on equipment Potential burn hazard for employees Contact time sensitive Inappropriate for general sanitation Inactivated by some detergents Less effective than chlorine at low temp. National Seafood HACCP Alliance. FL.

Sanitizing Solutions. 2000. peroxyacetic acid.1010 give the maximum amount of active sanitizer that should be used in food processing establishments. 119. National Seafood HACCP Alliance. pH and minimum temperatures are from the 2001 FDA Food Code. peroxyoctanoic acid and other ingredients as specified for approved formulas in 21 CFR 178. Florida Sea Grant Report No.5 to 25 ppm 5 or less 75°F or 24°C Maximum 25 ppm for FCS Minimum concentra. Sanitizer Concentrations Commonly Used in Food Processing Facilities Sanitizer Chlorine Concentration pH Iodine Quats Chlorine dioxide Peroxy Compounds 50 ppm 8 or less 100 ppm 10 or less Maximum 200 ppm for FCS 12.Follow manufacturer 75°F or 24°C tion per manufacdirections. Gainesville. or employees. Table adapted from FDA Food Code and Sanitation Control Procedures Manual. acetic acid. FL. you must use the right sanitizer at the right strength or concentration. turer directions Water hardness must Maximum 200 ppm be 500 ppm or less for FCS 100 to 200 ppm Maximum 200 ppm for FCS Minimum and Maximum amounts of hydrogen peroxide. or even harm employees. If the concentration is too high. processing equipment.1010 Minimum Temp. Concentration: First. If the sanitizer concentration is too low. damage equipment. Contact time is at least 1 minute. The following table gives the maximum concentration allowed and the most commonly used concentration range for common sanitizers. you will not kill microorganisms. The federal regulations for sanitizing solutions in 21CFR Part 178. .module 7 • page 21 of 44 Using Sanitizers Correctly Just like detergents. sanitizers must be used and applied properly or they will either be ineffective in killing microorganisms or cause damage to the plant.1010. 75°F (24°C) 55°F (13°C) Maximum and minimum concentration values for Food Contact Surfaces (FCS) are specified in approved sanitizer formulas in 21 CFR 178. you could make the food you produce unsafe.

. the concentration could be too high or too low. To help you appreciate just how small this is. or • 6 ¼ pounds in 64. That is why you need to check the concentration of your sanitizing solution with a test strip each time it is prepared and periodically during use to make sure that you have the right concentration so that the sanitizer will work properly. you need to carefully follow the directions for use provided on the sanitizers’ label. or • 1 hour and 40 minutes in 2 years. or • One $100 dollar bill in a stack of 10. Because the amount you need is so small. Making Sanitizer Solutions: To make solutions that have the proper amount of sanitizer. This is an extremely small amount of active sanitizer.000 $100 dollar bills. 100 parts per million would be equivalent to: • 8 1/3 feet in 16 miles.000 pounds. if even a little mistake is made when these solutions are prepared. or • 100 cars in a bumper-to-bumper traffic jam from Cleveland to San Francisco.module 7 • page 22 of 44 Use The Right Amount of Sanitizer Concentration: Sanitizer concentration is measured in ppm or parts per million.

Test strips are available for chlorine.module 7 • page 23 of 44 Measuring Sanitizer Concentration Test Strips or Kits: Your chemical supplier should be able to provide an appropriate test strip or kit for the sanitizer that you are using. Quats. test strips for chlorine will not measure iodine or Quats. iodine. For example. You should also make sure that the strips you use are capable of measuring in the concentration range that you are working with. The final color of the strip is compared to a color chart on the container to tell you the amount of sanitizer in the solution. they will change color based on the amount of the active sanitizer in the solution. peroxide and other sanitizers. GMP TV: Click on the GMP TV below to learn more about test strips that can be used to measure sanitizer concentrations. For example. When these test strips are dipped in the solution that you have prepared for a certain amount of time. the strip you use should not measure in the 0 to 10ppm range. . if you need to measure chlorine in the 100 to 200 ppm range. Each sanitizer will need a different test strip.

In general. Again. water. For most applications. just like detergents.module 7 • page 24 of 44 Using Sanitizers Properly Sanitizers. aren’t effective if they are not used properly. You need to consider contact time. and their application. . Some sanitizer formulas may have different suggested contact times. organic material or the amount of soil present in the solution. Let’s look at each of these factors. For example. sanitizers must be in contact with the cleaned surface long enough to kill bacteria and other microorganisms. and you should follow the directions on the sanitizers’ label. sanitizers like chlorine. Sanitizers like Quats may provide residual sanitizing activity over a longer period of time if the surface is not rinsed after the sanitizer has been applied. iodine. Water Chemistry and Temperature: The effectiveness of some sanitizers may be affected by the pH (acidity or alkalinity) or the hardness of the water that is used to make up the sanitizer solution. it is important to check the directions for use on the label and prepare your sanitizer accordingly. Contact Time: Just like detergents. and Quats need at least 1 minute of contact time with the cleaned food contact surfaces in order to be effective. room temperature water at approximately 75°F (24°C) should be used to make up sanitizer solutions. chlorine is especially affected by pH and it will lose its effectiveness if used in very basic (alkaline) solutions.

fat or carbohydrate and make the sanitizer unavailable to kill bacteria and other microorganisms. For utensils and portable items. the amount of available sanitizer also decreases as organic material builds up. walls and floors it may be necessary to spray the sanitizer solution onto the surface in a way that will ensure that it is in contact with the surface for at least 1 minute or for the time suggested by the manufacturer. Application: Just like detergents. For this reason you need to periodically check the concentration of these solutions during the work day and change them as often as necessary. That is why it is necessary to clean food contact surfaces to remove this soil before they are sanitized. For large pieces of equipment. you may also need to consider how you will apply a sanitizer solution to food contact surfaces. If sanitizers are used in solutions where employees are dipping their hands. Options can include portable sprayers or even in-line metered systems that mix the proper amount of sanitizer and water.module 7 • page 25 of 44 Using Sanitizers Properly Organic material: Sanitizers like chlorine will react with the organic material in food debris that contains protein. floors and walls after cleaning. equipment. . it is easy to immerse them in a sanitizing solution after cleaning. Application methods and tools can often be provided by your chemical supplier.

click on the links below to university fact sheets. Use your browsers BACK button at the top of the screen to return to this module. university or extension food safety specialists.module 7 • page 26 of 44 Additional Resources If you would like to learn more technical details about cleaning and sanitizing chemicals. There are many different chemical suppliers.S. Click on the buttons below to review these resources. Most of them have a national network of distributors. One way to locate a chemical supplier would be to check your yellow page listings under food processing or restaurant equipment and supplies. and government agencies. and how to use them. For additional information. how they work. Click on the following links which contain directories of many different chemical and cleaning suppliers across the U. More information is also available from trade associations. .

and portable equipment and utensils. Now you need to develop and implement a procedure for cleaning and sanitizing everything in your processing facility. Let’s look at the basic steps that should be included in a complete cleaning and sanitizing procedure. To do this you should start with a basic procedure for proper cleaning and sanitizing. and then identify any variations that may be needed for various areas of the plant. specific processing or storage equipment like refrigeration units. .module 7 • page 27 of 44 Basic Cleaning and Sanitizing Procedure So far this module has discussed the things you should consider when selecting cleaning and sanitizing products.

piece of equipment. and processing machines. You will also need procedures for cleaning and sanitizing cleaning tools like brushes. where and when this will be done. You may need different cleaners. sanitizers. and how they will be applied. for different pieces of equipment. The GMP requires you to have effective procedures but it does not currently require that they be written down. Customized Procedures: For each procedure you must decide which cleaning agents and sanitizer will be used. For example. Each procedure should include how and what you will clean and sanitize. and application methods for different parts of the facility or pieces of equipment. More complex operations may need to develop separate procedures for different areas of the plant. and who will do it. or processing area. brooms. one procedure for cleaning all equipment and fixed items like tables. scrapers. conveyors.module 7 • page 28 of 44 Developing Your Cleaning and Sanitizing Procedures General Components: You can use the information provided in this Module to develop effective cleaning and sanitizing procedures for your operation to meet GMP requirements. or for different processing systems. and another procedure for portable items and utensils using a three-compartment sink. pads. Basic Procedures: The basic 10 Step procedure described on the previous page can be used to help you develop a procedure that describes how you will clean and sanitize. . and squeegees. These different procedures should be included in your sanitation procedure to be sure that employees who do routine or periodic cleaning and sanitizing tasks know exactly how to clean and sanitize each utensil. Some operations may only need one or two procedures. the concentration that is needed.

freezers. it is likely that all food contact surfaces will need to be cleaned and sanitized at least once per day. Your procedure should describe when each routine and periodic task should be completed. . The goal of the GMP requirement is to make sure that you protect food from being contaminated with filth and harmful bacteria on unclean food contact surfaces. At a minimum. Assign Tasks: Finally. your cleaning and sanitizing procedure should indicate who is responsible for cleaning and sanitizing tasks. Others may assign specific cleaning and sanitizing tasks to production employees that must be completed at the end of their shift. Each employee who has a cleaning and sanitizing responsibility must be trained to understand why their task is important and how to do it properly. Some areas or equipment such as refrigerated coolers. or dry storage areas may only need to be cleaned and sanitized periodically.module 7 • page 29 of 44 Developing Your Cleaning and Sanitizing Procedures Set Up A Schedule: You must also decide when and how often you need to clean and sanitize your facility and its equipment and utensils. and those areas that become dirty during processing may need to be cleaned and sanitized more than once per day. Some firms may have a dedicated cleaning crew who conducts these tasks after food handling or processing stops at the end of the shift or workday.

each firm must decide whether or not they are needed and how to use them. you may also want to periodically measure how effective your procedures are. Several types of tools are available to help you measure the effectiveness of your cleaning and sanitizing procedures. The swab is then exposed to an enzyme solution that reacts with a particular chemical in food debris and soil to produce light. you should monitor these activities. it does not require testing. Sanitation test kits are available to measure the amount of organic material (food debris and bacteria) on a surface. utensils and other food contact surfaces to make sure that they are clean before food is handled and processed each day. the GMP only requires that your sanitation procedures be effective. A food contact surface is swabbed and the swab is immersed in a solution that reacts with the protein or sugar on the swab to produce a color that shows how well the surface was cleaned. Several different companies manufacture instruments or test kits to measure cleanliness. Other quick test kits can detect protein or sugars on food contact surfaces. This type of test involves swabbing a food contact surface that has been cleaned and sanitized. but provide a general estimate of cleanliness. However. . Cleaning and sanitizing tasks should also be monitored routinely to make sure that the procedures you have developed are being conducted properly. a supervisor or other designated person should visually inspect equipment.module 7 • page 30 of 44 Monitoring The Effectiveness of Your Procedures Monitoring: Because cleaning and sanitizing is so important to protect the food you are processing from contamination. Monitoring Tools: Because visual inspections are subjective. Since these monitoring tools can be expensive. The amount of light produced is measured by an instrument that indicates how much organic material was picked up on the swab. At a minimum. These measurements do not distinguish between living bacteria and food debris. Check with your sanitation supplier or search the Internet using the terms ATP Testing or Luminometers.

such as contact plates. you may want to know if bacteria have survived the cleaning and sanitizing process on surfaces. .module 7 • page 31 of 44 Monitoring The Effectiveness of Your Procedures Bacterial Testing: In some situations. and Controls at the University of California at Davis. For information on testing for different types of bacteria click here. Food testing laboratories can provide the necessary supplies to take appropriate samples and determine if these bacteria are present. Test kits. Resource Information: One useful resource for information on commercial test kits for different types of bacteria can be found on the Internet in the Compendium of Fish and Fishery Product Processes. For some food products. E. These plates are touched to the surface to be tested and stored at the proper temperature for one or more days. click on the organism or test of interest in the Biological Hazards section. Hazards. or Salmonella. The plates are visually checked to estimate the number of bacteria that were on the surface. and then click on commercial test kits. there may be specific requirements for testing for certain types of bacteria like Listeria. When you get to this site. are available for some types of bacteria. coli.

Maintenance: The first part of this GMP requirement says that not only your building. 5 and 6 are included in the GMP to make sure that you can maintain your facility in a sanitary condition. For example. This will require that the procedures that are routinely used to clean and sanitize equipment and utensils will not contaminate any food in your facility. Cleaning and Sanitizing Equipment and Utensils: The second part of this GMP requirement says that you must clean and sanitize your equipment and utensils in a way that will protect your food and anything that comes into contact with food from contamination. Buildings. or food packaging materials. this is why it is necessary to remove all food products from the area before you begin your cleaning procedures. . fixtures and other physical facilities of the plant shall be maintained in a sanitary condition and shall be kept in repair sufficient to prevent food from becoming adulterated. Cleaning and sanitizing of utensils and equipment shall be conducted in a manner that protects against the contamination of food. food-contact surfaces. but may eventually lead to food or food contact surface contamination if they are not kept in a sanitary condition. but also everything in the facility must be kept in a sanitary condition to prevent the food that you receive. and your employee’s practices in Modules 3.module 7 • page 32 of 44 GMP Requirements for Cleaning and Sanitizing Now that you have a basic understanding of how to clean and sanitize your facility and measure the effectiveness of your program. Let’s take a look at those requirements and what you can do to meet them. To comply with this part of the GMP you also need to have procedures to clean and sanitize those parts of your facility that may not come in direct contact with food. The control strategies that we reviewed earlier for the maintenance of your facility. 4. GMP Requirement: General maintenance. process or store from getting contaminated. its equipment. complying with the GMP requirements should be easy.

All food contact surfaces. processing machinery. spoons. if someone uses a high pressure hose to clean the floor. those food contact surfaces would need to be re-cleaned and re-sanitized before they are used. knives. the types of equipment used. other utensils. Also. totes. conveyor belts. In some cases equipment and utensils may need to be cleaned after every use. and most importantly on the food that is being processed. including utensils and food contact surfaces of equipment. For example. it would need to be cleaned. food preparation tables. if you are processing a ready-to-eat product (a food that will not be cooked before it is eaten) then cleaning and sanitizing may need to be done more frequently to prevent these foods from being contaminated by harmful bacteria like Listeria. and the water from the dirty floor splashes onto cleaned food contact surfaces. For example. if a piece of equipment is accidently contaminated by the plant environment itself. Frequency of Cleaning: This GMP requirement says that all food contact surfaces must be cleaned as frequently as necessary to prevent contamination. • The ambient temperature in the processing area. Factors that Effect Frequency Can Include: • The type of food. shall be cleaned as frequently as necessary to protect against contamination of food. ice and any other item that will come in direct contact with food during handling. Every operation must determine how often cleaning and sanitizing is necessary based on their processing activities. or storage. These food contact surfaces include things like: cutting boards. pans. Food Contact Surfaces: This part of the GMP focuses on all of the things in your operation that will come into contact with food. Most food contact surfaces should be cleaned at a minimum of once a day depending on the food being processed. processing. • Whether the processing environment is wet or dry. tubs. There is no rule for deciding how often it is necessary to clean all of the different pieces of equipment or utensils in your plant that may come in contact with food. .module 7 • page 33 of 44 Sanitation of Food Contact Surfaces GMP Requirement: Sanitation of food contact surfaces.

Where equipment and utensils are used in a continuous production operation. Because it is much easier for contaminants like bacteria and other microorganisms to contaminate food contact surfaces in a wet environment. Low moisture foods are foods like grain or cereal products. and dried foods that have a low amount of moisture. GMP Requirement: In wet processing. meat. The GMP has special requirements for two different types of food that can help you decide both how and how often food contact surfaces should be cleaned and sanitized. sanitary condition at the time of use. store or process these foods must clean and sanitize equipment. This part of the GMP requires that equipment. For continuous operations. Because there is not enough water available in these foods. and vegetables. the GMP requires processors to use good judgment to decide how often it is necessary to clean and sanitize equipment to prevent contamination. when necessary. all food contact surfaces shall be cleaned and sanitized before use and after any interruption during which the food contact surfaces may have become contaminated. they shall. Wet processing activities are generally used for foods like seafood. It also states that if this equipment is wet cleaned.module 7 • page 34 of 44 Special Requirements for Low Moisture Foods and Wet Processing GMP Requirement: Food contact surfaces used for manufacturing or holding low moisture food shall be in a dry. be sanitized and thoroughly dried before subsequent use. fruits. We will discuss the appropriate moisture content for these foods further in our review of process controls in Module 10. harmful microorganisms cannot grow. utensils or other items that come in contact with these foods must be dry to prevent these foods from absorbing moisture. poultry. it must be thoroughly dried before it is used. . When the surfaces are wet-cleaned. utensils and any other food contact surface before it is used and after any interruption in processing activities that could have caused them to get contaminated. this GMP requirement says that firms that receive. baked goods. when cleaning is necessary to protect against the introduction of microorganisms into food. the utensils and food contact surfaces of the equipment shall be cleaned and sanitized as necessary.

For some items such as knives. . both food and non-food contact parts are likely to be cleaned and sanitized at the same time. depending on how they are used and the likelihood of contamination. For large pieces of processing machinery it may be necessary to clean or sanitize food contact surfaces once or more per day. but other parts that do not come in direct contact with food may only need to be cleaned and sanitized every few days or once per week. This requirement is included because of the potential for dirty water and harmful bacteria or other microorganisms to be easily transferred to the parts of the equipment that do come in contact with food when it is being used. Each operation must evaluate the equipment that they use and determine how and when non-food contact parts of equipment need to be cleaned. The GMP also requires that the parts of equipment that do not routinely come in contact with food must also be cleaned as often as necessary to prevent contamination.module 7 • page 35 of 44 Non-Food Contact Surfaces of Equipment GMP Requirement: Non-food contact surfaces of equipment used in operation of food plants should be cleaned as frequently as necessary to protect against the contamination of food.

Cleaned and sanitized portable equipment and utensils should be stored in a location and manner that protects food contact surfaces from contamination. Proper Storage Conditions: Cleaned equipment and utensils should be stored in a location that will allow them to dry and prevent them from getting contaminated by work activities or the plant environment. dispensed. Cleaned items should be stored in a way that will prevent water from splashing or dripping on them. turned upside down or otherwise allowed to drain and protected from dust. the FDA Food Code requires cleaned equipment.module 7 • page 36 of 44 Storage of Cleaned Equipment & Single Service Articles GMP Requirement: Storage and handling of cleaned portable equipment and utensils. At a minimum. paper cups and paper towels) should be stored in appropriate containers and shall be handled. GMP Requirement: Single service articles (such as utensils intended for one time use. For reference. single use items. utensils. and laundered linens to be stored at a minimum of 6 inches above the floor. Disposable or single-use items must also be stored properly to prevent contamination that could be transferred to food. cleaned items should never be stored on the floor. utensils. and other food contact surfaces are stored properly after they are cleaned and sanitized so that they do not become contaminated before they are used. These two parts of the GMP are included to make sure that equipment. . used. which is likely to be the dirtiest part of the plant. Items that have been wet cleaned should be stored in a dry environment. and disposed of in a manner that protects against contamination of food or food contact surfaces.

.module 7 • page 37 of 44 Equipment Storage GMP TV: Click on the GMP TV below to learn more about proper storage of cleaned equipment. utensils or other items that come in direct contact with food.

Train employees who have cleaning and sanitizing responsibilities to make sure that they understand what tasks must be completed and how to conduct them properly. cleaning tools to be used for each task. placing these items in the proper location. • Instructions • When each cleaning and sanitizing task will be done. A complete sanitation procedure should describe: • What areas of your facility and what equipment and utensils need to be cleaned and sanitized. and for portable items and utensils that are cleaned and sanitized in a three-compartment sink. Different types of procedures may be needed. and a different procedure for the area of the plant where finished products are packaged. some operations may need one procedure for cleaning and sanitizing the tables. Other firms may need one procedure for the area of the plant that handles raw products. • How each item or area will be cleaned and sanitized including: • The chemical cleaning and sanitizing products to be used. and storing them properly. containers. Monitor cleaning and sanitizing activities to make sure that they are conducted properly and consistently. • Instructions • Instructions • The • Instructions on how to prepare cleaning and sanitizing solutions properly and test or verify their concentration. equipment. • Who will conduct each task. processing areas. on how to apply these solutions.module 7 • page 38 of 44 What You Can Do To meet the general GMP requirements for cleaning and sanitizing food contact surfaces. These procedures must be effective but the GMP does not currently require that they be written down. utensils. utensils. walls and floors for their entire plant at the end of the day. You may also need different procedures for different pieces of equipment that are cleaned and sanitized in place. and non-food contact surfaces in the plant environment as necessary you need to: Develop sanitation procedures for equipment. For example. Monitoring could include testing to verify that the procedures developed are effective. for each of the steps in the procedure and their proper order or sefor proper storage of cleaned equipment. Implementation includes purchasing the necessary chemicals and equipment to complete all tasks. and all other plant facilities as necessary. quence. Implement each of the cleaning and sanitation procedures that are needed. .

Although the current GMP does not require monitoring records. 5 and 6 to make sure that they are in acceptable condition. sanitizers. If any corrections are necessary to correct problems. equipment and utensils should be conducted as described in Modules 3. those actions should also be noted on a written record.module 7 • page 39 of 44 How To Monitor Periodic checks of the condition of the facility. Cleaning and sanitizing activities should be routinely checked to be sure that they are conducted properly and at the proper time as described in your sanitation procedure. 4. and cleaning and sanitizing procedures. Additional periodic checks using monitoring tools for cleanliness and/or tests for specific types of bacteria should be conducted as needed or required by regulations for certain types of food products. This may include monitoring the proper use of detergents and cleaning aids. you may want to keep a record of the results of your observations for your own use. .

Compliance with this requirement may be verified by any effective means including purchase of these substances under a supplier’s guarantee or certification. GMP Requirement: Substances used in cleaning and sanitizing. procedure. These two sections of the GMP require that the sanitizing agents used in food establishments be effective and safe to use and that you have some type of documentation that the products that you are using are acceptable and free of contamination from undesirable microorganisms. or machine will routinely render equipment and utensils clean and provide adequate cleaning and sanitizing treatment. . or machine is acceptable for cleaning and sanitizing equipment and utensils if it is established that the facility. or examination of these substances for contamination. procedure. Any facility. Cleaning compounds and sanitizing agents used in cleaning and sanitizing procedures shall be free from undesirable microorganisms and shall be safe and adequate under the conditions of use.module 7 • page 40 of 44 Use Safe and Effective Cleaners and Sanitizers GMP Requirement: Sanitizing agents shall be adequate and safe under conditions of use.

This regulation is found in Part 178 of Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations. followed by adequate draining. When using special sanitizing equipment. The remaining section of this regulation describes 46 different acceptable sanitizing solutions and the minimum concentrations of active sanitizer that are needed for each type. equipment or service that is used for cleaning and sanitizing must be acceptable. Food contact surface sanitizing solutions can be found in section 180.940. Part 178.1010 states that: Sanitizing solutions may be safely used on food processing equipment and utensils. before contact with food. The U. b: The solutions consist of one of the following. Use your browsers BACK button at the top of the screen to return to this module. university. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) also has regulations related to sanitizers in Part 180 of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Standard cleaning and sanitizing procedures identified in reference information from government. FDA-Approved Sanitizers in 21 CFR Part 178 EPA-Tolerance Exemptions 40 CFR Part 180 Use Effective Procedures: These GMP requirements also say that the procedures. you may need technical information or a statement from the manufacturer indicating that it provides adequate cleaning and sanitizing consistent with current regulations if used according to instructions. and on other food contact articles within the following conditions: a: Sanitizing solutions are used.S. . One such standard procedure was provided earlier in this Module. or trade associations should be acceptable if implemented properly. and that you need assurance that they will routinely provide adequate cleaning and sanitizing. to which may be added components that are generally regarded as safe or components which are permitted by prior sanction or approval. Click on the buttons below to see these regulations.module 7 • page 41 of 44 Use Safe and Effective Cleaners and Sanitizers Use Approved Sanitizers: There are specific regulations that identify what sanitizing solutions are acceptable. This regulation describes EPA tolernace exemptions for active and inert ingredients for use in anti-microbial formulations.

module 7 • page 42 of 44 What You Can Do To meet the GMP requirements to use safe and effective cleaning and sanitizing agents that are free from harmful microorganisms you need to: Evaluate all cleaning and sanitizing agents used in your facility to determine if they are approved for use in food establishments. How To Monitor Keep appropriate records from your supplier to show that the cleaning and sanitizing chemicals that you use are approved and adequate when used properly. that the proper documentation is on file. Use test strips to confirm that you have the appropriate sanitizer concentration each time that sanitizing solutions are prepared. Obtain written documentation from the manufacturer or supplier of your cleaning and sanitizing chemicals to verify that these products meet current regulations and are approved for use in food establishments. . Although the current GMP does not require monitoring records. If any corrections are necessary to correct problems. Monitor cleaning and sanitation procedures daily to be sure that they are conducted properly. you may want to keep a record of the results of your observations for your own use. those actions should also be noted on a written record. Check your procedures to verify that they are consistent with manufacturer recommendations and label directions for the proper use of all cleaning and sanitizing products including test kits to verify sanitizer concentration. Monitor chemical deliveries to verify that the proper products are received. and that the instructions for use have not changed.

storage units.module 7 • page 43 of 44 Checklist Questions for GMP Requirements in Module 7 In Module 7 we reviewed the GMP requirements for: the sanitary condition of the building and facilities. equipment. We have compiled the items from the What You Can Do sections of this Module into a simplified series of questions to help you create a list of things that you may need to do to meet these GMP requirements. utensils and facilities. proper cleaning and sanitizing procedures for food contact surfaces. Download Module 7 Checklist and Internet Resources Cleaning and Sanitizing Procedures Do you have cleaning and sanitizing procedures for all food contact surfaces. • Create new procedures or change existing procedures if necessary. click on the button. utensils. • Develop new monitoring procedures or change your existing procedures. To download the Checklist below as a PDF file that you can print. processing lines. equipment. conveyors. selecting and using cleaning and sanitizing chemicals. and non food contact surfaces and facilities that describe: • What cleaning and sanitizing chemicals will be used? • How the proper solutions will be prepared and the concentration will be checked? • How cleaning and sanitizing solutions will be applied and what cleaning tools should be used? • The proper sequence of steps for each cleaning and sanitizing procedure? • When these procedures will be conducted? • Who will conduct these procedures? . and to develop a plan to make any changes that are needed. Use this list to remind yourself to: • Evaluate the status or condition of your existing facilities or systems. and the proper storage and handling of cleaned and sanitized equipment and utensils.

or cleaning tools or modify any existing ones? If so. equipment or tools? What resources are available to help such as sanitation suppliers. university specialists. or conduct them more frequently? Do you routinely monitor the effectiveness of cleaning and sanitizing procedures using visual inspections and testing if necessary? Do you need to develop new monitoring procedures or modify existing ones? Cleaning and Sanitizing Agent Do you have documents from suppliers of cleaning and sanitizing chemicals that demonstrate that they comply with all current regulations for use in food establishments and are safe to use? If not. or trade associations? Do you train employees who conduct cleaning and sanitizing activities to make sure that they understand how to conduct procedures properly? Do you need to add new training programs. modify existing ones. how will you make the necessary changes and where will you get the necessary chemicals. what documents are needed and how can you obtain them? Do you have written or label instructions that describe how to use and store all cleaning and sanitizing chemicals properly? If not what information is needed and how can you obtain it? Do you have procedures to check all deliveries of cleaning and sanitation chemicals to make sure that they are what were ordered and that all of the necessary instructions and documentation are on file? If not.module 7 • page 43 of 44 Do you need to develop any new procedures or use new chemicals. delivery methods. what procedures are needed and how will they be developed? .

You will see a text box that will tell you if this answer is correct or wrong and why. Each of the following pages has a single question that will appear on your screen. Click on the Forward button at the top of this page to go to the first question. be sure to write down the question number and the correct answer. When you find the correct answer. Then move on to the next question. Click on the answer you think is correct. and submit your answers while you are logged into the course with your Username and Password. find the correct answer to each question.module 7 • page 44 of 44 Check Your Knowledge This concludes the study material for Module 7. You now need to review the 6 questions for this Module. .