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# Wear

Steve Roberts - Surface Engineering - Wear 1

Types of Wear

“Mild Wear”

“Severe Wear”

Material Loss after plastic flow

Material Loss with oxidation / chemical attack

Material Loss after plastic flow (metals)

Material Loss by fracture with no plastic flow (ceramics)

Abrasive Lubricated Unlubricate d Non-abrasive Abrasive

Steve Roberts - Surface Engineering - Wear

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Material is lost by fracture of asperities after contact

Asperity contact and junction formation

Fracture of one side of junction and material transfer

Secondary asperity contact leads to loss of transferred material

Steve Roberts - Surface Engineering - Wear

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or. mm3 m-1 N-1 Q.Wear 4 .Surface Engineering .. Total wear rate = Also So πa 2 κ∑ 3 δ W = H π a2 W = H ∑ πa 2 W κW Q= =K 3H H or.adding up contributions from all asperity contacts . δV = 2/3 π a3 δV πa 2 =κ Local Wear rate = κ 3 a δV 2a (κ is fraction of contacts giving rise to a wear particle) ... with K.Archard Wear Equation δW Assume material to be lost is related to the size of the contact between asperities: e.. the Archard Wear Co-efficientt with k = K / H: units: m2 N-1. the Archard Wear Equation.adding up contributions from all asperity contacts (H = hardness of the softer of the asperities) .g. often.. Q=kW Steve Roberts .

•Usually true Brass ! Wear rate independent of sliding speed. or time. for given contact stress. Steve Roberts .Wear 5 .“Predictions” of the Archard Model ! Loss of material through wear should be proportional to “sliding length”. • Unsually true. Stainless Steel Pin-on-disc on “tool steel”. increases linearly with apparent contact area.Surface Engineering . unlubricated. •“Fairly true”.1 1 10 Load (N) 100 ! Wear rate should be independent of apparent contact area (for a given load) or. but may be transitions to different wear mechanisms as load changes 10-1 Wear Rate (mm3 m-1) 10-2 10-3 10-4 10-5 10-6 0. but high speeds may cause heating and transition to different wear mechanism. but may be running-in effects ! Wear rate should be proportional to applied load • “Fairly true”.

Surface Engineering .Values of Wear Co-efficient.3 x 10-7 (values are for unlubricated sliding in pin-on-ring tests.7 x 10-5 2. Steve Roberts . K Disc material Mild steel Τοοl steel α / β brass α brass Copper / beryllium Stellite Pin Material mild steel tool steel tool steel tool steel tool steel tool steel K (dimensionless) Note: • Wear rates vary by factor of about 100000x.Wear 6 .7 x 10 5.5 x 10 -4 3.5 x 10-5 7 x 10-6 1.3 x 10-4 6 x 10-4 1. while friction co-efficients vary by factor about 2x. (5x at most) •Wear rate not directly reated to friction co-efficient (see polymers) •Wear rate can depend on load (see previous page) 7 x 10-3 1.7 x 10-5 -5 Ferritic stainless steel tool steel PTFE PMMA Polyethylene tool steel tool steel tool steel 1.

3 Ra = ~25 µm Wear debris: large metallic particles (20-200µm) Wear rate of brass >>wear rate of stellite Disastrous 7 Ra = ~0.1 resistance 0.001 10 Load (N) 100 1000 “Severe” Wear K=~2x µ = ~0.Transition between MILD and SEVERE wear Contact resistance (Ω) 1 Wear Rate (mm3m-1) 10 α / β brass on stellite (“unlubricated”) 1 wear rate 10-2 10-4 10-6 1 “Mild” Wear 0.5 µm Wear debris: fine oxide particles (0.1µm) Wear rate of brass ≈ wear rate of stellite Possibly tolerable (for short times) Steve Roberts .Wear .15 10-6 K = ~ 10-4 µ = ~0.01 .01 0.Surface Engineering .

“true” hardness masked by convolution effects. 8 Steve Roberts .B.Surface Engineering . Early transfer layer “back-transfers” to Brass. “Steel” surface of oxides.Mild Wear: oxide layers and transfer films Mild wear is essentially wear of the oxide film on each of the contacting surfaces.Wear . Final state: “Brass” surface of mixed oxides and back-transferred brass. Brass hardens by work hardening and pick up of oxide. What are the properties of these films ? Composition: (for the brass / steel case) Oxide Mixture 60 Composiiton (%) Hardness (GPa) Cu 40 Zn 20 Fe 0 0 20 40 60 80 Depth below surface (µm) Metal 6 (N.) Hardness: 4 2 0 0 20 40 60 80 Depth below surface (µm) Formation: Initial severe wear period in which brass layer transfers to steel.

wear of steel in “mild wear” against brass is >> than in “severe wear”) Formation Rate of Oxides depends on temperature and atmosphere Wear of Metals depends on load.Transition to Severe Wear Balance between: • wear of oxide films.Surface Engineering . Wear of Oxide Films (see “wear of ceramics”) probably by action of loose oxide particles (N. 9 Steve Roberts .. Intermediate conditions: Oxide film removed faster than it can form. High Speeds / High Temperature: Frictional heating enhances oxide film formation .B. at the sliding speed used. • formation rate of oxide films. (see earlier) Wear rate (mm3m-1) 1 10-1 10-2 10-3 20°C (air) 300°C (air) 400°C (air) 300°C (O2) 10-4 10-2 Sliding Speed (m s-1) 1 Low Speeds / High Temperature / High pO2: Oxide film has time to form mild wear.mild wear. . etc. hardness. • wear of bare metal surfaces.Wear .severe wear..

Surface Engineering . Acta Met.1 Melting in metal Heavy oxidation .controlled transitions between wear modes (as on previous pages) Seizure Contact pressure P/AH 0.plastic flow or melting in oxide Thick oxide film supported by hardened (martensitic?) substrate.“Mild” Wear mechanism maps (Lim. Higher loadthick oxide flim penetrated 10-3 “Delamination” Oxide / oxide Low µ Thin cohesive oxide flims 10-5 10-4 10-2 1 100 Sliding velocity (m s-1) Enhanced oxidation from asperity friction heating Thick flaky oxide films 10 Steve Roberts . Ashby & Brunton.Wear . 35 1987 1343) “Severe” 10 “Delamination” Metal / metal High µ Steels Load.and velocity.

. 0.. ball on flat ck reciprocating sliding Wear rate (mm3m-1) sti Normal Load (N) Mixed stick & slip of sli p Slip Stick 10 10-14 Stick & M ixt 10-15 1 Gross slip in contact area 1 10 100 Displacement (µm) 0. substrates (e.1 10-16 0 1 10 100 1000 Displacement (µm) 11 Steve Roberts . joints and interfaces subjected to vibration.t.1µm) no O2 means 6x drop in wear rate ) may cause: •seizure if debris is trapped (usually is to some extent: distinguishing feature of fretting) •loosening of joint if debris can escape . or abrasive wear if the oxide is hard w.g.Wear Recip.Surface Engineering . sliding ur e .Fretting Surfaces in contact with oscillating sideways load..g. Al) • fatigue in the surfaces near the contact.. e. atmosphere is important . usually below that required for gross sliding.fine oxide debris.01-0.r.B. 100 Stainless steel.. • “Microslip” at some asperities causing “mild” wear (N. shading into “normal” sliding wear (“lubricated” by fine oxide particles) .

170 500 .1000 100 .460 Au Al Al 2000 Brass Mo W Cr (cast) Cr plate Rh plate 30 -70 25 .180 260 .Wear .Abrasive wear of metals Wear as a result of hard particles (or hard asperities) contacting a surface.1000 Cr3C7 1200 .1200 ~500 Material VHN Ferrite 70 .140 160 .200 Austenite 170 .Surface Engineering .10000 2400 2000 750.170 80 .1250 800 12 840 .1600 Even martensite is likely to be abraded by silica.600 Pearlite 250 .45 100 . How hard ? Generally can get penetration of hard point into surface if Hpoint >~ 1.1100 Fe3C Martensite 500 .2 Hsurface Material Diamond SiC Al2O3 SiO2 Glass VHN 6 . Steve Roberts .

Abrasive wear of metals.5 x 10-3 for “three-body” wear Steve Roberts .5 . ~ 0. material displaced..50 x 10-3 for “two body” wear.Surface Engineering . exactly the same form as the Archard Wear Equation for adhesive wear.. K = ~ 5 .. δA δW δF If the abrasive point travels through distance !:.mechanisms δ W = H π a2 / 2 = (H / 2) π (x tanα)2 H is hardness of substrate.Wear 13 . δq: δq =ηax = η x2 tan α 2η δW = πH tan α ! δW α x a (η is fraction of “track” that becomes wear debris) Summing over all contacts: Q = KW / H .

. ppts.treated Cold . have some effect.Surface Engineering . as in tool steels. • Larger.. Precipitation hardening Depends on precipitate type and their repsonse to high strains: • Hard. kg / mm2) Steve Roberts . fine. as the strains in the process zone are as high as or higher than those used in cold working. Work hardening No effect. Be 40 Mo Ti Cr els e t S ol o T 0.they get “chopped up” by plastic flow to these high strains.worked Cu Cd Al 0 Pb 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Hardness (VHN.Wear 14 . as high strains do not eliminate them. ppts. best correlation is with hardness of the worn surface.4% C Steel 20 Fe Ni “Pure” metal Heat .Abrasive wear and substrate hardness 60 W Relative wear resistance (arb. soft. units) Different hardening mechanisms have different effects on abrasive wear rate: “Intrinsic” hardness (ease of dislocation motion) Direct correlation. have little effect . as in Al alloys.

white cast irons) may behave like brittle ceramics and have very high wear rates for their hardness] Hardness (kg mm-2) Alloy Content Increase Carbon Content Increase Workhardening Steve Roberts .Wear Note effects of increasing carbide and alloy carbide on hardness and wear resistance.Abrasive wear of Steels 3 Relative Wear Rate Bainitic Austenitic These show effects of trade-offs between hardness. 15 . rate: most of wear track becomes wear fragments 2 Martensitic Pearlitic 1 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Pearlite & Bainite: intermediate.h. [Ferrous alloys with extreme hardness and brittleness (e.Surface Engineering . high workhardening rate and thus less of materials displaced breaks away in wear track of a given size (determined by hardness) Martensitic steels: low strain to failure. ductility and work-hardening rate Austenitic steels: high strain to failure.g. low w.

04 1. 0.03 2 0.8 0.body 3 body Steve Roberts .dependence on load Wear rates (mm3m-1kg-1) 0.2 0. 3 2.0 Er. This can be studied using microhardness and nanoindentation. Useful effect as filtering of lubricants and gas streams can remove larger particles easily.02 1.Wear Erosion rate (mg g-1) 16 .0 This effect is probably due to a genuine increase in flow stress (hardness) as the scale of contact is reduced.size effects Note unit .01 Copper 0 250 0 0 0 50 100 150 200 Abrasive particle size (µm) 2 .Surface Engineering .4 0.Abrasive wear of metals.

Wear 17 .Surface Engineering .Abrasive wear of metals.abrasive particle shape α 100µm “Cutting” Larger α Higher load less ductile substrate lower E/H substrate α “Abrasive” SiO2 particles 100µm “Ploughing” Steve Roberts .

01 0.g. or for small abrasive particle sizes .Surface Engineering . etc.mechanisms: • Plastic flow in surface of ceramic (like metal) Most likely at low loads.g.001 0. “Syton” polishing of semiconductors to produce a soft oxide film.1 1 Sliding Speed (m s-1) Steve Roberts . if environmental effects (e.1 1 Load (N) “Ultra-Severe” (t-g. fracture) Transfer to severe wear with increasing load.unlubricated 1000 1000 Alumina .g. H2O .01 0.001 1 0. Load (N) 100 10 10-3 “Mild” 10-4 “Severe” (plastic) -5 10 (i-g.Wear Sliding Speed (m s-1) 18 .“non abrasive” “Mild” wear regime . staying “below the Griffith criterion” e.e. fracture) 100 10-5 10 10-6 “Mild” (plastic) 1 0. Cerium oxide polishing of optical glass } Alumina .lubricated 10-4 “Severe” (i-g. fracture) 0.Wear of ceramics .enhanced plasticity). fine polishing of ceramics • Plastic flow in surface oxide film or hydrated layer May be difficult to distinguish! • Dissolution of surface oxide film or hydrated layer Most likely if environment tends e.i.

Wear 19 . The sequence of loading 1-6 is also what happens as an abrasive particle passes over a surface 1 Load Plastic zone 2 “Median” crack 4 3 500g indentation in silicon 5 “Lateral” cracks 6 Steve Roberts .Abrasive wear of ceramics What happens on putting a sharp indentation (like a Vickers indentation) is a reasonable analogue for brittle abrasive wear.Surface Engineering .

tougher materials won’t crack) KIc 4 1 H 2 KIc 4 1 H 2 If particle spacing ∝ particle radius. then N ∝ r-2: 1 Q = γ′ r 2 W 4 1 KIc 4 H 2 3 5 Wear rate should go as √(particle size) Steve Roberts . r .Wear 20 .  w 4 c = α   KIc   w 2 d=β   H 1 3 (α is a dimensioned constant that depends on particle shape) (d is directly related to “indentation” size) C E. KIc Q = wear rate= 2 d c per particle per unit length If N particles.Abrasive wear of ceramics (2) w d Various theories: e. a critical load w* is needed to nucleate the lateral cracks.g.Surface Engineering . and total load W (so w = W / N) Q= γN w 4 3 5 −1 = γN 4 W 4 3 5 Even if the abrasive particle is sharp. Typically this is a few grammes: Theoretically: w* ∝KIc4 / H3. H. (Softer.

Unlike Metals.Wear 21 .Surface Engineering .Wear of polymers Three basic mechanisms: Adhesive wear .fairly similar to metals Fatigue wear not common as dominant mechanism in metals (Polymers have v low E) 1 Gradual change in dominant mechanism 0. Polymers are commonly used unlubricated against metal counterfaces in engineering.B.similar to metals : transfer films. Counterface roughness Ra (µm) (PE on Steel) Steve Roberts . At low loads. PTFE) Wear Co-efficient (mm3m-1N-1) 10 { Abrasive wear .1 0. repeated back transfer leading to wear particles. aligned transfer films can lead to very low wear rates (e.g.01 0.1 1 10 N.001 0.

01 0.6 LDPE PS • Fatigue processes become more important for: Low E / H polymers Smoother counterfaces 10-3 10-4 0.Wear of polymers .Wear . still lots of elastic deformation: For metals.Surface Engineering .Abrasive wear • E / H is about 10x smaller for polymers than for metals: Transfer from elastic to plastic behaviour at higher levels of roughness and load • Even when “abrasive” contact. abrasive wear rate proportional to 1 / H For polymers. better correlation is to 1 σUTS ε UTS (Energy at failure) Wear Co-efficient (mm3m-1N-1) 10-1 PMMA 10-2 PP Acetal PTFE Nylon 6.1 1 1 10 100 σUTS ε UTS (mm2kg-1) 22 Steve Roberts .

then wear rate per unit sliding length: (assume cf constant) q ∝r2(1-n)/3 w(2+n)/3 2a Predicts: • Wear rate follows “normal” fatigue n and A.Wear of polymers .5 for elastomers.Wear . Nf ∝ 1 / ∆σn Assume Hertzian contact (see “techniques”.fatigue wear Repeated elastic contacts at asperities grow cracks normal to the surface W Crack follows Paris Law: many passes (n ≈ n dc = A ( ∆K )n = A ∆σ n c 2 dN r 1. 3 . 22) c ∆σ a ∝ w1/3 r1/3 ∆σ ∝ w1/3 r-2/3 q ∝a2cf / Nf If volume lost ∝ a2cf. ! • Wear rate strongly dependent on load ! • Wear rate strongly dependent on roughness of ! counterface • Cracks normal to sliding direction ! 23 Steve Roberts .5 .3..Surface Engineering .10 for “hard” plastics If c at fracture is >> initial c: N at fracture.

Gas or Vacuum Solid or liquid Few m/s to few 100 m/s Angle of incidence. but: Strain rates much higher (liquid drops can cause severe erosion.Wear 24 .Erosion Liquid.Surface Engineering . especially on brittle materials) Fluid dynamics of gas or liquid flow may be important Angle of incidence is an important variable • • • Steve Roberts . θ Ductile or brittle material Like abrasive wear in many ways.

Wear 25 .Surface Engineering .Erosion of ductile and brittle materials Brittle Ductile Erosion rate Brittle 0 30 60 90 Angle of incidence Ductile Whether “brittle” or “ductile” behaviour is obtained for a particular material may depend on • particle size • particle shape • impact speed • temperature Steve Roberts .

Surface Engineering ..Wear 26 . so mass removed: Model the impact as indentation by particle giving final depth d: Work done during the impact: mU2 M = Kρ 2H Erosion rate is defined as mass removed per unit mass of impacting particles: ∫ d H A(x) dx = 1 mU2 2 K ρU2 E= 2H or: K ρU2 f ( θ) E= 2H 0 .Erosion of ductile materials Volume of the indentation: U m x A(x) density ρ V= ∫ A(x) dx 0 d So: mU2 V= 2H Assume some proportion (or multiple?) K of V is removed per impact..like abrasive wear with ½ρU2 equivalent to load Steve Roberts .

. at the temperature and strain rate of the erosive process.Surface Engineering . angular SiC at 55 m/s. Like in abrasive wear. multiple impacts probably needed to remove material..Wear 10µm Mild steel. K will depend on the material’s ductility (workhardenability) as well as hardness. 90° incidence 27 . glass spheres at 60 m/s.Erosion of ductile materials (2) What controls f(θ) ? low θ: “machining” Very low θ: “ploughing” In all case. 30° incidence high θ: “indenting” 50µm Aluminium.. Steve Roberts .

1 / (erosion rate).Wear 28 . The reduction in ductility that precipitates. radius r:  3H  " ≈ 1 U1/ 2   ε  2ρ  5r  particle  1/ 4 25 Ductile metals Less ductile metals 20 Erosion resistance Mo Ni 10 Cu Al 5 Fe W Typical strain rates are 104 to 107 s-1. most “hardening” methods are fairly ineffective.Surface Engineering .Erosion of ductile materials (3) Effects of strain rate Approximate impact to that of a sphere. 15 Ni alloys Steels Tool Steels Bronzes. within the “ductile” or “less ductile” groups. At these strain rates. brasses Al alloys effect of workhardening 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Hardness (VHN) Steve Roberts . produce may even lead to an increase in erosion rate. The (fully cold worked / eroded) hardness of the “basic metal” is a fairly good guide to erosion resistance. etc.

each impact is equivalent to indenting with ~150g load .Surface Engineering . angular SiC (1mm diam) at ~2. 90°incidence At this speed.easily enough to cause “lateral” fracture.5 m/s. 10 hours Mention Liqid Drop Erosion Steve Roberts .Wear 5 µm 29 .Erosion of brittle materials 5 µm 1 min Alumina.

Al2O3 H.P.and below some critical r. "plasticity control Steve Roberts .6 p ~ -0.5 n ~ 0.0.3 Glass 10-6 Sint.3 K Ic ? MgO 10-5 Si H. SiC H.1 Strongest influences are predicted to be the impact velocity of the particles and the fracture toughness of the substrate. Also dependence on particle size .3.Surface Engineering . Al2O3 Where the exponents are in the ranges: m ~2.0.1 [ Recent work shows 10-20x variation in Erosion rate with grain size in Al2O3.25 .Erosion of brittle materials (2) Models for the process are generally based on the dynamics of a single impact. not enough energy to generate fracture.P.2 . Erosion rate (mm3 / impact) (Though there is strong evidence that multiple impacts are needed to generate much debris).7 m ρparticle p E= Ar U H 1. and the size of lateral cracks formed.P. even though KIc and H stay the same] -1. Typically (for normal incidence): n 0. Si3N4 10-7 10-8 KIc H-0.5 .Wear 10-7 30 .

PS) “Brittle” erosion V.g. material-sensitive) Steve Roberts .g.Surface Engineering . PMMA. low erosion rate Ductile polymers (e. PVC) “Ductile” erosion high erosion rate Glassy polymers (e. rubber) Particles bounce off ! V.Erosion of polymers Elastomers (e.g.Wear 31 . nylon. high erosion rate Increasing impact speed (Strong dependence) Increasing particle size (weak dependence) Increasing temperature (dependence v.