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We proceed with some boilerplate code:
Download Ethernet/TweetTemperature/TweetTemperature.pde

import processing.serial.*; final final final final final final final float int int String String String String MAX_WORKING_TEMP = 32.0; LINE_FEED = 10; BAUD_RATE = 9600; CONSUMER_KEY = "<YOUR CONSUMER KEY>"; CONSUMER_SECRET = "<YOUR CONSUMER SECRET>"; ACCESS_TOKEN = "<YOUR ACCESS TOKEN>"; ACCESS_TOKEN_SECRET = "<YOUR ACCESS TOKEN SECRET>";

Serial arduinoPort; void setup() { println(Serial.list()); arduinoPort = new Serial(this, Serial.list()[0], BAUD_RATE); arduinoPort.bufferUntil(LINE_FEED); } void draw() {}

As usual, we import the serial libraries for communicating with the Arduino, and then we define some constants we’ll need later. Most of them contain the credentials we need to access the Twitter service. With MAX_WORKING_TEMP, you can define at which temperature the application starts to tweet. This can be a degree Celsius or Fahrenheit value. In the setup( ) method, we print out a list of all serial devices available, and we initialize our serialPort variable with the first one we find, hoping that it’s the Arduino. You could loop through the list automatically and search for something that looks like an Arduino port name, but that’d be fragile, too. We don’t need any graphical output for our application, so the draw( ) method remains empty. Now let’s implement the actual business logic of our “Take me to the beach” alarm:
Download Ethernet/TweetTemperature/TweetTemperature.pde

void serialEvent(Serial port) { final String arduinoData = port.readStringUntil(LINE_FEED); if (arduinoData != null) { final String[] data = split(trim(arduinoData), ' '); if (data.length == 2 && (data[1].equals("C") || data[1].equals("F"))) { float temperature = float(data[0]);

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we call tweetAlarm( ) and tweet a message to encourage some followers to rescue us. println( "Successfully updated status to '" + status.getInstance(). please.getText() + "'.printStackTrace(). the runtime environment calls the serialEvent( ) method. twitter. This makes sure we’ve read an actual temperature data set and not some digital garbage." ). Then we wait for two hours until our next check.wowebook. If yes. } try { Thread.updateStatus( "Someone. try { Status status = twitter. sleepTime = 120 * 60 * 1000. Report erratum Download from Wow! eBook <www. AccessToken accessToken = new AccessToken( ACCESS_TOKEN. we convert it into a float object and check to see if it’s greater than MAX_WORKING_TEMP (no one should be forced to work at temperatures that high!). take me to the beach!" ).setOAuthAccessToken(accessToken). you learned how to implement serial communication in Processing. Implementing Serial Communication in Processing.0 printing. ACCESS_TOKEN_SECRET ). Janurary. 2011) . we wait five minutes and check the temperature again. Twitter twitter = factory. } } 178 In Section 5.T WEETING M ESSAGES WITH P ROCESSING println(temperature). CONSUMER_SECRET). on page 126.> this copy is (P1. Whenever new data arrives on the serial port. } catch (TwitterException e) { e. } catch(InterruptedException ignoreMe) {} } } } void tweetAlarm() { TwitterFactory factory = new TwitterFactory().sleep(sleepTime). There we try to read a line of text. If we got a syntactically correct temperature data set. if (temperature > MAX_WORKING_TEMP) { tweetAlarm().8.setOAuthConsumer(CONSUMER_KEY. twitter. and then we check whether it contains a decimal number followed by a blank and a C or F character. int sleepTime = 5 * 60 * 1000.

you can see what happens on Twitter when the temperature in my working room is greater than 32 degrees Celsius (for your first tests you might have to change 32. This approach works nicely.5: I hope someone sees your cry for help. so connect your Arduino to your PC and run it! In Figure 8. but it also has a few disadvantages.N ETWORKING U SING AN E THERNET S HIELD 179 Figure 8. In good old Java tradition. If anything goes wrong. 8. you’ll learn how to turn an Arduino into a real networking device. That’s all the code we need. Using a full-blown PC as an Internet relay for your Arduino is convenient. In the next section. why aren’t you at the beach?). tweetAlarm( ) updates our Twitter channel and is> this copy is (P1.wowebook. Janurary. Then we set the OAuth credentials calling setOAuthAccessToken( ). updateStatus( ) will raise an exception. but it’s also overkill for most applications. If you don’t have to change it.0 printing. The biggest problem is Report erratum Download from Wow! eBook <www. we create a new Twitter instance using a TwitterFactory and set our consumer credentials by calling setOAuthConsumer( ). 2011) .5. and we print its stack trace for debugging purposes. If everything went fine. we invoke updateStatus( ). Finally.5 Communicating Over Networks Using an Ethernet Shield In the previous section.0 to a smaller value. you learned how to build network applications with an Arduino by using your PC’s network connection. we print a success message to the console.

† Botanicalls certainly make your life a bit easier. 2011) .7 For prototyping I prefer the “official” shield. See http://www. an Arduino board that comes with an Ethernet port and does not need a separate shield. it also doesn’t have an Ethernet port. it dutifully sends a “Thank You” message.8 because it comes with sockets for all pins (it’s on the left side in Figure 8.botanicalls.haroonbaig.botanicalls. it displays the corresponding tweets on a display and also pops out a cuckoo making some noise. Such shields come with an Ethernet chip and Ethernet connectors and turn your Arduino into a networking device immediately. you’ll learn how to solve this problem with an Ethernet that you need a complete PC. and if they Report erratum Download from Wow! eBook <www. they all are good and serve their purpose well.∗ It checks whether your plants need water.0 printing. Whenever it finds a programmable search term. 7.N ETWORKING U SING AN E THERNET S HIELD 180 Tweeting Arduinos One of the most popular hardware kits available is the Botanicall. you can build it using an Arduino. Although the official version of the Botanicall is a specialized piece of hardware. Janurary. and to overcome this http://www.ladyada. In this section. You’d better ask your family up front before you build this project and install it in your living room. for example. ‡. http://www. This modified cuckoo clock looks for Twitter updates using a wireless Internet http://www. Also at the time of this writing the Arduino team announced the Arduino Ethernet. ∗. That means you can’t plug an Ethernet cable into 8. †.com> this copy is ( while for many applications the Arduino’s hardware capabilities would be sufficient. You can’t connect a naked Arduino to a network. Not only are its hardware capabilities too limited. on the next page). You can choose from several products.wowebook. it sends a reminder message via http://twitter. you have to use an Ethernet shield. http://www. As soon as you water it.6. You only have to plug it in.arduino. Whether the Twitwee Clock ‡ improves your life is a matter of taste.

DAYTIME servers listen on either TCP or UDP port Report erratum Download from Wow! eBook <www.wowebook.nist. 55480 10-10-11 13:25:35 28 0 0 138.N ETWORKING U SING AN E THERNET S HIELD 181 Figure> this copy is (P1. one of them runs at time.wikipedia.6: Two Ethernet shields for the Arduino Hardware is only one aspect of turning an Arduino into a network device.18. http://en. We will use it now to access a DAYTIME service on the Internet.5 UTC(NIST) * Connection closed by foreign host. A DAYTIME service9 returns the current date and time as an ASCII Janurary. 13 Trying 192..0 printing. Escape character is '^]'. Connected to time. Before we use the service programmatically with an Arduino. The Arduino IDE comes with a convenient Ethernet library that contains a few classes related to 2011) . You can find many DAYTIME services on the Internet.244.. We also need some software for network communication.nist.43. see how it works using the telnet command: maik> telnet time.

h> #include <Ethernet."). byte mac[] = {> this copy is ( Client client(time_server. 2011) . Serial..begin(mac. Here’s an implementation of exactly the same behavior for an Arduino with an Ethernet shield: Download Ethernet/TimeServer/TimeServer.wowebook.pde Line 1 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 - #include <SPI.begin(BAUD_RATE).print(" Serial. it sends back the current time and date. 2.connect()) { Serial. } } 10. 0xBE. 18 }.println("connection failed. 0xEF.cfm for a detailed description of the date string’s format.println("connected. 43. const unsigned int BAUD_RATE = 9600. // time. byte time_server[] = { 192.print(c).println("Disconnecting.h> const unsigned int DAYTIME_PORT = 13. 168. 0xFE.available()) { char c = client. Janurary.nist. 0xAD.10 Then the service closes the connection immediately.0 printing. } else { Serial. Serial. 244.").nist. Report erratum Download from Wow! eBook <www."). delay(1000). See http://www. } Serial. byte my_ip[] = { 192. my_ip). 0xED }. if (!client. 120 }. void setup() { Ethernet. } void loop() { delay(1000).stop(). DAYTIME_PORT).N ETWORKING U SING AN E THERNET S HIELD 182 As soon as the telnet command connects to the DAYTIME server."). while (client.

43. In most cases. • To turn domain names such as time. the manufacturer sets this identifier.244. Alternatively.18 maik> ping -c 1 time.43. We assign it to time_server.244. If you connect more than one Arduino.11 Usually. Then we define three byte arrays: • mac contains the MAC address we are going to use for the Ethernet shield.0% packet loss round-trip min/avg/max/stddev = 173.nist. a DHCP implementation is comparatively ping statistics --1 packets transmitted. 1 packets received.18): 56 data bytes 64 bytes from 192.244. Janurary. we use an arbitrary number.43.nist. we store this address in the my_ip IP address of time. because the Ethernet library depends on it). Important note: the MAC address has to be unique on your network.18 maik> dig +short time. it probably gets a new IP address via the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP).gov PING time.nist. you can use one of the following commands to determine a domain name’s IP address: maik> host time. A MAC address is a 48-bit number that uniquely identifies a network device.wikipedia.18 maik> resolveip time.time.nist.nist.000 ms 11. we include the Ethernet library and define a constant for the DAYTIME service port (we also have to include the SPI library.598/0. but for the Ethernet Report erratum Download from Wow! eBook <www. 2011) . 192.x.nist.0 printing.nist.nist. make sure they all have different MAC addresses! • Whenever you connect your PC to the has address 192. so we have to find out the IP address ourselves.43. The telnet command already turned the DAYTIME service domain name into an IP address for is 192. (192. we have to set it ourselves.wikipedia.y range.598/173.18: icmp_seq=0 ttl=48 time=173. so you usually assign an IP address manually. 0.244.244. you need access to the Domain Name System (DNS).598 ms> this copy is ( into an IP address. this will be a local address in the 192. The Arduino’s standard library doesn’t support DNS.N ETWORKING U SING AN E THERNET S HIELD 183 First.12 For most Arduino applications.598/173.

120 }.com> this copy is (P1. passing it our MAC and IP addresses. you can pass the gateway address as follows: // . 168. This is necessary because the Ethernet shield is an autonomous device that is capable of working in parallel to the Arduino. Compile and upload the program to the Arduino. At this point. Janurary. and read( ) returns the next byte.begin(mac. gateway).begin( ). 2011) . Then open the serial monitor. // Insert IP address of your cable or DSL router below: byte gateway[] = { 192. we wait for half a second to give the service some preparation time. Please note that you can also pass the IP address of your network gateway and your subnet mask to Ethernet. we print an error message. 18 }. In this case. my_ip. 168. DAYTIME_PORT). 13. and then we read and print its output character by character. 43.begin(BAUD_RATE). } // . In line 22. allowing all components to initialize properly. we do this in line 14 in the setup( ) function. This class is part of the Ethernet library and allows us to create network clients that connect to a certain IP address and port. 0xAD.. 0xFE..wowebook. 254 }. Note that the client’s interface is similar to the interface of the Serial class. byte my_ip[] = { 192. 244. If the connection cannot be established. we’ve initialized all the components we need. byte mac[] = { 0xDE. With available( ).N ETWORKING U SING AN E THERNET S HIELD 184 In line 11. void setup() { Ethernet. and you should see something like this: Report erratum Download from Wow! eBook <www. we can check whether some bytes are still available. we try to connect to the DAYTIME service. Now we have to initialize the Ethernet shield itself. Client client(time_server. This is necessary if you do not connect the Arduino directly to the Internet but use a router or a cable modem instead.0 printing. 0xED }. we call stop( ) to disconnect from the service and then we start again. we create a new Client object. 2. Then we initialize the serial port so that we can output some debug messages.begin( ). // time. so we can finally connect to the DAYTIME server and read its output. At the end. We have to invoke Ethernet. The loop( ) function of our sketch starts with a short delay. byte time_server[] = { 192. Otherwise. 0xEF.nist. Serial..

com> this copy is ( Connecting. Connecting.∗ a Bluetooth dongle.‡ Although not built with Arduinos.makezine. http://arduino. you can also show your current mood using a pointer device on your desk—at least as long as you announce it in an IRC channel that you monitor with an Arduino. you’ll learn how to send emails with an Arduino. Report erratum Download from Wow! eBook <www.wowebook.† Not only can you show the number of unread email messages on your T-shirt. 34..connected.connected. 2011) networking with an Arduino doesn’t differ much from networking with a PC.0 printing. It is a network of interconnected intelligent LED pixels. With an Arduino Lilypad. and they’re still a good way to impress your colleagues and friends. †. §. while others come with a full-blown equalizer that analyzes ambient noise. and the Luminet team used it to build a really cool interactive http://blog.makezine. and an Android phone.N ETWORKING U SING AN E THERNET S HIELD 185 More Fun with Networking Arduinos Wearables and e-textiles are getting more and more popular. ∗.9 UTC(NIST) * Disconnecting. In the next section. Different types of interactive T-shirts are available in every well-assorted geek shop.. and it even does something useful: we’ve turned it into a very accurate Some of them show the current WiFi strength. All in all.html http://blog. you can build a T-shirt that displays the current number of unread emails in your inbox. Janurary. if you use the Ethernet shield..html http://luminet. ‡. the Luminet project§ is very impressive.5 UTC(NIST) * We’re done! Our Arduino is directly connected to the Internet. 55480 10-10-11 13:32:23 28 0 0 579. 55480 10-10-11 13:32:26 28 0 0 Disconnecting.

a receiver. you have to send a request to an SMTP Report erratum Download from Wow! eBook <www.E MAILING FROM THE C OMMAND L INE 186 Useful Networking Libraries The Ethernet library that comes with the Arduino IDE is fairly limited and not very convenient.4. Although email is an important service. As real To transmit an email. they are rather fragile. it doesn’t support DNS or DHCP . †.0 printing. Also. http://gkaindl. and it is mainly line-based. we’ll continue to build a more advanced project: an automatic burglar alarm.† It has some great features. 13. you exchange information line by line.∗ If you want to turn your Arduino into a web server.13 SMTP is a typical Internet protocol. and it is quite mature. we could choose the easy path and use a PC as an email relay as we did in Section 8. so we have to learn how to send emails from an Arduino.wowebook.6 Emailing from the Command Line Now that we know how to access network services. only a few people know how it actually works behind the scenes. In case someone is moving in our living room. But be warned: all these libraries consume quite a lot of memory. that is. you should take a look at the Webduino library. A typical email consists of only a few attributes: a sender. and a message> this copy is (P1. ∗. So for advanced projects. http://code. you should have a look at the Arduino Ethernet library. So. a subject. To send emails from an Arduino. because they often rely upon the innards of the official Ethernet library that change from time to time. so there’s not much left for your application code. The request has to adhere to the SMTP specification.wikipedia. For example. we’ll follow a more sophisticated path and implement a subset of the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP). we want to get an email. 2011) .com/p/webduino/ 8. It uses only text. http://en. it might well be that they do not work with the latest Arduino IDE. Tweeting Messages with Processing. on page 175 to tweet messages.

In any case.E MAILING FROM THE C OMMAND L INE 187 Before we send an email using an Arduino and an Ethernet shield. If you use a different email provider.5 OK > exit This command returns a list of all the Google Mail exchange servers (MX) available on your and all email addresses accordingly): ⇐ ⇒ ⇐ ⇒ ⇐ ⇒ ⇐ ⇒ ⇐ ⇒ ⇐ ⇐ ⇐ ⇐ ⇐ ⇐ ⇒ ⇐ ⇒ maik> telnet gmail-smtp-in. you should learn how to send an email from a command line using the telnet command. Report erratum Download from Wow! eBook <www. The following instructions assume you’re using a Google Mail account (http://gmail.100 from: to: 25 Trying mail exchanger = 10 subject: This is a test Really.125.0. To do so. 250 2.0 ESMTP q43si10820020eeh. Take the first server name.100 Connection closed by foreign host.1. Connected to gmail-smtp-in.27.l. 2011) .1 Address: 192.1.0 OK q43si10820020eeh. and open a connection to the SMTP standard port 25 (replace the server name gmail-smtp-in.100 HELO 250 mx. gmail. Escape character is '^]'.1#53 Non-authoritative answer: gmail.0.. you have to find out the address of an SMTP server you can use first.77.2.l. this is a test! .com. don’t abuse their service! When in mail exchanger = 5 gmail-smtp-in. Janurary.100 DATA 354 Go ahead> this copy is ( RCPT TO: < 220> 250 at your service MAIL FROM: < Server: 192.100 QUIT 221 you have to adjust the domain names mail exchanger = 20 alt2.wowebook.2.0 closing connection q43si10820020eeh. read their usage terms! Open a terminal.168. and enter the following: maik> nslookup > set type=mx > gmail.0 OK 1286819789> 250