You are on page 1of 12

Ramayana & Transformational Leadership ­ Presentation Transcript

1. 2. Valmiki Ramayana and Transformational Leadership By Balakrishnan Muniapan Sungai Petani, Kedah,  MALAYSIA  Abstract This paper explores and explains the transformational leadership style demonstrated by Sri Rama.  Transformational leadership consisting four dimensions (4I’s) namely; Inspirational Motivation (IM), Idealized  Influenced (II), Intellectual Stimulation (IS) and Individualized Consideration (IC) was developed by Bass &  Avolio (1994). This paper is based on a qualitative research methodology called hermeneutics, which is the  interpretation of ancient or classical literature (Valmiki Ramayana) and the review of literatures in  transformational leadership .  Introduction Kujantam rama rameti madhuram madruraksaram; Aruhya kavita sakham vande valmiki kokilam  “I salute Valmiki, the cuckoo, who, perching on the tree of poesy, melodiously sing the sweet syllables –  Rama, Rama” (Ranganathanda Swami cited in Subramaniam, 2003, pp vii). Valmiki Ramayana, in the  Sanskrit literature is known as Adikavya or the first poem and Sri Valmiki Muni is known as Adikavi or the  first poet Valmiki Ramayana offers many lessons in various fields by great personalities, Sri Rama exhibited  great leadership qualities, which has transformed and continues to transform millions of people even today.  Valmiki Ramayana is the source of many other versions of Ramayana such as Adhyatma Ramayana  (Sanskrit), Kamba Ramayana (Tamil), Tulsidas Ramayana (Hindi), Ezhuttachan Ramayana (Malayalam) and  other Ramayanas in all the languages of the states in India and also in the South East Asian languages. As  Tulsidas, the author of Ramcharitamanas (Tulsidas Ramayana) said, `Ramakatha kai miti jaga nahi` ­ It is  impossible to keep count of Ramakathas (Ramayana versions) in this world (Sundaram, 2002) The stories  and the personalities associated with the lila (pastimes) of Sri Rama have captured the hearts of over three  billion people worldwide. ‘Ram katha jag mangal karni’ quotes Tulsidas, which means the story of Sri Rama  will bring about the good of the world (Sharma, 2002).  A Veda (knowledge) by itself was revealed by Sri Valmiki Muni, in the form of Ramayana when Sri Rama, the  goal of Vedas came as the son of King Dasaratha (Vedavedye pare punsi jate Dasarathatmaje; Vedah  prachetasadasit sakshadramayanatmana). Valmiki Ramayana consists of 24,000 verses divided into six  Kandas (sections) namely Bala, Ayodhya, Aranya, Kishkinda, Sundara and Yuddha Kanda. A seventh Kanda  named Uttara Kanda stands apart from the main epic (Tapasyananda, 1991). The narration of Valmiki  Ramayana revolves around the life and character of Sri Rama who was born to King Dasaratha – the King of  Ayodhya. Sri Valmiki Muni portrays Sri Rama as an ideal king, ideal son, ideal brother, ideal husband, ideal  friend, ideal student and ideal enemy.  Objectives of the Paper This paper specifically explores and explains the transformational leadership  exhibited by Sri Rama as narrated by Valmiki Muni in Ramayana. Research works exploring and explaining  the Ramayana (Vedic literatures) in the context of modern management and leadership are limited.  Ramayana has a lot to offer to management and leadership, however there is a lack of awareness of the  message and lessons from Ramayana in leadership in this 21st century. The transformational leadership  exhibited by Sri Rama is a model and a guideline for every leader at any levels of organization, society and  country.  Leadership Leadership is an art (not science) of influencing, motivating, inspiring, and transforming people  (human resources) towards achieving organizational goals. The leader is the most important element in  leadership. Napoleon once said that he would have an army of rabbits led by a lion than a army of lion led a  a rabbit (Sheh, 2003)  Transformational Leadership Bass & Avolio (1994) states that there two types of leadership; Transactional  Leadership and Transformational Leadership Burns (1978) characterized transformational leadership as a  process that motivates followers by appealing to higher ideals and moral values. Transformational leaders  are able to define and articulate a vision and mission for their organization and departments and their  leadership style can transform their followers towards higher performance Transactional leadership focuses 

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14. 15.

16.

on exchange on valued things (rewards) and how current needs of followers can be fulfilled (Bass & Avolio,  1994)  Transformational Leadership “If you want to build a ship, don’t drum up the men to go to the forest to gather  wood, saw it, and nail the planks together (Transactional Leader) Instead, teach them the desire to explore  the sea (Transformational Leader).”  Traits of a Transformational Leader 1. Transformational leaders are visionaries ­ Sri Rama created future  vision for Ayodhya and the vision was clearly communicated to the people of Ayodhya before leaving to the  forest. 2. Transformational leaders are change agents ­ Sri Rama changed the kingship of Kiskhinda from  Vali to Sugriva and the kingship of Lanka. 3. Transformational leaders ­ are courageous people. Sri Rama  was firm and brave to take all the risk to protect the words his father (King Dasaratha) gave to Kaikeyi  Traits of a Transformational Leader 4. Transformational leaders believe in people ­ Sri Rama had complete  trust and belief in Sugriva to recover Sita. 5. Transformational leaders are value driven ­ Sri Rama, never  deviated or deviates from the words he had and has given. 6. Transformational leaders are life long learners  ­ Sri Rama, a perfect example of life of learner. 7. Transformational leaders have the ability to deal with  complexity, ambiguity and uncertainty ­ Sri Rama had to make the painful decision to banish Sita from  Ayodhya.  The Four (4) Dimensions of Transformational Leadership Idealized Influence (II) ­ the people of Ayodhya  were full of loyalty and adoration to Sri Rama, which resulted them to follow him (Sri Rama) and to request  Sri Rama to return to their kingdom (Ayodhya). Intellectual Stimulation (IS) ­ The intellectual stimulation  provided by Sri Rama forced Bharata to think and rethink some of the ideas that he never questioned before.  The Four (4) Dimensions of Transformational Leadership Inspirational Motivation (IM) ­ Hanuman crossed  the ocean to Lanka and found Sita. Sri Rama also exhibited inspirational motivation to the vanaras in the  construction of the bridge to Lanka. Individualized Consideration (IC) ­ it is my vow to provide shelter and  protection to any living entity from fear, even if Ravana comes for protection, he (Sri Rama) will give  protection. (Sakrudeva prapannaya tavasmiti cha yachate; Abhayam sarva bhutrbhyo dadamyetadh vratam  mama).  Sri Rama exhibits inspirational motivation to the vanaras (monkeys) in the construction of the bridge to  Lanka  Conclusion Concluding sargas (chapters) of Yuddha Kanda and in Uttara Kanda describe the results and  outcome of Sri Rama’s transformational leadership. Vikasa (2000) described leadership of Ayodhya, during  Sri Rama’s reign. All citizens were fully righteous, always looking towards Sri Rama as their lord and master.  Beyond that they saw Sri Rama as their life and soul. All talk centered around Sri Rama. The entire Ayodhya  transformed into Vaikunta.  Sri rama rama rameti rame rame manorame; Sahasra nama tat tulyam rama nama varanane Thank you  Balakrishnan Muniapan mbalakrsna@yahoo.com

Bass' Transformational Leadership Theory
Disciplines > Leadership > Leadership theories > Bass' Transformational Leadership Theory Assumptions | Description | Discussion | See also

Assumptions
Awareness of task importance motivates people. A focus on the team or organization produces better work.

Description
Bass defined transformational leadership in terms of how the leader affects followers, who are intended to trust, admire and respect the transformational leader. He identified three ways in which leaders transform followers: • • • Increasing their awareness of task importance and value. Getting them to focus first on team or organizational goals, rather than their own interests. Activating their higher-order needs.

Charisma is seen as necessary, but not sufficient, for example in the way that charismatic movie stars may not make good leaders. Two key charismatic effects that transformational leaders achieve is to evoke strong emotions and to cause identification of the followers with the leader. This may be through stirring appeals. It may also may occur through quieter methods such as coaching and mentoring. Bass has recently noted that authentic transformational leadership is grounded in moral foundations that are based on four components: • • • • Idealized influence Inspirational motivation Intellectual stimulation Individualized consideration

...and three moral aspects: • • • The moral character of the leader. The ethical values embedded in the leader’s vision, articulation, and program (which followers either embrace or reject). The morality of the processes of social ethical choice and action that leaders and followers engage in and collectively pursue.

This is in contrast with pseudo-transformational leadership, where, for example, ingroup/out-group 'us and them' games are used to bond followers to the leader.

Discussion
In contrast to Burns, who sees transformational leadership as being inextricably linked with higher order values, Bass sees it as amoral, and attributed transformational skills to people such as Adolf Hitler and Jim Jones.

See also
Transformational Leadership, Transactional Leadership Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectation. New York: Free Press. Bass, B. M. (1990). From transactional to transformational leadership: Learning to share the vision. Organizational Dynamics, (Winter): 19-31.

Bass, B. M. and Steidlmeier, P. (1998). Ethics, Character and Authentic Transformational Leadership, at: http://cls.binghamton.edu/BassSteid.html

Article Abstract Title: Author: Address: Journal: Abstract: Transformational leadership style demonstrated by Sri Rama in Valmiki Ramayana Balakrishnan A/L Muniapan Human Resource Management, School of Business, Curtin University of Technology, CDT 250, 98009 Miri, Sarawak, Malaysia International Journal of Indian Culture and Business Management 2007 - Vol. 1, No.1/2 pp. 104 - 115 This paper explores the transformational leadership style demonstrated by Sri Rama in Valmiki Ramayana, which has transformed and continues to transform millions of Indians even today. According to Burns (1978), leadership occurs in one of the two ways: either transactional or transformational. Transactional leadership involves an exchange of valued things, based on current values and motivations of both leaders and followers. Transactional leaders emphasise the clarification of tasks, work standards, and outcomes. In contrast, Burns (1978) characterised transformational leadership as a process that motivates followers by appealing to higher ideals and moral values. Transformational leaders are able to define and articulate a vision for their organisation; society, country and their leadership style can transform their followers towards higher performance. The transformational leadership had long been demonstrated by Sri Rama thousands of years before the introduction and the development of transformational leadership model by Burns (1978) and later by Bass and Avolio (1994). This paper specifically explores and explains the transformational leadership style demonstrated by Sri Rama, which consists of four dimensions (4 Is), namely, Inspirational Motivation (IM), Idealised Influence (II), Intellectual Stimulation (IS) and Individualised Consideration (IC) as developed by Bass and Avolio (1994). This paper is based on the review of literatures on transformational leadership and a qualitative research methodology called hermeneutics, which is the interpretation of an ancient or a classical literature (Valmiki Ramayana). The author hopes that these lessons in leadership by Sri Rama will guide and inspire the leaders not only in the Indian context, but also universally. Indian leadership; transformational leadership; Valmiki Ramayana; Sri Rama; India; higher ideals; moral values; vision; inspirational motivation; idealised influence; intellectual stimulation; individualised consideration; hermeneutics; culture. 10.1504/IJICBM.2007.014473

Keywords:

DOI:

Transformational Leadership Plan - 1 -Running head: TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP

Transformational Leadership PlanMichael N. PhanUniversity of Phoenix School of Advance Studies

Transformational Leadership Plan - 2 -Transformational LeadershipCommon leadership studies mainly focuses on how to lead a given team smoothly and efficiently, which is often called transactional leadership. These leaders can be very popular but bring little innovation. Applying a common saying, these people may be able to change the way the Titanic deck chairs are arranged, but cannot save the sinking ship. Sadly in most of the organizations, the ratio of the transactional leaders to transformational leaders is high. Therefore these organizations face negative growth due to large gap between how things are done and how things should be done. (Transformational Leadership Primer, 2008)Transformational Leadership is about innovation which means new thoughts are derived and put into practice. James Mc Gregor Burns first used the term transactional leadership in 1978. According to him “transforming leadership occurs when one or more persons engage with others in such a way that leaders and followers raise one another to higher levels of motivation and morality by transforming leadership which ultimately becomes moral in that it raises the level of human conduct and ethical aspirations of both the leader and led and, thus, has a transforming effect on both.” These leaders welcome changes and constantly bring about changes in themselves and those around them. In history we find both types of transformational leaders- reputed leaders and notorious leaders. (Transformational Leadership Primer, 2008)Bass is a modern leadership theorist who wrote in his book improving organizational effectiveness through transformational leadership, the four basic theoretical qualities that a transformational leader should possess. The four qualities are charisma—a quality that is difficult to describe and which is something you know only from experience. Charisma results in the followers being identified with the leader, vision—a quality with which the leader draws a clear picture about the future of the team years ahead which includes all the people around him such Transformational Leadership Plan - 3 -that they feel motivated to work for a common objective, and this motivation induces dedication and a victorious feeling in them, intellectual stimulation—wherein transformational leaders enable the followers to exercise a different approach to older problems and break the barriers of conventional thinking and inspiration—a quality which demands a fair knowledge of human mind and behavior. Legatee is a leadership—training center, which describes the four core strengths a transformational leader should possess. They are the ability to control oneself, an attitude, which welcomes constant changes, the ability to create an impact on others and the ability to build skills. (Transformational Leadership Primer, 2008)The transformational leader works with such a style that the followers are highly motivated and enjoys the work. The transformational leaders give their percent into everything they do. They are people oriented and therefore they consider the people and crave for their victory. The working steps of a transformational leader are as follows. 1) Transformational leaders develop a vision, which is capable of motivating and bringing about changes in the followers. 2) The vision developed should be accepted by the

followers. Very few people accept the sudden change while most people slowly welcome the change, therefore a leader should possess great dedication and energy and to sell the vision. Also to develop followers, the leader should be cautious in building faith. 3) The path to reach the goal. Some leaders may know the path to the goal and the followers should just follow him while some others would not have but would lead the team with pleasure. Though sometimes the path may not be known, with a well-defined vision, the path is clear. 4) The final aspect is that the transformational leader should be in the front leading the team. They shoulder the responsibility of leading the team to success. They remain as roll model for the whole team. They induce enthusiasm in the team constantly motivating all with effective communication. Sometimes it appears that the goal is only a Transformational Leadership Plan - 4 -tantalizing dream very far from realty. But with their incessant dedication, the leaders keep the procession going. Transformational leaders also arrange celebrations, religious functions and get together to boost the morale of the team. Also even insignificant changes get a huge applause by which the transformational leader gathers trust from the followers. The transformational leader parallely focuses both on the team progress and morale boosting of the team members because Transformational leaders do know that only motivated team members brings success to the team. (Transformational Leadership, 2008)Of late there is an increase in the interest for implementing transformational leadership in organizations. The term transformational leadership was evolved by the political philosopher James McGregor Burns in 1978 who defined it as a leadership which happens when one or more individual participate with others and the associations creates a situation where the leaders and followers appraise each other to higher standards of motivation and morality. The outcome of transformational leadership is the boosting of morale whereby the conduct of individuals and ethical aspiration of leaders and followers improve, and there is a resultant transformational effect on both. The significant aspect of transformational leadership is the resultant relationship between the leader and the led. (Venkateswaran, 2007)Transformational leaders have the ability to recognize their own capability and the ability of other employees at workplace, which enables them to guide their performance and thereby indulge in shared activity by creating a conscious atmosphere where behavior and task is adjudged. Transformational leaders have unlimited power in them and this power is distributed to all workers around the leaders. These types of leaders in an organization give importance to substance and empower all who surround the leader’s professional activity. From the business perspective, transformational leaders envisage involvement in the long run with all parties Transformational Leadership Plan - 5 -concerned with the business like customers, shareholders, communities, employees and suppliers. When equals importance is given for the opportunities of all concerned shareholders and stakeholders also enjoy the advantages of transformational leadership. The implementation of transformational leadership enhances the level of performance in any industry. (Venkateswaran, 2007)There are four behavioral aspects that contribute to the formation of a transformational leadership. They are intellectual stimulation, charisma, individualized

concern and inspiration. Charisma is explained as the ability, which leaders have to stimulate emotion in followers that will lead to a strong recognition of the followers with the leader. The charisma evokes the vision of the leaders and gains the trust and respect of the followers. The transformational leader has the ability to gain the inspiration of colleagues and subordinates by exhibiting good behavior while speaking about high performance, the utilization of symbols to acquire the attention of followers and acts as a role model for appropriate behavior. Individualized concern is exhibited whereby the transformational leader gives personal care and guidance to followers and gives recognition for outstanding performance and creates self-confidence in the person. Intellectual stimulation deals with knowledge transfer and promotion of intelligence and rationality, which enables followers to develop skill to find creative solution for complex problems. (Venkateswaran, 2007)The positive behavioral traits of the transformational leader will influence the followers by lifting their morale which leaders to better performance and self development instead of working for the sake of the organization leading to overall security. However, the disadvantage of this concept is the assumption that leadership is a position where the leader is portrayed as the boss. The modern concept of transformational leadership paves way for an improved level of performance. In this concept all concerned work towards a common goal and works towards a Transformational Leadership Plan - 6 -future objective. This concept also all concerned to question and deal with problems with a new outlook. Therefore, the application of transformational leadership requires the implementation primarily among board of direction. The application of this leadership in board of direction will lead to the success of the organization irrespective of the size and geographical location in the world. Transformational leadership should be executed in a way that is comfortable for the followers. The implementation of this strategy may instigate an attitude of threatening in certain circumstances especially when the new policy involves cooperation, people may feel their individuality is being questioned. (Venkateswaran, 2007)Transformation leadership starts with varying ideologies about the self and people around the person. The initial change occurs when the leadership views the task from the perspective of being and not as a job. The second change occurs when the ideology has a difference from the past policy of power and control over subordinates and associates. The latest leadership strategy is to enable associate to recognize his or her own ability and leadership capability. In the past, leadership meant that human resources conducted their task according to the direction of the leader according to the leader’s aspiration but the recent trend of leadership is mutual recognition where both parties can transcend their limitations of performance for a reasonable cause and exhibit their attitude with good moral, enthusiasm, courage, trust and integrity. (Venkateswaran, 2007)In certain organizations, transformational leadership can pose a challenge. This is because organizations give importance for human resource policies in the short run and are more interest in reducing cost and increasing target to keep in pace with the changes in the world. The purpose and objective of every business in today’s world is transformation. Transformation requires new objectives and renewed perspective that is above the current myopic managerial culture that

Transformational Leadership Plan - 7 -hinders the required qualification for execution of work. According to Kotter, the association of cultures that block change and mangers who are advised to handle transition in recent times is lethal. (Venkateswaran, 2007)The requirement of leadership after ten years will be more than change. It will be of transformation that can be obtained through learning rather than training. The training and orientation provided for functional skills will be inefficient. Transformational leaders should be appointed by a company’s board of directors by taking risk because they differ from conventional manager. Thus transformational leadership should be chosen within the organization because the management will have a better idea about the quality and conduct of the individuals. The person should preferably be a person who has a good working experience. The present day working environment requires transformational leadership since this adds to the morale and raises the standard of human attitude and performance and aspiration of all involved in the process. It has a diversified effect on all involved and the participants seem to contribute rather than work according to directions. (Venkateswaran, 2007)Transformational leaderships give importance to the ethical part of work to consumers and customers. Women usually follow this type of leadership and it is time for organizations to follow this method as the basic leadership policy. The survival and efficiency of organizations have a longstanding evidence and association with transformational leadership. Transformational orientation gives individuals the opportunity to conduct self-examination and then evaluate their conduct based on present values and prospective high value actions in the organization for total improvement. The efficiency of a transformational leader can be improved by conducting retreats at regular intervals in a year with a relevant party or institution. Retreats give opportunities for business executives to revive their present plan and apply critical transformation policy and Transformational Leadership Plan - 8 -would enable them to use them in their further conduct in the organization and bring novel strata of success to the company. (Venkateswaran, 2007)It is important for the transformational manager to find a connection between management and leadership that effect business transformation and finally leads to better results. The management of a company is more systematic and formal when compared to leadership. Managerial policies and procedures are evolved from globally accepted skills like planning, controlling and budgeting. Further management relies on accepted tools and techniques arrived through testing and reason that can be applied to various situations. This is in contrast to leadership, which revolves around the vision of taking the organization to a pre-determined goal. The basic requirements of leadership is teamwork and cooperation from a large group of individuals by maintaining the key personnel in that group motivated so that the predetermined goal is achieved as a result of the correct transformational outcome. There are various guidelines, which can help a person to become a transformational leader. A person should develop a vision, which is understandable and acceptable to followers. (Venkateswaran, 2007)A well-defined vision will enable followers to achieve the goal and sense something good in practicing a new method. A person should express a policy that can be applied as a vision to one’s life, which is precise and has a short way to achieve it. The vision should be promoted among others and it should have compelling voice with relevant anecdotes. The leaders should submit the proposed vision with confidence and optimism. If

followers sense inadequate confidence in the leader, the chances of its achievement are less. The leader should also show confidence in the follower’s capability to achieve the vision. Confidence building is also required in a transformational leader. The level of confidence can be raised by giving recognition to accomplishment. If one set of employees are successful with the new vision it will serve as Transformational Leadership Plan - 9 -motivation for others and there will be added enthusiasm for hard work. Success and accomplishments are ought to be celebrated to create optimism and dedication. The role of transformational leader should include dramatic action to create waves in strategic organizational values. Employees should be able to understand the seriousness of vision from the actions of the leader, which include denial of poor quality work and the absolute rework requirement of work to ensure high standards are met. (Venkateswaran, 2007)The transformational leader should focus on empowering subordinate and serve as an example for hard in order to transform a company’s work culture and trajectory. The path towards success is to challenge subordinates to improve their performance above the standard expectation of the company and acts as a stimulator for innovation and creativity to attain collective leadership capability. Transformational leadership is not applicable for people in the managerial level. It can be imbibed by individuals at all levels and in all circumstances. Hence leaders should make sure to develop leadership qualities among subordinates. This kind of leadership is applicable to people from all walks of life. This has application in school, sports, family, social change, etc. A change in ideology or opinion or culture can be effected by exchanging or assuring rewards. In business terms transactional leaders offer financial reward to motivate employees and increase productivity and deny increments for poor productivity. In the political scenario, politician ensures to provide jobs for votes or subsidies for assisting them through election campaign. (Bass & Riggio, 2005)Transformational leaders lead the subordinate towards growth and development by paying attention to follower’s requirements and placing the objectives of the person, leader and the entire team and the organization at ease. In short, transformational leaders have the capacity to bring out an outcome that exceeds the requirement of the organization and enable followers to Transformational Leadership Plan - 10 -achieve better satisfaction and commitment towards the team and the organization. Transformational leadership has been a successful tool in the military. However, latest findings state that it is applicable to all sectors and every social circumstance. Psychology and economics go hand in hand when it comes to transformational leadership with personal motivation converting to financial rewards on the successful accomplishment of the mission. Transactional leadership ensures that the follower will be rewarded only for a specific outcome but transformational leadership ensures that the follower is comfortable with the idea and there is compliance and commitment and the vision engages the person and feels self worth. Therefore the basic idea of a transformational leader is to motivate other to increase performance or productivity. Transformational leadership can be either participative or directive. The charisma used by transformational leaders has turned havoc on followers in the case of charismatic leaders like Adolf Hitler and Osama Bin Laden who exploit followers for

personal and self-aggrandizing objectives. Authentic transformational leaders give more and exhibit high levels of involvement instead of imposing superiority. (Bass & Riggio, 2005)An authentic transformational leader gives importance to challenges and persuasion by explaining the meaning of the challenge. They adorn the role of model followers, which creates interest for all associated with the leader. True leaders are respected, admired and trusted. Followers then identify themselves with the leader and would like to follow them by admiring extensive levels of capabilities, determination and persistence. This is called idealized influence. The level of follower’s commitment is measured through the nature of interaction, which the leader initiates. A collective enthusiasm is usually formed to achieve the mission and reassure the followers that hindrances can be overcome. Leaders who cast idealized influence have the willingness to take risk and have consistency in their approach. They are reliable and can be Transformational Leadership Plan - 11 -trusted for doing the right thing due their moral and ethical orientation. As an inspirational motivator, transformational leader evokes team spirit. (Bass & Riggio, 2005)Optimism and enthusiasm are other positive traits. This enables leaders to attract followers to accomplish future objectives through clear communication and instill a feeling that followers will also require to meet the target. Since this is a shared vision all concerned should be demonstrated about the reason for achievement of a high set goal. Contingent reward is an aspect of constructive transaction that has resulted in good outcomes for higher performance and development levels. Contingent reward leaders assign work and take the consent of the follower for satisfactory performance of the task. This is a transactional reward but it will turn to be transformational when the reward is psychological when the follower is appreciated for the good work or improvement in productivity. (Bass & Riggio, 2005)Transformational leadership can be better understood as a task involving development through delegation. The best methods of delegating work are learnt by a manger through practice and on the job experience. The manager should recognize the fact that learning is an outcome of the opportunities encountered during a job. This is the reason why people with more exposure and opportunities and people who have worked with a number of assignments during their career have the additional edge of developing and growing in a professional manner to evolve later into successful managers of their own. (Bass & Avolio, 1993)Organizations can bestow opportunities on potential managers by rotating their task and by giving more opportunities in various departments for a particular period of time. The rotation of managers can also be used to evaluate their ability to function in various situations comprising different tasks and challenges. This gives room for conversion of latent talent into practical talent. The rotational strategy of the organization to tap the potential of transformational Transformational Leadership Plan - 12 -leadership is a short duration process and it may sometimes obstruct the flow of the organization’s function. Hence alternate methods are required to develop a leader within the organization. Delegation is a good tool to assign authority and it is frequently used by organizations worldwide. (Bass & Avolio, 1993)Delegation is conceived to be a managerial tool which is also recognized as a

decision making process or a method to get things done by others especially when performance is expected above the preconceived levels. Delegation is sometimes viewed as a narrow method of using the ability and potential of a person though it gives several opportunities for improving skills and increasing personal involvement. Transformational leader can be called as a development leader because the leader exchanges a value based idea, which involves the development of the follower with a need for negotiation for betterment. The objective of the leader is to correct an issue or to get into an agreement to increase the likelihood of achieving better outcomes. It includes the requirement for a change in the follower’s beliefs, need and value. (Bass & Avolio, 1993)Transformational leadership gives importance to emotions, imagination and intellect of all concerned and gives opportunity to increase a person’s performance capability under pressure, challenging work atmosphere and deal with problems at work. Therefore the leadership aims to implement change by strengthening the ability of person by enhancing the interaction capability of a person in a complex situation to utilize creativity when there are obstacles and conflict for improvement. Behavioral change is one of the key factors for transformation of an individual. Conventional approach is replaced by exhilarating experience to identify the potential of a person where the learning of the person is directed towards an improved trajectory. The outcome of such training is a cycle of personalized experiences that penetrate into a person for Transformational Leadership Plan - 13 -deeper progress and results in powerful performance. Transformational leaders instill increased confidence, deeper insight, better understanding, increased understanding about capabilities, increased understanding about structural factors and a greater sense of individual authority in the followers. The followers will also be empowered to recognize and contribute their work with diversity in an informed and enriched working atmosphere, which results in better effectiveness of services. (“ Breaking Through’s 'Transformational Leadership Programme’ ”, 2008)Transformational leadership requires change to be implemented and sustained in an organization. Rather than demonstration, transformational leadership is learning and working together process where both the leader and follower involve in a particular task. The influence of the leader is more on the behavior, which results in the action of the subordinate and getting people to involve in their work especially in the case of multitasking. The word criticism does not hold well in transformational leaders for the mistake of a follower. The mistake or error in the performance is corrected by the leader’s involvement and guidance about how the work has to be performed. Encouragement is the most important part for followers who have already implemented the new policies while appreciation; praise and reward are the significant factor to sustain the performance of followers who have already accomplished the vision and mission of the transformational leader. This boosts confidence and instills credibility about the ideas and vision of the transformational leader.

(Hellingsworth, Best, & Valence, 2002)A transformation leader uses the inborn leadership quality to perceive leadership in followers. Self-schema is an important aspect of leaders who display a different trajectory in invoking leadership. The leader prototype is self-defining for followers wherein the experience of leaders in other settings stimulates the actions to influence action of followers. The action of leaders from different demographic regions varies and they display different leadership selfTransformational Leadership Plan - 14 -schema. Besides this, there are gender differences when it comes to transformational leadership. Male and female leaders manage followers from different perspectives. (Hogg & Tindale, 2001)In conclusion, transformational leaders lead the change in an organization, society or group by implementing their self developed policies and the strategies they have arrived at from previous work experiences. The transformation leaders is not a boss who directs followers to implement actions, but the leader is a member of a group or team who instills confidence, improves intellect and functionality and builds confidence among the team members. By involving in the team, the leader finds better acceptance for new policies and procedures, which leads to the substantiation of the leader’s vision. The leader also gives opportunity for followers to discover their individuality and personal capability, which eventually leads to better performance and improvement in the assigned task that is beyond the expected level of performance. Therefore, a transformational leader lead the change in any set up and contributes to the overall improvement of performance. Transformational Leadership Plan - 15 -ReferencesBass, B. M., & Avolio, B. J. (1993) “Improving Organizational Effectiveness through Transformational Leadership” London: Sage.Bass, B. M., & Riggio, R. E. (2005) “Transformational Leadership” London: RoutledgeBurns, M. J. (1978). Leadership. Harper & Row. N. A. (2008) “Breaking Through’s 'Transformational Leadership Programme’” Retrieved 22 August, 2008 from http://www.kingsfund.org.uk/leadership/breaking.html N. A. (2008) “Transformational Leadership Primer” Retrieved 22 August, 2008 fromhttp://www.legacee.com/Info/Leadership/LeaderResources.html N. A. (2008) “Transformational Leadership” Retrieved 22 August, 2008 fromhttp://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/styles/transformational_leadership.h tm Hellingsworth, B., Best, R., & Valence, Gerard de. (2002) “Design and Construction” Butterworth-Heinemann.Hogg, M. A., & Tindale, R. S. (2001). Group Processes. New Jersey: Blackwell Publishing.Venkateswaran, N. (2007, Feb) “Transformational Leadership” Retrieved 22 August, 2008 from http://www.indianmba.com/Faculty_Column/FC512/fc512.htm