You are on page 1of 26

# Contents

No.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

Topic Name
Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry States of Matter Structure of Atom Periodic Table Redox Reactions Chemical Equilibrium Surface Chemistry Nature of Chemical Bond Hydrogen s-Block Elements p-Block Elements (Groups 13 and 14) Basic Principles and Techniques in Organic Chemistry Alkanes Alkenes Alkynes Aromatic Compounds Environmental Chemistry

Page No.
1 17 37 71 91 109 148 171 211 230 250 270 292 309 326 338 355

01
Formulae 1. Density of unit cell: z.M d= 3 a .NA where, a is edge of unit cell NA = Avogadro number (6.023 × 1023) M = Molar mass z = number of atoms per unit cell For fcc, z = 4 for bcc, z = 2 for simple cubic, z = 1

Solid State

2.

Radius rule and co-ordination number for ionic crystals: In simple ionic crystals, the cations commonly occupy the voids or holes. The voids are empty spaces left between anionic spheres. ⎛ r+ ⎞ i. Radius Ratio ⎜ − ⎟ : ⎝r ⎠ ∴ The critical radius ratio of the void (cation) and sphere (anion), is calculated by solid geometry. Cation radius r+ Radius ratio = − = r Anion radius Co-ordination Number (CN) : The number of spheres (atoms, molecules or ions) directly surrounding a single sphere in a crystal, is called co-ordination number.

ii.

3.

Crystal structures of some elements and their coordination number’s (CN): Crystal structure bcc fcc or ccp hcp (Hexagonal closed packed) Example Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Ba Ni, Cu, Ag, Au, Pt Zn, Mo, Cd, V, Be, Mg Coordination No. 8 12 21

4.

Relation between radius ratio, co-ordination number and geometry :

⎛ r+ ⎞ Radius ratio ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝r ⎠ 0.155 to 0.225 0.225 to 0.414 0.414 to 0.732 0.731 to 1.0 5. Crystal Type of unit cell bcc fcc fcc fcc

Co-ordination number

Geometry

Examples

3 4 6 8
Examples

Planar triangular Tetrahedral Octahedral Cubic
Radius ratio 0.93 0.52 0.40 0.73

B2O3 ZnS NaCl CsCl
CN Cation Anion 8 8 6 6 4 4 8 4

Characteristics of some typical crystal structure :

CsCl NaCl ZnS CaF2
Solid State

CsCl, CsBr, TiCl AgCl, MgO ZnS CaF2, SrF2, CdF2

1

SECTION - 1
1.0 Introduction

9.

1.

Who received the Nobel prize for Chemistry in the year 1976 ? (A) W. H. Bragg (B) William Lipscomb (C) Isabella Karle (D) Ernst Otto In solid, the constituent particles are arranged in (A) definite pattern in one direction. (B) definite geometrical configuration. (C) random disordered arrangement. (D) indefinite geometrical pattern. Which solid is NOT soft? (A) Sodium (B) (C) Copper (D)
Classification of Solids

Amorphous solids (A) Possess sharp melting points. (B) Undergo clean cleavage when cut with knife. (C) Do not undergo clean cleavage when cut with knife. (D) Possess orderly arrangement over long distances.
Classification of Crystalline Solids

1.2

2.

10.

Crystals which are good conductor electricity and heat are known as (A) Ionic crystals (B) Covalence crystals (C) Metallic crystals (D) Molecular crystals

of

3.

11. Potassium Phosphorus 12.

Which of the following is a molecular crystal? (A) SiC (B) NaCl (C) Graphite (D) Ice Which solid will have intermolecular forces? (A) Ice (B) Phosphorus (C) Naphthalene (D) Sodium fluoride the weakest

1.1

4.

A solid having no definite shape is called (A) Amorphous solid (B) Crystalline solid (C) Anisotropic solid (D) Isotropic solid Amorphous substances have (i) short and long range order (ii) short range order (iii) long range order (iv) no sharp melting point. (A) (B) (C) (D) (i) and (iii) are correct (ii) and (iii) are correct (iii) and (iv) are correct (ii) and (iv) are correct 15. 13.

5.

Which of the following is an example of covalent crystal solid? (A) Si (B) NaF (C) Al (D) Ar Which of the following is an example of metallic crystal solid? (A) C (B) Si (C) W (D) AgCl ZnS is (A) Ionic crystal (B) Covalent crystal (C) Metallic crystal (D) van der Waals' crystal Graphite is used as lubricant for (A) oxidizing action (B) reducing friction (C) reducing agent (D) printing Fullerene reacts with Potassium to form (A) K39C57 (B) K37C63 (D) K35C60 (C) K40C62
Solid State

14.

6.

Amorphous solids are (A) Solid substances (B) Liquids (C) Super cooled liquids (D) Substances with definite melting point Glass is (A) Supercooled liquid (B) Crystalline solid (C) Non-crystalline solid (D) Liquid crystal Which one is called pseudo solid? (A) CaF2 (B) Glass (C) NaCl (D) All of these

7.

16.

8.

17.

2

1.3

Unit cell and two and three dimensional lattices

1.4

Packing in solids

26.

18.

The three dimensional graph of lattice points which sets the pattern for the whole lattice is called (A) Space lattice (B) Simple lattice (C) Unit cell (D) Crystal lattice Which of the following are the CORRECT axial distances and axial angles for rhombohedral system? (A) a = b = c, α = β = γ ≠ 90° (B) a = b ≠ c, α = β = γ = 90° (C) a ≠ b ≠ c, α = β = γ = 90° (D) a ≠ b ≠ c, α ≠ β ≠ γ ≠ 90° In hcp arrangement, the number of nearest neighbours are (A) 10 (B) 7 (C) 2 (D) 12 The unit cell with the following structure refers to _____ crystal system. a (A) Cubic (B) Orthorhombic b c 90 90 (C) Tetragonal 90 (D) Trigonal
o o o

The arrangement ABCABC ……. is referred to as (A) Octahedral close packing (B) Hexagonal close packing (C) Tetrahedral close packing (D) Cubic close packing The most malleable metals (Cu, Ag, Au) have close - packing of the type (A) Hexagonal close packing (B) Cubic close packing (C) Body centered cubic packing (D) Malleability is not related to type of packing In a close pack array of N spheres, the number of tetrahedral holes are (A) 4N (B) N/2 (C) 2N (D) N The empty space between the shared balls and hollow balls as shown in the diagram is called (A) hexagonal void (B) (C) (D) octahedral void tetrahedral void double triangular void

19.

27.

20.

28.

21.

29.

22.

For a solid with the structure as shown in the figure the co-ordination number of the point B is (A) 3 (B) 4 (C) 5 (D) 6 A B Rhombic sulphur has the following structure (A) Open chain (B) Tetrahedral (C) Puckered 6-membered ring (D) Puckered 8-membered ring The number of atoms or molecules contained in one primitive cubic unit cell is (A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 4 (D) 6 If the number of atoms per unit in a crystal is 2, the structure of crystal is (A) Octahedral (B) Body centered cubic (C) Face centered cubic (D) Simple cubic

30.

23.

The interstitial hole is called tetrahedral because (A) it is formed by four spheres. (B) it is tetrahedral in shape. (C) it is formed by four spheres and the centres form a regular tetrahedron. (D) it is formed by three spheres. The number of tetrahedral voids in a unit cell of cubical closest packed structure is (A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 4 (D) 8 In octahedral holes (voids) (A) A simple triangular void is surrounded by four spheres. (B) A bi-triangular void is surrounded by four spheres . (C) A bi-triangular void is surrounded by six spheres. (D) A bi-triangular void is surrounded by eight spheres.

31.

24.

32.

25.

Solid State

3

33.

The number of octahedral voids in a unit cell of a cubical closest packed structure is (A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 4 (D) 8 If the structure of CuCl is similar to ZnS, the coordination number of Cu would be (A) 2 (B) 4 (C) 8 (D) 12 Which of the following does NOT crystallise in ccp structure? (A) Fe (B) Ni (C) Mo (D) Cu Which of the following crystallise in bcc structure? (A) Al (B) Cu (C) Mg (D) W
Density of unit cells

42.

For cubic coordination the value of radius ratio is (A) 0.732 – 1.000 (B) 0.225 – 0.414 (C) 0.000 – 0.225 (D) 0.414 – 0.732

34.

r
43. In NaCl lattice, the radius ratio is (A) (C) 44. 0.225 0.5414 (B) (D)

Na + Cl−

r

=

35.

0.115 0.471

36.

For some crystals, the radius ratio for cation and anion is 0.525. Its coordination number will be (A) 2 (B) 4 (C) 6 (D) 8 TiCl has structure similar to CsCl, the coordination number of Ti+ is (A) 4 (B) 6 (C) 10 (D) 8
⎛r ⎞ If the value of ionic radius ratio ⎜ c ⎟ is 0.52 ⎝ ra ⎠ in an ionic compound, the geometrical arrangement of ions in crystal is (A) Tetrahedral (B) Planar (C) Octahedral (D) Pyramidal

45.

1.5

37.

The space occupied by b.c.c. arrangement is approximately (A) 50% (B) 68% (C) 74% (D) 56% The maximum percentage of available volume that can be filled in a face centered cubic system by an atom is (A) 74% (B) 68% (C) 34% (D) 26%
Packing in voids of ionic solids

46.

38.

47.

1.6

39.

If the radius ratio is in the range of 0.225 – 0.414, then the coordination number will be (A) 2 (B) 4 (C) 6 (D) 8 For tetrahedral co-ordination the radius ratio (r+ /r¯) should be (A) 0.414 − 0.732 (B) > 0.732 (C) 0.156 − 0.225 (D) 0.225 − 0.414 At the limiting value of radius ratio (A) (B) (C) (D) r+ , the r− forces of attraction are larger than the forces of repulsion. forces of attraction are smaller than the forces of repulsion. forces of attraction and repulsion are just equal. forces are not equal.

For an ionic crystal of the type AB, the value of (limiting) radius ratio is 0.40. The value suggests that the crystal structure should be (A) Octahedral (B) Tetrahedral (C) Square planar (D) Plane triangle Which of the following ions has the largest radius? (A) Na+ (B) Mg2+ 3+ (D) Si4+ (C) Al Each unit cell of NaCl consists of 4 chloride ions and (A) 13 Na atoms (B) 4 Na ions (C) 6 Na atoms (D) 8 Na atoms In the unit cell of NaCl lattice there are (B) 6Na+ ions (A) 3Na+ ions – (D) 4 NaCl units (C) 6Cl ions
Defect in Crystal Structure

48.

40.

49.

50.

41.

1.7

51.

If an electron is present in place of anion in a crystal lattice, then it is called (A) Frenkel defect (B) Schottky defect (C) Interstitial defect (D) F-centre
Solid State

4

52.

The given structure represents

1.9

Magnetic properties

59.
Cation Anion

Which is NOT a diamagnetic substance? (A) water (B) sodium chloride (C) oxygen (D) benzene CrO2 possess (A) Diamagnetism (B) Paramagnetism (C) Ferrimagnetism (D) Ferromagnetism

60. (A) (B) (C) (D) 53. Schottky defect Frenkel defect Metal excess defect Metal deficiency defect.

Miscellaneous

Which of the following defect, if present, lowers the density of the crystal? (A) Frenkel (B) Schottky (C) Edge dislocation (D) Constitution of F-centres. The yellow colour of ZnO and conducting nature produced in heating is due to (A) metal excess defects due to interstitial cation. (B) extra positive ions present in an interstitial site. (C) trapped electrons. (D) All of the above.
Electrical Properties

61.

A cubic crystal possesses in all ___ elements of symmetry. (A) 9 (B) 13 (C) 1 (D) 23 A solid X melts slightly above 273 K and is a poor conductor of heat and electricity. To which of the following categories does it belong? (A) Ionic solid (B) Covalent solid (C) Metallic (D) Molecular Value of heat of fusion of NaCl is (A) Very low (B) Very high (C) Moderate (D) Zero The oxide that is insulator is (A) VO (B) CoO (D) Ti2O3 (C) ReO3

62.

54.

63.

64.

1.8

55.

The property of ability to conduct electricity of metals, non-metals and semiconductors are explained by (A) Energy gain enthalpy (B) band theory (C) bond theory (D) hydride gap. Germanium is an example of (A) an intrinsic semiconductor (B) a n-type semiconductor (C) a p-type semiconductor (D) insulator Silicon is a (A) conductor (C) non-conductor (B) (D) semiconductor metal complex

SECTION - 2
1.0 Introduction

1.

56.

The interparticle forces in solid hydrogen are (A) Hydrogen bonds (B) Covalent bonds (C) Co-ordinate bonds (D) van der Waal’s forces For the various types of interactions the CORRECT order of increasing strength is (A) covalent < hydrogen bonding < van der Waal’s < dipole-dipole (B) van der Waal’s < hydrogen bonding < dipole-dipole < covalent (C) van der Waal’s < dipole-dipole < hydrogen bonding < covalent (D) dipole-dipole < van der Waal’s < hydrogen bonding < covalent

2.

57.

58.

A silicon solar battery makes use of (A) n-type semiconductor (B) p-type semiconductor (C) combination of Si doped with As and B (D) p-n junction

Solid State

5

1.1

Classification of Solids

13.

3.

Which of the following is a non-crystalline solid? (A) CsCl (B) NaCl (C) CaF2 (D) Glass Which of the following pairs has non-metallic crystalline solids? (A) Copper, Chromium (B) Chromium, Wood (C) Mercury, Calcium (D) Rock salt, Sodium nitrate Which is/are amorphous solids.? (A) Rubber (B) Plastic (C) Glass (D) All Which among the following will show anisotropy? (A) Glass (B) Barium chloride (C) Wood (D) Paper
Classification of Crystalline Solids 1.3

In diamond the co-ordination number of carbon is (A) 4 and its unit cell has 8 carbon atoms. (B) 4 and its unit cell has 6 carbon atoms. (C) 6 with 4 carbon atoms in unit cell. (D) 4 with 4 carbon atoms in unit cell. Particles of quartz are packed by (A) Electrical attraction forces (B) van der Waal’s forces (C) Covalent bond forces (D) Strong electrostatic attraction forces Graphite is an example of (A) Ionic solid (B) Covalent solid (C) van der waal’s crystal (D) Metallic crystal
Unit cell and two and three dimensional lattices

4.

14.

15.

5.

6.

16.

1.2

7.

Iodine crystals are. (A) Metallic solid (C) Molecular solid

(B) (D)

Ionic solid Covalent solid 17.

A match box exhibits (A) Cubic geometry (B) Monoclinic geometry (C) Orthorhombic geometry (D) Tetragonal geometry What type of lattice is found in potassium chloride crystal ? (A) Face centered cubic (B) Body centered cubic (C) Simple cubic (D) Simple tetragonal Close packing is maximum in the ______ crystal. (A) Simple cubic (B) Face centered (C) Body centered (D) Hexagonal The fraction of total volume occupied by the atoms in a simple cube is x x (A) (B) 2 4 8 x x (D) 2 (C) 6 6
If the coordination number of Ca2+ in CaF2 is 8, then the coordination number of F− ion would be (A) 3 (B) 4 (C) 6 (D) 8 The number of equidistant oppositely charged ions in a sodium chloride crystal is (A) 8 (B) 6 (C) 4 (D) 2
Solid State

8.

At low temperature, O2 freezes to form crystalline solid. Which term best describes the solid? (A) Ionic crystal (B) Covalent crystal (C) Metallic crystal (D) Molecular crystal Wax is an example of (A) Ionic crystal (B) Covalent crystal (C) Metallic crystal (D) Molecular crystal Solid CO2 is an example of (A) Molecular crystal (B) (C) Covalent crystal (D) LiF is a/an (A) Ionic crystal (B) Metallic crystal (C) Covalent crystal (D) Molecular crystal Among the following which crystal will be soft and has low melting point? (A) Covalent (B) Ionic (C) Metallic (D) Molecular Ionic crystal Metallic crystal

18.

9.

19.

10.

11.

20.

12.

21.

6

22.

Potassium crystallizes with a (A) Face- centered cubic lattice (B) Body- centered cubic lattice (C) Simple cubic lattice (D) Orthorhombic lattice The coordination number of occupying a tetrahedral hole is (A) 6 (B) 8 (C) 12 (D) 4 a cation

31.

23.

The decreasing order of the size of void is (A) Cubic > Octahedral > Tetrahedral Trigonal (B) Trigonal > Tetrahedral > Octahedral Cubic (C) Trigonal > Octahedral > Tetrahedral Cubic (D) Cubic > Tetrahedral > Octahedral Trigonal

> > > >

32.
+

24.

In CsCl lattice the coordination number of Cs ion is (A) 2 (B) 4 (C) 8 (D) 12

25.

In square close packing pattern in one layer, the available space filled by the spheres is (A) 40 % (B) 52.4 % (C) 50 % (D) 60 % In the fluorite structure, the coordination number of Ca2+ ion is (A) 4 (B) 6 (C) 8 (D) 3 Potassium fluoride has NaCl type structure. What is the distance between K+ and F− ions if cell edge is ‘a’ cm? (A) 2a cm (B) a / 2cm (C) 4a cm (D) a / 4cm Packing in solids In antiflourite structure, the negative ions (A) occupy tetrahedral voids. (B) occupy octahedral voids. (C) are arranged in ccp. (D) are arranged in hcp. Transition metals, when form interstitial compounds, the non-metals (H, B, C, N) are accomodated in (A) Voids or holes in cubic - packed structure. (B) Tetrahedral voids. (C) Octahedral voids. (D) All of these. The structure of sodium chloride crystal is (A) Body centered cubic lattice. (B) Face centered cubic lattice. (C) Octahedral. (D) Square planar. 33.

26.

CORRECT statement for ccp is (A) Each octahedral void is surrounded by 6 spheres and each sphere is surrounded by 3 octahedral voids. (B) Each octahedral void is surrounded by 6 spheres and each sphere is surrounded by 6 octahedral voids. (C) Each octahedral void is surrounded by 6 spheres and each sphere is surrounded by 8 octahedral voids. (D) Each octahedral void is surrounded by 6 spheres and each sphere is surrounded by 12 octahedral voids. Which of the following shaded plane in fcc lattice contains arrangement of atoms as shown by circles

27.

1.4 28.

(A)

29.

(B)

(C)

30.

(D)

Solid State

7

34.

Select the most appropriate option with the help of given figures I II

1.5 39.

Density of unit cells The formula for determination of density of unit cell is a 3 × N0 z×M (A) g cm−3 (B) g cm−3 z×M a 3 × N0 (C)
a3 × M g cm−3 z × N0

(D)

M × N0 g cm−3 a3 × z

40. III IV

Xenon crystallizes in face centre cubic lattice and the edge of the unit cell is 620 pm, then the radius of Xenon atom is (A) 219.20 pm (B) 438.5 pm (C) 265.5 pm (D) 536.94 pm A metallic element crystallizes in simple cubic lattice. Each edge length of the unit cell is 3 Å. The density of the element is 8 g / cc. Number of unit cells in 108 g of the metal is (A) 1.33 × 1020 (B) 2.7 × 1022 (C) 5 × 1023 (D) 2 × 1024 The density of KBr is 2.75 gm cm−3. Length of the unit cell is 654 pm. K = 39, Br = 80. Then what is TRUE about the predicted nature of the solid. (A) Solid has face centered cubic system with z = 4. (B) Solid has simple cubic system with z = 4. (C) Solid has face centered cubic system with z = 1 (D) Solid has body centered cubic system with z = 2 If the density of NaCl = 2.165 g cm−3 and the distance between Na+ and Cl− = 281 pm, Avogadro’s number is equal to (A) 7 × 1023 mol−1 (B) 8 × 1023 mol−1 (D) 4 × 1023 mol−1 (C) 6 × 1023 mol−1 A solid has a b.c.c. structure. If the distance of closest approach between the two atoms is 1.73 Å. The edge length of the cell is (A) (C) 200 pm 142.2 pm (B) (D)
3 2

41.

(A) (B) (C) (D) 35.

I and II represent tetrahedral holes. II, III and IV represent tetrahedral holes. I and II represent octahedral holes. I, II and IV represent octahedral holes.

42.

Which of the following does NOT adopt hcp structure? (A) Be (B) Mg (C) Fe (D) Mo The following structure drawn is of (A) Fluorite (B) Caesium chloride (C) Wurtzite (D) Zinc blende In zinc blende structure, zinc atoms fill up (A) All octahedral holes (B) All tetrahedral holes (C) Half number of octahedral holes (D) Half number of tetrahedral holes For the given structure the site marked as ‘S’ is a
S

36.

43.

37.

44.

38.

pm

2 pm

45.

(A) (C)

Tetrahedral void (B) Octahedral void (D)

Cubic void Triangular void

A solid XY has NaCl structure. If radius of X+ is 100 pm. What is the radius of Y − ion? (A) 120 pm (B) 136.6 to 241.6 pm (C) 280 pm (D) Unpredictable
Solid State

8

46.

A compound CuCl has face centered cubic structure. Its density is 3.4 g cm–3. The length of unit cell is.(Atomic mass of Cu = 63.54 and Cl = 35.5) (A) 5.783 Å (B) 6.783 Å (C) 7.783 Å (D) 8.783 Å At room temperature, sodium crystallizes in a body centered cubic lattice with a = 4.24 Å. The theoretical density of sodium (At. mass of Na = 23) is (B) 2.002 g cm–3 (A) 1.002 g cm–3 (C) 3.002 g cm–3 (D) 4.002 g cm−3 Packing in voids of ionic solids The structure of MgO is similar to NaCl. What would be the coordination number of magnesium? (A) 2 (B) 4 (C) 6 (D) 8 Coordination number for Cu is (A) 1 (B) 6 (C) 8 (D) 12 Which of the following adopts normal spinal structure? (A) CsCl (B) MgAl2O4 (C) FeO (D) CaF2 In the crystal of CsCl, the nearest neighbours of each Cs ion are (A) Six chloride ions (B) Eight chloride ions (C) Six caesium ions (D) Eight caesium ions In a face centered cubic arrangement of A and B atoms if A atoms are at the corner of the unit cell and B atoms at the face centres, and one of the A atom is missing from one corner in unit cell. Then the simplest formula of compound is (B) AB3 (A) A7B3 (C) A7B24 (D) A7/8B3 A solid A+B− has the B− ions arranged as below. If the A+ ions occupy half of the octahedral sites in the structure. The formula of solid is (A) AB (B) AB2 (C) A2B (D) A3B4

54.

An alloy of Cu, Ag and Au is found to have copper constituting the ccp lattice. If silver atoms occupy the edge centre and gold is present at body centre, the alloy has a formula (A) Cu4Ag2Au (B) Cu4Ag4Au (D) CuAgAu (C) Cu4Ag3Au The edge length of crystal lattice is 552 sodium ion is 95 pm, of chloride ion? (A) 190pm (C) 181pm the unit cell of NaCl pm. If ionic radius of what is the ionic radius (B) (D) 368pm 276pm

47.

55.

1.6 48.

56.

The maximum radius of sphere that can be fitted in the octahedral hole of cubical closed packing of sphere of radius r is (A) 0.732 r (B) 0.414 r (C) 0.225 r (D) 0.155 r The C.N. of a M2+ in MX2 is 8. Hence, C.N. of X– is (A) 8 (B) 6 (C) 4 (D) 2 The melting point of RbBr is 682 ºC, while that of NaF is 988 ºC. The principal reason that melting point of NaF is much higher than that of RbBr is that (A) the two crystals are not isomorphous. (B) the molar mass of NaF is smaller than that of RbBr. (C) the internuclear distance, rc + ra is greater for RbBr than for NaF. (D) the bond in RbBr has more covalent character than the bond in NaF. A binary solid (A+ B–) has a rock salt structure. If the edge length is 400 pm and radius of cation is 75 pm the radius of anion is (A) 100 pm (B) 125 pm (C) 250 pm (D) 325 pm The ratio of cations to anion in a closed pack tetrahedral is (A) 0.414 (B) 0.225 (C) 0.02 (D) 0.732 The radius of the Na+ is 95 pm and that of Cl– ion is 181 pm. Predict the co-ordination number of Na+. (A) 4 (B) 6 (C) 8 (D) Unpredictable

49.

57.

50.

58.

51.

52.

59.

60.

53.

61.

Solid State

9

62.

The ionic radii of Rb+ and I– are 1.46 and 2.16 Å. The most probable type of structure exhibited by it is (A) CsCl type (B) NaCl type (C) ZnS type (D) CaF2 type The unit cell cube length for LiCl (just like NaCl structure) is 5.14 Å. Assuming anionanion contact, the ionic radius for chloride ion is (A) 1.815 Å (B) 2.8 Å (C) 3.8 Å (D) 4.815 Å A solid AB has rock salt structure. If the edge length is 520 pm and radius of A+ is 80 pm, the radius of anion B– would be (A) 440 pm (B) 220 pm (C) 360 pm (D) 180 pm A certain metal crystallises in a simple cubic structure. At a certain temperature, it arranges to give a body centered structure. In this transition, the density of the metal (A) Decreases (B) Increases (C) Remains unchanged (D) Changes without a definite pattern The mass of a unit cell of CsCl corresponds to (A) 8Cs+ and 1Cl– (B) 1Cs+ and 6Cl– (C) 1Cs+ and 1Cl– (D) 4Cs+ and 4Cl– A mineral having the formula AB2 crystallize in cubic close packed lattice with the A atoms occupying the lattice points. The coordination number of atoms of A, atoms of B and the fraction of the tetrahedral sites occupied by B are respectively (A) 2, 6, 75% (B) 8, 4, 100% (C) 3, 1, 25% (D) 6, 6, 50% In Corundum, oxide ions are arranged in hcp arrangement and aluminium ions occupy two third of the octahedral holes. Its formula is (B) Al2O4 (A) Al2O3 (C) Al2O2 (D) AlO2. NH4Cl crystallizes in bcc lattice with edge length of unit cell equal to 387 pm. If radius of Cl– is 181 pm, the radius of NH + 4 will be (A) (C) 174 pm 116 pm (B) (D) 154 pm 206 pm

70.

Arrangement of Cl– in CsCl is (A) hcp (B) Simple cubic (C) fcc (D) bcc A compound alloy of gold and copper crystallizes in a cube lattice in which the gold atoms occupy the lattice points at the corners of cube and copper atoms occupy the centres of each of the cube faces. The formula of this compound is (A) AuCu (B) AuCu2 AuCu 3 (D) Au2Cu (C) What is the simplest formula of a solid whose cubic unit cell has the atom A at each corner, the atom B at each face centre and C atom at the body centre (A) AB2 C (B) A2BC (D) ABC3 (C) AB3C KCl crystallises in the same type of lattice as NaCl. Calculate the ratio of the side of the unit cell for KCl to that for NaCl. (given r + / r - = 0.55 and r + / r + = 0.74)
Na Cl Na K

71.

63.

64.

72.

65.

73.

(A) (C)

1.122 1.414

(B) (D)

1.224 0.732

74.

66.

Which of the following crystals show 4 : 2 co-ordination? (A) CaF2 (B) SiO2 (C) PbO2 (D) SiCl4 Zinc sulphide exists in two different forms zinc blende and wurtzite. Both occur as 4 : 4 co-ordination compounds. Choose the CORRECT option from among the following (A) zinc blende has a bcc structure and wurtzite an fcc structure (B) zinc blende has an fcc structure and wurtzite an hcp structure (C) zinc blende as well as wurtzite have a hcp structure (D) zinc blende as well as wurtzite have a ccp structure Which of the following will NOT adopt CsCl structure? (A) CsF (B) CsBr (C) CsS (D) CsCN How many atoms are there in a unit cell of Mg which forms hexagonal crystals, there being a face- centered atom in each end of the unit cell and 3 completely enclosed atoms within the unit cell? (A) 4 (B) 6 (C) 12 (D) 8
Solid State

75.

67.

68.

76.

77.

69.

10

78.

In A+B− ionic compound, radii of A+ and B− ions are 180 pm and 187 pm respectively. The crystal structure of this compound will be (A) NaCl type (B) CsCl type (C) ZnS type (D) Similar to diamond A solid is made of two elements X and Z. The atoms Z are in c.c.p. arrangement while atoms X occupy all the tetrahedral sites. What is the formula of the compound? (A) XZ (B) XZ2 (D) Unpredictable (C) X2Z The vacant space in b.c.c. unit cell is (A) 32 % (B) 10 % (C) 23 % (D) 46 % In a solid, oxide ions are arranged in ccp. Cations A occupy one-sixth of the tetrahedral voids and cations B occupy one-third of the octahedral voids. The formula of the compound is (A) ABO3 (B) AB2O3 (D) A2B2O3 (C) A2BO3 A binary solid (A+ B–) has a zinc blende structure with B– ions constituting the lattice and A+ ions occupying 25% tetrahedral holes. The formula of solid is (A) AB (B) A2B (C) AB2 (D) AB4 The CORRECT order of increasing radii of the ion Br− , F−, O2− and S2− is as follows (A) Br− < F− < O2− < S2− (B) S2−< O2−< F− < Br− (C) F− < O2− < S2− < Br− (D) F− < Br− < O2− < S2− If hcp and ccp structures are made up of spheres of equal size, the volume occupied per sphere is (given r = radius of sphere) (A) 1.33 r3 (B) 5.66 r3 3 (C) 2.66 r (D) 7.40 r3 The statement CORRECT for rock salt structure is (A) the tetrahedral voids are larger than octahedral voids. (B) the tetrahedral voids are unoccupied while octahedral voids are occupied by cations. (C) the radius ratio is 0.732. (D) the radius ratio is 0.99.

1.7

Defect in Crystal Structure

86.

If a non-metal is added to the interstitial sites of a metal then the metal becomes (A) Softer (B) Less tensile (C) Less malleable (D) More ductile The CORRECT statement regarding F-centre is (A) Electrons are held in the voids of crystals. (B) F-centre produces colour to the crystals. (C) Conductivity of the crystal increases due to F-centre. (D) All of these. Schottky defect is found in (A) NaOH (B) (C) MgCl2 (D) KCl TlCl

87.

79.

80.

88.

81.

89.

In AgBr crystal, the ion size lies in the order Ag+ << Br−. The AgBr crystal should have the following characteristics (A) Defectless (perfect) crystal. (B) Schottky defect only. (C) Frenkel defect only. (D) Both Schottky and Frenkel defects. Pink to (A) (B) (C) (D) colour in non-stoichiometric LiCl is due Cl– ions in lattice Li+ ions in lattice e– in lattice dissociation

82.

90.

83.

91.

84.

NaCl shows Schottky defects and AgCl Frenkel defects. Their electrical conductivity is due to (A) motion of ions and not the motion of electrons. (B) motion of electrons and not the motion of ions. (C) lower co-ordination number of NaCl. (D) higher co-ordination number of AgCl. An example compound is (A) Al2O3 (C) NiO2 of a (B) (D) non-stoichiometric Fe3O4 PbO

92.

85.

1.8

Electrical Properties

93.

Which substance will conduct the current in the solid state? (A) Diamond (B) Graphite (C) Iodine (D) Sodium chloride

Solid State

11

94.

Piezoelectric crystals are used in (A) TV (B) Radio (C) Record player (D) Refrigerator. Certain crystals produce electric signals on application of pressure. This phenomenon is called (A) Pyroelectricity (B) Ferroelectricity (C) Piezoelectricity (D) Ferrielectricity Silicon doped with arsenic is an example of which type of semiconductor? (A) p - type (B) n - type (C) n,p - type (D) Intrinsic type
Magnetic properties

95.

105. A crystal may have one or more planes and one or more axes of symmetry but it possesses (A) two centres of symmetry (B) one centre of symmetry (C) no centre of symmetry (D) axis of symmetry 106. The shaded plane abcd is referred to as
Z b a c X Y

96.

1.9

97.

Which one of the following metal oxide is antiferromagnetic in nature? (A) MnO2 (B) TiO2 (C) VO2 (D) CrO2 Which is ferromagnetic? (A) Ni (B) (D) (C) CrO2 Co All

(A) (B) (C) (D)

rectangular plane of symmetry diagonal plane of symmetry unit plane triangular plane of symmetry

98.

99.

Maximum ferromagnetism is found in (A) Fe (B) Ni (C) Co (D) All (B) (D) (B) (D)
↑↓↑↓ ↑↑↑↓

100. Ferrimagnetism is in (A) ↑↑↑↑↑ (C) ↑↑↑↓↓ 101. A crystal of Fe3O4 is (A) Paramagnetic (C) Ferrimagnetic
Miscellaneous

107. It was found that parazoxyanide melts at 389 K to give a turbid non uniform liquid but at 408 K, it melts to form clear uniform isotropic liquid. What type of crystal is being described? (A) Molecular crystal (B) Covalent crystal (C) Liquid crystal (D) H - bonded crystal 108. LiBH4 crystallizes in orthorhombic system with 4 molecules per unit cell. The unit cell dimensions are a = 6.8 Å, b = 4.4 Å and c = 7.2 Å. If the molar mass is 21.76, the density is (A) 0.6708 g/cm3 (B) 16708 g/cm3 (D) 16.708 g / cm3 (C) 2.6708 g/cm3 109. M2X has a structure closely related to that of fluorite. It is actually reverse of fluorite structure (antifluorite structure). In such a structure, (A) smaller cations occupy the position of fluoride ions and larger anions that of Ca2+ ions. (B) larger cations occupy the position of F− ions and smaller anions that of Ca2+ ions. (C) each F− is surrounded by 4 Ca++ in tetrahedral arrangement. (D) F− ions occupy all the 8 octahedral voids.
Solid State

Diamagnetic Ferromagnetic

102. Which of the following is an example of ionic crystal solid? (A) Diamond (B) LiF (C) Li (D) Silicon 103. If NaCl is doped with 10−3 mol% SrCl2, then the concentration of cation vacancies will be (A) 6.023 × 1018 mol−1 (B) 6.023 × 1017 mol−1 (C) 6.023 × 1014 mol−1 (D) 6.023 × 1016 mol−1 104. The elements of symmetry in a crystal are (A) Plane of symmetry (B) Axis of symmetry (C) Centre of symmetry (D) All

12

110. How many axes of six fold symmetry is present in hcp arrangement? (A) 6 (B) 4 (C) 2 (D) 1 111. Which one of the following is a CORRECT statement? (A) Co-ordination number of bcc lattice is 12. (B) A ccp structure has 8 tetrahedral and 6 octahedral interstices. (C) Diamond has two-dimensional crystal lattice. (D) Bonding in metallic crystals is directional. 112. In the X-ray diffraction of a set of crystal planes having d equal to 0.18 nm a first order reflection is found to be 6 at an angle of 22°. The wavelength of X-ray is (Given sin 22° = 0.208) (A) 0.0749 nm (B) 0.0374 nm (C) 0.749 nm (D) 0.374 nm 113. Calculate the λ of X-rays which give a diffraction angle 2θ = 16.80° for a crystal. (Given interplanar distance = 0.200 nm; diffraction = first order; sin 8.40° = 0.1461). (A) 584 pm (B) 584 nm (C) 58.4 pm (D) 65.8 pm 114. The molecules NaCl, MgO and NiO show 6:6 co-ordination, but BeO exhibits 4:4 co-ordination because (A) BeO is covalent (B) BeO is ionic (C) BeO is amphoteric (D) BeO is polymeric 115. If a crystal contains a total of ‘N’ atoms, and ‘n’ Schottky defects are produced by removing ‘n’ cations and ‘r’ anion from the interior of the crystal then − Ep/2k BT ) (A) n = N exp( (B) (C) (D) N = n exp( − E /2k BT )
− E /k T n = N exp( B )

SECTION - 3
1.0 Introduction

1.

In the Bragg’s equation for diffraction of X-rays, n represents [MP PMT 2000] (A) Quantum number (B) An integer (C) Avogadro’s numbers (D) Moles The characteristic features of solids are [AMU 1994] (A) Definite shape. (B) Definite size. (C) Definite shape and size. (D) Definite shape, size and rigidity. Which is NOT a property of solids? [MP PET 1995] (A) Solids are always crystalline in nature. (B) Solids have high density and low compressibility. (C) The diffusion of solids is very slow. (D) Solids have definite volume. The three states of matter are solid, liquid and gas. Which of the following statement is/are TRUE about them [AIIMS 1991] (A) Gases and liquids have viscosity as a common property. (B) The molecules in all the three states possess random translational motion. (C) Gases cannot be converted into solids without passing through the liquid phase. (D) Solids and liquids have vapour pressure as a common property. The lustre of a metal is due to [AFMC 1998] (A) its high density. (B) its high polishing. (C) its chemical inertness. (D) presence of free electrons.
Classification of Solids

2.

3.

4.

5.

1.1

n = N exp( E /k BT )

6.

A crystalline solid (A) (B) (C) (D)
[Kerala CET (Med.) 2003] Changes abruptly from solid to liquid when heated. Has no definite melting point. Undergoes deformation of its geometry easily. Has an irregular 3-dimensional arrangements.

116. Which among the following is an example of ferroelectric compound? (A) Quartz (B) Lead chromate (C) Barium titanate (D) Tourmaline 117. Schottky defect is noticed in (A) NaCl (B) KCl (C) CsCl (D) All
Solid State

13

7.

The existence of a substance in more than one solid modifications is known as OR Any compound having more than two crystal structures is called [MP PMT 1993; MP PET 1999] (A) Polymorphism (B) Isomorphism (C) Allotropy (D) Enantiomorphism A crystalline solid has (A) Long range order. (B) Short range order. (C) Disordered arrangement. (D) None of these.
[DCE 2001]

15.

NaCl is an example of [MP PAT 1993] (A) Covalent solid (B) Ionic solid (C) Molecular solid (D) Metallic solid In which of the following carbon atom is arranged tetrahedral structure. (A) Diamond (B) (C) Graphite (D) substances the in a regular [NCERT 1978] Benzene Carbon black

16.

17.

8.

Which of the following is TRUE for diamond? [AFMC 1997] (A) Diamond is a good conductor of electricity. (B) Diamond is soft. (C) Diamond is a bad conductor of heat. (D) Diamond is made up of C, H and O. Crystals of covalent compounds always have [BHU 1984] (A) Atoms as their structural units (B) Molecules as structural units (C) Ions held together by electrostatic forces (D) High melting points In graphite, carbon atoms are joined together due to [AFMC 2002] (A) Ionic bonding (B) van der Waal’s forces (C) Metallic bonding (D) Covalent bonding Mostly crystals show good cleavage because their atoms, ions or molecules are [CBSE 1991] (A) Weakly bonded together. (B) Strongly bonded together. (C) Spherically symmetrical. (D) Arranged in planes. Which of the following is NOT correct for ionic crystals? [Orissa JEE 2002] (A) They possess high melting point and boiling point. (B) All are electrolyte. (C) Exhibit the property of isomorphism. (D) Exhibit directional properties of the bond.
Unit cell and two and three dimensional lattices

1.2

Classification of Crystalline Solids

18.

9.

Quartz is a crystalline variety of [Pb. PMT 2000] (A) Silica (B) Sodium silicate (C) Silicon carbide (D) Silicon Crystalline solids are (A) Glass (C) Plastic
[Pb. PMT 1999] (B) Rubber (D) Sugar

10.

19.

11.

Silicon is found in nature in the forms of [MH CET 2002] (A) Body centered cubic structure. (B) Hexagonal close packed structure. (C) Network solid. (D) Face centered cubic structure. The major binding force of diamond, silicon and quartz is [MEE (Kerala) 2002] (A) electrostatic force. (B) electrical attraction. (C) covalent bond force. (D) van der Waal’s force. Among solids the highest melting point is established by [Kerala CET (Med.) 2002] (A) Covalent solids (B) Ionic solids (C) Pseudo solids (D) Molecular solids Diamond is an example of [MP PET/PMT 1998; CET Pune 1998] (A) Solid with hydrogen bonding (B) Electrovalent solid (C) Covalent solid (D) Glass

20.

12.

21.

13.

14.

1.3

22.

Crystals can be classified into _____ basic crystal units. [MP PMT 1994] (A) 3 (B) 7 (C) 14 (D) 4
Solid State

14

23.

Bravais lattices are of (A) 8 types (C) 14 types

[MP PMT 1997] (B) 12 types (D) 9 types

32.

24.

Example of unit cell with crystallographic dimensions a ≠ b ≠ c, α = γ = 90°, β ≠ 90° is [AFMC 1998] (A) Calcite (B) Graphite (C) Rhombic sulphur (D) Monoclinic sulphur The total number of lattice arrangements in different crystal systems is [Karnataka CET (Engg.) 2001] (A) 3 (B) 7 (C) 8 (D) 14 Tetragonal crystal system has the following unit cell dimensions [MP PMT 1993] (A) a = b = c and α = β = γ = 90° (B) a = b ≠ c and α = β = γ = 90° (C) a ≠ b ≠ c and α = β = γ = 90° (D) a = b ≠ c and α = β = 90°, γ = 12° Monoclinic crystal has dimensions [DCE 2000] (A) a ≠ b ≠ c, α = γ = 90°, β ≠ 90° (B) a = b = c, α = β = γ = 90° (C) a = b ≠ c, α = β = γ = 90° (D) a ≠ b ≠ c, α ≠ β ≠ γ ≠ 90° Which one of the following is the biggest ion? [MP PET 1993] (A) Al3+ (B) Ba+2 (D) Na+ (C) Mg+2 What is the coordination number of sodium in Na2O ? [AIIMS 2003] (A) 6 (B) 4 (C) 8 (D) 2 The crystal system of a compound with unit cell dimensions a = 0.387, b = 0.387 and c = 0.504 nm and α = β = 90° and γ = 120° is [AIIMS 2004] (A) Cubic (B) Hexagonal (C) Orthorhombic (D) Rhombohedral How many space lattices are obtainable from the different crystal systems? [MP PMT 1996; MP PET/PMT 1998] (A) 7 (B) 14 (C) 32 (D) 230

The number of atoms or molecules contained in one face centered cubic unit cell of a monoatomic substance is [CPMT 1989, 94; CBSE 1989, 96; NCERT 1990; MP PET 1993; KCET 1999] (A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 4 (D) 6 In a face centered cubic cell, an atom at the face contributes to the unit cell [Karnataka (Engg./Med.) 2000; AFMC 2001] (A) 1/4 part (B) 1/8 part (C) 1 part (D) 1/2 part Na and Mg crystallize in bcc and fcc type crystals respectively, then the number of atoms of Na and Mg present in the unit cell of their respective crystal is [AIEEE 2002] (A) 4 and 2 (B) 9 and 14 (C) 14 and 9 (D) 2 and 4 The packing efficiency of the two−dimensional square unit cell shown below is [IIT 2010]

33.

25.

34.

26.

35.

27.

L

28.

(A) (C) 36.

39.27 % 74.05 %

(B) (D)

68.02 % 78.54 %

29.

If ‘a’ stands for the edge length of the cubic systems: simple cubic, body centered cubic and face centered cubic, then the ratio of radii of the spheres in these systems will be respectively. [CBSE (PMT) 2008] (A) (B) (C) (D)
1 3 a: a: 2 2

30.

3 a 2 2a

1a :

3a:

31.

1 3 1 a: a: a 2 4 2 2 1 1 a: 3a: a 2 2

37.

Which of the following does NOT represent a type of crystal system? [CET Punjab 1999] (A) Triclinic (B) Monoclinic (C) Rhombohedral (D) Isotropical

Solid State

15

38.

Potassium crystallizes in a bcc lattice, hence the coordination number of potassium in potassium metal is [Karnataka CET 1993] (A) 0 (B) 4 (C) 6 (D) 8
Packing in solids

48.

1.4

CsBr crystal has bcc structure. It has an edge length of 4.3 Å. The shortest interionic distance between Cs+ and Br− ions is [IIT 1995] (A) 1.86 Å (B) 3.72 Å (C) 4.3 Å (D) 7.44 Å

39.

Hexagonal close packed arrangement of ions is described as [MP PMT 1994] (A) ABCABA.... (B) ABCABC.... (C) ABABA.... (D) ABBAB.... The number of octahedral sites per sphere in a fcc structure is [MP PMT 2000, 01] (A) 8 (B) 4 (C) 2 (D) 1 Body centered cubic lattice has a coordination number of [AIIMS 1996; MP PMT 2002] (A) 4 (B) 8 (C) 12 (D) 6 The ratio of close-packed atoms to tetrahedral holes in cubic close packing is [Pb. PMT 1998] (A) 1 : 1 (B) 1 : 2 (C) 1 : 3 (D) 2 : 1 The co-ordination number of a metal crystallizing in a hexagonal close packed structure is [NCERT 1978; IIT 1999] (A) 4 (B) 12 (C) 8 (D) 6 Alternate tetrahedral void in FCC are occupied in [IIT - 2005] (A) NaCl (B) ZnS (C) CaF2 (D) Na2O The number of close neighbour in a body centered cubic lattice of identical sphere is [MP PET 2001] (A) 8 (B) 6 (C) 4 (D) 2 In the closest packed structure of a metallic lattice, the number of nearest neighbours of [JIPMER 2002] a metallic atom is (A) Twelve (B) Four (C) Eight (D) Six The interionic distance for caesium chloride [MP PET 2002] crystal will be a (A) a (B) 2 2a 3a (C) (D) 2 3

49.

40.

The radius of hydrogen atom in the ground state is 0.53 Å. The radius of Li2+ ion (atomic number = 3) in the similar state is [CBSE 1995] (A) 1.06 Å (B) 0.265 Å (C) 0.17 Å (D) 0.53 Å Which ion has the lowest radius ? [KCEE 1998] (A) Na+ (B) Mg2+ (D) Si4+ (C) Al3+
Density of unit cells

50.

41.

1.5

51.

42.

43.

Sodium metal crystallizes as a body centered cubic lattice with the cell edge 4.29 Å. What is the radius of sodium atom? [AIIMS 1999] −8 (A) 1.857 × 10 cm (B) 2.371 × 10−7cm (C) 3.817 × 10−8cm (D) 9.312 × 10−7cm The number of atoms in 100 g of an fcc crystal with density d = 10 g / cm3 and cell edge equal to 100 pm, is equal to [CBSE 1994; Karnataka CET 2002] (A) 4 × 1025 (B) 3 × 1025 (D) 1 × 1025 (C) 2 × 1025 An element (atomic mass 100 g / mol ) having bcc structure has unit cell edge 400 pm. Then density of the element is [CBSE PMT 1996; AIIMS 2002] (A) 10.376 g / cm3 (B) 5.188 g / cm3 3 (C) 7.289 g / cm (D) 2.144 g / cm3 An element occurring in the bcc structure has 12.08 × 1023 unit cells. The total number of atoms of the element in these cells will be [MP PET 1994] (A) 24.16 × 1023 (B) 36.18 × 1023 (C) 6.04 × 1023 (D) 12.08 × 1023 Copper crystallises in fcc with a unit cell length of 361 pm. What is the radius of copper atom ? [AIEEE-2009] (A) 108 pm (B) 127 pm (C) 157 pm (D) 181 pm
Solid State

52.

44.

53.

45.

46.

54.

47.

55.

16

56.

In orthorhombic, the value of a, b and c are respectively 4.2 Å, 8.6 Å and 8.3 Å given the molecular mass of the solute is 155 gm mol−1 and that of density is 3.3 g/cc, the number of formula units per unit cell is [Orrisa JEE 2005] (A) 2 (B) 3 (C) 4 (D) 6 Ferrous oxide has a cubic structure and each edge of the unit cell is 5.0 Å. Assuming density of the oxide as 4.09 g cm−3, then the number of Fe2+ and O2− ions present in each unit cell will be [MP PET 2000] 2+ 2− (A) Four Fe and four O (B) (C) (D) Two Fe2+ and four O2− Four Fe2+ and two O2− Three Fe2+ and three O2−

62.

57.

The unit cell of a binary compound of A and B metals has a ccp structure with A atoms occupying the corners and B atoms occupying the centres of each faces of the cubic unit cell. If during the crystallisation of this alloy, in the unit cell two A atoms are missed, the overall composition per unit cell is [CET (J and K) 2009] (A) AB6 (B) AB4 (C) AB8 (D) A6B24
Packing in voids of ionic solids Which of the following statements is INCORRECT? [IIT-1998] (A) The coordination number of each type of ion in CsCl crystal is 8. (B) A metal that crystallizes in bcc structure has a coordination number of 12. (C) A unit cell of an ionic crystal shares some of its ions with other unit cells. (D) The length of the unit cell in NaCl is 552 pm ( r + = 95 pm; r − = 181 pm ) .
Na Cl

1.6 63.

58.

The unit cell of Al (molar mass 27 g mol−1) has an edge length of 405 pm. Its density is 2.7 g/cm3. The cubic unit cell is [PET (Kerala) 2007] (A) face- centered (B) body- centered (C) edge- centered (D) simple How many unit cells are present in a cubeshaped ideal crystal of NaCl of mass 1.00 g ? [Atomic masses: Na = 23, Cl = 35.5] [AIEEE-2003] 21 (A) 1.28 × 10 unit cells (B) 1.71 × 1021 unit cells (C) 2.57 × 1021 unit cells (D) 5.14 × 1021 unit cells AB crystallizes in a body centered cubic lattice with edge length ‘a’ equal to 387 pm. The distance between two oppositely charged ions in the lattice is [CBSE (PMT) 2010] (A) 335 pm (B) 250 pm (C) 200 pm (D) 300 pm The edge length of face centered unit cubic cell is 508 pm. If the radius of the cation is 110 pm, the radius of the anion is [CBSE 1998] (A) 285 pm (B) 398 pm (C) 144 pm (D) 618 pm

64.

59.

For an ionic crystal of the general formula AX and co-ordination number 6, the value of radius ratio will be [MP PMT 1993] (A) Greater than 0.73 (B) In between 0.73 and 0.41 (C) In between 0.41 and 0.22 (D) Less than 0.22 A crystal lattice with alternate +ve and –ve ions has radius ratio of 0.524. Its coordination number is [Manipal PMT 2002] (A) 4 (B) 3 (C) 6 (D) 12 In a solid AB having the NaCl structure A atoms occupies the corners of the cubic unit cell. If all the face- centered atoms along one of the axes are removed, then the resultant stoichiometry of the solid is [IIT Screeing 2001] (A) AB2 (B) A2B (D) A3B4 (C) A4B3 In the crystals, which of the following ionic compounds would you expect maximum distance between centres of cations and anions? [CBSE 1998] (A) LiF (B) CsF (C) CsI (D) LiI

65.

60.

66.

61.

67.

Solid State

17

68.

In a compound, atoms of element Y form ccp lattice and those of element X occupy 2/3rd of tetrahedral voids. The formula of the compound will be [AIEEE 2008] (A) X2Y3 (B) X2Y (D) X4Y3 (C) X3Y4 An ionic compound has a unit cell consisting of A ions at the corners of a cube and B ions on the centres of the faces of the cube. The empirical formula for this compound would be [AIEEE-2005] (A) A2B (B) AB (D) AB3 (C) A3B A solid has a structure in which ‘W’ atoms are located at the corners of a cubic lattice, ‘O’ atoms at the centre of edges and ‘Na’ atoms at the centre of the cube. The formula for the compound is [KCET 1996] (B) NaWO3 (A) NaWO2 (D) NaWO4 (C) Na2WO3 A compound is formed by elements A and B. This crystallizes in the cubic structure when atoms A are the corners of the cube and atoms B are at the centre of the body. The simplest formula of the compound is [KCET 1993; CBSE 2000; Kerala (Med.) 2003] (A) AB (B) AB2 (D) A2B2 (C) A2B A substance AxBy crystallises in a face centered cubic (fcc) lattice in which atoms ‘A’ occupy each corner of the cube and atoms ‘B’ occupy the centers of each face of the cube. Identify the CORRECT composition of the substance AxBy [IIT-2002] (A) AB3 (B) A4B3 (C) A3B (D) Composition cannot be specified If we know the ionic radius ratio in a crystal of ionic solid, what can be known of the following? [CET (Gujarat) 2006] (A) Magnetic property (B) Nature of chemical bond (C) Type of defect (D) Geometrical shape of crystal

1.7

Defect in Crystal Structure

74.

Which one of the following has Frenkel defect? [MP PMT 2000] (A) Sodium chloride (B) Graphite (C) Silver bromide (D) Diamond Schottky defect in crystals is observed when [CBSE 1998; KCET 2002] (A) Density of crystal is increased. (B) Unequal number of cations and anions are missing from the lattice. (C) An ion leaves its normal site and occupies an interstitial site. (D) Equal number of cations and anions are missing from the lattice. What type of crystal defect is indicated in the diagram below ? [AIEEE-2004] Na+ Cl– Na+ Cl– Na+ Cl– Cl– Cl– Na+ Na+ + – – + Na Cl Cl Na Cl– Na+ Cl– Na+ Cl– Na+ (A) Frenkel defect (B) Schottky defect (C) Interstitial defect (D) Frenkel and Schottky defects. The flame colours of metal ions are due to [KCET 2003] (A) Frenkel defect. (B) Schottky defect. (C) Metal deficiency defect. (D) Metal excess defect. The CORRECT statement(s) regarding defects in solids is(are) [IIT- 2009] (A) Frenkel defect is usually favoured by a very small difference in the size of cation and anion. (B) Frenkel defect is a vacancy defect. (C) Trapping of an electron in the lattice leads to the formation of F-center. (D) Schottky defects have no effect on the physical properties of solids. Frenkel defect is caused due to [MP PET 1994] (A) An ion missing from the normal lattice site creating a vacancy. (B) An extra positive ion occupying an interstitial position in the lattice. (C) An extra negative ion occupying an interstitial position in the lattice. (D) The shift of a positive ion from its normal lattice site to an interstitial site.
Solid State

75.

69.

70.

76.

71.

77.

78.

72.

79.

73.

18

80.

Ionic solids, with Schottky defects contain in their structure [CBSE 1994] (A) Equal number of cation and anion vacancies (B) Anion vacancies and interstitial anions (C) Cation vacancies only (D) Cation vacancies and interstitial cations Which defect causes decrease in the density of crystal? [KCET 2000] (A) Frenkel (B) Schottky (C) Interstitial (D) F-centre In a solid lattice the cation has left a lattice site and is located at an interstitial position, the lattice defect is [AIIMS 1982,91] (A) Interstitial defect (B) Valency defect (C) Frenkel defect (D) Schottky defect Which one of the following crystals does NOT exhibit Frenkel defect [MP PET 2002] (A) AgBr (B) AgCl (C) KBr (D) Zns Schottky defect defines imperfection in the lattice structure of a [AIIMS 2002] (A) Solid (B) Liquid (C) Gas (D) Plasma Point defects are present in [MP PMT 1997] (A) Ionic solids (B) Molecular solids (C) Amorphous solids (D) Liquids The solid NaCl is a bad conductor of electricity since [AIIMS 1980] (A) in solid NaCl there are no ions. (B) solid NaCl is covalent. (C) in solid NaCl there is no velocity of ions. (D) in solid NaCl there are no electrons. The following is NOT a function of an impurity present in a crystal [MP PET 1995] (A) Establishing thermal equilibrium. (B) Having tendency to diffuse. (C) Contributing to scattering. (D) Introducing new electronic energy levels.
Electrical Properties

89.

90.

81.

To get a n-type semiconductor, the impurity to be added to silicon should have which of the following number of valence electrons? [KCET (Engg.) 2001] (A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 5 Which of the following shows electrical conduction [AFMC 2002] (A) Sodium (B) Potassium (C) Diamond (D) Graphite A semiconductor of Ge can be made p-type by adding [MP PET 2002] (A) Trivalent impurity (B) Tetravalent impurity (C) Pentavalent impurity (D) Divalent impurity Superconductors are derived from compounds of [Kerala PMT 2002] (A) p-Block elements (B) Lanthanides (C) Actinides (D) Transition elements Bragg’ law is given by the equation [MP PMT 1995, 2002] = 2 sin (B) nλ = 2d sin θ (A) nλ θ θ θ d (C) 2nλ = d sin θ (D) n = sin θ 2 2 Davy and Faraday proved that [Kerala CET (Med.) 2002] (A) Diamond is a form of carbon. (B) The bond lengths of carbon containing compounds are always equal. (C) The strength of graphite is minimum compared to platinum. (D) Graphite is very hard. In a crystal, the atoms are located at the position of [AMU 1985] (A) Maximum potential energy (B) Minimum potential energy (C) Zero potential energy (D) Infinite potential energy A pure crystalline substance, on being heated gradually, first forms a turbid looking liquid and then the turbidity completely disappears. This behaviour is the characteristic of substances forming [BHU 2000] (A) Isomeric crystals (B) Liquid crystals (C) Isomorphous crystals (D) Allotropic crystals

91.

82.

92.

83.

84.

Miscellaneous

93.

85.

94.

86.

95.

87.

96.

1.8

88.

Which type of solid crystals will conduct heat and electricity? [RPET 2000] (A) Ionic (B) Covalent (C) Metallic (D) Molecular

Solid State

19

97.

The second order Bragg’s diffraction of X-rays with λ = 1 Å from a set of parallel planes in a metal occurs at an angle of 60°. The distance between the scattering planes in the crystal is [CBSE PMT 1998; AFMC 2001] (A) 0.575 Å (B) 1.00 Å (C) 2.00 Å (D) 1.15 Å Which of the following molecules has threefold axis of symmetry? [UPSEAT 2004] (A) NH3 (B) C2H4 (C) CO2 (D) SO2 Which has NO rotation of symmetry? [Orrisa JEE 2004] (A) Hexagonal (B) Orthorhombic (C) Cubic (D) Triclinic

(D)

The co-ordination number of Na+ ion in NaCl is 4.

98.

101. Which of the following statement is NOT correct? [CBSE (PMT) 2008] (A) The number of carbon atoms in a unit cell of diamond is 4. (B) The number of Bravais lattices in which a crystal can be categorised is 14. (C) The fraction of the total volume occupied by the atoms in a primitive cell is 0.48. (D) Molecular solids are generally volatile. 102. Which of the following statements is CORRECT for CsBr3? [NCERT 1996] (A) It is a covalent compound (B) It contains Cs3+ and Br− ions (C) It contains Cs+ and Br − 3 ions. + − (D) It contains Cs , Br and lattice Br2 molecule 103. The three dimensional lattice of zeolites consists of [Kerala Med. 2000] 2n 6− (A) [Si2O7] (B) SiO3 O3n (C)
2n − Si 2 O5 O5n

99.

100. The CORRECT statement in the following is [MP PET 1997] (A) The ionic crystal of AgBr has Schottky defect. (B) The unit cell having crystal parameters, a = b ≠ c, α =β =90°. γ = 120° is hexagonal. (C) In ionic compounds having Frenkel γ defect the ratio + is high. γ−

(D)

[AlSi3O8]−

104. Which of the following is ferroelectric compound? [AFMC 1997] (A) BaTiO3 (B) K4[Fe(CN)6] (C) Pb2O3 (D) PbZrO3 Answers Key to Multiple Choice Questions 4. 14. 24. 34. 44. 54. 64. (A) (C) (A) (B) (C) (D) (B)
Section 1 5. (D) 6. 15. (A) 16. 25. (B) 26. 35. (C) 36. 45. (D) 46. 55. (B) 56.

1. 11. 21. 31. 41. 51. 61.

(B) (D) (B) (D) (C) (D) (D)

2. 12. 22. 32. 42. 52. 62.

(B) (A) (D) (C) (A) (A) (D)

3. 13. 23. 33. 43. 53. 63.

(C) (A) (D) (C) (C) (B) (B)

(C) (B) (D) (D) (C) (A)

7. 17. 27. 37. 47. 57.

(A) (D) (B) (B) (B) (B)

8. 18. 28. 38. 48. 58.

(B) (C) (C) (A) (A) (C)

9. 19. 29. 39. 49. 59.

(C) (A) (D) (B) (B) (C)

10. 20. 30. 40. 50. 60.

(C) (D) (C) (D) (D) (D)

1. (D) 11. (A) 21. (B) 31. (A) 41. (C) 51. (B) 61. (B) 71. (C) 81. (A) 91. (A) 101. (C) 111. (B)

2. (C) 12. (D) 22. (B) 32. (B) 42. (A) 52. (C) 62. (B) 72. (C) 82. (C) 92. (B) 102. (B) 112. (A)

3. (D) 13. (A) 23. (D) 33. (C) 43. (C) 53. (B) 63. (A) 73. (A) 83. (C) 93. (B) 103. (A) 113. (C)

4. (D) 14. (C) 24. (C) 34. (C) 44. (A) 54. (C) 64. (D) 74. (B) 84. (B) 94. (C) 104. (D) 114. (B)

Section 2 5. (D) 6. (B) 15. (B) 16. (C) 25. (B) 26. (C) 35. (C) 36. (D) 45. (B) 46. (A) 55. (C) 56. (B) 65. (B) 66. (C) 75. (B) 76. (A) 85. (C) 86. (C) 95. (C) 96. (B) 105. (B) 106. (B) 115. (A) 116. (C)

7. (C) 17. (A) 27. (B) 37. (D) 47. (A) 57. (C) 67. (B) 77. (B) 87. (D) 97. (A) 107. (C) 117. (D)

8. (D) 18. (B) 28. (C) 38. (C) 48. (C) 58. (C) 68. (A) 78. (B) 88. (B) 98. (D) 108. (A)

9. (D) 19. (D) 29. (D) 39. (B) 49. (D) 59. (B) 69. (B) 79. (C) 89. (C) 99. (A) 109. (A)

10. (A) 20. (B) 30. (B) 40. (A) 50. (B) 60. (B) 70. (B) 80. (A) 90. (C) 100. (C) 110. (D)

20

Solid State

1. (B) 11. (C) 21. (D) 31. (B) 41. (B) 51. (A) 61. (C) 71. (A) 81. (B) 91. (A) 101. (C)

2. (D) 12. (C) 22. (B) 32. (C) 42. (B) 52. (A) 62. (B) 72. (A) 82. (C) 92. (D) 102. (C)

3. (A) 13. (B) 23. (C) 33. (D) 43. (B) 53. (B) 63. (B) 73. (D) 83. (C) 93. (B) 103. (D)

4. (A) 14. (C) 24. (D) 34. (D) 44. (B) 54. (A) 64. (B) 74. (C) 84. (A) 94. (A) 104. (A)

Section 3 5. (D) 6. 15. (B) 16. 25. (B) 26. 35. (D) 36. 45. (A) 46. 55. (B) 56. 65. (C) 66. 75. (D) 76. 85. (A) 86. 95. (B) 96.

(A) (A) (B) (C) (A) (C) (D) (B) (C) (B)

7. 17. 27. 37. 47. 57. 67. 77. 87. 97.

(A) (C) (A) (D) (C) (A) (C) (D) (A) (D)

8. 18. 28. 38. 48. 58. 68. 78. 88. 98.

(A) (A) (B) (D) (B) (A) (D) (C) (C) (A)

9. 19. 29. 39. 49. 59. 69. 79. 89. 99.

(A) (D) (B) (C) (C) (C) (D) (D) (D) (D)

10. (D) 20. (D) 30. (B) 40. (D) 50. (D) 60. (A) 70. (B) 80. (A) 90. (D) 100. (B)

Hints to Multiple Choice Questions

25.

Section 1 Total number of spheres in body centered cubic unit cell = 1/8 × 8 + 1 = 2 spheres (atoms, ions or molecules).

40.

37.

Volume of unit cell = Volume occupied =
8 3 8 3

64r 3 3 3

π r3

Volume occupied by two atoms in unit cell or packing = 38.
π r3 ×
3 3 64r
3

For fcc lattice 4r = 2 a a = 620 pm; 2 × 620 r= 4 1.414 × 620 = 4 = 219.17 ≅ 219.20 pm N0 =

× 100 = 68.04 %.

41.

Total volume of unit cell = 8 8 r3 16 3 Volume occupied = πr 3 16 3 1 Packing efficiency = πr × × 100 3 8 8r 3 = 74.0 %
r
Na +

z×M 1 × 108 108 × 10+24 = = −8 3 3 d×a 8 × (3 × 10 ) 216 = 0.5 × 1024 = 5 × 1023

42.

z=

43.

= 0.95 Å = 1.81 Å

r

Cl-

r

Na + Cl−

r

=

0.95 1.81

= 0.524 ≈ 0.5414

d × N0 × a 3 M 2.75 × 6.022 × 1023 × (6.54 × 10−8 )3 = 119 2.75 × 6.022 × 27.97 = 119 463.197 = = 3.89 ≅ 4. 119

46.

Section 2

14.

Quartz is a covalent solid in which constituent particles are atoms which are held together by covalent bond forces. In tetrahedral voids four spheres are involved in its formation. Volume of unit cell = 8r3 4 3 Volume occupied = πr 3 4π r 3 Volume unoccupied = × 100 = 52.4 % 3 × 8r 3
∴ ∴ ∴

d = 3.4 g cm−3, z = 4, M = 98.99 g mol−1 z×M d= N0 × a 3 a3 =

23. 25.

4 × 98.99 6.022 × 1023 × 3.4 395.96 × 10−23 a3 = 20.47 a3 = 19.34 × 10−23
a = 3 1.934 × 10−22 = 5.783 × 10−8 cm = 5.783 × 10−10 m = 5.783 A°

Solid State

21

47.

Cell length, a = 4.24 Å

= 4.24 × 10−10 m = 4.24 × 10−8 cm In bcc lattice, z = 2, M = 23 g mol−1 z×M 2× 23 d= = N 0 × a 3 6.023×1023 × ( 4.24×10−8 )3 = 46 × 1024 6.022 × 76.22 × 1023 = 0.1002 × 101 = 1.002 g cm−3

71.

54.

Number of atoms of gold (Au) = 1 Silver atoms occupy edge centre (Ag) = Number of atoms = 3 Since, the alloy has ccp lattice, co-ordination is 12. Hence, the alloy formula = Cu4Ag3Au. 2r + + 2r – = 552; r + + r – = r – = 276 – 95 = 181 pm.

One-eighth of each corner atom (Au) and one half of each face centered atom (Cu) are contained within the unit cell of the compound. Thus, the number of Au atoms per unit cell 1 = 1 and =8× 8 the number of Cu atoms per unit cell 1 =6× = 3. The formula of the compound is 2 AuCu3. An atom at the corner of a cube is shared among 8 unit cells. As there are 8 corners in a cube, number of corner atom [1] per unit cell 1 =1 =8× 8 A face- centered atom in a cube is shared by two unit cells. As there are 6 faces in a cube, number of face- centered atoms [2] per unit 1 cell = 6 × = 3 2 An atom in the body of the cube is not shared by other cells. Thus, number of atoms [3] at the body centre per unit cell = 1 Hence, the formula of the solid is AB3C
180 = 0.962 which lies in the range of 187 0.732 − 1.000. Hence, co-ordination number = 8 i.e. the structure is CsCl type.

72.

55.

552 = 276 2

59.

r++ r – =

400 = 200 pm 2 r – = 200 – 75 = 125 pm

61.

95 r+ = = 0.52 − 181 r Since the radius ratio is in between 0.414 to 0.732, the co-ordination of cation is 6.
radius ratio = radius ratio = r+ 1.46Å = = 0.67 − r 2.16Å Since the limiting value is in between 0.414 to 0.732, the probable structure is NaCl type. 78.

62.

r+ / r =

64.

2r+ + 2r– = 520 520 r+ + r– = = 260; 2 r – = 260 – 80 = 180 pm. There is one octahedral hole per oxide ion and rd ⎛2⎞ only ⎜ ⎟ of these holes are occupied. ⎝3⎠ 2 the ratio should be :1=2:3 3 2r + + 2r – = r++r–=

80. ∴

space occupied by bcc unit cell = 68.04 % vacant space = 100 −68.04 = 31.96 ≈ 32%

68.

103. Number of cation vacancies per mol 10−3 × 6.023 × 1023 = 100 = 6.023 × 1018 vacancies per mol 112. nλ = 2dsinθ 1 × λ = 2 × 0.18 × sin22 λ = 2 × 0.18 × 0.208 λ = 0.07488 ≅ 0.0749 nm. 113. nλ = 2dsinθ 1 × λ = 2 × 0.200 × sin 8.40 = 2 × 0.200 × 0.1461 = 0.05844 nm = 58.4 pm
Solid State

69.

3a

3 × 387 1.732 × 387 = 2 2 670.284 = 335.142 = 2 r + = 335.142 – 181 = 154.14 pm

22

Section 3

49. 51.

r=

4.

Both gases and liquids possess fluidity and hence viscosity molecules in the solid state do not have translational motion. The existence of a substance in more than one crystalline form is known as Polymorphism. Quartz is a covalent crystal having a framework of silicates or silica, i.e. a three dimensional network when all the four oxygen atoms of each of SiO4 tetrahedron are shared. Silicon due to its catenation property form network solid. Ionic crystals exhibit properties of the bond. non-directional

0.53 = 0.17Å 3

Radius of Na (if bcc lattice) =
3a = 4 3 × 4.29 4

7. 9.

= 1.8574 Å = 1.8574 × 10−8 cm 52. N0 =

4 × 100 z×M = = 4 × 1025 3 10 × (10−8 )3 S× a

11. 21. 30. 34.

53.

d= =

z× M a × N0 × 10−30
3

Unit cell dimension of Hexagonal crystal = a = b ≠ c and α = β = 90°, γ = 120° The bcc cell consists of 8 atoms at the corners and one atom at centre. ⎛ 1⎞ n = ⎜8× ⎟ + 1 = 2 ⎝ 8⎠ The fcc cell consists of 8 atoms at the eight corners and one atom at each of the six faces. This atom at the face is shared by two unit cells. 1 ⎛ 1⎞ n = 8 × + ⎜6× ⎟ = 4 8 ⎝ 2⎠
a 2 = 4r a= 2 2r

2 × 100 (400) × (6.02 × 1023 ) × 10−30
3

= 5.188 g / cm3 54. Since bcc contains 2 atoms, hence, total number of atoms will have 24.16 × 1023 unit cells. For fcc lattice; r=
2a = 4 2 × 361 4 1.414 × 361 = =127.6 pm. 4

55.

35.

56.
Occupied area Total area

z=
=

V × N0 × d M

Packing fraction = = 36. Simple unit cell,

2πr 2 × 100 = 78.5 % (2 2r ) 2

4.2 × 8.6 × 8.3 × 10−24 × 6.023 × 1023 × 3.3 155 = 3.84 ≈ 4 57. Let the units of ferrous oxide in a unit cell = z, molecular weight of ferrous oxide (FeO) = 56 + 16 = 72 g mol−1, 72 × z weight of n units = 6.023 × 10 23 Volume of one unit = (length of corner)3 = (5 A)3 = 125 × 10−24 cm3 wt.of cell Density = , 4.09 volume 72 × z = 6.023 × 10 23 × 125 × 10−24 z = 3079.2 × 10−1 = 42.7 × 10−1 = 4.27 ≈ 4 72

r=a/2 a 3 Body centered unit cell, r = 4 a Face centered unit cell, r = 2 2 In hcp, co-ordination number is 12. Closest approach in bcc lattice 1 = of body diagonal 2 3 1 = × 3a = × 4.3 2 2 = 3.72 Å

43. 48.

Solid State

23

58.

z= =

a 3 × d × NA M

71.

Atoms A at the corners of cube;

(405×10-10 )3 × 2.7 × 6.023×1023 =4 27 It is a face- centered cubic unit cell. Mass of one unit cell = density × volume = d × a3 M×z = × a3 NA × a 3 58.5 × 4 = 6.023 × 1023 Number of unit cells in 1 g NaCl 1 6.023 × 1023 = mass 58.5 × 4 = 2.57 × 1021 unit cells Distance between two oppositely charged ions 3a (r+ + r−) = 2 387 × 3 = 2 = 335.14 pm Edge length = 2r + + 2r – 508 = r++r–; 2 254 = 110 + r – r – = 254 – 110 = 144 pm. Number of atoms of A = 6 × 89. 96. 97.

1 ×8=1 8 Atom B at the centre of cube = 1 A : B at the centre of cube = 1 A:B=1:1

59.

For n-type, impurity added to silicon should have more than 4 valence electrons. It is a characteristic of liquid crystal. 2d sinθ = nλ or 2 × d × sin 60° = 2 × 1Å or d = 1.15 Å (sin 60° = 3 / 2 or 0.8660)

98.

In NH3 molecule, the original appearance is repeated as a result of rotation through 120°. Such an axis is said to be an axis of three-fold symmetry or a triad axis. Triclinic crystal has no rotation of symmetry.

60.

99.

104. BaTiO3 is a ferroelectric compound.

61.

62.

1 3 = 8 4 1 Number of atoms of B = 6 × =3 2 3 A:B= :3=1:4 4 Composition of alloy = AB4 1 × 8 = 1. 8

69.

A as corners of cube; B as faces of cube; A: B = 1 : 3

1 ×6=3 2

70.

W at corner;

1 ×8=1 8

1 ×6=3 2 Na at centre of cube = 1 Na : W : O 1:1:3
O at centres of edges;

24

Solid State