1

Appendix
The Return Although Orthodox Jews prayed for a return to Israel, no significant return took place until after the publication of a pamphlet ‘Auto-Emancipation’ by Judah Leib Pinsker (1821-1891). Judah Leib Pinsker became Leo Pinsker. In his pamphlet, which was published anonymously in 1882, Pinsker argued for a Jewish homeland. His writing attracted some young Russian Jews, who became known as the Lovers of Zion (Hovevei Ziyyon). The Lovers of Zion set up the Society for the Support of Jewish Agriculturists and Handicraftsmen in Syria and Palestine, and in 1882 Russian Jews established the first settlements in Palestine. These early settlements only survived because Baron Edmond de Rothschild of Paris helped them. He had an interest in several settlements, one of which, Mazkeret Batya, was named in honour of his mother. At another settlement, Rishon LeZiyyon (first to Zion), founded by Russian Jews in 1882, Baron Edmond de Rothschild encouraged viniculture - some of the world’s largest wine cellars were built there. In 1894 Baron Edmond de Rothschild bought a large tract of land for Jewish settlement in the Golan. By 1914 there were about 13,000 settlers in 43 Jewish agricultural settlements in Palestine. Baron Edmond de Rothschild supported many of them. Baron Edmond de Rothschild was a member of the Jewish banking family headed by Meyer Amschel (1743-1812). Meyer Amschel adopted the name Rothschild. The name was derived from a red shield on the outside of the house in the ghetto where his ancestors had lived. Meyer Amschel had five sons. They all became barons (of the Austrian Empire). Meyer Amschel and his five sons went into the banking business. Amschel Meyer (1773-1855), the eldest brother, helped his father run the Frankfurt branch of the business. His brothers opened branches in London, Paris, Vienna, and Naples. Nathan Meyer (1777-1836) settled in London. James (1792-1868) settled in Paris. The Rothschild family made money through loans made to various reigning houses and quarrelling princedoms; they also made money via the Industrial Revolution and through oil after the 1850s. Rothschild influence was felt in the financial and political lives of the countries they settled in. Successive generations of the family have been active in international finance and politics. The French branch of the Rothschild family supported some of the earliest settlements in Palestine and the English branch of the Rothschild family supported the establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine. Theodor Herzl (1860-1904) is usually recognised as the founder of political Zionism. In 1896 he published a pamphlet entitled ‘The Jewish State’. In it he argued that the Jewish question was a political one that needed to be settled by a world council of nations. Theodor Herzl’s first World Congress of Zionists met in August 1897. For Herzl, a return to Judaism was required before Zionist colonization of Palestine. Moses Hess (1812-1875) may have influenced Herzl. Hess contended that the Jews would never be accepted until they had their own country. Leo Pinsker’s work seems

2 to have been unknown to Herzl. Herzl said he might not have written ‘The Jewish State’ had he been familiar with Pinsker’s pamphlet ‘Auto-Emancipation’. Russian Jews set up the first agricultural settlements in Palestine during the early 1880s. Baron Edmond de Rothschild of Paris supported the colonists. Theodor Herzl founded Political Zionism in 1897. The seventh Zionist Congress (1905) refused to accept any land beyond Palestine and its neighbouring countries as suitable for Zionist colonization. Rothschild influence on the political and financial life of Britain can be illustrated using two examples: (1) the £4,000,000 loan Lionel Nathan Rothschild made to Disraeli that enabled him to purchase shares in the Suez Canal Company; (2) when Balfour, as Foreign Secretary, issued the declaration in favour of a Jewish national home in Palestine, he sent the letter to Baron Lionel Walter Rothschild (of Tring) because Lionel Walter Rothschild was considered the head of the Anglo-Jewish community. Baron Lionel Nathan Rothschild (1808-1879), Britain’s first Jewish Member of Parliament, was the son of Nathan Meyer. He became a member of the House of Commons in 1858. Benjamin Disraeli (1804-1881) was baptised into the Christian faith because in 1813 his father, Isaac D’Israeli, quarrelled with the synagogue of Bevis Marks. Disraeli was so proud of his Jewish ancestry that it caused some mistrust among his followers. A journalist told the British Foreign Office of an opportunity to acquire shares in the Suez Canal Company. Foreign Office officials were against the deal but Disraeli was for it. He ignored Foreign Office qualms about the sale and asked Lionel Nathan Rothschild for a loan of £4,000,000. Within hours the money was made available to Disraeli and he used it to acquire the shares for Britain. Arthur James Balfour, 1st earl of Balfour (of Whittingehame), Viscount Traprain (1848-1930), held a position of power in the Conservative Party for 50 years. He was prime minister from 1902 to 1905 and Foreign Secretary from 1916 to 1919. In November 1917, Balfour, encouraged by Zionist leaders Chaim Weizmann and Nahum Sokolow, wrote to Baron Lionel Walter Rothschild pledging British aid for Zionist efforts to establish a home for world Jewry in Palestine. Baron Lionel Walter Rothschild (1868-1937) served as a Conservative Member of Parliament from 1899 to 1910. The letter Arthur James Balfour wrote to him became known as the Balfour Declaration. It was written to Baron Lionel Walter Rothschild (of Tring) because the Baron was known to have Zionist sympathies and he held a prominent position in the Anglo-Jewish community. It was hoped the declaration would influence American Jewish opinion in favour of the Allies and that a population of pro-British Jews in Palestine might help protect the approaches to the Suez Canal. The Zionists wanted all of Palestine as the Jewish homeland. However, the Balfour Declaration made it clear that nothing detrimental should befall the civil and religious rights of non-Jewish communities living there. The declaration was sanctioned by the major allied powers and was included in the British mandate over Palestine approved by the League of Nations on 24 July 1922.

3 In May 1939 the British government published a White Paper in which it made clear it did not want the Palestine to become either a Jewish state or an Arab state. Nahum Sokolow (1861-1936) was from a Polish rabbinical family. He joined the Zionist Organization in 1897 and became its secretary general in 1906. Sokolow became editor of two of the organization’s publications, ‘Die Welt’ and ‘Ha Olam’ and he travelled the world disseminating Zionist ideas. He moved to England after the outbreak of the First World War and eventually became a naturalized British subject. Sokolow played an important role in the Anglo-French negotiations that led to the Balfour Declaration - he secured similar declarations in favour of a Jewish national home from several other countries. Sokolow was chairman of the World Zionist Executive (1922-1931) and president of the World Zionist Organization (1931-1935). His remains were taken to Israel in 1960. The other Zionist leader involved in negotiations leading to the Balfour Declaration was Chaim (Azriel) Weizmann (1874-1952). Weizmann was born in Poland but studied in Germany and Switzerland. In 1904 he moved to England to take a position at the University of Manchester. Weizmann assisted the British munitions industry by originating a method of extracting acetone from maize (1916) - acetone is an ingredient of cordite. He attended the San Remo conference of Allied Powers (1920) that confirmed the Balfour Declaration and gave the Palestine Mandate to Britain. Weizmann was made head of the World Zionist Organization in 1920. From the following year he travelled the world preaching Zionist ideology. He resigned his position as head of the World Zionist Organization in 1930. In 1931 he suffered a vote of no confidence and was not re-elected as president. However, he was back in office by 1935. Weizmann lost his position as president of the World Zionist Organization again in 1946; he never returned to the official leadership. In 1948 Weizmann went to America for talks with President Truman. He convinced the President to change America’s plans for Palestine. He secured a loan of $100,000,000 and, in May, obtained America’s recognition of the new state of Israel Weizmann was made president of the Provisional State Council in September 1948 and in February 1949 he was elected president of the State of Israel. On 14 May 1948 David Ben-Gurion (1886-1973) delivered Israel’s declaration of independence and the next day, 15 May 1948, Britain proclaimed the end of its mandate. David-Ben Gurion was born David Gruen. His father, Victor Gruen, was a leader of the ‘Lovers of Zion’ in Plonsk (in Poland). The young David Gruen believed the resurrection of Israel could be achieved by Jews immigrating to Palestine and settling there as farmers. Consequently, in 1906, when he was 20 years old he went to Palestine. He spent some years working as a farmer in the Zionist settlements along the coastal area and the northern region of Palestine. It was during this time that he changed his name to David Ben-Gurion. After the outbreak of the First World War Ben-Gurion was arrested by the Turkish authorities in Palestine and banned from the Ottoman Empire. Towards the end of the war Britain displaced Turkish rule in the Middle East. After the Balfour Declaration

4 Ben-Gurion enlisted in the British army’s Jewish Legion and returned to the Middle East to join the effort to liberate Palestine from Turkish rule. Ben-Gurion was elected leader of the Mapai Party (1930), chairman of the Zionist Executive (1935) and head of the Jewish Agency. The Jewish Agency was created in 1929 to help Jews from anywhere in the world immigrate to Palestine and was responsible for overseeing the settlement of immigrants; it also helped develop Israel’s economy. In 1942 David Ben-Gurion represented the Jewish Agency at a Zionist conference in the Biltmore Hotel (New York) and gained support for a plan of future events, which called for unrestricted Jewish immigration to Palestine, the formation of a Jewish army and the establishment of Palestine as a Jewish commonwealth. After the war the Jewish Agency presented the Jewish point of view in the United Nations deliberations that led to the partition of Palestine on 29 November 1947. Britain did not want unlimited immigration of Jews into Palestine and, in 1939, attempted to change its Middle East policy in order to limit immigration. In response Ben-Gurion asked the Jewish community to take action against the British. After the Second World War Ben-Gurion led the fight against the British Mandate in Palestine. Various Zionist martial organizations existed in Palestine: Haganah (Defence), a secret army formed in1920 – it became an aggressive force after 1936; the Jewish Settlement Police, which was created by the British administration and whose members were drawn entirely from Haganah; Irgun zvai Leumi (National Military Organization), formed in 1936, was a secret militia associated with the extreme revisionist party of the World Zionist Organization; the Stern Gang, set up by Abraham Stern, was another significant group. During the last years of the Second World War Zionist terrorist activity against the British increased. At the end of the Second World War the Jewish Agency addressed a memo to Britain demanding the implementation of the Biltmore Resolution, and another memo in June 1945 requesting immigration visas be granted to 100,000 European Jews awaiting entry into Palestine. The British referred the problem to the United Nations, and the UN confirmed the Zionist right to establish a state in Palestine. It granted the Jewish state more than half of the land of Palestine, and by 13 May 1948 Zionist forces had control of the Jewish slice of the land. David Ben-Gurion delivered Israel’s declaration of independence the next day. Ben-Gurion is revered as the Father of the Nation. He had an interest in the Hebrew Bible and understood the reconstituted Israel as a continuation of a Jewish history that had been interrupted by the Romans in AD 70. Most of the early Zionist came from the Russian Empire and were supported financially and politically by the Rothschild family. The aim of the Zionists was to establish a Jewish homeland guaranteed by a council of nations. Neither the League of Nations nor the United Nations existed when the Zionist movement began (the League of Nations came into being in 1920 and the UN in 1945). Zionist leaders

5 worked to gain support for their cause. Zionists used violence in their effort to establish a national Jewish homeland in Palestine. -----------‘Prophecies about the return’ Israel is the name given to Jacob by a man Jacob wrestled with after Jacob’s family had crossed the Jabok. During the encounter Jacob had his thigh joint damaged. At daybreak Jacob’s adversary wanted to end the struggle but Jacob refused to do so unless his adversary blessed him. The man asked Jacob what his name was and Jacob told him. Then Jacob was told his name would be Israel because he had the power of a prince with God and man and had prevailed. Jacob believed he had seen God face to face so named the place Peniel (Genesis chapter 2). Before Moses died he predicted Israel would forsake Yahweh, be scattered among the nations and then returned to the land that their ancestors possessed. His prediction is contained within a talk about the blessings of obedience and curses for disobedience. Moses tells Israel that if they keep Yahweh’s commandments Yahweh will set Israel above all the nations on earth but if they forsake Yahweh they will be rooted out of their land – by a nation from the end of the earth. When the blessings and the curses have been experienced by Israel then the Israeli people will be returned to the land of their fathers, Yahweh will increase the number of their children, the number of their cattle, increase the agricultural yield and rejoice over them as he rejoiced over their fathers (Deuteronomy chapters 28 to 30). Israel entered the land they intended to make their own. Once there they forsook Yahweh to serve Baal and Ashtaroth (Judges 2:13); their unfaithfulness is described (Judges 2:17) as whoring after other gods. Yahweh became angry at Israel and allowed other kingdoms to have power over Israel for years on end - a Mesopotamian king had power over them for eight years, a Moab king had power over them for eighteen years and they served Midian for seven years. Because Joel and Abiah, Samuel’s sons and judges over Israel, behaved dishonestly Israel asked for a king. Yahweh responded by claiming Israel had rejected his reign over them (1 Samuel 7). Samuel told Israel they had rejected Yahweh (1 Samuel 10:19) and then presented them with Saul. King Saul did not perform Yahweh’s commandments, so he was rejected and told that the kingdom had been taken from him and given to a better man (1 Samuel 15:28). When David was thirty years old the elders of Israel anointed him king over all Israel. David defeated most of his enemies and his kingdom was at peace when he thought about building a house for Yahweh. He told Nathan the prophet what he wanted to do, and in the night Yahweh told Nathan that because David wanted to build him a house he would establish David’s house forever. Solomon followed David and after Solomon died the kingdom split into two parts: Judah and Jerusalem in the south, Israel and Samaria in the north. Assyria conquered the northern kingdom in 721BC and the Babylonians took Judah in 587BC. Reasons given for the fall of Judah include Zedikiah’s refusal to humble himself before Jeremiah speaking from the mouth of Yahweh (2 Chronicles 36:12), the evil

6 committed by its kings, chief priests and leading citizens, and their mocking of Yahweh’s messengers and abuse of his prophets. Amos, Hosea, Micah, and Isaiah were active in the eighth century BC. Amos and Hosea name several kings of Israel and Judah who reigned when they were active. Micah and Isaiah mention kings of Judah only. Amos says Yahweh will return the people of Israel to the land he gave them (Amos 9:15). Hosea says Israel will flourish, return, and revive as the corn and grow like the vine (Hosea 14:7). Micah talks of a time, after Zion has been ploughed as a field, when Yahweh will reign from Zion forever (Micah 4:7). Isaiah says Israel will return from the nations and all flesh will worship Yahweh in Jerusalem (Isaiah 66:20, 66:23). Jeremiah lived during the last half of the seventh century BC and the first quarter of the sixth century BC. Jeremiah maintained Babylon would rule over the area for seventy years (Jeremiah 25:11) and that Judah and Israel would return to the land of their fathers and live there safely (Jeremiah 32:37). Ezekiel lived during the sixth century BC. Ezekiel said Israel would be laid waste, that its people would be scattered through the countries, gathered again (Ezekiel 20:41) and brought back to the land of Israel (Ezekiel 20:42). Zephaniah worked in Judah, during the reign of King Josiah, in the seventh century BC. Zephaniah sees a time when Israel will be gathered again and given honour among all the people of the earth (Zephaniah 3:20). Joel lived during the ninth century BC or the fifth century BC. Joel predicts the scattered people of Israel will return to the land (Joel 3:1) then Judah and Jerusalem will exist forever (Joel 3:20). Several prophets say nothing about a return of Israel to the land of their fathers. Jonah and Nahum were concerned with Nineveh, the oldest city of the Assyrian empire; it was destroyed by an alliance of Babylonians and Medes in 612 BC. Obadiah has the shortest book in the Bible and his work concerns judgement against Edom, the mount of Esau, over its treatment of the children of Judah. Habakkuk probably lived during the seventh century BC and his book deals with judgement on the Chaldeans. Malachi says nothing about a return, but insists Yahweh will send Elijah before the day of the Lord. Malachi comes from a time before Ezra and Nehemiah (Ezra and Nehemiah were involved with the returned from Babylon). Those prophets that lived before the destruction of Israel and Judah would have had a different perspective to those prophets that lived after the return from the ‘seventy years’ spent in Babylon. Haggai and Zechariah prophesied during the time of Darius the king of Persia and were involved in the sixth century BC return of Jews from Babylon. Haggai called for the building of the second temple and predicted Yahweh would shake the heavens and the earth (Haggai 2:6). Zechariah maintained Yahweh had returned to Zion and would dwell in Jerusalem. He also said a time would come when Yahweh would be king over all the earth (Zechariah 14:9). Daniel supposedly lived in the sixth century BC. King Jehoiakim of Judah is mentioned. Daniel achieved positions of power under the kings of Babylon. Nebuchadnezzar made him ruler over the province of Babylon, Nebuchadnezzar’s son, Belshazzar, made Daniel the third most powerful authority in his kingdom, and Darius made Daniel the most important of three presidents who oversaw the hundred

7 and twenty princes who ruled over the whole kingdom. Daniel also prospered under Cyrus. Daniel understood that there would be a return - he mentions the command to restore and rebuild Jerusalem (Daniel 9:25). Isaiah imagined Israel would return to Zion in gladness (Isaiah 35:10). The sons and daughters of Israel would be gathered from the east, west, north, south and the ends of the earth (Isaiah 43:5 and 43:6). Isaiah claimed Cyrus was Yahweh’s instrument, raised to execute Yahweh’s will. King Cyrus gave permission for the reconstruction of Jerusalem and its temple (Isaiah 44:28). When Israel has returned to the land Gentile kings and queens will pay them obeisance (Isaiah 49:23). The returnees will bring gold and silver, strangers will work for the returnees and kings shall serve them (Isaiah 60:9 and 60:10). Nations that refuse to serve Israel will die (Isaiah 60:12). Israel will suck resources from the Gentiles, become wealthy, and inherit the land forever (Isaiah 60:16 and 60:21). Isaiah (Isaiah 65) sees a time when a messiah will come out of Jacob and Judah to inherit the land. Yahweh’s servants will live there and have food and drink while those who have abandoned Yahweh thirst and hunger. Yahweh will slay those who have forsaken him, rename his servants and create a new earth and heavens. Yahweh’s chosen people are a blessed seed and he will be very attentive to their needs and requests. No violence or destruction will occur in the new kingdom. According to Isaiah, Israel had a bright future. Jeremiah believed Yahweh would bring Israel back to their land (Jeremiah 12:15). Israel will return to the land Yahweh gave to their fathers. They will return from the land of the north and from all the lands to which Yahweh had sent them (Jeremiah 16:15). After Israel has returned to their land they will be fruitful and increase (Jeremiah 23:3). Judah will be saved and Israel will live in peace under a descendant of David called ‘The Lord Our Righteousness’ (Jeremiah 23:6). Yahweh sent Judah into captivity for their good (Jeremiah 24:5) but would bring them back to their own land and build them up; they will be planted and not plucked up (Jeremiah 24:6). Israel will find rest and no one will make Israel afraid (Jeremiah 30:10). There will be wheat, wine and oil; the national spirit will be one of optimism and there will be no sorrow there (Jeremiah 31:12). Yahweh will do well to them (Jeremiah 32:42) and cause them to prosper (Jeremiah 33:9). Jeremiah maintains Israel will return to their land and flourish. Ezekiel imagined Yahweh would gather Israel from afar and place them in their land again (Ezekiel 11:17). The God of Israel will, says Ezekiel, gather Israel in a powerful way (Ezekiel 20:34). After the children of Israel have returned to the land of their fathers they will appreciate Yahweh is God (Ezekiel 20:42). Life will be good for the returnees; there will be an increase of fruit and agricultural produce (Ezekiel 34:27). Israel will live safely and not in fear (Ezekiel 34:28). Yahweh will make an agreement of peace with Israel, his sanctuary will be with them evermore (Ezekiel 37:26), and he will not conceal his countenance from them in future (Ezekiel 39:29).

8 From Ezekiel’s point of view Israel would make a successful return to the land Yahweh had promised to their ancestors, build a new temple, and be ruled by David or a prince who would take part in religious ceremonies of peace and reconciliation. Hosea claimed the children of Israel would become too numerous to be counted and would be known as sons of the living God (Hosea 1:10). Israel and Judah would join forces under a chosen leader (Hosea 1:11) and Yahweh would make a covenant of peace with the earth (Hosea 2:18). The children of Israel would suffer a period of want before they return and seek Yahweh (Hosea 3:4 and 3:5). Israel would return and prosper under Yahweh’s care (Hosea 14). Sometime after the middle of the eight century BC, Israel, the northern kingdom, was also known as the Kingdom of Ephraim. Ephraim, the younger son of Joseph, received Jacob’s blessing in Egypt. Jacob told Joseph that the seed of Ephraim would become a multitude of nations (Genesis 48:19). Ephraim and the nine other northern tribes are known as the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel. Hosea envisaged a time would come when Ephraim would have no more to do with idols. Israel would return to the land of their fathers, increase in number, revive like the corn and grow like the vine. Joel says Yahweh will call a remnant (Joel 1:32). At the start of chapter three Joel declares the captivity of Judah and Jerusalem will be re-established, their children returned, the mountains and hills will flow with milk and wine, and Judah shall exist forever. Amos has Yahweh proclaim he will sift Israel amongst the nations (Amos 9:9) and then return Israel to the land of their fathers, where they will rebuild the waste cities, and plant vineyards and gardens (Amos 9:14). Israel will not be pulled up out of their land again (Amos 9:15). Micah states Yahweh will gather the remnant of Israel (Micah 2:12). He will gather that which was driven out (Micah 4:6) and make them into a strong nation over which Yahweh will reign forever (Micah 4:7). In the end Israel will inherit the land Yahweh promised Abraham and Jacob (Micah 7:20). Zephaniah says the remnant of Israel will be gathered again (Zephaniah 3:20. They will see no more evil (Zephaniah 3:15) and will be praised amongst the nations (Zephaniah 3:20). The prophets’ predictions of a wonderful future for Israel, after the return of the scattered remnant, did not come about. Palestine fell to Alexander after the Battle of Issus in 333 BC. After the death of Alexander in 323 BC Palestine came under Ptolemy’s rule, and in 200 BC Palestine became part of the Seleucid kingdom. Antiochus Epiphanes came to power in 175 BC. He invaded Egypt in 170 BC, and on his way back to Syria his army robbed treasure from the Temple in Jerusalem. Two years after that Jerusalem was attacked and almost destroyed by a tax collector sent by

9 Antiochus. Antiochus attacked Jewish religious practice, which had been established by Nehemiah and Ezra after the return from Babylon, and on 25 December 168 BC the ‘abomination of desolation’, an altar to Zeus, was installed in the Temple. The Maccabean revolt followed. In 63 BC Pompey and the Romans took control of the Seleucid kingdom. Rome recognised Herod as the king of Judaea and, assisted by Rome, he returned to Palestine in 39 BC. Herod was of Arab origin (His father was an Edomite and his mother was from a noble Nabataean family.) but, nevertheless, he was a practicing Jew. Judaea prospered under Herod; he built fortresses, theatres, aqueducts – he also rebuilt the Temple. Rome began to rule Judaea in AD 44. Vespasian arrived in AD 67. In AD 70 Jerusalem fell and the Temple was destroyed. Jewish resistance to Roman rule had ended by AD 73. Jewish prophets predicted a distinguished future for Jerusalem and Israel. Their prophecies failed. Instead of uniting and achieving an eminent position in the world Israel and Judah ceased to be. Almost two thousand years later Israel underwent reconstitution. It has powerful allies and is seen as an important actor on the world stage. There is one Christian prophesy about the return of Israel that can be connected to Jesus. It is part of ‘The Revelation’ God gave to Jesus (Revelation 1:1). In this prophecy Israel is described as the beast whose number is Six hundred threescore and six (Revelation 13:18). Israel is the beast that was, was not, but which would return again before entering eternal destruction (Revelation 17:8). Jerusalem is the city the kings of the earth have committed fornication with; it is the whore of Babylon. It is the women carried by the beast, and in this prophesy she is utterly burned with fire (Revelation 18:8). Clearly, some Christians saw a future for Israel and Jerusalem that was very different to the future predicted by the Jewish prophets. -----------‘Daniel, Ezekiel and Revelation’ There is a link between the prophesy of the return of Israel concealed in Revelation and material in Daniel. Christians could have understood Daniel’s prophecy about Messiah being cut off plus the destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple (Daniel 9:25) as being fulfilled in the death of Jesus and the destruction visited on the Temple by the Romans. In Daniel, Michael is described as a prince who will appear at a time of great trouble (Daniel 12:1) and in Revelation Michael is described as leading his angels in a war to cast out the great dragon (Revelation 12:7). Daniel says there will be trouble on a scale not seen before, and Revelation says that after the battle between Michael and

10 the dragon those that live on earth will suffer the anger of the dragon (Revelation 12:12). Daniel has a character ask when the end will be (Daniel 12:6) and that character is told it will come after a time, times, and half a time - when the power of the holy people has been scattered (Daniel 12:7). Revelation says the woman that brought forth the male child went into the wilderness for a time, times, and half a time (Revelation 12:14). After the time, times and half a time the dragon will make war with the remnant of the woman’s seed (Revelation 12:17). Before the dragon can attack the woman’s seed he has to spend a thousand years in the pit. The time, times, and half a time that the woman spends in the wilderness is equal to the thousand years the dragon spends in the bottomless pit (Revelation 20:3). Without a doubt Jesus should be seen as the child that was caught up to the throne of God (Revelation 12: 5). The dragon is identifiable as the Jewish state through its seven heads and ten horns (Revelation 12:3) and the woman who brought forth the man-child is the original Jewish Christian Congregation – which keep the commandments of God, and has the testimony of Jesus Christ (Revelation 12:17). The seven heads and ten horns appear as indicators to the identity of the returned beast (Revelation 17:3). The beast is Israel (reconstructed after a long time) and Israel is Jacob. Using the word ‘beast’ to describe a political entity is encountered in Daniel (Daniel 7:23). Daniel predicts it will take a time, times, and half a time to scatter the power of the holy people (Daniel 12:7). He gives two sets of numbers that denote events. The first set of numbers represents the number of ‘days’ from the taking away of the daily sacrifice, and the setting up of the abomination that maketh desolate; the second set denote the end of the effort to scatter the power of the holy people. The numbers are 1290 (Daniel 12:11) and 1335 (Daniel 12:12). Both numbers appear to give recent dates when combined with the number of the beast: 666+1290 = 1956, 666+1335 = 2001. That these ‘dates’ appear is probably coincidence. Revelation sees the prophesy of Gog and Magog being fulfilled after the thousand years that the dragon spent in the pit (Revelation 20:7). Ezekiel says the forces of Gog will come into the land that has been brought back from the sword, to a people gathered out of the nations, and to the mountains of Israel that have lain waste for a long time (Ezekiel 38:8). Gog will come from the north to take Israel’s riches (Ezekiel 38:12). Gog’s forces will be overwhelming and drawn from many nations. When Gog and his armies invade Israel there will be a great shaking in the land of Israel; it will affect all life on the earth (Ezekiel 38:20). Gog is seen as the enemy spoken of by the prophets of Israel (Ezekiel 38:17). Isaiah (Isaiah 41:25) claims Yahweh has raised one up from the north, Joel (2:20) has Yahweh say he will cancel the threat of the northern army, Jeremiah contains several

11 allusions to the north – a people from the north (Jeremiah 50:41), spoilers from the north (Jeremiah 51:48), a nation will come out of the north to destroy Babylon (Jeremiah 50:3), an assembly of nations from the north (Jeremiah 50:9). Babylon is Jerusalem in Revelation (Revelation 18:2). Israel is the beast that was, and then was not, until it was reconstituted in the twentieth century; it is also that old serpent which was in the pit for a thousand years (Revelation 20:2). Jeremiah says Yahweh will bring an assembly of great nations from the north to fight against Babylon (Jeremiah 50:9). Ezekiel says Gog will attack an Israel that has been brought back from the nations (Ezekiel 38:8). Revelation predicts the battle of Gog will take place after the reconstruction of Israel and that the reconstructed Israel will go into eternal destruction (Revelation 17:8). The old serpent, Israel, was bound for a thousand years (Revelation 20:2) when the Romans destroyed Jerusalem and the Temple. It came back from the pit in the 1940s. With Israel bound for a thousand years Christianity was sure to flourish. God elected Jesus and would advance his cause. Souls of dead Christians, those beheaded for being Christian, would live and reign with Jesus for a thousand years (Revelation 20:4). The second death has no power over those souls (Revelation 20:6). Israel, the old serpent, will be cast into the lake of fire – the second death. Jeremiah predicted an army from the north would destroy Babylon. Ezekiel says Gog is the army from the north and will fall on the mountains of Israel (Ezekiel 39:4). Revelation predicts the reconstructed Israel and Jerusalem will be destroyed. The most significant group of people to come to Israel from the north were the Zionists. After the Zionists entered Palestine, Jewish people from various countries migrated there. Revelation predicts the modern state of Israel, the beast returned, the old serpent, will be destroyed in a battle fought by many fighters; the number of whom is as the sand of the sea (Revelation 20:8). Birds will consume the bodies of those slain in the battle of Gog and Magog (Ezekiel 39:17) and birds will consume the flesh of those killed in the battle between the beast, his many allies, and heaven’s champion and his armies (Revelation 19:18). The battle between the beast and the champion on the white horse is also the battle of Gog and Magog. The army from the north and its many allies will not come to fight Israel; the army from the north is Israel. Jerusalem and Israel will be judged and condemned for their treatment of the prophets and apostles (Revelation 18:20). A remnant of those involved in the battle will be slain by the sword out of the mouth of the hero on the white horse (Revelation 19:21). Jesus is the hero on the white horse; he is the Word of God (Revelation 19:13), king of kings and lord of lords (Revelation 19:16).
-----------Bibliography: books consulted during the production of this guide: Authorized King James Version of the Bible, ‘Encyclopaedia Britannica’ (1999), ‘The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt’ edited by Ian Shaw (Oxford University Press 2000), ‘The Complete Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Egypt’ by Richard H Wilkinson (Thames and Hudson 2003), ‘How to read Egyptian Hieroglyphs’ by Mark Collier and Bill Manley (The British Museum Press 1998). Author: Patrick Duffy

© October 2012

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