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Navin Kumar
Member IEEE, IET(UK), IETE, IE (India)

(Asst. Professor) Defence Engineering College, Debrezeit, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Presentation Layout
Introduction Technology Background
MIMO Technology SDR Technology

Analysis/Proposed Method Conclusion

• Multiple – Input Multiple – Output (MIMO) systems are today regarded as one of the most promising technology and research area of Wireless Communications. • MIMO technology has been suggested for use in beyond 3G (B3G) and 4G cellular communications, automobile communications, wireless local and wide area networks, and military communications. • Similarly, the Software Defined Radio (SDR) • SDR provides an efficient and comparatively inexpensive solution to the problem of building multi-mode, multiband, multi-functional wireless devices that can be enhanced using software upgrades. • As such, SDR can really be considered an enabling technology that is applicable across a wide range of areas within the wireless industry.

Introduction ….
• Multiple – Input Multiple - Output channel with Software Defined Radio. • The merging of the Radio Technology of MIMO into Software. • Radio Technology here generally refers to the Wireless Communication.

What is MIMO ?
• Mapping of a data stream to multiple parallel data streams and de-mapping multiple received data streams into a single data stream • Aims at high spectral efficiency / high data rate • Can be defined simply as- Given an arbitrary wireless communication system, we consider a link for which the transmitting end as well as the receiving end is equipped with multiple antenna elements.

What is MIMO….

• Single-Input, Single-Output Channel suffers from fading • Single-Input, Multiple-Output channel: RX diversity • Multiple-Input, Single-Output channel: TX diversity, Beamforming

Advantages of Multiple Antenna Techniques • • • • • • • Resistivity to fading (quality) Increased coverage Increased capacity Increased data rate Improved spectral efficiency Reduced power consumption Reduced cost of wireless network

Advantages of MIMO……
• Significantly increase raw data throughput in spectrally limited environments, (achieving high data rates in bandwidth constrained wireless systems.) • Provides immunity to the multipath effects common in urban settings. • A key feature of MIMO systems is the ability to turn multipath propagation, traditionally a pitfall of wireless transmission, into a benefit for the user.

Advantages of MIMO….
• The capacity of a wireless link is generally measured in bits per second per Hertz (b/s/Hz). • The methods available to increase this capacity in a traditional Single Input, Single Output (SISO) wireless system are fairly limited:
Increase the bandwidth, allowing a corresponding increase in the bits per second, Increase the transmit power, allowing a higher level modulation scheme to be utilized for a given bit error rate, effectively increasing the bits per second within the same bandwidth.

Advantages of MIMO…..
• However, any increase in power or bandwidth can negatively impact other communications systems operating in adjacent spectral channels or within a given geographic area. • So, bandwidth and power for a given communications system are generally well regulated, limiting the ability of the system to support any increase in capacity or performance. • MIMO technologies overcome the deficiencies of these traditional methods through the use of spatial diversity. • Data in a MIMO system is transmitted over T transmit antennas through what is referred to as a "MIMO channel" to R receive antennas supported by the receiver terminal as shown above.

Capacity of SISO Systems (1 by 1)
• At fixed time t, the SISO channel is an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel with capacity: C(t) = log2(1 + SNRsiso(t)) Bit/Sec/Hz

• where SNRsiso(t) is the received signal to noise ratio at time t: |h(t)|2 σs2 SNRsiso(t) = -------------σn2 • 3dB of extra power needed for one extra bit per transmission!

Capacity of MIMO systems
• • Note: we assume channel unknown at transmitter!
Cerg = εH (log2 [ det (IM + ρ/N H H*)]) approximately: min (M;N);

• where H is the M x N random channel matrix and ρ is the average signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at each receiver branch. ** Capacity proportional to min of # TX and # RX antennas! **

Average Capacity of ideal MIMO system

MIMO vs CDMA analogy
• Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) is the main multiple access technique for UMTS. • A CDMA analogy can be used to understand the MIMO benefits: • CDMA lets several user transmit at the same time in the same band. • MIMO lets several ”virtual users” transmit for the same array at the same time in the same band. • CDMA uses quasi-orthogonal codes to differentiate the users. • MIMO uses quasi-orthogonal propagation signatures to differentiate the virtual users. • Using codes (as in CDMA) requires spreading, which consumes bandwidth. • Using propagation signatures requires more antennas but no extra power or bandwidth.

MIMO transmission techniques
• Diversity maximization (Performance gain) is the result of
Space time coding

• Rate maximization (Optimized Channel Capacity) is the result of
Spatial multiplexing Joint diversity/rate maximization

MIMO Transmission Model

Space-Time Coding
• • Convolutional - based Trellis Codes Space Time Block Codes
N=2 transmit antennas: Alamouti scheme N>2 Generalized orthogonal codes Space time diversity codes improve Signal to Noise Ratio ( even upto 16 dB) and so capacity of wireless channel.

Space-Time Coding

Radio Architecture for
Multichannel Wireless •

Data rates in 2MHz MIMO Wireless Network

Software Defined Radio (SDR) What is SDR ?
• A Software-Defined- Radio (SDR) system is a Radio Communication System which can tune to any frequency band and receive any modulation across a large frequency spectrum by means of programmable hardware which is controlled by software.

What is SDR ?.... Definition by SDR Forum
• Software Defined Radio (SDR) is a collection of hardware and software technologies that enable reconfigurable system architectures for wireless networks and user terminals. • SDR provides an efficient and comparatively inexpensive solution to the problem of building multi-mode, multi-band, multi-functional wireless devices that can be enhanced using software upgrades. • As such, SDR can really be considered an enabling technology that is applicable across a wide range of areas within the wireless industry.

Advantages of SDR
• A software-defined radio is characterized by its flexibility: Simply modifying or replacing software programs can completely change its functionality. • This allows easy upgrade to new modes and improved performance without the need to replace hardware. • SDRs can also be easily modified to accommodate the operating needs of individual applications. • There is a distinct difference between a radio that internally uses software for some of its functions and a radio that can be completely redefined in the field through modification of software. • The latter is a software-defined radio.

Advantages of SDR…..
• An SDR performs significant amounts of signal processing in a general purpose computer, or a reconfigurable piece of digital electronics. • The goal of this design is to produce a radio that can receive and transmit a new form of radio protocol just by running new software. • Software-Defined-Radio is expected by its proponents to become the dominant technology in radio communications.

Advantages of SDR ……
COST- The capital cost of an SDR based system can be amortized (repay) across multiple generations of products with, for example, technology upgrades supporting 3G, 3.5G and 4G all provided through software upgrade versus the forklift upgrade to hardware that was required in migrating from 2G to 3G. • The development cost of the SDR platform reduces the non-recurring engineering costs associated with hardware development of the digital transceiver to a single development project for multiple market segments. • For example, a single signal processing subsystem can be utilized to support both 3G cellular and WiMax applications with little or no impact on per unit cost. •

Advantages of SDR….
• Time to market is significantly reduced for each subsequent air interface supported by the platform. • Software development will no longer have any dependencies on the hardware development schedule and software reuse will allow faster application turn around. • Installation and support costs are significantly reduced. • A common set of inventory can be utilized for multiple markets and the technical support team only needs to be trained on a single platform.

How then SDR can be Used with MIMO ?
• A question is raised as to how MIMO capabilities can be inserted into radio systems in a cost effective manner after those radios are already in service.

Software Architecture
• The software architecture identified standard interfaces for different modules of the radio: "radio frequency control" to manage the analog parts of the radio, "modem control" managed resources for modulation and demodulation schemes (FM, AM, SSB, QAM, etc), "waveform processing" modules actually performed the modem functions, "key processing" and "crytographic processing" managed the cryptographic functions, a "multimedia" module did voice processing, a "human interface" provided local or remote controls, there was a "routing" module for network services, and a "control" module to keep it all straight.

SDR Architecture
• A model for an SDR architecture supporting wireless infrastructure applications is given here -

SDR Architecture:
Defined by Forum

SDR Architecture….
• Distribution of data on a per channel basis to and from common space-time processing elements is very important. • This requirement is best addressed through the creation of a data plane based on a high speed switched fabric interconnect such as RapidIO.

Proposed SDR Architecture

RapidIO Features
• Functional Features
DMA-style read and writes, that allow efficient I/O systems to be built. System sizes from very small to very large are supported, Flexible for future expansion and requirements. Read-modify-write atomic operations are useful for synchronization between processors or other system elements. Supports 50- and 66-bit addresses as well as 34-bit local addresses for smaller systems. RapidIO supports a variety of data sizes within the packet formats.

RapidIO Features……
• Physical Features RapidIO packet definition is independent of the width of the physical interface to other devices on the interconnect fabric. The protocols and packet formats are independent of the physical interconnect topology. The protocols work whether the physical fabric is a point-topoint, ring, a bus, a switched multi-dimensional network, a duplex serial connection, and so forth. RapidIO is not dependent on the bandwidth or latency of the physical fabric. The protocols handle out-of-order packet transmission and reception.

RapidIO Features….
• Performance Features Packet headers must be as small as possible to minimize the control overhead and be organized for fast, efficient assembly and disassembly. 48- and 64-bit addresses are required in the future, and must be supported initially. Multiple transactions must be allowed concurrently in the system, otherwise a majority of the potential system throughput is wasted.

• The proposed software defined radio architecture supporting MIMO technology allows a multi-channel wireless infrastructure system to support contemporary waveforms and future MIMO processing in a cost effective manner. • The key to this architecture is the use of processing devices with sufficient additional capability a switched-fabric interconnect, such as RapidIO, Said to be “future proofs” wireless system.

Thank You !!!!