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METROLOGY

• Metrology is derived from two Greek word, one is metro which means measurement and other is logy which means science. Metrology is basically the science of measurement. Metrology is field of knowledge concerned with measurement and includes both theoretical and practical problems with reference to measurement. Metrology is the name given to the science of pure measurement. Engineering Metrology is restricted to measurements of length & angle.

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METROLOGY
Metrology is mainly Concerned with: • Establishing the units of measurement, reproducing these units in the form of standards and ensuring the uniformity of measurements. Developing methods of measurement. Analysing the accuracy of methods of measurement, researching into the causes of measuring errors and eliminating them.

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TYPES OF METROLOGY
Metrology is separated into following categories with different levels of complexity and accuracy: 1. 2. 3. 4. Scientific Metrology Industrial Metrology Legal Metrology Fundamental Metrology

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TYPES OF METROLOGY
Scientific Metrology deals with the organization and development of measurement standards and with their maintenance. Industrial Metrology has to ensure the adequate functioning of measuring instruments used in industry as well as in production and testing processes. Legal Metrology is concerned with the accuracy of measurements where these have influence on the transparency of economical transactions, and health and safety, e.g., the volume and quality of petrol purchased or the weight and quality of prepackaged flour. It seeks to protect public against inaccuracy in trade. Fundamental Metrology may be described as scientific metrology, supplemented by those parts of legal and industrial metrology that require scientific competence. It signifies the highest level of accuracy in the field of metrology.

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METROLOGICAL TERMINOLOGIES
Accuracy is the closeness of agreement between a test result and the accepted reference value. Precision is the closeness of agreement between independent test results obtained under stipulated conditions. Repeatability conditions are where independent test results are obtained with the same method on identical test items in the same laboratory by the same operator using the same equipment within short intervals of time. Reproducibility conditions are where test results are obtained with the same method on identical test items in different laboratories with different operators using different equipment.

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METROLOGICAL TERMINOLOGIES

Accuracy vs Precision
How close a measurement is to the actual or true value
good accuracy true value

poor accuracy true value

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METROLOGICAL TERMINOLOGIES

Accuracy vs Precision
How well several measurements agree with each other good precision

poor precision

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METROLOGICAL TERMINOLOGIES
• Arrows that strike closer to the bulls eye are considered more accurate. The closer a system's measurements to the accepted value, the more accurate the system is considered to be. • To continue the analogy, if a large number of arrows are fired, precision would be the size of the arrow cluster. When all arrows are grouped tightly together, the cluster is considered precise since they all struck close to the same spot, if not necessarily near the bulls eye. The measurements are precise, though not necessarily accurate. • Another example is where a measuring rule is supposed to be 1m long but is actually only 97cm, measurements can be precise but inaccurate. The measuring rule will give consistently similar results but the results will be consistently wrong.
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METROLOGICAL TERMINOLOGIES

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METROLOGICAL TERMINOLOGIES
Accuracy & Precision Accuracy without Precision

Precision without Accuracy
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No Precision & No Accuracy

METROLOGICAL TERMINOLOGIES
Correction is the value which, added algebraically to the uncorrected result of a measurement, compensates for an assumed systematic error. Drift is a slow change of a metrological characteristic of a measuring instrument. Error of a measuring instrument is the indication of a measuring instrument minus a 'true' value of the corresponding input quantity, i.e., the error has a sign. Magnification In order to measure small difference in dimensions, the movement of the measuring tip in contact with work must be magnified and, therefore, the output signal from a measuring instrument is to be magnified many times to make it more readable. In a measuring instrument, magnification may be either mechanical, electrical, electronic, optical, pneumatic principle or a combination of these. Reference, accepted value serves as an agreeed-on reference for comparison, and which is derived as theoretical or established value, based on scientific principles or experimental work.
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METROLOGICAL TERMINOLOGIES
Range is the capacity within which an instrument is capable of measuring. Readability refers to the ease with which the readings of a measuring instrument can be read. If the graduation lines are very finely spaced, the scale will be more readable by using a microscope, but the readability will be poor with the naked eye. Response time is the time which elapses after a sudden change of the measured quantity until the instrument gives an indication different from the true value by an amount less than the given permissible value. Resolution is the smallest change of the measured quantity which changes the indication of a measuring instrument. Resolution describes the degree to which a change can be detected. Sensitivity of the instrument denotes the smallest change in the value of the measured variable to which the instrument responds. Sensitivity describes the smallest absolute amount of change that can be detected by a measurement, often expressed in terms of millivolts, microhms.
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METROLOGICAL TERMINOLOGIES
Stability refers to the ability of a measuring instrument to constantly maintain its metrological characteristics with time. Standardization is a process of formulating and applying rules for orderly approach to a specific activity for the benefit and with the cooperation of all concerned in particular. This is done for the promotion of overall economy, taking due account of functional conditions and safety requirements. Testing is a technical investigation, e.g., as to whether a product fulfils its specified performance. Trueness is the closeness of agreement between the average value obtained from a large series of test results and an accepted reference value . The measure of trueness is usually expressed in terms of bias. Verification is an investigation that shows that specified requirements are fulfilled. Dead zone it is the range within which variable can vary without being detected. Tolerance it is the range of inaccuracy which can be tolerated in measurements.
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PRINCIPLE ASPECTS OF METROLOGY
Accuracy Precision

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METHODS OF MEASUREMENTS
Measurement is a set of operations done with the aim of determining the value of a quantity which can be measured by various methods of measurements depending upon the accuracy required and the amount of permissible error. The various methods of measurement are: Direct Method: This is the simplest method of measurement in which the value of the quantity to be measured is obtained directly without any calculations, e.g., measurements by scales, vernier calipers, micrometers etc. It involves contact or non-contact type of inspections. Human insensitiveness can affect the accuracy of measurement. Indirect Method: The value of the quantity to be measured is obtained by measuring other quantities, which are frequently related with the required value, e.g., angle measurement by sine bar, density calculation by measuring mass and dimensions for calculating volume. Absolute Method: This is also called fundamental method and is based on the measurement of the base quantities used to define a particular quantity, e.g., measuring a quantity (length) directly in accordance with the definition of that quantity.
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METHODS OF MEASUREMENTS
Comparison Method: The value of a quantity to be measured is compared with a known value of the same quantity or another quantity related to it. In this method, only deviations from master gauges are noted, e.g., dial indicators or other comparators. Substitution Method: The quantity is measured by direct comparison on an indicating device by replacing the measurable quantity with another which produces the same effect on the indicating device. Coincidence Method: It is also called the differential method of measurement. In this, there is a very small difference between the value of the quantity to be measured and the reference. The reference is determined by the observation of the coincidence of certain lines or signals, e.g., measurement by vernier calipers (LC* Vernier scale reading). Transportation Method: It is the method of measurement by direct comparisons in which the value of the quantity measured is first balanced by an initial known value P of the same quantity. Then the value of the quantity measured is put in place of that known value and is balanced again by another known value Q. If the position of the element indicating equilibrium is the same in both cases, the value of the quantity to be measured is square root of PQ.
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METHODS OF MEASUREMENTS
Deflection Method: The value of the quantity to be measured is directly indicated by the deflection of a pointer on a calibrated scale, e.g., dial indicator. Complementary Method: The value of the quantity to be measured is combined with a known value of the same quantity. Method of Null Measurement: It is a method of differential measurement. In this method, the difference between the value of the quantity to be measured and the known value of the same quantity with which it is compared is brought to zero (null).

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MEASURING INSTRUMENT AND THEIR SELECTION
A measuring instrument is any device that may be used to obtain a dimensional or angular measurement. The important characteristics which govern the selection of instruments are measuring range, accuracy and precision. Some instruments, such as a steel rule, may be used to read directly; others like caliper, are used for transforming or comparing dimensions. Transformation of a measurable quantity into the required information is a function of measuring instruments. Generally, measuring instruments are classified as follows: i. a. b. c. d. On the basis of function Length-measuring instruments Angle measuring instruments Surface-roughness measuring instruments Geometrical-form-checking instruments

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MEASURING INSTRUMENT AND THEIR SELECTION
ii. a. b. c. On the basis of accuracy Most accurate instruments Moderate accurate instruments Below moderate accurate instruments

iii. On the basis of precision a. b. Precision measuring instruments Non-precision measuring instruments

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ERRORS IN MEASUREMENT
• • The error in measurement is the difference between the measured value and the true value of the measuring dimension. Error may be absolute or relative.

Error in Measurement = Measured Value – True Value • The actual value or true value is a theoretical size of dimension free from any error of measurement which helps to examine the errors in a measurement system that lead to uncertainties. The errors in measurements are classified into two testing types – one, which should not occur and can be eliminated by careful work and attention; and the other, which is inherent in the measuring process/ system. Therefore, the errors are either controllable or random in occurrence.

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ERRORS IN MEASUREMENT

Absolute Error It is divided into two types: True Absolute Error: It is defined as the algebraic difference between the result of measurement and the conventional true value of the quantity measured. Apparent Absolute Error: It is defined as the algebraic difference between the arithmetic mean and one of the results of measurement when a series of measurements are made. Absolute Error (EA) Absolute Error = |Actual Value – Approximate Value|

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ERRORS IN MEASUREMENT
Relative Error It is the quotient of the absolute error and the value of comparison used for calculation of the absolute error.

Percentile Error (EP) Relative error is expressed in percentage form

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ERRORS IN MEASUREMENT
Static Error These are the result of physical nature of the various components of a measuring system, i.e. intrinsic imperfection or limitations of apparatus/instrument. Static error may occur due to existence of either characteristic errors or reading errors or environmental errors, as the environmental effect and other external factors influence the operating capabilities of an instrument or inspection procedure. a. Reading Error: These type of errors apply exclusively to instruments. These errors may be the result of parallax, optical resolution/readability, and interpolation.

Parallax error creeps in when the line of sight is not perpendicular to the measuring scale. b. Alignment Error: This occurs if the checking of an instrument is not correctly aligned with the direction of the desired measurement.
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Saturday, 22 September 2012

ERRORS IN MEASUREMENT

c.

Characteristic Error: It is the deviation of the output of the measuring system from the theoretical predicted performance or from the nominal performance specifications. Linearity, repeatability, and resolution error are the examples of characteristic error. Environmental Error: These are the errors arising from the effect of the surrounding temperature, pressure and humidity on the measuring system. Magnetic and electric fields, nuclear radiations, vibration or shocks may also lead to errors. Environmental error can be controlled by controlling the atmospheric factors.
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d.

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ERRORS IN MEASUREMENT
Loading Error If the datum surface on which part to be measured is located is not flat or if foreign particles like dirt or chips get entrapped between datum surface and workpiece then an error will be introduced in taking readings. Poor contact between the working gauge or the instrument and workpiece causes an error. Instrument Loading error is the difference between the value of the measurand before and after the measuring system is connected or contacted for measurement.

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ERRORS IN MEASUREMENT
Dynamic Error It is caused by time variation in the measurand. It is the result of incapability of the system to respond reliably to time-varying measurement. Inertia, damping, friction or other physical constraints in sensing or readout or the display system are the main causes of dynamic errors. Controllable Error: These are controllable both in magnitude and sense. These type of errors are regularly repetitive in nature and are of similar form . It includes following: a. b. c. Calibration Error: These are caused due to the variation in the calibrated scale from its normal indicated value. Stylus Pressure Error: The too small or too large pressure applied on a workpiece while measuring, causes stylus pressure. Avoidable Error: These errors occurs due to parallax, non-alignment of workpiece centres, incorrect location of measuring instrument, and misalignment of the centre line of a workpiece.
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Saturday, 22 September 2012

ERRORS IN MEASUREMENT
Random Error: Random errors are accidental, non-consistent in nature and as they occur randomly, they cannot be eliminated since no definite cause can be located. Small variations in the position of setting standards and the workpiece, slight displacement of lever joints in instruments are likely sources of this type of error.

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MEASUREMENT STANDARDS
There are three types of measurement standards: 1. 2. 3. Line Standard End Standard Wavelength Standard

1.

Line Standard: According to the line standard, the yard or metre is defined as the distance between inscribed lines on a bar of metal under certain conditions of temperature and support.

The metre is defined as 1650763.73 wavelengths of the orange radiation in vaccum of krypton-86 isotype. The Yard is defined as 0.9144 metre. This is equivalent to 1509458.35 wavelengths of the same radiation.

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MEASUREMENT STANDARDS
a. The Imperial Standard Yard: It is made of a one-inch square cross section bronze bar (82% copper, 13% tin, 5% zinc) and is 38 inches long. The bar has a ½ inch dia* ½ inch deep hole, which are fitted with a 1/10th inch dia gold plug.

The yard is defined as the distance between two central transverse lines on the plugs when the temperature of the bar is constant at 62°F and the bar is supported on rollers in a specified manner to prevent flexure, the distance being taken at the point midway between the two longitudinal lines at 62°F for occasional comparison.

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MEASUREMENT STANDARDS
b. International Standard Prototype Metre: The metre is the distance between the centre portions of two lines engraved on the polished surface of a bar (prototype) made up of platinum (90%) – iridium (10%) alloy having a unique crossection. This bar is kept at 0°C and under normal atmospheric pressure. The metric standard, when in use, is supported at two points by two rollers of at least one-cm diameter, symmetrically situated in the horizontal plane, and 589 mm apart. According to this standard, the length of one meter is defined as the straight line distance, at 0°C between the centre portion of a pure platinum-iridium alloy of a total length of 1000-mm and having a web cross section.

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MEASUREMENT STANDARDS
International Standard Prototype Metre

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MEASUREMENT STANDARDS
2. End Standard: End standards, in the form of the bars and slip gauges are used for all practical measurements in workshops and general use in precision engineering in standard laboratories. In case of vernier calipers and micrometers, the job is held between the jaws/anvils of the measuring instrument and the corresponding reading is noted, while a length bar and slip gauges are used to set the required length to be used as a reference dimension. End Bar : End bars made of steel having cylindrical cross section of 22.2 mm diameter with the faces lapped and hardened at the ends are available in sets of various lengths. End bars are made from high-carbon chromium steel, ensuring that faces are hardened to 64RC.The bars have a round section of 30mm for greater stability. Both the ends are threaded, precision lapped to meet requirements of finish, flatness and gauge length. These are available up to 500 mm in grades 0,1,2 in an 8-piece set.
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a.

MEASUREMENT STANDARDS
b. Slip Gauges: Slip gauges are practical end standards and can be used in linear measurements in many ways. Slip Gauges are rectangular blocks of hardened and stabilized high-grade cast steel or the ceramic compound zirconium oxide (ZrO2) having dimensions of 9mm wide, 30 to 35 mm long cross section.

The length of a slip gauge is strictly the dimension which it measures – in some slip gauges it is the shortest dimension and in the larger slip gauges it is the longest. Slip Gauges are made according to the following standards: IS 2984-1981, Metric BS-4311:1968, Imperial BS.888.1950, DIN: 861-1988, JIS B 7506-1978.

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MEASUREMENT STANDARDS
According to accuracy, slip gauges are classified as follows:

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MEASUREMENT STANDARDS
Measuring faces of slip gauges are forced and wrung against each other so that the gauges stick together. This is known as wringing of slip gauges.

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MEASUREMENT STANDARDS
Derivation of End standard from Line standard
• • • • • • • Line standard of length is a highly inconvenient form for general measurement applications. Special microscope has to be employed to determine the position of the defining lines. End standard being of real importance and utility has to be produced of highest accuracy in relation to the line standard. Use of Line-standard-comparator is made for transfer of line standard to end standard. A gauge, about 35 ½ inches in length is produced with end faces flat and mutually parallel. Two ½ inch blocks are taken and wrung at the ends of this gauge. These two blocks are engraved with a fine line on one surface approximately in the centre of the two end faces. Thus the distance between the centre lines is approximately 36 inches after wringing these ½ inches blocks to the main 35 ½ inches gauge.
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MEASUREMENT STANDARDS
Derivation of End standard from Line standard

Let the actual length 35 ½ inches gauge be l. The distance between two lines on line standard is 36 inch. The two blocks at end are arranged in four ways and difference of readings between lines on standard and the lines on gauges are noted every time. Let the difference be d1, d2, d3 and d4 respectively. Then for the successive positions of the ½ inch blocks, we have l + b + c = 36 + d1, l + b + d = 36 + d2, l + a + c = 36 + d3, l + a + d = 36 + d4. Taking mean, l + ½ (a + b + c + d) = 36 + ∑d/4 ……. (1) In equation (1), it may be noted that the error due to the possible misplacing of the lines between the end faces of the ½ inch blocks is eliminated. Next 35 ½ inches bar wrung with one of the ½ inch blocks is compared with 36 inch end standard and the deviation D1 noted.
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MEASUREMENT STANDARDS
Derivation of End standard from Line standard Then the other ½ inch block is wrung and again it is compared with 36 inch end standard and deviation D2 noted down. If L is the actual length of 36 inch end standard, then l + a + b = L + D1, l + c + d = L + D2 Taking the average l + ½ (a+ b + c+ d) = L + ∑D/2 Combining equations (1) and (2), L = 36 + ∑d/4 - ∑D/2 Thus 36 inch end standard has been calibrated and by this method the unknown errors in 35 ½ inch bar and ½ inch blocks are systematically eliminated. When these end standards are calibrated in this way, these are used as master gauges from which further sub – divisions are obtained. …… (2)

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MEASUREMENT STANDARDS
Wavelength Standards: Line and end standards are physical standards and are made up of materials that can change their size with temperature and other environmental conditions. The correct lab conditions are required to be maintained so that the length standard remains unchanged. High sensitivity length measurements are therefore very important because of high accuracy. The CGPM (Conference Generale des Poids et Mesures) adopted a definition of the metre in terms of the wavelength in vaccum of the radiation corresponding to a transition between specified energy levels of the krypton-86 atom. In 1960, orange radiation of the isotope krypton-86 used in a hot-cathode discharge lamp maintained at a temperature of 63K, was selected to define the metre. The metre was then defined as equal to 1650763.73 wavelengths of the red-orange radiation of the krypton isotope-86 gas. 1 metre = 1650763.73 wavelengths and, I Yard = 0.9144 metre = 0.9144 * 1650763.73 wavelengths = 1509458.3 wavelengths
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MEASUREMENT STANDARDS
Wavelength Standards: Material standards are liable to destruction and their dimensions change slightly with time. But with the monochromatic light we have the advantage of constant wavelength and since the wavelength is not a physical one, it need not be preserved. This is reproducible standard of length, and the error of reproduction can be of the order of 1 part in 100 millions. It is because of this reason that International Standard measures the metre in terms of wavelength of krypton 86.

Advantages of wavelength standards • • • • • Not influenced by variation in environment, temperature etc. No need to store it under security and thus no fear of destroyed. Easily available to all. Higher accuracy It is easily reproducible.
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SUB DIVISION OF STANDARDS
Standards are divided into four basic types: 1. Primary Standards: To define a unit most precisely, there is only one material standard which is preserved under very specifically created conditions. Such type of a material standard is known as a primary standard. The International Metre is the example of a primary standard. This should be used only for comparison with secondary standards and cannot be used for direct application. Secondary Standard: Secondary standards should be exactly alike the primary standards by all aspects including design, material and length. Initially, they are compared with primary standards after long intervals and the records of deviation are noted. These standards should be kept at a number of places in custody for occasional comparison with tertiary standards. Tertiary Standards: The primary and secondary standards are applicable only as ultimate controls. Tertiary standards are used for reference purpose in laboratories and workshops. They can again be used for comparison at intervals with working standards.

2.

3.

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SUB DIVISION OF STANDARDS
4. Working Standards: Working standards developed for laboratories and workshops are derived from fundamental standards. Standards are also classified as i. ii. Reference Standards Calibration Standards

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CALIBRATION
Need of Calibration To provide quality products to customers i.e. proper quality control so as to fulfill the requirement of dimensions specified by the customers.

Advantages of Calibration • • • Accuracy in performing manufacturing operations. Reduced inspection. Ensure quality products by reducing errors in measurement.

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CALIBRATION
Definition • Calibration is a comparison of instrument performance to standards of known accuracy; calibrations directly link customer’s measurement equipment to national and international standards. According to ISO, calibration is the quantitative determination of errors of measuring instruments and adjusting them to a minimum. In other words, calibration means to find out whether the instrument gives the correct reading or not. It also includes minor adjustments in the instrument to minimize error.

Calibration can be done by setting labs at different levels: • • • In-house Calibration Lab. Professional Calibration Labs. NABL (National Accreditation Board for testing and calibration Laboratories) Certification to Profession Labs

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CALIBRATION
Standard Procedure for Calibration 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Cleaning of instruments Determination of Error Check for Tolerable Limits Minor Changes Allotment of Calibration Set Up Next Calibration Date

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LINEAR METROLOGY
Linear metrology is defined as the science of linear measurement, for the determination of the distance between two points in a straight line. Linear measurement is applicable to all external and internal measurements such as distance, length and height difference, thickness, straightness, squareness, taper, run – out etc. Linear Metrology follows two approaches: • • Two - point measuring contact member approach Three – point measuring contact member approach

The instruments used in length metrology are generally classified into two types: • • Non – precision measuring instruments, e.g., steel rule. Precision measuring instruments, e.g., vernier calipers, micrometer.

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CALIPERS
A caliper is an end – standard measuring instrument to measure the distance between two points. Calipers typically use a precise slide movement for inside, outside, depth or step measurements. Special slide type calipers are available for centre, depth and gear – tooth measurement.

Types of Calipers • • • • Inside Calipers Outside Calipers Spring Calipers Centre Measuring Caliper

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VERNIER CALIPER
• Vernier caliper is a measuring tool used for finding or transferring measurements (internal or external). Internal calipers are used to check the inside diameters of pipes and bows being turned on lathe. External calipers are used to determine the diameters of a round pipe or a turned spindle. A vernier caliper is a combination of inside and outside calipers and has two sets of jaws; one jaw (with a depth gauge) slides along a rule. Vernier calipers are based on principle which states that “the difference between two scales or divisions which are near, but not alike are required for obtaining a small difference. It enhances the accuracy of a measurement.

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VERNIER CALIPER

• • •

The vernier caliper essentially consists of two steel rules. A solid L – shaped beam is engraved with the main scale. This is also called true scale, as each millimeter marking is exactly 1 millimeter apart. On the movable measuring jaw, the vernier scale is engraved which slides on the beam. The function of vernier scale is to subdivide minor divisions on the beam scale into smallest increment that the vernier instrument is capable of measuring.
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VERNIER CALIPER
Instructions on use: • • • • • Close the jaws lightly on the object to be measured. While measuring a round cross section make sure the axis of object is perpendicular to the caliper. Ignore the top scale, which is calibrated in inches and use the bottom scale, which is in metric units. The boldface numbers on the fixed scale are in centimeters, the tick marks on the fixed scale between the boldface numbers are in millimeters. There are 10 tick marks on the sliding scale. The leftmost tick mark on the sliding scale will let you read from the fixed scale the number of whole millimeters for which the jaws are opened. The leftmost tick mark on the main scale is between 21mm and 22mm, so the number of whole millimeters is 21.

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VERNIER CALIPER
Instructions on use: • Examine the vernier scale to determine which of its divisions coincide or are most coincident with a division on the main scale. The number of these divisions is added to the main scale reading. In figure the 3rd tick mark on the sliding scale is coincident with one above it.

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VERNIER CALIPER

The error in reading the vernier scale with a least count of 0.1mm, 0.05mm, 0.02mm should not exceed the value obtained by ±(75 + 0.05UL) microns, ± (50 + 0.05 UL) microns, ± (20 + 0.02 UL) microns respectively, where UL is the upper limit of the measuring range in mm.

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VERNIER HEIGHT GAUGE
• This is one of the most useful and versatile instruments used in linear metrology for measuring, inspection and transferring the height dimension over plane, step and curved surfaces. It follows the principle of a vernier calliper and also follows the same procedure for linear measurement.

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VERNIER HEIGHT GAUGE
It consists of the following parts: • • • • •    Base: It is made quite robust to ensure rigidity and stability of the instrument. Beam Measuring jaw and scriber Graduations Slider The vernier height gauge consists of a vertical beam on which main scale is engraved. The vernier scale can move up and down over the beam. The bracket carries vernier scale which slides vertically to match the main scale. The whole arrangement is designed and assembled in such a way that when the tip of the scriber blade rests on the surface plate, the zero of the main scale and vernier scale coincides. The scriber blade can be inverted with its face pointing upwards and which enables determination of heights at inverted faces.
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Saturday, 22 September 2012

VERNIER DEPTH GAUGE
• • • • A vernier depth gauge is used to measure depth, distance from plane surface to a projection, recess, slots and steps. The basic parts of a vernier depth gauge are base or anvil on which the vernier scale is calibrated along with the fine adjustment screw. To make accurate measurements, the reference surface must be flat and free from swarf and burrs. When the beam is brought in contact with the surface being measured, the base is held firmly against the reference surface.

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VERNIER DEPTH GAUGE
• The measuring pressure exerted should be equivalent with the pressure extended when making a light dot on a piece of paper with a pencil. The reading on this instrument follows the same procedure as that of a vernier caliper.

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MICROMETERS
• • • Micrometers have greater accuracy than vernier calipers and are used in most of the engineering precision work. Micrometers with an accuracy of 0.001 mm are also available. Micrometers are used to measure small or fine measurements of length, width, thickness and diameter of a job. A micrometer is based on the principle of screw and nut. When a screw is turned through one revolution, the nut advances by one pitch distance, i.e., one rotation of the screw corresponds to a linear movement of the distance equal to the pitch of the thread. If the circumference of the screw is divided into n equal parts then its rotation of one division will cause the nut to advance through pitch/n length. The minimum length that can be used to measure in such case will be pitch/n. If the screw has a pitch of 0.5 mm then after every rotation, the spindle travels axially by 0.5 mm and if the conical end of the thimble is divided by 50 divisions, the rotation of the thimble of one division on the micrometer scale will cause the axial movement of screw equal to 0.5/50 mm = 0.01 mm i.e. Least Count of the micrometer.
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Principle of Micrometer: •

Saturday, 22 September 2012

MICROMETERS

Micrometers are classified into the following types: 1) Outside micrometer 2) Inside micrometer 3) Depth-gauge micrometer

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MICROMETERS
The main parts of outside micrometers are the following: 1) U-shaped or C-shaped Frame: It holds all parts of the micrometer together. The gap of the frame decides the maximum diameter or length of the job to be measured. Carbide – Tipped measuring faces – Anvil and Spindle: Anvil is fixed and located at 3.5 mm from left hand side of the frame. The carbide tipped anvil guarantees extreme precision and long life of the instrument. The spindle is the movable measuring face with the anvil on the front side and it is engaged with the nut. When the spindle face is touched with the anvil face, the zero of the micrometer must match with the reference line on the main scale and the thimble is required to be set at zero division on the main scale. Locking Device: It is provided on a micrometer spindle to lock it in exact position. This enables correct reading without altering the distance between two measuring faces. Barrel: It has fixed engraved graduation marks on it. The graduations are above and below the reference line. The upper graduation marks are of 1 mm interval and are generally numbered in multiples of five as 0,5,10,15. The lower graduations are also at 1mm interval but are placed at the middle of two successive upper graduations to enable reading of 0.5mm.
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2)

3)

4)

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MICROMETERS

5)

Thimble: When the thimble is rotated, the spindle moves in a forward or reverse axial direction, depending upon the direction of rotation. The conical edge of the spindle is divided into 50 equal parts. The multiples of 5 and 10 numbers are engraved on it and the thickness of graduations is between 0.15 to 0.20 mm. Ratchet: It is provided at the end of the thimble. It controls the pressure applied on the workpiece. The ratchet gives a clicking sound when the workpiece is correctly held.

6)

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MICROMETERS

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MICROMETERS
Using Micrometer

The total reading for this micrometer will be (2.62 ± 0.004) mm, where 4 microns is the error of instrument.

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MICROMETERS
Using Micrometer

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MICROMETERS
Using Micrometer

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MICROMETERS

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MICROMETERS
Micrometer with Dial Comparator Used for rapid measurement of diameters of cylindrical parts such as shafts, bolts and shanks.

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MICROMETERS
Micrometer with Sliding Spindle and reduced measuring faces Used for measuring narrow recesses and groves etc.

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MICROMETERS
Micrometer with Spherical Anvil Used for measuring wall thickness.

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MICROMETERS
Micrometer with Sliding spindle and disc type anvils Used for measuring soft materials such as rubber, cardboard etc.

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THREAD MICROMETERS
• It is used for measuring pitch, root and outside diameter. The measuring spindle and anvil holders are equipped with mounting bores for accommodation of interchangeable anvils. A thread micrometer consists of a point on one side and a V-groove on the other, both matching the pitch angle of the thread to be checked.

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THREAD MICROMETERS

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THREAD MICROMETERS
a) Interchangeable anvils for thread micrometers: For measuring pitch, root and outside diameters, anvils made up of hardened wear resistant special steels are used with a cylindrical mounting shank and retainer ring which ensures locking while permitting rotation in the bore of spindle and anvil.

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THREAD MICROMETERS
b) V and tapered anvils for pitch diameters: The set of thread micrometers consists of V-anvils and tapered anvils for measuring pitch diameters. For metric threads (60°), V-anvils covering a wide range of 0.2-9mm pitches are available. V and pointed anvils for root diameters: Each pitch requires a separate anvil and pointed anvils can be used for several pitches.

c)

Pitch Diameter

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THREAD MICROMETERS
b) Flat anvils for outside diameters: Anvils made up of hardened steel and carbide tips are used. The same anvils are used for metric, Whitworth and American UST.

Root Diameter

Outside Diameter

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THREAD MICROMETERS
e) Ball anvils and Roller blades: these are used for gears and ball anvils are used for special applications. A ball anvil is used for mounting into mounting bores of thread micrometers.

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INSIDE MICROMETERS
• These are used to measure the larger internal dimensions of through holes, blind holes and registers. It has a lightweight tubular design and the measuring spindle is hardened and ground. Inside micrometers have a high accuracy of 4 µm + 10* 10-6 L where L is the length of combination in mm.

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INSIDE MICROMETERS
• A self-centering inside micrometer also measures through holes, blind holes. In this type, a ratchet stop is integrated with a coupler and a self-centering measuring head with three anvils on the side being placed at 120º intervals.

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INSIDE MICROMETERS
Used for measuring cylinder bores, housing bores Screw pitches same as outside micrometer

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DEPTH MICROMETERS
• • Depth micrometers are used for measurements of depths, groove spacing and groove widths. The measurement is made between the end face of a measuring rod and a measuring face. Because the measurement increases as the measuring rod extends from the face, the readings on the barrel are reversed from the normal; the start at a maximum and finish at zero.

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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DIAL GAUGES
• Dial gauges or dial test indicators are used for checking flatness of surfaces and parallelism of bars and rods. They can also be used for measurement of linear dimensions of jobs which require easy readability and moderate precision. A dial gauge has two pointer arms which are actuated by rack and pinion arrangement. The rack is cut in a spindle. The spindle is made to come in contact with the workpiece. The linear displacement is converted into rotary movement of pointers. The dial is divided into 100 equal divisions, each division represents a spindle movement of 0.01 mm. For 1 mm movement the bigger arm turns through one complete revolution. The smaller arm registers the number of full turns made by the bigger arm.

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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TOOLMAKER’s MICROSCOPE
• The toolmaker’s microscope is an optical measuring machine equipped for external and internal length measurements as well as measurements on screw threads, profiles, curvatures and angles. For these purposes, the microscope is provided with several measuring attachments such as: i. ii. iv. v. Centre stage for mounting of cylindrical components. Revolving and angle measuring oculars. Optical feeder. Projection screen.

iii. Double image ocular.

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TOOLMAKER’s MICROSCOPE

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TOOLMAKER’s MICROSCOPE
The applications of the instrument may be summarized as follows: • The determination of the relative position of various points on work by measuring the travel necessary to bring a second point to the position previously occupied by the first, and so on. Measurement of angles by using a protractor type eye-piece. Measurement of pitch and effective diameter of threads. Comparison of an enlarged, projected image with a scale tracing fixed to the projection screen.

• • •

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TOOLMAKER’s MICROSCOPE

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TOOLMAKER’s MICROSCOPE

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ANGLE MEASURING INSTRUMENTS Vernier Clinometer
• • A clinometer is an instrument used for measuring angle relative to the horizontal plane. Clinometers are used for checking angular faces, and relief angles on large cutting tools and milling cutter inserts. These can also be used for setting inclined table on jig boring machines and angular work on grinding machines. It consists mainly of a spirit level mounted on a rotating member, which is hinged at one end in housing. One of the faces of the right – angle housing forms the base for the instrument. This base of the instrument is placed on the surface whose angle is to be measured. Then the rotary member is rotated and adjusted till the zero reading of the bubble in the spirit level is obtained. A circular scale fixed on the housing can measure the angle of inclination of the rotary member, relative to a base against an index.
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• •

Vernier Clinometer

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Vernier Clinometer

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Clinometer
• A further modification in the vernier clinometer is the micrometer clinometer. It consists of a spirit level whose one end is attached to the barrel of a micrometer and the outer end is hinged to the base. The base is placed on the surface whose angle is to be measured. It is generally used for measuring small angles.

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Autocollimator
• • An autocollimator is used to detect and measure small angular tilts of a reflecting surface placed in front of the objective lens of the autocollimator. An autocollimator is based on the principle that a collimating lens can project and receive a parallel beam of light and that the reflected beam of light will change its direction by changing the angle of the surface reflecting the light.

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Autocollimator
• If a parallel beam of light is projected from the collimating lens and if a plane reflector R is set up normal to the direction of the beam, the light will be deflected back along its own path and will be brought to a focus exactly at the position of the light source. If the reflector is tilted through a small angle Ɵ, the parallel beam will be deflected through twice the angle, and will be brought to a focus in the same plane as the light source but one side of it. The image will not coincide but there will be a distance = X = 2fƟ between them, where f is the focal length of the lens. It may be noted that the position of the final image does not depend upon the distance reflector from the lens, i.e. d. but if reflector is moved too much back then reflected rays will completely miss the lens and no image will be formed. For higher sensitivity, i.e. for larger values of ‘d’ for small angular deviation Ɵ, a long focal length is required.

• •

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Autocollimator

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Autocollimator
• A modern autocollimator is shown with graticule situated on one side of the instrument (along the axis perpendicular to the main axis). A transparent beam splitter reflects the light from the graticule towards the objectives, thus the microscope forms no direct image. The image formed after reflection, whose angular variations are being measured, is formed by the light from the objective, which passes through the 45° beam splitter and this image is picked up by the microscope. The microscope is fitted to the graticule optically at right angles to the eyepiece graticule. The advantage of using an autocollimator is that the instrument can be used at a considerable distance away from the reflector.

• •

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Autocollimator

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Angle Dekkor
• • It is a type of autocollimator. Though it is not sensitive, still it is extremely useful for a wide variety of short – range angular measurements. It consists of a microscope, collimating lens, glass scale engraved with two scales, objective lens, eyepiece, and a lapped flat and reflective base above which all these optical elements of the instrument are mounted.

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Angle Dekkor
• An illuminated scale is set in the focal plane of the collimating lens kept outside the view of the microscope eyepiece. Light rays are then projected as a parallel beam and strike the plane (on the base) below the instrument. The reflected image is refocused by the lens in such a way that it comes in the view of the eyepiece. The image can be seen on a glass scale which is placed in the focal plane of the objective lens. It falls across the simple datum line, but across a similar fixed scale at right angles to the illuminate image. The reading on the illuminated scale measures angular deviations from one axis at about 90º to the optical axis and the reading on the fixed scale gives the deviation about an axis mutually at right angles to the other two.

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Angle Dekkor
• • This enables to ensure the reading on the setting master. The master may be a sine bar or combination of angle gauges to set up on a base plate and instrument is adjusted till reading on both the scale is obtained. Then the master is replaced by the work and slip gauge is to be placed on the surface of workpiece. Now the work is rotated until the fixed scale reading is same as that on the setting gauge. The difference in the two readings on the illuminated scale is the error in the work surface angle.

• • •

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Angle Dekkor

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Laser Interferometer
• • With laser interferometer it is possible to measure length to an accuracy of 1 part in 106 on a routine basis. With the help of two retro-reflectors, placed at a fixed distance, and a length measuring laser interferometer the change in angle can be measured to an accuracy of 0.1 second. The device uses the Sine principle. The line joining the poles of the retroreflectors makes the hypotenuse of the right triangle. The change in the path difference of the reflected beam represents the side of the triangle opposite to the angle being measured. Such laser interferometer can be used to measure an angle upto ±10 degrees with a resolution of 0.1 second.

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Angular Measurement

• • • • • •

1 Circle = 360 Degrees ( 360° ) 1 Degree ( 1° ) = 1/360th of a Circle 1 Degree ( 1°) = 60 Minutes ( 60' ) 1 Minute ( 1' ) = 1/60th of a Degree 1 Minute ( 1') = 60 Seconds ( 60" ) 1 Second ( 1" ) = 1/60th of a Minute

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Vernier Bevel Protactor
• It is probably the simplest instrument for measuring the angle between two faces of component. It consists of a base plate attached to the main body, and an adjustable blade which is attached to a circular plate containing vernier scale. An acute angle attachment is provided at the top for the purpose of measuring acute angles.

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Vernier Bevel Protactor
General Description of Various Components of Bevel Protractors 1. Body: It is designed in such a way that its back is flat and there are no projections beyond its back so that when the bevel protractor is placed on its back on surface plate there shall be no perceptible rock. Stock: The working edge of the stock is about 90 mm in length and 7 mm thick. It is very essential that the working edge of the stock be perfectly straight. Blade: It can be moved along the turret throughout its length and can also be reversed. It is about 150 or 300 mm long, 3mm wide and 2mm thick. Acute angle attachment: It can be readily fitted into body and clamped in any position for measuring acute angles.

2.

3. 4.

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Vernier Bevel Protactor
• The sliding blade can be set at any angle with the stock. The angle of any position is shown by degree graduations on the scale disc, which is graduated from 0 to 90 degree in either direction. The reading of an angle should be noted comparing the angular scale with vernier scale reading. The vernier scale has 12 divisions on each side of the centre zero. Each division marked equals 5 minutes of an arc. These 12 divisions occupy the same space as 23º on the main scale; therefore, each division of the vernier scale is equal to 1/12 of 23º.

• • •

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Vernier Bevel Protactor
•Precision angles to within 5' (0.083º) •Consist of base •Vernier scale •Protractor dial •Sliding blade •Dial clamp nut

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Vernier Bevel Protactor
• • • Used to measure obtuse angle (90º-180º) Acute-angle attachment fastened to protractor to measure angles less than 90º Main scale divided into two arcs of 180º • Scale divided into 12 spaces on each side of 0 • If zero on vernier scale coincides with line on main: reading in degrees

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Reading a Vernier Protractor
• Note number of whole degrees between zero on main scale and zero on vernier scale Proceeding in same direction, note which vernier line coincides with main scale line • Multiply number by 5' and add to degrees on protractor dial

50º 4 x 5'= 20' Reading = 50º 20'
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Bevel Protractor

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Bevel Protractor

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Bevel Protractor

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Angle Gauges
• An angle gauge is a hardened steel block approximately 75mm long 16 mm wide which has two lapped flat working faces lying at a very precise angle to each other. These are supplied in sets and can be wrung together to form desired angles. The angle gauges generally come in 13 piece set with different angle composition which can be combined to measure the desired angle. Their values are 1°, 3°, 9°, 27° and 41° 1',3', 9', 27' and 3", 6", 18" and 30"

• • •

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Angle Gauges

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Angle Gauges
Method of using angle gauges

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Sine Bar
• • • • • • Sine bar is a tool used for accurate setting out of angles by arranging to convert angular measurements to linear ones. It is a high precision and most accurate angle measuring instrument. It is used in conjunction with a set of angle gauges. This bar is made of high carbon, high chromium corrosion resistant steel and it is essentially hardened, ground, lapped and stabilized. It is kept on two hardened rollers of accurately equal diameters spaced at known dimension (with options at 100mm, 200 mm and 300 mm). The rollers are brought in contact with the bar in such a way that the top surface of the bar is absolutely parallel to the centre line of the rollers. The relief holes are drilled in the body of the sine bar to make it lighter and to facilitate handling.

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Sine Bar

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Sine Bar
Principle of using Sine Bar: • • • The law of trigonometry is the base for using a sine bar for angle measurement. The angle is determined by an indirect method as a function of sine – for this reason, the instrument is called ‘sine bar’. Also, to set a given angle, one of the rollers of the bar is kept on the datum surfaces and the combination of slip gauge set is inserted under the second roller. If L is the fixed distance between the two roller centres and H is the height of the combination of slip gauge set then sin Ɵ = H/L or Ɵ = sin-1 [H/L]

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Sine Bar

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Sine Bar
The accessories used for setting and measuring the angles viz., slip gauges and dial indicators are shown in figure below;

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Sine Bar
When the component is small and can be mounted on the sine bar then setting of instruments for measuring unknown angles of the component surface is shown below;

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Sine Bar
When the component is large in size or heavy, the component is placed on the datum surface and the sine bar is placed over the component as shown below;

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Sine Bar
• The height over rollers is measured using a height gauge. A dial test gauge is mounted on the height gauge to ensure constant measuring pressure. This could be achieved by adjusting the height gauge until the dial gauge shows the same zero reading each time. Note down the two readings for the two positions of either of the rollers. If H is the difference in the heights and L is the distance between two roller centres of the sine bar then

Angle of the component surface = Ɵ = sin-1 [H/L]

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Sine Centre
• A sine centre is basically a sine bar with block holding centres which can be adjusted and rigidly clamped in any position. The principle is same as of sine table. The sine centres are mainly used for inspection of conical objects between centres. The equipment itself consists of a sine bar, which is hinged at one roller end and mounted on the datum end. Two blocks are mounted on the top surface of the sine bar, which carry two centres and can be clamped at any position on the sine bar.

• • •

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Sine Centre

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Sine Centre

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Sine Centre

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COMPARATORS
• A comparator works on relative measurements, i.e. to say, it gives only dimensional differences in relation to a basic dimension. So, a comparator compares the unknown dimensions of a part with some standard or master setting which represents the basic size, dimensional variations from the master setting are amplified and measured. The comparator is an instrument used for comparing the dimensions of a component with a standard of length. Thus the purpose of a comparator, in general, is to detect and display the small difference between the unknown linear dimension and length of the standard. The difference in length is detected as a displacement of a sensing probe. The important and essential function of the instrument is to ‘Magnify’ or ‘Amplify’ the small input displacement so that it is displayed on a scale.

• •

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Features of Comparators
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. The scale used in the instrument should be linear and have a wide range of acceptability for measurement. There should be no backlash and lag between the movement of the plunger and recording mechanism. The instrument must be precise and accurate. The indication method should be clear. The indicator must return to zero and the pointer should be free from oscillations. The design and construction of the comparator should be robust. The measuring pressure should be suitable and must remain uniform for all similar measuring cycles. The comparator must possess maximum compensation for temperature effects

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Uses of Comparators
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. To inspect newly purchased gauges. In mass production, where components are to be checked at a very fast rate. As laboratory standards from which working or inspection gauges are set and correlated. In selective assembly of parts, where parts are graded in three groups depending upon their tolerance. As working gauges, to prevent work spoilage and to maintain required tolerance at all important stages of manufacture.

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Types of Comparators
The most common commercially available comparators can be classified into the following types: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Mechanical Comparators Optical Comparators Electrical and Electronic Comparator Fluid Displacement Comparator Pneumatic Comparator

A combination of magnifying principles has lead to the development of few more comparators, these are: 6. 7. 8. Mechanical – Optical Comparators Electro – Mechanical Comparators Multi – Check Comparators

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Mechanical Comparators
• The mechanical comparators utilize mechanical methods of magnifying the movement of the contact plunger, which may consist of gear trains, levers, cams, torsion strips or combination of these systems. The magnification range is about 250 to 1000 times. A mechanical comparator uses pointers as an indicator pivoted around a suspended axis and moving against a circular dial scale. Some of the comparators which belong to this class are: • • • • • Dial indicator Reed type comparator Sigma comparator Johansson comparator Eden Rolt Millionth comparator

• • •

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Dial Indicator
• Dial indicators are mechanical instruments for sensing measuring distance variations. The mechanism of the dial indicator converts the axial displacement of a measuring spindle into rotational movement. This movement is amplified by either mechanical or inductive means and displayed by either a pointer rotating over the face of a graduated scale or digital display.

Mechanical Dial Indicator: • • It is a displacement indicating mechanism. Its operating principle consists of a very slight upward movement of measuring spindle (due to a slight upward pressure on it) and is amplified through a mechanism in which the measuring spindle usually carries an integral part of a rack whose teeth mesh with a pinion, the pinion being a large part of a gear train. This mechanism thus serves two functions – one is converting linear displacement of the plunger (in turn rack) into rotary motion, and the other is to amplify this motion by means of driving gears (G1, G2, G3) meshing with substantially smaller pinions (P1, P2, P3).
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Dial Indicator

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Dial Indicator

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Dial Indicator

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Dial Indicator
Mechanical Dial Indicator (Comparator) with limit contacts: • • It is used for highest precision and extreme operating robustness. Levers, gears and pinions supported in jewelled bearings and the measuring spindle running in a ball bush guide ensure a minimum reversal span error and a high accuracy. The advantages are their simple operation, their easy reading as well as their effective shock protection of the movement. They permit reading as small as 0.2µm. They possess functions like tolerance monitoring or saving of extreme values from dynamic measurements and a combined digital and analog display.

• •

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Dial Indicator

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Dial Indicator

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Dial Indicator
Micrometer Dial Comparator: • It is used for rapid measurement of diameters of cylindrical parts, viz. shafts, bolts, shanks, etc., and measurement and checking of thickness and length. The procedure for noting the reading is similar to the procedure for using a micrometer. The dial also consists of adjustable tolerance marks to set the instrument for specific dimension and then used as comparator.

• •

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Dial Indicator
Micrometer Dial Comparator: • The instrument shown below is also used for the same purpose discussed for previous comparator, but one additional facility provided here with this comparator is the rugged steel frame, which can be swiveled up to 45º in relation to the heavy duty base.

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Dial Indicator
Lever Type (Test Type) Dial Indicator: • • Dial test indicators are similar to dial indicators, but are typically more precise and have a smaller range of movement. Rather than a plunger that moves in and out, they have a small lever arm with a ball shaped tip that moves up and down. This enables the tip to be inserted into a small hole so that the hole can be precisely centred on the lathe axis- an operation that could not be done with a dial indicator. The indicator has a measuring range of 0.030 much less than a dial indicator and reads plus or minus from the zero point. When the tip is at rest at its neutral point, it can be moved 0.015 in either direction.

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Dial Indicator
Lever Type (Test Type) Dial Indicator:

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Dial Indicator
Lever Type (Test Type) Dial Indicator: • Due to the swiveling feature of the probe and the reversal of its sensing direction, the test indicator is suitable for many measuring and checking tasks. Its area of application are – run out and concentricity checks of shafts and bores and check of parallelism and alignment of flat surfaces in engineering and tool making.

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Dial Indicator
Lever Type (Test Type) Dial Indicator: • For accurate measurements, the axis of the contact point must be perpendicular to the measuring direction. If this is not possible, it is necessary to multiply the reading on the dial with a correction factor, which depends on angle α. The correction factor is negligible for angles below 15º.

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Johansson Mikrokator
• This instrument uses the simplest and most ingenious method for obtaining the mechanical magnification designed by H.Abramson which is called Abramson movement. It works on the principle of a button spinning on loop of string. It uses a twisted strip with a pointer attached, as the plunger is depressed, causing the strip to stretch. As the twisted strip is stretched, it changes the angle of the pointer, and thus of the indicated deflection. In this instrument, the twisted strip is made up of phosphor – bronze rectangular cross – section. This twisted band principle of displacement amplification permits good flexibility of instrument design, which provides a wide range of measurement. It is one of the important types of mechanical comparators. The actual measuring range depends upon the rate of amplification and the scale used.

• •

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Johansson Mikrokator

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Johansson Mikrokator
• Its mechanical means of amplification is the ratio of dƟ/dl = - [(9.1*l)/(W2*n)] Where, l is the length of the twisted strip measured along the natural axis, W is the width of strip, n is the number of turns, Ɵ is the twist of the mid point of the strip with respect to the end.

• •

Measuring forces used for two famous models of the Johansson Mikrokator are 30g and 250g. Accuracy of this instrument is ±1%.

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Johansson Mikrokator

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Sigma Mechanical Comparator
• The sigma comparator is an excellent example of very successful instrument in which a high magnification is obtained entirely by mechanical means. Magnification ranges from 300 to 5000. It consists of a plunger attached to a rectangular bar, which is supported at its upper and lower ends by flat steel springs (split diaphragm) to provide frictionless movement. The plunger carries a knife – edge, which bears on the face of a moving member of the cross- strip hinge. The cross – strip hinge consists of the moving component and a fixed component by a flexible strip at right angles to each other. Therefore, when the plunger moves, the knife edge moves and applies a force on the moving member that carries a light metal Y – forked arm. A thin phosphor bronze flexible band is fastened to the ends to the forked arms, which is wrapped about a driving drum to turn a long pointer needle. Therefore, any vertical movement of the vertical plunger makes the knife edge move the block of cross strip lever over the pivot.
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• •

Sigma Mechanical Comparator

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Sigma Mechanical Comparator

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Sigma Mechanical Comparator

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Sigma Mechanical Comparator
• This causes the rotation of the Y arm and the metallic band attached to the arms makes the driving drum, and hence the pointer, to rotate. So amplification is done in two stages: Total magnification = {(Effective length of arm)/ (Distance from the hinge pivot to knife)} * {( Length of pointer)/(Pointer drum radius)} • The amplification mechanism of a sigma comparator is adaptable for gauging multiple dimensions by mounting several basic mechanisms into a common assembly arranged to have contacts with the critical dimensions of the objects.

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Reed Type Mechanical Comparator
• It is strictly a mechanical comparator because the linkages required for magnification are purely mechanical amplifiers. The reed mechanism is frictionless device for magnifying small motions of spindle. It consists of a fixed block A which is rigidly fastened to the gauge head case, and floating block B, which carries the gauging spindle and is connected horizontally to the fixed block by reeds C. A vertical reed is attached to each block with upper ends joined together. These vertical reeds are shown in the figure by letter D.

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Reed Type Mechanical Comparator
• Beyond this joint extends a pointer or target. A linear motion of the spindle moves the free block vertically causing the vertical reed on the floating block to slide past the vertical reed on the fixed block. However, as these vertical reeds are joined at the upper end, instead of slipping, the movement causes both reeds swing through an arc and as the target is merely an extension of the vertical reeds, it swings through a much wider arc. The amount of target swing is proportional to the distance the floating block has moved but of course very much magnified.
Saturday, 22 September 2012 LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY

Reed Type Mechanical Comparator

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Reed Type Mechanical Comparator
• • • The scale may be calibrated by means of gauge block (slip gauges) to indicate any deviation from an initial sitting. Comparators using this type of linkage have sensitivities of the order of 0.25 micron per scale division. The mechanical amplification is usually less than 100, but it is multiplied by the optical lens system. It is available in amplifications ranging from × 500 to × 1000.

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Dial Thickness Gauges
• This type of comparator also uses a dial indicator as a comparator unit. It consists of a sturdy, rigid frame made of hard aluminium with a lifting lever for the movable upper measuring spindle. It has an accuracy of 0.01 mm.

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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External and Internal Groove Comparator Gauges
• • External Comparator gauges are used for measuring thickness and wall thickness. Internal Groove Comparator Gauges are used for measuring bores and internal – groove dimensions, and absolute measurements.

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Advantages and Disadvantages of Mechanical Comparators
Advantages: • • • • • Cheaper Do not require any external supply as in case of electrical and pneumatic. Have linear scale which is easily understood. Robust, compact and easy to handle. Portable and suitable for workshop conditions.

Disadvantages: • • • • Posses more moving parts, thus problem of friction and hence less accurate. Range of the instrument is limited as pointer moves over a fixed scale. Sensitive to vibrations. Slackness in moving parts reduce the accuracy considerably.
Saturday, 22 September 2012 LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY

Optical Comparators
• These instruments are usually based on the principle of the reflection of light on a mirror that can be tilted through small angles by the vertical displacement of the measuring plunger around a fixed support. The reflected rays will be seen on graduated scale or the image of the graduated scale, placed in the path of the rays before the tilting mirror, will be seen on a screen. To obtain higher magnifications, fixed mirrors and magnification levers can be used. Optical comparators are instruments that project a magnified image or profile of a part onto a screen for comparison to a standard overlay profile or scale. They are non contact devices that function by producing magnified images of parts or components, and displaying these on a glass screen using illumination sources, lenses and mirrors for the primary purpose of making 2-D measurements. Optical comparators are used to measure, gauge, test, inspect or examine parts for compliance with specifications.
Saturday, 22 September 2012 LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY

Optical Comparators
• • Optical comparators are available in two configurations – inverted and erect. Inverted image optical comparators are the general standard, and are of the less advanced type. It produces image that is inverted vertically (upsidedown). Adjustment and inspection requires a trained user. Erect models have a more advanced optical system that renders the image in its natural or ‘correct’ orientation. The image appears in the same orientation as the part being measured or evaluated. Optical comparators are similar to micrometers, except that they are not limited to simple dimensional readings. It can be used to detect burrs, indentations, scratches as well as length and width measurements. In addition its screen can be simultaneously viewed by more than one person and provide a medium for discussion.

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Optical Lever
• It involves the movement of a mirror on which a beam of light is directed

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Optical Lever
• It uses front reflection type mirror.

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Optical Profile Projector
• Using this instrument, enlarged images of small shapes under test can be obtained that can be used for comparing shapes or profiles of relatively small engineering components with an accurate standard or enlarged drawing.

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Optical Profile Projector

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Optical Profile Projector
• The light rays from the light source are collected by the condenser lens from which they are transmitted as straight beams and then interrupted by the test object held between the condenser and projector lens. Then the magnified image appears on the screen, which allows a comparison of the resultant image with the accurately produced master drawing. It is provided with a protector scale. The whole circle is divided into 360º, which acts as a main scale having 1º as the smallest division for measuring angles between two faces of the enlarged image. To increase the accuracy of the angular measurements, a vernier scale is provided. This instrument offers 10 to 100 times magnification. Specifically, it is used to examine the forms of tools, gauges and profiles of very small sized and critical components whose direct measurement is not possible. Toolmaker’s microscope is also used as an optical comparator.

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Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Zesis Ultra Optimeter
• This type of optical comparator gives very high magnification, as it works on a double magnification principle.

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Zesis Ultra Optimeter
• It consists of a light source from which light rays are made to fall on a green filter, which allows only green light to pass through it and, further, it passes through a condenser lens. These condensed light rays are made incident on a movable mirror M1, then reflected on mirror M2 and then reflected back to the movable mirror M1. It gives double reflection. The second time reflected rays are focused at the graticule by passing through the objective lens. Let the distance of the plunger centre to the movable mirror M1 be ‘X’, plunger movement height be h and angular movement of mirror be [h/X]. F is the focal length of the lens then the movement of the scale is 2fδƟ, i.e. 2f[h/X]. Magnification = {(Scale movement)/ (Plunger Movement)} = {[2hf/X]/h} = 2f/X Overall magnification = [2f/X][Eyepiece magnification]

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Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Optical Mechanical Comparator
• These devices use a measuring plunger to rotate a mirror through a pivoted lever, which serves as a first stage of amplification.

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Optical Mechanical Comparator
• This mechanically amplified movement is further amplified by a light beam reflected off that mirror, and simply by the virtue of distance, the small rotation of the mirror can be converted to a significant translation with little friction. The first stage of amplification (using lever principle) = (L2/L1) and as the movement of the plunger makes the mirror tilt by an angle Ɵ, the image gets tilted by ‘2Ɵ’. The second stage of amplification, i.e., optical amplification = 2 (L4/L3)

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Optical-Electrical Comparator
• Optical comparator systems use light to make dimensional, geometrical and positional checks on production parts. These systems consists of four principal components: a light emitter, a receiver that converts the light to an electrical signal, a series of optical lenses and an electronic amplifier that processes the signals and establishes meaningful measurement data.

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Optical Comparator
Advantages: • • • • These instruments have a high magnification. Optical lever is weightless. The scale can be made to move past a datum line thus have a high range and no parallax. Not subjected to friction and wear and tear due to less number of moving parts.

Disadvantages: • • • • Heat from the source of light, may cause the setting to drift. An electric supply is necessary to operate the source of light. The apparatus is usually large and expensive. It is essential to use these instruments in dark room to get reading accurately.
Saturday, 22 September 2012 LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY

Pneumatic Comparators
Principle: • The general principle is to apply a jet or jets of air to the surfaces being measured, the jet orifices being close to but not in actual contact with the surface. Variations in size affect the aperture of escape of air, and the corresponding variation in back pressure is utilised to indicate the actual dimension. They are capable of accuracy to within a few millionths of millimetre. Air gauges may have either analog or digital displays, or both, and some feature data output capabilities.

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Differential Back- Pressure Type Pneumatic Comparator
• This type is the constant amplification air gauge. This design provides flexibility in its application as a pneumatic comparator, for example, it can be used for gauge calibration or in a specific design to obtain variable applications with the same control unit.

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Differential Back- Pressure Type Pneumatic Comparator
• In this system a differential back pressure system uses a split flow channel, one flow going to the gauge head, and the other going to zero offset valve. A meter measures the difference in pressures, and thus gives the difference in pressure. Its magnification range is from 1250X to 20000X. During its operation, air gauges detect changes in pressure when the measuring jet approaches the workpiece. If the distance (S) to the measuring jet decreases, the pressure within the system increases, while flow speed and thus the volume flow are reduced. If the dimension of the part under consideration is as per the required specifications then the air pressure acting on the opposite side of the pressure sensor is balanced, no deflection results and the metering linked to it indicates zero. The pneumatic measuring method involves a rather small linear measuring range. This measuring range comes up to its limits, if the generated surface A, which is defined by the recess distance S, is larger than the cross-sectional area of measuring jet of diameter d.
Saturday, 22 September 2012 LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY

Differential Back- Pressure Type Pneumatic Comparator

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Solex Comparator
• Its working is based on the principle that if the air under constant pressure escapes by passing through two orifices, and if one of them is kept uniform then the pressure change at the other due to variation in the workpiece size under test will give the reading. Therefore, it is also known as ‘The Solex Back Pressure System’, which uses an orifice with the venturi effect to measure airflow.

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Solex Comparator
• Compressed air flows in from the end A passing through the restrictor to maintain constant pressure in a circuit equal to the height difference maintained in a manometer tube; then it progresses to the dip tube. At the same time the part air (with same pressure) passes through orifice B to the pneumatic measuring head at C. The difference between B and C will depend upon the orifice gap S. This method is used for gauging parts such as bores.

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Pneumatic Comparators
Advantages: • • • • • The gauging members does not come into contact with the part to be measured hence no wear of gauging member. Small number of moving parts, hence less friction and more accuracy. Very high magnification can be achieved. Best method to determine ovality and taperness of circular bores. It is suitable to measure very small diameters.

Disadvantages: • • • The scale is generally not uniform. It requires auxiliary equipments such as pressure regulator. The apparatus is not easily portable.

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Electric and Electronic Comparators

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Electric and Electronic Comparators
• • These instruments depend for their operation on Wheatstone bridge circuit. In measuring instruments, one pair of inductances takes the sum of pair of coils in the measuring head of the instrument. An armature between the coils moves with the measuring plunger, and if the circuit is already balanced, upsets this balance and causes a deflection of the pointer of the meter. The meter is calibrated directly in linear units corresponding to the plunger movement, and there are other refinements such as electrical method of adjusting zero and a switch which alters the overall magnification of the instrument. Magnifications of the order of 30000X are possible with this system.

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Electric and Electronic Comparators
The operating principle of an electrical comparator consists of a transducer for converting a displacement into a corresponding change in current or potential difference, and a meter or recorder connected to the circuit to indicate this electrical change calibrated in terms of displacement. The change in displacement is calibrated in three ways: 1. Using inductive principle, as the displacement of a core attached to a measuring plunger made up of ferrous material can change the magnetic flux developed by the electric current passing through one or more coils; or the displacement of a ferrous core attached to a measuring plunger can change the eddy currents. Using capacitive principle, as the displacement of a core attached to a measuring plunger made up of ferrous material can change the air gap between the plates to modulate the frequency of the electric oscillations in the circuit. Using resistive principle, as the displacement of the measuring plunger will stretch a grid of fine wire, which increases its length, which in turn, alters its electric resistance.
Saturday, 22 September 2012 LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY

2.

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Electric and Electronic Comparators
Electro-mechanical measuring system

The most popular electro-mechanical device used to convert mechanical displacement into electrical signal is ‘Linear variable differential transformer (LVDT)’. LVDT is, in effect, a transformer consisting of three symmetrically spaced coils carefully wound on an insulated bobbin. It works on mutual inductance principle and consists of a primary core wound on insulating form (bobbin) and two identical secondary's symmetrically spaced from the primary.
Saturday, 22 September 2012 LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY

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Electric and Electronic Comparators
Electro-mechanical measuring system • There is a non-contacting magnetic core, which moves in the centre of these coils wound on the insulating form and the motion of these cores varies the mutual inductance of each secondary to primary which determines the voltage induced from the primary to each secondary. If the core is centred in the middle of the two secondary windings then the voltage induced in each secondary winding will be identical and 180º out of phase, and the net output will be zero. If the core is moved off middle position, then the mutual inductance of the primary with secondary will be greater than the other, and a differential voltage will appear across the secondary's in series. For off centre displacements within linear range of operation, the output is essentially a linear function of core displacement.

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Electric and Electronic Comparators

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Electric and Electronic Comparators

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Electric and Electronic Comparators
Inductive (Electronic) Probes: This instrument works on the first principle, i.e. inductive principle LVDT. New models apply high linearty, patented transducers (VLDT-Very Linear Differential Transducers). Construction of Inductive Probe

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Electric and Electronic Comparators
Read on your own about various parts

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Electric and Electronic Comparators
• Figures (a) and (b) shows thickness measurement, a single inductive probe is used for direct measurements on cylindrical and flat workpieces. It is applied in same way as dial indicators, mechanical dial comparators. Figure (c) shows thickness measurement independent of workpiece form and mounting. (d) Height difference between two steps, (e) axial run-out, (f) radial runout, (g) coaxiality measurement on two shafts.

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Electric and Electronic Comparators
Inductive Dial Comparator:

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Electric and Electronic Comparators
Electrolimit Gauge: • • • It combines the mechanical gauging with electrical magnification by wheatstone bridge. Vertical movements of the plunger are transmitted to an armature, which is suspended, on thin meta strips. At the left hand side of the armature it will be seen that it lies between two electromagnetic coils A and B. These coils form two arms of an a.c. bridge circuit. Any movement of the armature between the two electromagnetic coils sets up out of balance effects which are recorded by micrometer. Provided the micrometer is calibrated in terms of the displacement of the plunger, direct reading of extremely small movements of plunger is readily achieved. A great advantage is dual magnification. A simple switching arrangement enables a second magnification to be obtained, exactly double the first. Even with first magnification measuring range will be small i.e. 0.02mm and in second case it will be 0.01mm indicating very high accuracy.
Saturday, 22 September 2012 LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY

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Electric and Electronic Comparators
Electrolimit Gauge:

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Electric and Electronic Comparators
Electricheck Gauge: • • • They simply show whether the dimension of a component falls within a predetermined tolerance range without measuring the actual dimensions. This type of gauge can also be used as an automatic check on machines in operation to stop the tool when dimension is out of prescribed limits. This gauge employs reed mechanism in its measuring head and reeds are caused to bend when the floating (movable) block is moved. The bending movement causes the extension arm to break an electric circuit. Electric contacts control signal to indicate whether the dimension is within tolerance or not. The gauge has first to be set by precision slip gauges to the maximum limits of tolerances.

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Electric and Electronic Comparators
Advantages: • • • • • The measuring unit can be remote from the indicating instrument. This system has a high magnification with small number of moving parts. The mechanism carrying the pointer is light and not sensitive to vibration. On an a.c. supply, the cyclic vibration reduces errors due to sliding friction. The measuring unit can be small, and the instrument can have several magnifications.

Disadvantages: • • • • These comparators require an external agency to operate i.e. the a.c. electric supply. Heating of coils in measuring unit may cause drift and alter the calibration. If only a fixed scale is used with a moving pointer then with high magnifications a very small range is obtained. More expensive than mechanical comparators.
Saturday, 22 September 2012 LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY

Straightness
Straightness: • It is very easy to define a straight line as the shortest distance between two lines. But it is very difficult to define straightness exactly. A ray of light though it is affected by environmental conditions (temperature, pressure and humidity in the air), for general purposes is straight. Also, for small areas, liquid level is considered as straight and flat. In broader sense, straightness can be defined as one of the qualitative representation of a surface in terms of variation/departure of its geometry from a predefined straight line or true mean line.

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Straightness
Straightness: • A line/surface is said to be straight if the deviation of the distance of the points from two planes perpendicular to each other and parallel to the general direction of line remains within a specific tolerance limit. The tolerance for the straightness of a line is defined as the maximum deviation in relation to the reference line joining the two extremities of the line to be checked. The fundamental principle used to measure the straightness is Bryan’s principle. Bryan states that a straightness measuring system should be in line with the functional point at which straightness is to be measured. If it is not possible, either slide-ways that transfer the measurement is free of angular motion or angular motion data must be used to calculate the consequences of the offset.

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Methods of Straightness Measurement
Using Spirit Level: • Spirit level is used in the shape of a bubble tube which is mounted on a cast-iron base. Inside the glass tube, the spirit level has a circular arc of radius R which moves during a change of slope around the centre M. The sensitivity of the spirit level depends only on the radius of curvature of the bubble tube and not on the length of its bearing surface. The sensitivity E of the spirit level is the movement of the bubble in millimeters, which corresponds to the change in slope of 1mm per 1000mm. E = Movement of bubble/ (1mm/metre) • Spirit level can be used only to measure/test straightness of horizontal surfaces generally.

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Methods of Straightness Measurement

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Methods of Straightness Measurement
Using Straight Edges: • In conjunction of surface plates and spirit levels, straight edges are used for checking straightness and flatness. It is a narrow/thin, deep and flat sectioned measuring instrument. Its length varies from several millimeters to a few meters.

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Methods of Straightness Measurement
Using Straight Edges: • An estimation of the straightness of an edge or the flatness of a surface very often is made by placing a true straight edge in contact with it and viewing against the light background. A surface can also be tested by means of straight edges by applying a light coat of prussian blue on the working edges and then by drawing them across the surface under test. The traces of marking compounds are rubbed in this way on the tested surfaces and the irregularities on the surface are coated in spot with different densities, as high spots are painted more dense and low spots are partly painted.

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Methods of Straightness Measurement
Using Laser Measurement System: • Straightness measuring component highlights any bending component or overall misalignment in the guideways of machine. The straightness error will have a direct effect on positioning and contouring accuracy of a machine. The set up comprises of straightness beam splitter and straightness reflector. For measurement set up, the straightness reflector is mounted to a fixed position on the table even if it moves.

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Methods of Straightness Measurement
Using Laser Measurement System:

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Methods of Straightness Measurement
Using Wedge Method:

In this method the straight edge is supported at the points for minimum deflection on two unequal piles of slip gauges which rest on a surface which is straight or which is to be checked. The difference between the slip values is made definite say 0.1 mm. The distance between the two piles is divided into number of equal parts. The distance 0.1 mm can be divided in 10 equal parts i.e. each division will become 0.01mm. If the straight edge is true and if the surface is straight, then piles of slip gauges of different sizes will touch at exact points.
Saturday, 22 September 2012 LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY

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Methods of Straightness Measurement
Using Wedge Method: • For example say pile of 10.05mm is made by adding slip gauges, skid the pile below the straight edge. If the given surface is exactly straight then, the set of piles will exactly touch at mark no. 5 whose height above the surface is 10.05 mm.

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Flatness Measurement
• • Flatness is simply a minimum distance between two planes, which cover all irregularities of the surface under study. In other words, determining flatness means to determine the best fit plane between two reference planes i.e., one above and one below the plane of surface under consideration.

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Flatness Measurement
• A surface is deemed to be flat within a range of measurement when the variation of perpendicular distance of its points from a geometrical plane parallel to the general trajectory of the plane to be tested remains below a given value. The geometrical plane may be represented either by means of a surface plane or by a family of straight lines obtained by the displacement of a straight edge or spirit level or a light beam.

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Methods of Flatness Measurement
Beam Comparator used for flatness testing: • An instrument called beam comparator checks the general degree of flatness. It works on the principle used in a method of comparative measurement. With the help of this instrument, the flatness of a surface under consideration is compared with a master plate (same size or larger). It consists of two outer legs to accommodate the maximum dimension of the surface under test. First it is to be placed on the master and then on the surface under checking. The reading is to be read from the indicator for every turn of comparison. If any difference between two readings exists, it indicates directly the error in flatness in the plate surface under test over the span considered.

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Methods of Flatness Measurement
Beam Comparator used for flatness testing:

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Methods of Flatness Measurement
Flatness measurement by Interferometry: Flatness = straightness in two dimensions • Small variations of less than one or two microns are measured using interference fringes produced between the surface and an optical flat illuminated by the monochromatic light. The fringes may be regarded as contours of equal distance from the surface of the flat; the separation between each fringe of the same colour represents a height difference of half wavelength of the light used. The optical flat method has the disadvantage that the surfaces of the flat and specimen must be in close contact leading to scratching of both. The transmission flat, which should be of known flatness and shape, serves to shape the beam to its own shape, and provides a reference wavefront, which is compared to the returning, reflected light from the test object. Each spatial point in the combined beams is evaluated for the variation between the wavefront of the transmission flat and the test object. These differences are expressed as interference between the two beams.
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Methods of Flatness Measurement
Flatness measurement by Interferometry:

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• Measuring flatness using an optical flat entails direct contact between the specimen to be measured and the optical flat itself. Holding the surface of a high precision optical flat against the test specimen under monochromatic light creates visible light bands, which are formed by the air gaps where the two surfaces are not in perfect contact. These interference fringes show the contour of the surface under test. The light and dark patterns visually represent the flatness of the surface being tested, and it is the curve and spacing between these fringes which indicate the surface accuracy.

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Methods of Flatness Measurement
Flatness measurement by Interferometry:

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From parers

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The schematic is the top view of the flatness interferometer apparatus with vertical positioning of a thin transparent wafer (1) and precision optical flat (2). The parabolic metallic reflector (3) creates a beam of monochromatic light from a sodium light source (4). The beam has a uniform distribution of light intensity in the plane of matte glass (5), providing the dispersion of wave vectors of waves within a wide solid angle. The interferometer pattern can be observed visually (7) or taken by camera. The inclined background screen (6), having a diffusive surface, is placed between the light source and the thin transparent wafer.

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Methods of Flatness Measurement
Flatness measurement using Laser measuring system: • This measurement is performed to check the accuracy of CMM tables and all types of surface plates. It determines whether any significant errors in form exist and, in turn, quantifies them. The setup of the specific components used in this measurement comprise Base (50 mm), Base (100 mm), Base (150 mm), Flatness mirrors. • Angular measurement optics is also required to attach to the top of the flatness bases. The size of the base used depends on the size of the surface to be tested and the required number of points to be taken. Before making any measurements, a ‘map’ of the measurement lines should be marked out on the surface. The length of each line should be an integer multiple of foot spacing base selected.

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Methods of Flatness Measurement
Flatness measurement using Laser measuring system:

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Flatness measurement is carried out, for example, on machine tables, wire ends in papermaking machines, flanges and slewing bearings (circular planes), machine bases etc. First, the beam is roughly aligned along and across the measurement object. The detector is then positioned on the selected measuring points and the values registered. According to the measurement, three of the measuring points are set to zero, and the other points are recalculated for the newly created reference line. The measurement values at the other measurement points will show the deviation from the laser plane. The measurement values can be recalculated so that any three of them become zero references, with the limitation that a maximum of two of them are in line horizontally, vertically or diagonally in the co-ordinate system. (If there are three in line, it is just a line, and not a plane!)

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Parallelism
• • Parallelism is one of the important geometrical relationships to access the qualitative aspect of a work/job geometry. Two entities (line, plane) are said to be parallel to each other when the perpendicular distance measured from each other anywhere on the surface under test and at least in two directions does not exceed an agreed value over a specified time. Parallelism defines the angle between two surfaces of a sample. It can be specified as a thickness difference per unit length or as an angular deviation, e.g., a thickness difference of 1 micron per cm is equivalent to 20 seconds of an arc, or a 100 microns radians angle.

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Methods of parallelism measurement
Using Dial indicator and test mandrel: • For checking parallelism between two axes or between two planes, dial gauges are used in conjunction with test mandrels. This arrangement also checks parallel motion between two bodies. Parallelism of two planes: The distance between two planes (surfaces) at any position should not deviate beyond a minimum value agreed between the manufacturer and the user.

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Methods of parallelism measurement
Parallelism of two axes (of two cylinders) The maximum deviation between the axes of a cylinder at any point may be determined by gently rocking the dial indicator in a direction perpendicular to the axis.

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Methods of parallelism measurement
Parallelism of an axis to a plane (reference) The instrument is moved along the plane for a distance over which parallelism is to be checked. If the reading taken at a number of points does not exceed a limiting value then the axis can be said to be parallel to the plane.

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Methods of parallelism measurement
Parallelism of an axis to the intersection of two planes It is used to check the perpendicularity between two planes.

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Methods of parallelism measurement
Parallelism of two straight lines, each formed by the intersection of two planes To check parallelism between two planes (specifically where distance between two lines are small).

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Methods of parallelism measurement
Using Electro-mechanical gauges For large deviations from the parallel surfaces can be measured mechanically, i.e. 10 microns per cm is equivalent to 1 milliradian or approximately 3.5 minutes of an arc. The sample is supported on a three-ball plane with the measuring device above one ball.

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Methods of parallelism measurement
Using an Autocollimator Smaller values of parallelism can be measured using the autocollimator, which allows differences as small as a few seconds of an arc to be measured on polished surfaces. Using an accurately parallel reference disc, a three ball plane under the telescope is set precisely at right angles to the optical axis. The reference disc is then replaced by the sample.

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Squareness and its Measurement •
Tests are often necessary to verify that one plane is at right angles to another. Squareness measurement determines the out of squareness of two nominally orthogonal axes, by comparing their straightness values. Squareness errors could be the result of poor installation, wear in machine guideways, an accident that may have caused damage, poor machine foundations etc. Squareness errors can have a significant effect on positioning accuracy and conturing ability of machine.

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Squareness and its Measurement

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Methods of squareness measurement Indicator Method: • The indicator method is particularly suitable for checking the squareness of a block whose opposite faces are supposed to be parallel. This method is used to access the ability of the grinding process to grind opposite faces of the block accurately parallel. The instrument consists of a parallel strip (frame work) and a flat base. A knife edge and some form of indicator is mounted on the framework. The height of the indicator is adjusted such that it makes contact near the top of the side of a square block.

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Methods of squareness measurement Indicator Method:

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Methods of squareness measurement Indicator Method: • The block is then placed against the knife edge and a reading is noted on the indicator. The block is then turned so that now the opposite side is facing the knife edge and again a reading is noted on the indicator. If two sides AC and BD are truly parallel then the two readings will be same for true right angle. In case the faces are not exactly at right angles, the two readings will be equally above and below the readings for a true right angle. Thus the difference of two readings is double the error in squareness of the work over the length ‘l’ between the two contact points.
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Methods of squareness measurement Using Dial Gauge or by axis of rotation with a given plane: • This method is generally useful to check the squareness of the rotation of the axis of machine spindles with respect to the worktable surface.

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Methods of squareness measurement Using Dial Gauge or by axis of rotation with a given plane: • • • The dial gauge is mounted on an arm which is attached to the spindle representing the axis of rotation. The plunger of the dial gauge is adjusted parallel to the axis of rotation and made to touch the plane. As the spindle revolves, the dial gauge describes the circle in a plane which is perpendicular to axis. When no testing plane is specified the dial gauge is rotated by 360º and variation in the reading of instrument represents the deviation of parallelism between the plane of the circumference and the plane to be tested. The deviation is expressed in relation to the diameter of the circle of rotation of the instrument.
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Methods of squareness measurement Using NPL Square tester:

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Methods of squareness measurement Using NPL Square tester: • NPL square tester consists of a straight edge hinged at one end to the tilting frame. This entire frame is supported on knife edge at one end and on micrometer head at other end. The surface to be tested is placed near to the straight edge. Now the micrometer head is rotated such that there is complete contact between the edge to be tested and the straight edge to be tested and the straight edge. The micrometer reading is noted. Now the opposite edge of the test surface is brought into contact with the straight edge and again the reading is noted for the same. The difference between these two reading is the error in squareness.
Saturday, 22 September 2012 LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY

Methods of squareness measurement Autocollimator Methods: • Autocollimator provides the most sensitive means to measure the squareness. In this method a set of slip gauges is held against the surface to be tested and which act as reflectors. The autocollimator is then adjusted to focus on this block of slip gauges. Readings are taken on either surfaces and the error in squareness can be easily detected.

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Roundness • Roundness is a geometrical quality of form not easily measured. In principle, a round part has all points of its perimeter equidistant from its axis.

It may be understood that while roundness expresses a particular geometric form of a body of revolution in all the three dimensions, the circular contour is the characteristic form of the entire periphery of a plane figure. For measuring roundness, it is only the circularity of the contour which is determined. Saturday, 22 September 2012 LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY

Roundness Types of irregularities of a circular part Ovality

Lobbing Irregularities of no specific form

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Roundness Error of circularity • It is defined as the radial distance between the minimum circumscribing circle and the maximum inscribing circle, which contain the profile of the surface at a section perpendicular to axis of rotation. Evidently it is possible to draw several circles for a given profile and infer different results. Accordingly four types of reference circles have been standardised and the results should be specified indicating the reference circle adopted.

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Roundness Least Square Reference Circle (LRSC)

The LRSC is a circle where the sum of areas inside this circle are equal to the sum of the areas outside the circle and kept to a minimum separation. The out of roundness value is the difference between the maximum and minimum radial departure from the reference circle centre (P + V). LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY Saturday, 22 September 2012

Roundness Minimum Zone Circle (MZC)

It is defined as two concentric circles positioned to just enclose the measured profile such that their radial departure is a minimum. The roundness value is then given as their radial seperation.

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Roundness Minimum Circumscribed Circle (MCC)

This is also known as the ring-gauge reference circle and is the smallest circle that totally encloses the profile. Out of roundness is quantified as the largest deviation from this circle.

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Roundness Maximum Inscribed Circle (MIC)

The MIC sometimes referred to as the plug gauge circle, is the largest circle that is totally enclosed by the profile. Errors are quantified as the maximum radial deviation away from this reference circle.

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Roundness There are two common ways of measuring roundness. One method involves rotation of the part while keeping the measuring transducer fixed and other involves keeping the component fixed while rotating the measuring transducer. Component Rotation • • • Here, the component is rotated on a highly accurate spindle that provides the reference for the circular datum. The axis of the component is aligned with the axis of the spindle, using a centering and leveling table. A transducer is then used to measure radial variations of the component with respect to the spindle axis.

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Roundness

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Roundness Rotating Stylus • An alternative method is to rotate the stylus while keeping the component stationary. This is usually performed on small highprecision components but is also useful for measuring large, non – circular components. For example measurement of cylinder bore using this method would not require rotation of the complete engine block. This type of measuring system tends to be more accurate due to continuous loading on the spindle, but is however limited by the reach of stylus and spindle.

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Roundness Rotating Stylus

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Surface Roughness • Surface metrology is of great importance in specifying the function of a surface. A significant proportion of component failure starts at the surface due to either an isolated manufacturing discontinuity or gradual deterioration of the surface quality. The most important parameter describing surface integrity is surface roughness. In manufacturing industry, a surface must be within certain limits of roughness. We measure surface texture for two reasons: • • To predict the performance of the component. To try to control the manufacturing process as the manufacturing process leaves its signature in the surface texture.
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Saturday, 22 September 2012

Terms used in surface roughness measurement

Lay: Lay represents the direction of predominant surface pattern produced and it reflects the machining operation used to produce it. Roughness: Roughness consists of surface irregularities which result from the various machining processes. These irregularities combine to form surface texture.

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Terms used in surface roughness measurement

Roughness Height: It is the height of the irregularities with respect to the reference line. It is measured in millimeters or microns or micro-inches. It is also known as the height of unevenness. Roughness Width: It is the distance parallel to the nominal surface between peaks or ridges which constitute the predominate pattern of the roughness. It is measured in mm.
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Terms used in surface roughness measurement • Waviness: This refers to the irregularities which are outside the roughness width cut –off values. Waviness is the widely spaced component of the surface texture. This may be the result of workpiece or tool deflection during machining, vibrations or tool runout.

Waviness Height: Waviness height is the peak to valley distance of the surface profile, measured in mm. Difference between Roughness, Waviness and Form • Roughness: This is usually the process marks or witness marks produced by the action of the cutting tool or machining process, but may include other factors such as the structure of the material.

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Terms used in surface roughness measurement • Waviness: This is usually produced by instabilities in the machining process, such as an imbalance in a grinding wheel or by deliberate actions in the machining process. Waviness has a longer wavelength than roughness, which is superimposed on the waviness. Form: This is the general shape of the surface, ignoring variations due to roughness and waviness.

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Terms used in surface roughness measurement • Filter: A filter is an electronic or mathematical method or algorithms which separates different wavelengths and allows us to see only the wavelengths we are interested in. In other words, it is a mechanism for suppressing wavelengths above or below a particular value. Roughness Width Cut-off: Roughness width cut-off is the greatest spacing of respective surface irregularities to be included in the measurement of the average roughness height. It should always be greater than the roughness width in order to obtain the total roughness height rating. Cut-offs are filters and have a numeric value which when selected reduce or remove the unwanted wavelengths on the surface.

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Terms used in surface roughness measurement • Sample Length: After the data has been filtered with a cut off, we then sample it. Breaking the data into equal sample length does sampling. The sample lengths have the same numeric value as the cut off. In other words, if you use a 0.8 m cut-off then the filtered data will be broken down into 0.8mm sample lengths. These sample lengths are chosen in such a way that a good statistical analysis can be made of the surface. In most cases, five sample lengths are used for analysis.

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Terms used in surface roughness measurement • Assessment Length: An assessment length is the amount of data left after filtering that is then used for analysis. Typically, a measurement may consist of a traverse of 6-7 times the cut off selected. For example, 7 cut offs at 0.8mm = 5.6 mm. One or two cut offs will then be removed according to filter type and the remaining cut-offs used for assessment. Arithmetic Average (AA): A close approximation of the arithmetic average roughness height can be calculated from the profile chart of the surface.

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Factors affecting surface finish in machining Whenever two machined surfaces come in contact with one another, the quality of the mating parts plays an important role in their performance and wear. The height, shape, arrangement and direction of these surface irregularities on the workpiece depend upon a number of factors: A. The machining variables Cutting speed Feed Depth of cut B. The tool geometry Nose radius Rake angle
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Factors affecting surface finish in machining Side cutting – edge angle Cutting edge C. Workpiece and tool material combination and their mechanical properties D. Quality and type of the machine tool used, E. Auxiallary tooling and lubricant used, and F. Vibrations between the workpiece, machine tool and cutting tool. The final surface roughness might be considered as the sum of two independent effects:
• • The ideal surface roughness is a result of the geometry of tool and feed rate, and The natural surface roughness is the irregularities in the cutting operation.
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Ideal Surface Roughness • Ideal surface roughness is a function of only feed and geometry. It represents the best possible finish which can be obtained for a given tool shape and feed. It can be achieved only if the built-up-edge, chatter and inaccuracies in the machine tool movements are eliminated completely. For a sharp tool without nose radius, the maximum height of unevenness is given by Rmax = f/(cotØ + cotβ) The surface roughness is given by: Ra = Rmax/4

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Ideal Surface Roughness • Practical cutting tools are usually provided with a rounded corner, previous figure shows the surface produced by such a tool under ideal conditions. The roughness value and feed can be closely related to the feed and corner radius by the following expression: Ra = 0.0321f2/r where r is corner radius

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Natural Surface Roughness • In practice, it is usually not possible to achieve conditions such as those described in ideal case, and normally the natural surface roughness forms a large proportion of the actual roughness. One of the main factors contributing to natural roughness is the occurrence of a built-up edge. Thus larger the built-up edge, the rougher would be the surface produced, and factors tending to reduce chip-tool friction to eliminate or reduce built-up edge would give improved surface finish.

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Natural Surface Roughness The roughness of a surface can be measured in different ways, which are classified into three basic categories: • Statistical Descriptors: These give the average behaviour of the surface height. For example, average roughness Ra, the root mean square roughness Rq, the skewness Sk and the kurtosis K. Extreme Value Descriptors: These depend on isolated events. Examples are the maximum peak height Rp, the maximum valley height Rv, and the maximum peak to valley height Rmax. Texture Descriptors: These describe variations of the surface based on multiple event

Ra measure is the most effective surface roughness measures commonly adopted in general engineering practice. It gives good general description of the height variations in the Saturday, 22 September 2012 LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY surface.

Natural Surface Roughness A mean line is first found that is parallel to the general surface direction and divides the surface in such a way that the sum of the areas formed above the line is equal to the sum of areas formed below the line. Ra = {[area(abc) + area(cde)]/f} where f is feed.

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Surface Roughness Measurement Methods The surface finish of machined part can be measured by the following two methods: • • • Surface inspection by comparison methods Direct instrument methods In comparative methods, the surface texture is assessed by observation of the surface. But these methods are not reliable. The various methods available are: Touch inspection Visual inspection Scratch inspection Surface photographs
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Surface inspection by comparison method

Microscopic inspection Comparison with standard specimen

Surface Roughness Measurement Methods Direct Measurement Methods • Direct methods assess surface finish by means of stylus-type device. Measurements are obtained using a stylus drawn along the surface to be measured – the stylus motion perpendicular to the surface is registered. This registered profile is then used to calculate the roughness parameters.
It consists of a stylus with a small tip (fingernail), a gauge or transducer, a traverse datum and a processor. The surface is measured by moving the stylus across the surface or it can receive low frequency impulses while the surface moves relative to it. In both cases, the vertical movement of the needle is highly magnified and can be read off on the instrument indicator or on a recorder graph whose horizontal movement can also be magnified.
Saturday, 22 September 2012 LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY

Stylus Method:
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Surface Roughness Measurement Methods • As the stylus moves up and down along the surface, the transducer converts this movement into a signal, which is then exported to a processor that converts this into a number and usually a visual profile. For correct data collection, the gauge needs to pass over the surface in a straight line such that only the stylus tip follows the surface under test. This is done using a straightness datum. This can consist of a datum bar that is usually lapped or precision ground to a high straightness tolerance. This can be very costly for small portable instruments. In these cases, it is possible to use an alternative means of datum. This part of the stylus probe-type instrument is known as skid. A skid is a part of the gauge that has a radius large enough to prevent movement in or out of the roughness characteristics of the surface, Saturday, 22 September 2012 LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY

Surface Roughness Measurement Methods

This can be very costly for small portable instruments. In these cases, it is possible to use an alternative means of datum. This part of the stylus probe-type instrument is known as skid. A skid is a part of the gauge that has a radius large enough to prevent movement in or out of the roughness characteristics of the surface.
Saturday, 22 September 2012 LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY

Surface Roughness Measurement Methods • The stylus and skid are usually independent in their height (Z) movement but move together in the measurement direction. Surface deviations are recorded as the difference between the stylus and the skid movement in the Z direction. In other words, the skid acts as the straightness datum – it skids over the top of the surface.

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Surface Roughness Measurement Methods Tomlinson Surface Meter: It was designed by Dr Tomlinson. This instrument uses mechanical-cum-optical means for magnification.

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Surface Roughness Measurement Methods Construction: The diamond stylus on the surface finish recorder is held by spring pressure against the surface of a lapped steel cylinder. • The stylus is also attracted to the body of the instrument by a leaf spring and its height is adjustable to enable the diamond to be positioned conveniently. The lapped cylinder is supported on one side by the stylus and on the other side by two fixed rollers. The stylus is restrained from all motions except the vertical one by tensions in coil and leaf spring. The lapped cylinder is kept in position between the stylus and pair of fixed rollers. A light spring steel arm is attached to the horizontal lapped steel cylinder and it carries at its tip a diamond scriber which bears against smoked glass.
Saturday, 22 September 2012 LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY

Surface Roughness Measurement Methods Working: When surface finish is to be measured, the body is traversed across the surface by a screw rotated by a synchronous motor. Any vertical movement of the stylus caused by the surface irregularities, causes the horizontal lapped steel cylinder to roll. • • By its rolling, the light arm attached to its end provides a magnified movement on a smoked glass plate. This vertical movement equiped with the horizontal movement produces a trace on the glass magnified in vertical direction and there being no magnification in horizontal direction.

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Surface Roughness Measurement Methods The Tayler – Hobson’s ‘Talysurf’:

The stylus is mounted on the armature, which is provided at the central limb of an E-shaped soft iron head. The outer limbs of the head are provided with two induction coils and a small air gap is left between the armature and outer limbs of the head. Saturday, 22 September 2012 LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY

Surface Roughness Measurement Methods The Tayler – Hobson’s ‘Talysurf’: • A downward movement of the stylus results in decreasing the air gap of the primary coil and in an equal increase of the air gap at the secondary coil. The impedance of the coils will be changed according to the variation of air gap and an additional alternating current flows in the secondary coil whose magnitude is governed by the variation of the impedance of the coil and is proportional to the displacement of the stylus. The position of the stylus, therefore, controls or modulates the carrier. This method of carrier modulation enables true graphs of the surface to be obtained.

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Surface Roughness Measurement Methods The Tayler – Hobson’s ‘Talysurf’: • A cylindrical skid is provided as a datum and a pick-up unit is moved across the test surface by means of a motor and a gear box, this provides different measuring speeds. The maximum length that can be traced is 10mm. The measuring force is 0.1 g. The vertical magnification can be varied in steps from 1000 to 50000 times.

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Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Surface Roughness Measurement Methods
Non – Contact Methods:

When coherent light illuminates a rough surface, the diffracted waves from each point of the surface mutually interfere to form a pattern, which appears as a grain pattern of bright and dark regions. The spatial statistical properties of this speckle image can be related to the surface characteristics. The degree of correlation of two speckle patterns produced from the same surface by two different illumination beams can be used as a roughness parameter.
Saturday, 22 September 2012 LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY

Surface Roughness Measurement Methods
On process Measurement: • Machine Vision: In this technique, a light source is used to illuminate the surface with a digital system to view the surface, and the data is sent to computer to be analyzed. The digitized data is then used with a correlation chart to get actual roughness values. Inductance Method: An inductance pickup is used to measure the distance between the surface and the pickup. This measurement gives the parametric value that may be used to give a comparative roughness. However, this method is limited to measuring magnetic materials. Ultrasound: A spherically focused ultrasonic sensor is positioned with a non-normal incidence angle above the surface. The sensor sends out an ultrasonic pulse to the personal computer for analysis and calculation of roughness parameters.

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Surface Texture Parameters The purpose of a parameter is to generate a number that can characterize a certain aspect of the surface with respect to a datum, removing the need for subjective assessment. However, it is impossible to completely characterize a surface with a single parameter. Parameters can be separated into three basic types: • • • Amplitude Parameters: These are measures of the vertical characteristics of the surface deviations. Spacing Parameters: These are measure of the horizontal characteristics of the surface deviations. Hybrid Parameters: These are a combination of both the vertical and horizontal characteristics of the surface deviations.

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Surface Texture Parameters Amplitude Parameters • Rsk – It is a measurement of skewness and will indicate whether the surface consists of mainly peaks, valleys or an equal combination of both. It is a measure of the symmetry of the profile about the mean line. A surface with predominant peaks will be considered as ‘positive skew’ and a surface with predominant valleys will be considered as ‘negative skew’. Negative skew, for example is desirable where oil retention is required. Positive skew may be desirable where adhesion is required. Rku – ‘Kurtosis’ is a measure of the sharpness of the surface profile. Kurtosis is a measure of the randomness of heights. A perfectly random surface has a value of 3, the farther the result is from 3, the less random and more repetitive the surface is.
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Surface Texture Parameters Amplitude Parameters

Rz – Ten-point height. The average absolute value of the five highest peaks and the five lowest valleys over the evaluation length. Rz = {(P1 + P2 +…..P5) – (V1 + V2 +......V5)}/5
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Surface Texture Parameters Amplitude Parameters

Rtm – Mean peak to valley roughness. It is determined by the difference between the highest peak and the lowest valley within multiple samples in the evaluation area.

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Surface Texture Parameters Amplitude Parameters

R3z – It is the vertical mean from the third highest peak to the third lowest valley in a sample length over the assessment length.

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Surface Texture Parameters Amplitude Parameters • Ra – This is also known as Arithmetic Average (AA), Centre Line Average (CLA), and Arithmetic Mean Deviation of the profile. The average roughness is the area between the roughness profile and its mean line, or the integral of the absolute value of the roughness profile height over the evaluation length.

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Surface Texture Parameters Amplitude Parameters

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Surface Texture Parameters Amplitude Parameters

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Surface Texture Parameters Amplitude Parameters • Rq Root Mean-Square Roughness: The average of the measured height deviations taken within the evaluation length or area and measured from the mean linear surface.

Rt, Rp and Rv: The peak roughness Rp is the height of the highest peak in the roughness profile over the evaluation length. Similarly Rv is the depth of the deepest valley in the roughness profile over the evaluation length. The total roughness, Rt, is the sum of these two or the vertical distance from the deepest valley to the highest peak. Rt = Rp + Rv
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Surface Texture Parameters Amplitude Parameters

R3zi : It is the height from the third highest peak to the third lowest valley within one sample length.

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Surface Texture Parameters Roughness Spacing Parameters • Pc – Peak Count: Peak count is a number giving the number of peaks per length of trace in a profile. For the purpose of calculating Pc a ‘peak’ is defined relative to an upper and lower threshold. Usually this is a single number, the ‘peak count threshold’, the distance from a lower threshold up to an upper threshold, centered on the mean line. A peak must cross above the upper threshold and below the lower threshold in order to be counted.

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Surface Texture Parameters Roughness Spacing Parameters • HSC – High Spot Count: High spot count, HSC, is similar to peak count except that a peak is defined relative to only one threshold. High spot count is the number of peaks per cm (or inch) that cross above a certain threshold. A peak must cross above the threshold and then back below it. It is commonly specified for surfaces that must be painted.

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Surface Texture Parameters Roughness Spacing Parameters • Sm – Mean Spacing: Sm is the mean spacing between peaks, now with a peak defined relative to the mean line. A peak must cross above the mean line and then back below it.

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Surface Texture Parameters Roughness Spacing Parameters • λa Average Wavelength: The average wavelength of the surface is defined as follows: λa = 2π Ra/Δa

Saturday, 22 September 2012

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Lecture 16

Screw Thread and Gear Metrology
Screw thread has generally two function to perform viz.  Transfer the power and motion  Act as a fastener The object of dimensional control in case of plain shaft and hole is to ensure a certain consistency of fit. In case of threaded work, the object is to ensure mechanical strength which is depends upon the amount of flank contact and not upon the fit.

Screw thread: A screw thread is the helical ridge produced by forming a continuous helical grove of uniform section on the external or internal surface of a cylinder or cone. A screw thread formed on a cylinder is known as straight or parallel screw thread, while the one formed on a cone or frustrum of a cone is known as tapered screw thread. External thread: A thread formed on the outside of a workpiece is called extrenal thread e.g. on bolt or studs etc. Internal thread: A thread formed on the inside of a workpiece is called internal thread e.g. on a nut. Pitch Diameter : (often called effective diameter) of a parallel thread is the diameter of the imaginary co-axial cylinder which increases the surface of the thread in such a manner that the intercept on a generator of the points where it meets to the opposite Flanks of a thread groves, is equal to half the nominal pitch of the thread.

Screw thread terminology

Major diameter (B): this is the diameter of the major cylinder (imaginary cylinder, co-axial with the screw, which just touches the crests of an external thread or the root of an internal thread). It is often referred to as outside diameter or cone diameter of external threads

Minor cylinder: this is the diameter of the minor cylinder (imaginary cylinder, co-axial with the screw, which just touches the roots diameter or cone diameter of external threads. Crest of thread (D): this is define as the prominent part of the thread, whether it be external or internal. Root (E): this is define as the bottom of the groove between the two flanks of the thread, whether it be external or internal.

Flanks : these are the straight edge which connect the crest with the root. Axis: this is the imaginary line running longitudinally through the center of the screw. Angle of a thread (C): (Included angle) is the angle between the flanks or slope of the thread measured in an axial plane. Pitch of the thread (F): is the distance measured parallel to its axis between corresponding points on adjacent surface in the same axial plane. There are three type of errors:
i. ii. iii. Progressive Error of pitch : is the gradual, but not necessary uniform, deviation of the pitch of successive threads from the nominal pitch. Periodic Error of pitch: is the cyclical pattern of departure from the nominal pitch, which is repeated regularly among the screw. Drunkenness: is a periodic variation of the pitch where the cycle is of one pitch length

Addendum : for an external thread, is the radial distance between the major and pitch cylinders. For an internal thread, this is the radial distance between the pitch minor and pitch cylinders. Dedendum: this is the radial distance between the pitch and minor cylinder for external thread, and for internal thread, this is the radial distance between the major and pitch cylinders. Lead: Is the axial movement of a point following its helical turn around the thread axis. It is the axial distance moved by the threaded part, when it is given one complete revolution about its axis with respect to a fixed mating thread.

Type of thread
Most of the thread have triangle-shape threads. On the other hand, squareshaped and trapezoid-shaped thread are used for moving machinery which need accuracy, such as a lathe.

The most commonly used thread- form all over the world are: British Standard Whitworth American Standard British Association Knuckle Butress 45° Acme

British Standard Whitworth

The principle feature of the British Standard Whitworth (BSW) thread form are that the angle between the thread flanks is 55 degrees, and the thread has radii at both the roots and the crests of the thread. This is the forst standardized thread form. The relevant standard for this thread form is BS 84: 1956. This thread form is now redundant and has been replaced by Unifield and Metric threads. The British Standard Fine (BSF) thread has the same profile as the BSW thread form but was used when a finer pitch was required for a given diameter. If, p = pitch of the thread d= depth of the thread r = radius at the top and botttom of the threads then d = 0.640327p, r = 0.137329p

British Association
This thread was used for small-diameter Threads (less than 0.25 inch). The thread size Varies from BA number 23 (0.33 mm dia. With a pitch of 0.09) to BA 0(6-mm dia. With a pitch of 1mm) The thread Has reduced roots and crests and has a flank Angle 47.5 degree. This thread form is now Redundant and has been replaced by Unified and Metric threads. As shown in figure: P= pitch of the thread d = depth of thread r = radius at the top and bottom of the threads Then d = 0.6 p, r = 2p/11

Matric thread

Metric threads are designated by the letter M followed by the nominal diameter of the thread and the pitch in millimeters. For example M10 * 1.0 indicates that the major diameter of the thread is 10mm and the pitch is 1.0 mm. The absence of pitch value indicate that a coarse thread is specified. For example, stating that a thread is M10 indicates that a coarse thread series is specified of 10-mm diameter. Indian standards institution has recommended the use of basic form of this thread which has likely to replace the BDW, BSF and Unified thread. If p = pitch of the thread d= depth of the thread r = radius at the top and bottom of the thread d= 0.54127 p

Knuckle and Butress 45° and Acme threads

Knuckle Butress 45 °

• Acme thread They are the most common forms used for leadscrews (power screws). They offer high strength and ease of manufacture. They are typically found where large loads or high accuracy are required, as in a vise or the leadscrew of a lathe. Standardized variations include multiple-start threads, left-hand threads, and self-centering threads

Acme

Knuckle thread

We manufacture Knuckle thread taps from good quality material which suits exact requirement of the application. Knuckle thread taps have high precision accuracy and are used for tapping in any type of material like stainless steel and graded casting.

Butress

0 45

The buttress thread form has certain advantages in applications involving exceptionally high stresses along the thread axis in one direction only. Few applications are breech assemblies of large guns, airplane propeller hubs and columns for hydraulic presses.

Lecture 17
In order to determine the accuracy of a screw thread, it will be necessary to measure all the following: Major diameter Minor diameter Effective diameter Pitch Thread form

Measurement of Major Diameter
To measure diameter of external thread, a good quality hand micrometer is quit suitable. First check the micrometer reading on a cylindrical standard of approximately the same size, so that the zero error etc. might be eliminated.  Extreme care is necessary to ensure that only light pressure is applied because the anvil of micrometer make contact only at the point of the screw.  Excessive pressure may lead to elastic deformation.

• Special requirement for threads.

Measurement of minor diameter

Measurement of Effective diameter
• This is one of the most important dimensional measurement of a screw thread. This is measured to ensure that the thread has been produced within the limits.

Case 1
• In a case of accurate thread the effective-diameter of the thread will be equal to its pitch diameter. In such a case a special designed thread micrometer is found to be most convenient way of measuring the effective diameter. The end of the spindle is pointed to a 600 Vee is grooved in the anvil. The anvil is free to rotate so as to adjust itself to the helix angle of the thread being measured. The sharp tip of the pointer is ground off.

Micrometer for measuring effective diameter

Measurement of Effective diameter
Before using a thread micrometer, screw cone point of its spindle down to contact with the vee-anvil and check the micrometer thimble’s zero reading. A thread measuring micrometer is designed to measure thread within a certain range of thread pitches. Since any given thread micrometer is required to measure a range of threads of different pitches, each of which may cause a slight variation of the anvil position an the thread, small error in measurement are some time introduced. For this the best procedure to follow is using the pitch diameter of a standard thread plug gauge of the same size as the thread to be measured and then compensate for error. Case 2 : In case where due to pitch error etc., the effective diameter is different from the pitch diameter, the use of an external micrometer, together with two or three small diameter wire is very convenient. There result trigonometrically relation between the measurement over the wire and the effective diameter of the thread and this result in a particular pitch and angle of the thread.

Measurement of Effective diameter

• Two constant which are to be calculated are : i. The difference between size under the wire and effective diameter. ii. The different between size over the wires and effective diameter.

Measurement of Effective diameter

Measurement of Effective diameter
Floating carriage micrometer used foe measuring of a simple effective diameter by using two-wire method. the two wires used in the measurement should be identical in diameter between flanks and thread. The effective diameter is given by E= T + P Where T is the dimension under the wires and T= Dm – 2d d= diameter of wire

Measurement of Effective diameter

Measurement of Effective diameter

For measuring the dimension T, the wires are placed over a standard cylinder of diameter greater than the diameter under the wires, and the corresponding reading in noted as r1 and the reading the over the gauge as r2.
then T= P – (r1 – r2)
Where P = constant should be added to the diameter under the wire for calculating the effective diameter and which also depends upon the diameter and pitch of the thread.

Measurement of Internal thread
• Ring gauge have internal threads and are taken as a standard sample for measuring the parameter of internal thread. • Measurement of major diameter

Measurement of minor diameter
• The minor diameter can be sized by fitting a mandrel having a diametric taper of about 1 in 500 i.e. 0.0002 in per in into the ring. The minor diameter is taken as the diameter of the mandrel where it fits the screw thread. The minor diameter

Measurement of pitch error
• Error in the pitch of a nut or bolt have a serious effect on the accuracy of fit produced. The effect of pitch error on the effective diameter is approximately double, that is to say, if a bolt has a pitch error of 0.01 mm, then is the actual effective diameter shows an error of twice this value, namely 0.02 mm. It is very necessary to measure to measure the pitch . The measurement must be made in such in such a way that

Lecture 18

Elements of gear metrology
• Gear are mechanical device that transmit power and motion between axes in a wide variety of commercial and industrial application. They are widely used for speed reduction or increase, torque multiplication and resolution, and accuracy enhancement for positioning systems. They find application in area like machine tools, automobiles, materialhandling devices, rolling mills and so on. Transmission efficiency of gear is 99 percent , which is due to positive displacement characteristics of a gear, a power transmission device.
• Gears are made from a wide variety of material with many different properties. Factor such as design life, power transmission requirements, noise and heat generation. Common metal materials of construction for gears include aluminum, brass bronze, cast iron, steel, hardened steel, and stainless steel.

Gear terminology

Gear wheel
• The gear wheel is a basic mechanism. Its purpose is to transmit rotary motion and force. A gear is a wheel with accurately machined teeth round its edge. A shaft passes through its centre and the gear may be geared to the shaft. Gear are used in groups of two or more. A group of gears is called a gear train. The gear in a train are arranged so that their teeth closely interlock or mesh.

Gear terminology

Gear terminology
When two gears of different size mesh together, the larger gear is called a wheel , and the smaller gear is called pinion.

Gear terminology

Type of gears
• • • • • • • • Bevel gears Crossed helical gears Worm and worm wheel Helical gear Spiral bevel gears Face cut gears Rack and pinion Spur gears

Gear terminology

Gear terminology

Spur Gear Terminology

Gear terminology

Gear terminology

Gear terminology

Gear terminology

Gear terminology

Gear terminology
Blank diameter: the diameter of a blank is equal to the pitch circle diameter plus twice addenda. Tooth thickness: it is the actual distance measured along the pitch circle from its intercept with one flank to its intercept with the other flank of the same tooth. Normally the tooth thickness is the one half on the circular pitch. profile: it is that portion of the tooth flank between specified form circle and the outside circle or start of the tip chamfer. When the form circle is not specified, it should be that for a meshing rack. Face of the tooth: it is the part of the tooth which lying below the pitch surface.