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D E PA R T M E N T S

BOOK REVIEWS

Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena
Jean-Claude Diels and Wolfgang Rudolph, 542 pages, illustrations, index, 564 references, and five appendices. ISBN: 0-12215492-4. Academic Press, Inc., 525 B Street, Suite 1900, San Diego, California, 92101-4495 ͑1996͒ $95 hardbound. Reviewed by Steven A. Miller, Defense Systems Group, Texas Instruments, Inc., M/S PMK3, 2501 West University Drive, McKinney, Texas 75070.

The literature abounds with texts on the subject of lasers. Any one book could provide a beginning graduate student with the tools necessary to understand lasers and their interaction with matter. However, the treatment of ultrashort lasers in such books is cursory, if included at all, since the intricacies of femtosecond pulse generation go beyond what is commonly considered fundamental. It is true that literally thousands of journal articles on the subject are available but one would be hard pressed to find a compilation of femtosecond laser technology, especially one suitable as an advanced graduate text or for the practical user. So where is one to turn? I would strongly recommend Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena by Diels and Rudolph. As any text on fundamentals should, the book begins with a concise overview of concepts and terminology necessary for a fruitful journey into the femtosecond world. I found the notation to be consistent and the introductory material of Chapter 1 quite refreshing. Particularly impressive was a lucid explanation of the analogy between free-space propagation of a Gaussian beam and pulse propagation through a GVD media. As with any new topic, establishing a connection with previous material is an excellent teaching tool. The next three chapters present the topics of optics, light-matter interaction, and coherent phenomena from a femtosecond perspective. The chapter on optics delves into fundamental principles governing the delivery of femtosecond radiation and illustrates the properties of angularly dispersive elements, which are so vital in ultrafast laser cavity design. In discussing light-matter interaction, the authors carefully point

out circumstances where approximations learned in a first course on lasers remain valid and where they must be abandoned in favor of a more exact approach. Chapters 5 through 8 are then dedicated to the functional aspects of femtosecond sources. The reader is introduced to the building blocks of actual devices. There is ample material here to supply the experimentalist the knowledge to construct a working laser cavity. The authors follow in logical order with a thorough presentation of the laser’s temporal and spectral attributes, thoughtfully mixing the theoretical aspects of pulse characterization with an indepth account of numerous experimental techniques. ͑I found this rich mix of formalism and ‘‘hands-on’’ to be the text’s most redeeming quality.͒ Having described the apparatus completely, the remaining one-fifth of the text is dedicated to novel experiments involving biology, x-ray generation, semiconductors, and ultrafast imaging, to name a few, made accessible by the advent of femtosecond laser technology. The problems at the end of each chapter are thought provoking without being overwhelming in difficulty. They show a sincere effort on the part of the authors to provide useful insight and test the student’s understanding in each important topic. The text furnishes all the essential theoretical and experimental machinery for a student to explore not only the literature, but the laboratory with confidence. What I would have given for such a comprehensive text during my tenure as a graduate student in the laser laboratories of North Texas State University, where Diels himself also spent several years as a professor. There are a select few so-called ‘‘Fundamentals’’ texts, which are guaranteed to occupy the library of those in both academia and industry who deal with lasers. Diels and Rudolph have certainly composed a book of this stature on femtosecond lasers. Books of this importance rise above the ordinary because of their clarity, completeness, and practicality. It is no longer necessary to serve as an apprentice to one of a small group of accomplished laser physicists to find out everything you ever wanted to know about femtosecond laser physics.

Optical Diagnostics for Thin Film Processing
Irving P. Herman, 797 pages, illustrations, index, and references. ISBN 0-12342070-9. Academic Press, 525 B Street, Suite 1900, San Diego, California 921014495 ͑1996͒ $95 hardbound. Reviewed by William G. Breiland, Sandia National Laboratories, MS 0601, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-0601. The deposition, etching, and patterning of thin film materials are critical technologies essential to many industries, with applications ranging from wear and corrosion resistant coatings to remarkably sophisticated microelectronics and optoelectronics devices. However, if one were to go into a state-of-the-art manufacturing facility and turn off the elegantly engineered robotics, disable the elaborate safety interlocks, and peel off the handsomely painted sheet metal panels, they would more than likely find a piece of equipment that differed very little from what was first used in a university research laboratory to develop the original process. The most obvious deficiency in this equipment is an almost complete lack of in situ monitors and sensors that measure thin film properties as opposed to process variables. Because these monitors are not used, much thin film processing is forced to employ a timed-recipe approach based on tedious calibration runs rather than real-time control. The thin film industry is poised to address this deficiency, in part, with a wide variety of optical methods that are described in Herman’s timely new book. This tour de force work unquestionably provides the most diverse and comprehensive review of optical diagnostics for thin film processing that can be found in the open literature today. The diversity is both a strength and a weakness. On one hand, a person wishing to find information on a particular optical technique will almost assuredly find a discussion of it in Herman’s book. On the other hand, they will probably also wish that the discussion had more depth and detail—much the same feeling that one gets when looking something up in an encyclopedia. To make up for the lack of detail, Herman has adopted a review-article style of writing that provides the reader with ap-

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Cambridge. optoelectronics.. references following each chapter.. Davis. Institute of Physics Publishing. CRC Press.org/terms . New York. spectral narrowing. ix–720 pp. but it does reward the serious researcher with a well-written and well-organized account of the highlights of a subject. Hari Singh Nalwa and Seizo Miyata. by William T. Cambridge University Press. and interactions of light and matter in about 100 pages. index.. and the Fringe Analysis Special Interest Group. A collection of 31 papers on the latest applications of modern optics. photon migration. The final chapter proposes a model for the general flow of information in the visual cortex. held in Reading in September 1996. The fifth chapter discusses the experimental aspects of optical diagnostics. ISBN 0-12-186030-2. 2000 Corporate Blvd. Finally.. Object recognition and classification. BOOKS RECEIVED Trends in Optics. Techno House.spiedigitallibrary. appendices. Laser Fundamentals. atomic gas. scene segmentation. the first portion of the book. diffractive optics. by Shimon Ullman. illus. v–473 pp. such as laser induced fluorescence. 3. Paper topics include biospeckles. photorefractive fibers. which is gaining increased importance in thin film processing.. This organization clearly favors optical spectroscopists more than thin film process engineers. technologies. San Diego. mode-locking. Academic Press. Nonlinear Optics of Organic Molecules and Polymers. and laser pumping.. references following each chapter. There is a final chapter that deals with the subject of data analysis and process control. photonics. edited by K.. appendices. MIT Press. all the classic spectroscopy resources are referenced so one could certainly go to Herzberg’s texts to learn more.. Instrument Science and Technology Group. Another summarizes qualitative features of all the optical diagnostics discussed in later chapters. Grattan. along with a clear path that can lead one to further indepth information. Covered are the fundamental wave and quantum properties of light. Herman effectively achieves this kind of organization by cross-referencing optical technique chapters within his discussion of specific thin film processing methods. Vol.. and applications of nonlinear optical materials. This style does not make good bedside reading. This book contains the proceedings of the Applied Optics Divisional Conference of the Institute of Physics. optical interconnects. parametric processes. High-Level Vision: Object Recognition and Visual Cognition. index. Provides theoretical approaches. Nonetheless. each chapter typically dealing with either background material or a specific optical technique. summary at beginning of each chapter.org/ on 06/07/2013 Terms of Use: http://spiedl. MA 02142 ͑1996͒ $40 hardbound. references following each chapter.. ISBN 0-7503-0382-4. The book is divided into 19 chapters. Also discussed are unstable resonators. 55 Hayward St. with considerable treatment given to optical thermometry. measurement techniques. fundamentals of nonlinear optics. optical instrumentation. ISBN 0-521-55617-1. and photonic sensing. Inc. I have already used it several times to quickly find out what research has been done with a specific optical technique or to obtain a list of references on some topic. by Christopher C. ring lasers. Herman also makes a very good attempt to present a broad overview of this vast field and to make valuable comparisons and connections between diverse areas of thin film optical diagnostics. Vol. index. signal synthesis. The coverage of relevant topics is thorough. CA 92101-4495 ͑1996͒ $55 hardbound. and waveguide lasers. Trumpington St. the structure of matter. The first chapter of the book presents a very readable introduction and guide to the rest of the text. lacking in detail. mirror optics. as well as others. Again. Includes basic optical physics through theoretical modeling and molecular engineering. spectroscopy. illus. moelcular gas. amplification. such as object classification. Papers presented include the areas of applied optics. vii–412 pp. definitions. Bristol BS1 6NX. Qswitching. and optical bistability. and index.BOOK REVIEWS proximately 1800 well-researched references and hundreds of figures from the scientific and engineering literature. references following each chapter.. there is a summary of thin film processing techniques accompanied by tables that cross-reference optical techniques used with specific thin film processing methods. This textbook provides an introduction to the basic physics and engineering aspects of lasers. illus. Book format is unformal and is accessible to readers that are not optics specialists. Information in the book covers nonlinear optical materials through 1995. Q. but it serves to inform readers unfamiliar with this aspect of thin film processing about the existence of statistical design of experiments and neural networks. FL 33431 ͑1997͒ hardbound. T. The process engineer would most likely benefit more from an alternative organization that discusses all the optical techniques that have been used on a particular thin film tool. The book is suitable for undergraduate courses in laser physics. pulse-shortening techniques. illus.. index. 40 West 20th St. vii–521 pp. illus. and molecular beam epitaxy. and optical engineering. Deals with the processes of high-level vision that involve the interpretation and use of what is seen in an image. However. worked examples. A section is devoted to a discussion on the need for optical diagnostics. 1–885 pp. For example. The Pitt Building.. I highly recommend it to anyone who wants to seriously delve into the field of thin film optical diagnostics or wants a single source book of well-organized and very high-density information on this subject. ISBN 0-8493-8923-2. v–587 pp. the treatment is cursory. 8. fringe analysis. only two pages can be devoted to the spectroscopy of linear molecules—enough to mention P. Although the writing is clear. holography. electro. Contributions are made by the Institute of Physics Optical Group. the review-article style and cursory treatment of any one subject does not make it a good textbook or general source for casual reading. ISBN 0-521-48403-0. Eds. and visual cognition are the two problems the author focuses on. Cambridge University Press. and the application of lasers. It covers a great deal of material in a short span of wellreferenced topics. ISBN 0-26221013-4. edited by Anna Consortini. The next three chapters present perhaps an overly ambitious attempt to describe the properties of light. and semiconductor lasers.and acousto-optic devices. Boca Raton.. NW. Lasers and Electro-Optics: Fundamentals and Engineering. illus. the concepts of population inversion. and the design and operational principles of optical systems and electro-optical devices. 525 B Street. NY 10011-4211 ͑1996͒ paperback. and the basic properties of laser cavities and Gaussian beams.. materials. bibliography. Applied Optics and Optoelectronics. Redcliffe Way. Doppler lidar. index.. color plates. Silfvast. gain-bandwidth. and visual cognition. The greatest value of Optical Diagnostics for Thin Film Processing is as a comprehensive reference text. Object recognition is covered in Optical Engineering. Inc. but woefully inadequate to help someone describe the laser induced fluorescence spectrum of the 3 ⌸ —3 ⌺ Ϫ transition in the NH molecule. as would be expected. Cambridge CB2 1RP ͑1996͒ paperback.. The final chapters contain information on optical detection. Suite 1900. appendix. The second half of the book discusses such topics as optical fibers. references following each chapter. The rest of the book is devoted to specific optical diagnostic methods. V. 36 No. including crystal. The first half of the book contains fundamentals of laser physics and laser radiation and discusses types of individual lasers. but. United Kingdom ͑1996͒ hardbound. and R branches. coherence theory. Provides an introduction to the physical and engineering principles of laser operation and design. followed by related issues in high-level vision. August 1997 2363 Downloaded From: http://opticalengineering. diffraction tomography. phase conjugation.