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4.15 The given of this problem is that a mixture contains 60.0 wt% ethanol, 5.

0 wt% of a dissolved solute (S), and the balance water. The given mixture is fed into a distillation column. This process operates at steady state. Two streams are produced streams and the top stream contains 90 wt% ethanol and 0 % solute. This problem begins by for the degrees of freedom, the mass fraction of S in the bottom product stream, and the fraction of the ethanol in the feed that leaves in the bottom product stream if it runs as designed. The next segment of this problems demands an expression for x as a logarithmic function of R based on the following calibration: The calibration curve for an analyzer that determines the composition of ethanol-water mixtures produces straight line on a plot with logarithmic axes of mass fraction ethanol vs. analyzer reading (R). The R on the top stream is used to analyze the composition of ethanol. The problem finally asks readers to ponder as to why the calibration curve might fail. . The degrees of freedom were determined by finding the number of unknowns and equations relating them and seeing if they are equal. The degrees of freedom were determined to be zero since the number on unknowns was equal to the number of relating equations therefore, the problem can be solved. The mass fraction of S in the bottom stream was found by solving for it using the flow rate balance of solute equation (0.1 wt% S). The fraction of the ethanol in the feed that leaves in the bottom stream was found by solving for the mass fraction of ethanol in the bottom stream using the previous method, and dividing the flow rate of ethanol in the bottom stream by the flow rate of ethanol in the feed stream 0.25 wt% ethanol. The expression for x as a function of R(x=…) was found by taking the natural log of each variable and then using then finding the change in y over the change in x. This was possible because a linear curve was produced. Solving for the slope and y-intercept using the given values, the expression was found: lnx = 1.49lnR – 6.34. The calculated value of R when the mass fraction of ethanol in the top stream is used was found by plugging in the values into the previous equation. The R value was determined to be 65.0. There are many reasons as to why deviations can occur. These include; a non-steady state system, reactions could be occurring, leaks may exist within the process, the temperature could be a factor, and there could be unequal flow rates in and out of the system. 4.20 The given information in this problem is that 4 mole % water vapor is passed through a column of calcium chloride pellets. The pellets adsorb 97.0% of the water and none of the other constituents of the air. The column packing was initially dry and had a mass of 3.40 kg. After 5.0 hours of introducing humid air, the pellets have a mass of 3.54 kg. The problem begins to ask for the molar flow rate in moles per hour of the feed gas and the mole fraction of water vapor in the product gas stream. It also asks to state the most likely cause of the increase in the mole fraction of the water in the product gas as time passes. Finally, it asks what the mole fraction of water in the product gas will eventually reach after the pellets begin to lose reactivity. In order to find the molar flow rate of the feed, one must essentially work backwards. The mass of water absorbed over 5 hours is given to be 0.14 kg of water. This according to the given is 97% of the water that passed through the pellets. Through many conversions we come to find that the value of the total molar flow rate was found to be 40.25 mol / h. The mole fraction of the

47 mol% N2. The total urea going in through the artery is 380mg/min and the urea leaving in the artery is 341.08 mol% O2. It was given that the concentration of the urea in the blood when the blood enters the kidney was 1. 0. In this system. and 73. the composition of air is 1.0mL/min and the rate of blood leaving is 195. 0. -0.44 hours. which is then reduced by the product of the final flow rate and the density of water. When the blood leaves the kidney.67 mol% water vapor. In the next part of the problem. This was done by assuming that the amount of urea that goes into the kidney is equal to the urea leaving. 4. We are asked to find the mass accumulation within the system and the volume (L/day) necessary to replace the loss of water.water vapor in the product gas stream was found by subtracting the ratio of the water flow rate to total flow rate in the feed by the rate of water moles absorbed.68 mol% nitrogen gas. The urea exiting through the dialysate must be 38.9 mL/min. the concentration of urea is 1. The expired air from the lungs is released at a rate of 0.4664 mol/min and is comprised of 17.75mg/mL. blood enters the kidney through an artery and leaves through another. and 77. Finally. and the accumulations are as follows: O2. CO2. The mole fraction of water in the product was determined to be 0. Through these values. In the last part of the problem. The flow rate of the blood entering is 200. we can calculate how many mg of urea must be collected using the initial and final concentration. one must assume that urea is negligible and the density of the liquid is the same as the density of water.000mL. 3. This resulted in 8.6670 g/min. one is asked to calculate the amount of time it would take to dilute 2.8mg/mL. With the volume in mL. The result is 5g/min. 6. The degrees of freedom was found to be zero since there are four unknowns and four equations. At sea level.20 mol% H2O.0258mg/mL.8mg/mL which results in 206 minutes or 2. The initial flow rate is multiplied by the density of water.500mL/min resulting in a concentration of 0. 20. which is 1mg/mL. The necessary volume of water can be calculated with the negated water accumulation converted from . the functions of a kidney were examined with respect to the removal of urea. The total accumulation is then -0. The input molar flow rate is calculated to be 0.4411 mol/min. The result is 28.23 In this problem.6893 g/min. 5L is equal to 5.000mg.1mg/mL when there are 5 L of blood. We then divide this by the rate of urea removal which is 38.90mg/mL. the calcium chloride become saturated so all of the water will eventually pass through.3656 g/min. the concentration of urea in the exiting water in the dialysate was calculated. The mole fraction of water in the product stream will eventually equal the initial mole fraction of water since no reactions are occurring.25 mol% CO2. H2O.13 mole % water.7mg/mL to 1. it was possible to calculate the rate of urea removal by multiplying the initial urea concentration and the initial flow rate and then subtracting from it the product of the final concentration and the final flow rate.25mg/min. Respiration: This problems allows students to analyze the effects of elevation on respiration..75mg/min leaving in a liquid of flow rate 1.65 mol% oxygen gas. In order to calculate the rate of water leaving.3879 g/min.

. CO2. This process can be repeated to examine what happens at the sumitt. O2.3791 mol/min and the following accumulations: H2O. and 89. -0.25 mol% CO2. and 72. 3. The amount of water that will replenish lost water in the respiration process is 0.451 g/min.5586 L/day.75 mol% N2. and a total accumulation of -2. the inspired air is 0. Here the composition of expired air (at a rate of 0. This is found to be 0.459 mol% H2O.587 mol% N2.8 mol% O2.g/min to L/day using proper conversion factors and the density of water.4668 mol/min) is 17.954 mol% O2.609 g/min. This results in an inspired air flow rate of 0.709 L/day.6675 g/min. -1. -0.20 mol% H2O.490 g/min. This appears to be identical to the air at sea level but at the summit. 6. 9.