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Methodology of a System Level Design for a Cognitive Radio Receiver “Application for IEEE 802.

22 Standard”
Rami Ben Amira, Dorra Ayadi, Inès Kammoun and Mourad Loulou
Electronic and Communication Group, LETI-Laboratory, National School of Engineers Sfax, Tunisia E-mail: Abstract — This paper exhibits a methodology to achieve a system level design for Cognitive Radio (CR) receiver supporting IEEE 802.22 Standard. Based on superheterodyne receiver supporting Sub-Band Sensing, the overall radio system characteristics depicted from the IEEE 802.22 Standard specifications are dispatched through the different receiver blocks. Moreover, we developed the theoretical calculation and different techniques of system level design. Each of Radio Frequency (RF) characteristics such as noise figure (NF), gain and linearity (third order intercept point, (IIP3)) is simulated taking in account the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) full scale power constraint. On the one hand, our system level simulation results proved that the receiver architecture is capable to perform spectrum sensing and to allow communication processing. The receiver performs a total gain of 51 dB and an IIP3 of -19.8 dBm for low gain mode. It achieves 105dB as gain and 9.9 dB for noise figure for high gain mode. Index terms — Receiver, Cognitive Radio, IEEE 802.22, Spectrum sensing, system level specification, budget analysis, linearity, noise, gain.

In this paper, we will focus on the methodology of a system level design for CR receiver supporting IEEE 802.22 standard. In section II, we will present an overview of CR, its services and we will introduce the first world-wide wireless Standard based on Cognitive radio which is IEEE 802.22. Moreover, a special interest will be considered to the sensing functionality offered by this standard. In section III, receiver characteristics are mentioned and computed. Then, in section IV, budget analysis and simulation results will be exhibited and analysed. At the end, a conclusion of our research will be given. II. IEEE 802.22 RECEIVER SPECIFICATION IEEE 802.22 is emerging as a new wireless air interface standard based on Cognitive Radio known as a Wireless Regional Area Network (WRAN) [4]. The IEEE 802.22 network is based on a Point to Multi Point (P-MP) interconnection. Indeed, it is composed of a Base Station (BS) and a number of CPEs. Each of them performs spectrum sensing. But the BS supervises when sensing is required, analyses all its results and then decides the availability of each television channel. This kind of decision is based on spectrum sensing results and also on auxiliary information shared between BSs. There are three various sensing thresholds which are: first, -116 dBm over a 6 MHz channel to sense DTV Primary Users (PU), Second, -94 dBm assessed for analog TV systems and Finally, -107 dBm calculated in a 200 KHz bandwidth to detect Wireless Microphones Users. IEEE 802.22 targeted first the commercial deployment of CRs in US regions which is reflected on the frequency operational range 54-862 MHz that belongs to the North American regions [4]. After that, to accommodate supplementary international regulatory requirements, this bandwidth could be extended to 41-910 MHz. In addition, different international TV channel with bandwidths of 6, 7, and 8 MHz have to be considered by 802.22 standard specifications [4]. Moreover, the IEEE 802.22 PHY shall provide high modulation and coding schemes flexibility. In this case, BS shall adjust dynamically bandwidth, modulation and coding schemes. The various WRAN base station and CPE receiver performances are specified in the IEEE 802.22 standard Draft; Indeed, in the downstream direction, equivalent receiver sensitivity is around -92 dBm as a minimum value [5]. Meanwhile, the other parameters are



Despite the fixed spectrum assignment policy that characterizes current Wireless networks, the biggest part of the available spectrum is not well exploited and even that 15% to 85% of the spectrum availability is under used [1]. This problem leads to the appearance of a new concept which is Cognitive radio (CR) as a promising solution allowing Opportunistic spectrum utilization that offers the possibility for Secondary users to take advantage of these spectrum holes while Primary Users are not communicating; This definition reflects one of the important Cognitive radio features which is Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA) [2]. To identify these spectrum opportunities, Consumer Premise Equipments (CPEs) have to sense continuously their environment to inform the associated Base Station about these vacant spectral segments. This procedure represents one of the fundamental aspects of CR which is Spectrum Sensing. For our purpose, a CR receiver has to take into account this functionality. That’s why; one of the first tasks to do is system level specification since it aims to set, for each receiver block, its particular specifications. In order to fulfil this requirement, numerous standard requirements have to be considered such as sensitivity, noise figure (NF) and dynamic range (DR).

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Therefore. the RF front end part is shared between sensing and communication processing. CP1dB AND IIP3 COMPUTATION Due to instantaneous signal path fluctuations such as shadowing and path loss.22 standard sets OFDM as the modulation scheme retained. As specified. which ranges from 2054 MHz to 2862 MHz. adaptive modulation concept could be considered as a promising research area for CRs. two switched gain modes have to be considered to provide the needed amplification that depends on the signal weakness or strength. the IIP3 is measured as: IIP 3 max = CP 1dB _ max + 10 = − 23. Moreover. the Voltage Gain Amplifier (VGA) is used allowing an efficient sampling operation.8 dBm B. In fact. CP1dB could be computed as follows: (1) CP 1dB _ min = P in _ max + IBO max = − 29.22 receiver in this mode is about -19. future study will address the impact of other modulation schemes. In addition. among other RF blocks that may cover large DR. The difference is located at the base band part of this receiver where the digital signal is processed separately depending on the processing type. For our case. an input back-off (IBOmax) [7] of 12dB is assessed for this mode as the difference between the maximum input signal and the input. BUDGET SIMULATION A. After being detected. specified in IEEE 802.8 dBm [6].8 dBm (4) From these computations. the signal passes through RF filter that selects the useful bandwidth from 54 MHz to 862 MHz. the second LO2 mixes the IF1 signal at 1000 MHz with 970 MHz that leads to down convert it to a second IF2 at 30 MHz. in this low gain mode. In order to reduce the large input signal levels. is not a constraining factor since it will be suppressed by IF1 filter without using any image frequency filter. This wide band cognitive radio receiver supports sub-band sensing. Functional description of the CR receiver for IEEE 802.22 specification. the minimum signal level Pin. only QPSK modulation will be considered in this work. the gain of VGA have to be minimized to prevent any saturation effects that could affect the linearity requirements. In fact. on receiver performances.10-2 [5]. the VGA helps to maintain constant signal strength at the input of the ADC that requires 9 bits effective resolution [6]. which is around 940 MHz. In this case. IV. after that the LNA helps to improve the SNR of the RF signal that will be mixed up to 1000 MHz using the first Local Oscillator (LO1). we can affirm that linearity is more constraining in low gain mode and noise figure limits the receiver performance in high gain mode. an OFDM signal has a varying envelope that is defined by the Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR) [2] which is associated to the IBO definition. the input-1dBcompression point is calculated as follows [9]: (3) CP 1dB _ max = P in _ max + IBO min = − 33. Therefore. in low gain mode). So. A.min. 64 QAM and 256 QAM.8 dBm (i. Indeed.07 dB which correspond to a BER less than 4.assessed such that the operational frequency band is 54862 MHz using a channel bandwidth of 6 MHz for communication mode and 50 MHz while sensing is performed and a QPSK modulation with rate of ½. it is obvious that linearity requirements are related to the gain mode and consequently to the signal level detected at the input of the RF receiver. Its full scale power is set to 13 dBm which represents an adequate ADC power level [10]. On the other hand. Low Gain Mode (LGM) Owing to the signal robustness with sufficient power.1dB-compression point (CP1dB) [9]. High Gain Mode (HGM) Contrary to the low mode. So. The overall DR at the receiver input is around 50 dB while processing communication signals.8 dBm Then. To maintain constant signal strength at the input of the ADC.8 dBm. Its frequency range goes from 1054 MHz to 1862 MHz. the linearity of the receiver should be at least of -19. the second image frequency.8 dBm with IIP2 of 32.8 dBm. the highest signal level is limited by its linearity performance.max is -41. the IIP3 is greater than CP1dB by 9~10 dB. This receiver was simulated with ADS tool (Advanced Design System). However. it becomes harder at – 23. In addition.22 standard while communicating. the LNA (Low Noise Amplifier) takes place as one of the first stages that the signal passes through. III. Considering the fact that IEEE 802. is also set to -41. an important amplification is needed to overcome the signal weakness. Thus. to be able to decode accurately a signal with maximal power of -41. the required IIP3 for IEEE 802. It represents a superheterodyne receiver that has two Intermediate Frequency (IF) stages [6]. will be suppressed by the second IF2 filter. To fulfill this demand.8 dBm By virtue of the thumb’s rule.8 dBm for high gain mode. the noise figure is specified to be less than 10 dB with coupling and filter loss of around 2 dB. in the high gain mode. Then. Indeed. The required Eb/No is fixed to 6. Taking into account that the maximum input signal Pin. the noise figure performance fixes the lowest level of the dynamic range (DR) of any receiver. that could be detected and decoded. The maximal input signal. While passing through the second transposition stage. Therefore.4 dBm: (2) IIP 3 min = CP 1dB _ min + 10 = − 19.e.22 standard Figure 1 exhibits the studied receiver architecture for the IEEE 802. a significant amplification is useless. is about -92 dBm and the minimal back-off (IBOmin) from CP1dB is assessed to 8 dB [8]. such as 16 QAM. the sub-band spectrum 320 . the image frequency. the amplitude of transmitted and received signals could reveal a various range of discrepancy.

02 dB. the IIP3 (represented by TOI in (figure (2-a))) is -19. noise figure will not be considered. For communication signals processing. gain and NF simulations. Figure 2 proves that the linearity requirement is reached. IF2 gain amplifier and IF2 band pass filter. These blocks are listed as follows: the first block related to 0 is the band pass RF filter. at the input of the receiver.9dB. NF (figure (3-c)) and Pout_max (figure (3-d)). it represents the coupling and filter losses.22 requirements will be made among the different receiver blocks that are defined in figures 2 and 3. So. ADC would require 9 bits effective resolution and its SNRin_ADC is settled to 4. 7 or 8MHz. 321 . The distribution of all the IEEE 802.sensing technique allows dividing the whole bandwidth to different sub-band bandwidth of 50 MHz containing either eight sub-channels with a bandwidth of 6MHz or six sub-channels with a bandwidth of 8MHz [6]. the ADC digitizes each sub-channel alone with a bandwidth of 6. Only the VGA gain will be increased to meet the noise requirements without altering the blocks values already fixed. B. CP1dB. The different budget simulations will be exhibited for the two gain modes in the next parts of this section. IEEE 802. which are specified by the IEEE 802. Each sub-band is digitized separately with a sampling rate of about 100 Msps.22 Receiver supporting sub-band sensing Figure 2. figure (3-d) demonstrates that Pout_max is around 13dBm which is equal to the full scale power requirement at the ADC input. block 2 represents the first mixer. the second IF stage incorporates blocks 5. (a) (b) Figure1.74dB which fits clearly the specifications as represented on figure (3-a). Therefore. These characteristics are assessed depending on the sensing thresholds defined in the IEEE 802. Budget simulation for low gain mode For this mode. In addition to IIP3. Moreover. The Simulation results of IIP3 and gain evolution are presented in (figure (2-a)) and (figure (2-b)) respectively. and are taken into account when simulating the ADS receiver model. The block 8 represents the VGA as the last block of the RF part of the receiver. the value of IIP3 is about -19.8 dBm. In fact.74 dBm with a total gain around 51 dB. This figure shows also a difference of 2dB at the first bloc. are obtained by the RF system budget analysis while making the Budget simulations. Figure 3 reveals respectively the progress of IIP3 (figure (3-a)). blocks 3 and 4 are respectively the IF1 gain amplifier and its associated IF1 band pass filter. NF. Gain (figure (3-b). 6 and 7 which are respectively the second mixer. block 1 is the LNA.22 requirements [5]. At the input of the receiver. That’s why. Figure (3-b) proves that the receiver gain reached 105dB at the input of the ADC. All these parameters are correlated together referring to FRIIS and IIP3 equations [3]. Budget simulation for high gain mode In this case.22 requirements. In fact. The ADC effective bit number is set to only 4 bits with a dynamic range of 24 dB in order to detect the primary users. as the RF filter insertion losses. linearity is not the most constraining issue since the input signal is weak. the VGA gain is at its minimum value. The budget simulations should reveal a total IIP3 around -19. C. Figure (3-c) demonstrates that the total NF is around 9. In this case. such as gain. Evolutions of input third order intercept point TOI (a) and gain (b) among different receiver blocks for low gain mode Each block characteristics. we will take care of the maximal output power (Pout_max) delivered to the ADC input to meet the full scale power requirement. in this configuration. IIP3 and output power. the ADC sampling rate needed is about 12 Msps and having a dynamic range of 54 dB. linearity is the constraining factor since strong signals are considered here.

ICC workshop. which are fixed at the beginning of this work in terms of IIP3.. K. Canada (CRC). 2005.22 specifications. the Cognitive radio requirements. Simulations prove that the receiver provides 51 dB gain and -19. Department of Signal Theory and Communications. REFERENCES [1] Ian F. Renk.. Birru. gain and noise are presented and the relationship that correlates them is discussed. noise figure NF (c) and Pout_max (d) among receiver blocks for high gain mode TABLE I. gain (b). In the high one. “System level design of radio frequency receiver for IEEE 802. Vuran and Shantidev Mohanty “NeXt generation/dynamic spectrum access/cognitive radio wireless networks: A survey. 15 September 2006.9 dB for Noise Figure. Razavi. September 2007 B.Wran-receiverperformance.8 dBm IIP3 and 9. the distribution of the RF specifications such as linearity. Volume 50.8 dBm IIP3 in the low gain mode. 30 Oct. Shankar N.L G. the receiver performs up to 105 dB gain. Shellhammer “Spectral Mask Implications. Cordeiro. April 2006. Ayadi. 3847. Rajbanshi “OFDM-Based Cognitive Radio for DSA Networks. 20-22 December 2008. pp. L. Pages 2127-2159 R. Mehmet C. Evolution of IIP3 (TOI) (a).22: An Introduction to the First Wireless Standard based on Cognitive Radios. “Cognitive Radio Receiver Supporting Wide-Band Sensing.22 standard is presented in this paper.” 2008.” Computer Networks.79 8 18 Mix 2 1 10 21 IF2 Gain Amp 20. 19-23 May 2008 Page(s):499 – 503. P. CSIC '05.All the receiver characteristics are recapitulated in table I. “RF Microelectronics.-2 Nov. October 2008. Challapali. 1998.. are satisfied. S.D.22 as the first Cognitive Radio standard that tends to reuse the fallow TV spectrum without harming incumbent users. and D.” IEEE P802. to meet the challenge between linearity improvement and noise reduction. C. F.6 [10] LNA 9. S. Akyildiz.” Communications Research Centre.E “High dynamic range multibit ΣΔ ADC based receiver prototype employing dynamic error correction. 2005 (a) (b) [2] (c) [3] [4] [5] [6] (d) Figure3. Elsevier editor. M.42 1. 1. V. S. December 2007. “IEEE 802. V. Finally. Para Gain (dB) [7] BLOCKS LEVEL SPECIFICATIONS IF1 Gain Amp 20. The University of Kansas.” IEEE International Conference on Communications. Finally. -19.” Technical report ITTC-FY2008-TR-31620-05. NF and Pfs referring to IEEE 802. G. Academy Publisher. 3rd International Design and Test Workshop. M. Rodriguez. a concise overview of the Cognitive Radio state of art is avowed and some basic design techniques are introduced to fulfill the budget simulation. vol. In addition.” Ph. Jondral. Ismail. Issue 13. Loulou. Chouinard “22-08-0327-02-0000.5 -5. After that. University Polytechnic of Catalonia Barcelona. We described also the wide band spectrum sensing receiver specifications taking the interest on the ADC requirements while processing communication or sensing. CONCLUSION As a conclusion. a methodology of a system level design supporting IEEE 802.” Compound Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Symposium. This receiver supports IEEE 802. D. Won-Yeol Lee. December 2008 Blaschke.16 standard.” Journal of communications.K.” Prentice Hall Communications Engineering and Emerging Technologies Series. T.22 Wireless RANs. no. two gain modes are detailed.5 Mix 1 1 10 21 0 NF (dB) IIP3 (dBm) 322 . Pinal “Multi look-up table digital predistortion for RF power amplifier linearization.79 8 18 VGA LGM HGM [8] [9] 54 11 32. IDT. 1. Pellon.