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A mechanical testing capability for measuring the microscale deformation behavior of structural materials

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Jay C. Schuren · Matthew P. Miller · Alexander Kazimirov

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Received: date / Accepted: date

J.C. Schuren Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering 195 Rhodes Hall, Cornell University Ithaca, New York 14853 Tel.: +1-607-351-1081 Fax: +1-607-255-1222 E-mail: jcs78@cornell.edu M.P. Miller Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Cornell University Ithaca, New York 14853

A. Kazimirov Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source Cornell University Ithaca, New York 14853

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Abstract High energy x-ray diﬀraction can be used to probe the crystal scale mechanical response of polycrystalline alloys. Recently there have been several eﬀorts to create new high energy x-ray experiments. These include the lattice Strain Pole Figure (SPF) technique. By measuring lattice strains in thousands of directions, the lattice strain tensor associated with each orientation can be determined. The focus of this paper is on transforming the SPF technique from a one-oﬀ style experiment to a measurement capability. Such a standardization process is of the utmost importance for the ﬁeld of mechanics of materials and shifts the discovery associated with these experiments from the measurements themselves, to what they reveal about the material. We deﬁne a new technique for quantifying how eﬀectively a set of lattice strain measurements (SPFs) probes each crystal orientation. The polycrystal sampling matrix, deﬁned Γ∗ , represents the mapping between the most likely strain tensor for each orientation and the lattice strain results. The orientation space sampling matrix, deﬁned Γ(R), represents the set of lattice strain measurements that interrogate each crystal orientation. The rank of Γ(R) can be used to quantitatively compare diﬀerent experimental conﬁgurations and systematically investigate Γ∗ . The net result is a new tool for selecting experimental conditions to produce optimal sets of SPF data. Results are shown for diﬀerent experiment conﬁgurations and an example of the SPF technique is provided for the Low Solvus High Refractory (LSHR) nickel base superalloy. In addition, we show that for the face centered cubic LSHR, with lattice strains measured for the {111}, {200}, {220}, and the {311} crystallographic families, there are at most 25 lattice strain measurements that interrogate a single orientation.

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Keywords Lattice strains · X-ray diﬀraction · Synchrotron radiation · Crystallographic ﬁbers

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1 Introduction

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Mechanical testing - broadly deﬁned as measuring the response of an engineering material subjected to external loads - has evolved immensely over the past several decades. Some of the obvious advances – including computer-driven digital machine controllers, innovative multiaxial load actuation and complex control of specimen temperature and environment – have produced unprecedented improvements in our understanding of engineering material behavior under some of the most demanding service and processing conditions imaginable. Mechanical testing’s most important contribution to mechanical design has been the production of validation and calibration data for high ﬁdelity material models. The most useful interaction between experiments and simulations occurs when the resolution, accuracy and precision of both simulated and experimental data are well understood. So, while scientiﬁc excitement and an innate drive towards discovery are crucial for the creation of a new experimental measurement, the important work of creating a mechanical testing capability - which consists of establishing resolution, accuracy and a standardization of best practices - begins after that ﬁrst measurement is made. This paper describes such a standardization process for an important new micromechanical testing methodology. In the lattice Strain Pole Figure (SPF) experiment, in situ loading and high energy x-ray diﬀraction are used to monitor the distortion of crystals within a deforming polycrystalline aggregate [1–4]. The loaded specimen is reoriented relative to the xray beam so that every crystal within the diﬀraction volume is interrogated. Using a methodology motivated by quantitative texture analysis [6, 44] the lattice strain tensor (elastic) at each crystal orientation - referred to here as the Lattice Strain Distribution Function (LSDF) can be quantiﬁed from the SPF data [7]. The single crystal elastic

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moduli can then be employed to produce the full stress tensor at each orientation within the aggregate [7–10]. Previous eﬀorts have shown that there are appreciable variations in the average stress tensor for diﬀerent crystallographic orientations within a polycrystal even when subjected to simple uniaxial tension [4, 10]. The SPF experiment utilizes components that are common to every mechanical testing laboratory. The loads are applied with an actuator and a conventional load cell and strain gages are used to monitor the macroscopic deformation behavior of the specimen. Other aspects of the SPF experiment are less familiar to the experimental mechanics community. As described in detail in the other publications listed above as well as in later sections of this paper, the lattice strains themselves - which are similar to the normal strains indicated by a resistance strain gage during elastic deformation are manifest as shifts in diﬀraction peaks. The goal of the SPF experiment is to quantify the crystal scale mechanical response. In terms of establishing a standard set of experimental practices that will produce “optimal” sets of SPF data, therefore, a few basic questions must be addressed. (i) To what extent do diﬀraction measurements made during an SPF micromechanical experiment probe each crystal orientation? (ii) Can the selection of diﬀraction measurements be optimized to interrogate all orientations within the aggregate? By carefully addressing these two questions, the SPF experiment can be elevated from the status of a one-oﬀ experiment or “heroic eﬀort” to a true measurement capability with a comprehensive metric for quantifying how well each crystallographic orientation is interrogated. In the following sections we present a brief overview of the classes of mechanical tests that explicitly probe the micromechanical material response of polycrystalline samples. We quickly move to an overview of high energy x-ray diﬀraction methods. We describe in detail our method for measuring lattice SPF

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data – along with a careful description of our specimen loading/orientation system or diﬀractometer, which resides within the A2 experimental station of the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS). The overview focuses on characterization of micromechanical material response – with a speciﬁc emphasis on the role of diﬀraction experiments. We then describe the SPF experimental setup at CHESS including short primers on high energy x-ray diﬀraction and a description of crystal orientations. Using SPF measurements on Low Solvus High Refractory (LSHR) nickel base superalloy, we introduce the rank of the orientation space sampling matrix, Γ(R), as a means to quantify the inﬂuence of each diﬀraction measurement – with particular emphasis on the role of pole ﬁgure coverage and the lattice planes measured in sampling orientation space.

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2 Measuring Microscale Material Response in Deforming Polycrystals

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Within the ﬁeld of mechanics of materials there is an expanding need for experiments designed to probe the mechanical response of a polycrystalline aggregate at the size scale of individual grains (crystals). Microscale stress-strain data are creating new understanding of grain scale deformation processes and driving new discoveries on their own right. However, the need for reliable crystal scale data has been driven in large part by the down–scale migration of mechanical design and analysis. Validation and calibration of microscale material models cannot be reliably accomplished with macroscopic data - there are many ways to mistakenly “predict” macroscopic stress-strain data using microscale state variables. Understanding the material response at the grain scale enables an understanding of the boundary value problem that drives important processes such as microplasticity and fatigue crack initiation. Micromechanical test-

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which is quantiﬁed in real time using 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 . provide critical insight into the complicated relationship between orientation-dependent single crystal properties and the material response at the grain and subgrain level within a deforming polycrystal. grain scale properties can be extracted from such experiments under closely controlled loading conditions. This is the class of experiments described in this paper. 108 109 (i) The ﬁrst involves extracting miniature grain scale test samples.6 103 ing methods. 104 105 106 2. Theoretically. 16]. indirect connections can be made to dislocation processes. 18–23]. An example of such an experiment that allows for real time observation of dislocation nucleation and motion is the work of Robertson [17]. often in concert with the formation and propagation of dislocations [15. (ii) The second category of micromechanical tests employs standard size specimens but uses diﬀraction of high energy x-rays or neutrons to observe changes in the crystalline structure of engineering alloys at the grain scale during in situ loading conditions [1.1 Methods for Probing Microscale Deformation Behaviors 107 There are two basic methods for probing material behavior at the scale of the individual grain within a polycrystal. Using post-mortem microstructural interrogation techniques such as Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). which are deformed using microscale loading machines [11–14]. The predominance of these efforts investigate the inﬂuence of sample dimensions on the mechanical properties. These tests provide a direct link between the forces and strains measured at the macroscale and relevant structure evolution. The advantage of this experiment is the ability to monitor structure evolution in situ . which utilize in situ mechanical loading.

Advancements in x-ray detector technologies combined with the penetration power of synchrotron x-rays and in situ loading have produced a set of high energy x-ray diﬀraction capabilities that are unparalleled and prove to be an incredible resource for high ﬁdelity diﬀraction experiments on bulk samples. 127 128 2. Each scattering vector is normal to the family of crystallographic planes ({hkl }) that satisfy Bragg’s Law: 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 nλ = 2dc||s sin θc||s (1) . the sample. or in a related experiment. The scattering vector. and the crystal frame. Then the load is stabilized and the diﬀraction procedure is repeated. the sample frame. The coordinate systems are deﬁned relative to the laboratory frame.7 126 x-rays. s. bisects the incoming and diﬀracted beam of x-rays. the diﬀracted beam of x-rays. The object of these experiments is to understand the way stress is redistributed within the aggregate as the specimen state is evolved by either the addition of increased tensile stress or by the addition of loading cycles.2 Micromechanical Testing Using High Energy X-ray Diﬀraction 129 The general approach for these experiments is to load the specimen to a prescribed macroscopic stress level then measure the strain pole ﬁgures. We begin by describing the various types of high energy x-ray diﬀraction experiments below. additional cycles are applied. There are three relevant coordinate systems for diﬀraction experiments. Upon completion of the diﬀraction measurements the load is increased. and the detector. Use of area detectors and the immense brilliance at current synchrotron facilities lead to the rapid completion of diﬀraction measurements. The schematic shown in Figure 1 depicts the transmission diﬀraction geometry highlighting the relationship between the incoming x-rays.

Obtaining strain information from enough individual crystals to approach statistical signiﬁcance however. s. 23] and the High Energy Diﬀraction Microscopy (HEDM) suite of experiments developed at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) beamline 1-ID-C [25–28]. the elastic strain tensor for the crystal can be obtained. diﬀraction measurements of lattice strains represent the projection of the elastic strain tensor in the direction of the scattering vector. This loading-induced change is manifest as a change in the Bragg angle. c. λ is the x-ray wavelength. As the sample is loaded. The centroid of the diﬀracted intensity distribution represents the average crystallographic plane spacing from crystals satisfying Bragg’s law. The subscript c||s indicates each diﬀraction measurement by the normal to the family of crystallographic planes in the crystal frame. With a suﬃcient number of measurements in diﬀerent directions. The lattice Strain Pole Figure (SPF) method is an alternative that sacriﬁces grain-by-grain spatial correlation but utilizes aggregate or powder data to determine the most likely strain tensor for each crystal orientation. dc||s is the lattice spacing.8 148 Here n is an integer. similar to using a strain gage rosette. 2θc||s . which enables the crystal lattice itself to act literally as an ‘elastic strain gage’. and 2θc||s is the angle between the transmitted and the diﬀracted beams [24]. which is parallel to the scattering vector. For an individual crystal within the aggregate. the lattice plane spacing changes. is problematic. s. Signiﬁcant advances have been made in the area of individual crystal lattice strain measurement during in situ loading including the pioneering 3DXRD work done by Risoe at the European Synchrotron Research Facility (ESRF) [18. 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 .

33]. these experiments produce much needed micromechanical data for corroboration with crystal-based constitutive models [10. 3. 32. 1 Two dimensional schematic showing the relationship between the specimen. Through comparing the average lattice strain values for groups of crystals that satisfy the diﬀraction condition (Bragg’s Law in Equation 1) 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 . Robust powder diﬀraction techniques can be applied to determine average lattice strains for groups of crystals that satisfy Equation 1 [1. probes the same group of crystals as s. 169 2. 4]. Bragg’s law is satisﬁed when s is almost perpendicular to the incoming beam. detector and a single scattering vector. s. this corresponds to small 2θc||s angles. The opposite scattering vector. The Bragg angle is 2θc||s . At high energies. ideal powder diﬀraction data are complete Debye rings.similar to the Orientation Distribution Function (ODF) from Quantitative Texture Analysis (QTA) [29–31]. The goal of the powder experiment for lattice strain is to understand the orientation dependent deformation behavior within a “material point” in the sample. powder diﬀraction methods for lattice strains yield distributions of strain behavior based on crystal orientation . In addition to directly investigating the material response. The laboratory coordinate system is shown.3 Powder Diﬀraction Methods 170 Instead of measuring crystal-by-crystal lattice strains as is done in the 3DXRD or HEDM methods. Instead of spots. -s.9 Fig.

have been imposed to make the problem tractable. The positioning equipment used in these experiments (diﬀractometer) is integral in the measurement of lattice strains in polycrystalline alloys. referred to as the Lattice Strain Distribution Function (LSDF) [7–9. 36]. which are analogous to traditional orientation pole ﬁgures. Following the approach of QTA. rotation of the sample with respect to the x-ray corresponds to placing gages in multiple orientations. the micromechanical response can be investigated to develop a deeper understanding of the material behavior [34. As in QTA. 35]. the stress as a function of e 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 crystallographic orientation. to be interrogated . For the case of limited measurements several constraint conditions. this process is referred to as pole ﬁgure inversion and diﬀerent lattice strain inversion techniques have been used [7. σ (R). The average stress for each orientation can be compared with simulations directly or through a spherical harmonic decomposition 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 . Due to anisotropic single crystal properties and the inherent inhomogeneity of the deformation at the crystal scale. such as a self consistent stress ﬁeld [9] or a smoothing constraint on the strain and dilation ﬁelds over orientation space [7]. however with normal strain values plotted rather than pole densities [1].producing additional unique lattice strain measurements. With the analogy between a peak shift and a normal strain obtained with a resistance type strain gage. we utilize several SPFs (which are basically two dimensional strain projections) to obtain the average lattice (elastic) strain tensor for each crystallographic orientation. Once the LSDF. the stress state at each orientation will not be equivalent to the applied macroscopic stress [37]. These measurements can be depicted on lattice Strain Pole Figures (SPFs).10 182 in both the experiment and the simulation. ǫ(R). 36]. Each reorientation allows for diﬀerent subsets of crystals. is obtained. can be determined through Hooke’s law and the e 199 single crystal elastic moduli. with diﬀerent orientations.

11 207 [10]. for quantifying how well a set of diﬀraction measurements probe the micromechanical state. only a subset of crystals within the irradiated volume satisﬁes the Bragg condition for a particular c||s combination. These crystals are 224 225 226 227 228 229 . The diﬀracted intensity from a typical polycrystalline sample (powder) is presented in Figure 2(a). Rings closer to the center of the detector have smaller Bragg angles or. 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 2. conﬁdence in both the experiments and simulations is gained. 27] The ability to obtain the average elastic strain tensor for all possible crystal orientations from diﬀraction data is governed by the number and direction of the lattice strain measurements and the method used to reconstruct the LSDF from these projections. is the variation in stress state that exists within the deforming aggregate [10. as indicated by Equation 1.4 The Lattice Strain Pole Figure (SPF) Experiment 223 Building an SPF begins with Bragg’s Law as depicted in Equation 1. During a monochromatic diﬀraction experiment (ﬁxed λ). Through such rigorous comparisons. One of the most consistent results that have been obtained from both the single crystal experiments as well as the powder tests. The major contribution of this paper is the development of a new metric. Each ring in the pattern is due to diﬀraction from a speciﬁc family of crystallographic planes. providing a new framework to investigate phenomena like fatigue due to cyclic loading. dc||s . The relative weight of each measurement is coupled to the set of orientations interrogated and the direction of the measurement in a manner similar to selecting the number and direction of strain gages applied to a sample. the rank of Γ(R). the set of lattice strain measurements that probe each orientation can be represented by the orientation space sampling matrix. As will be developed in later sections. Γ(R). larger average lattice plane spacing.

but share the same orientation to within an arbitrary rotation about the scattering vector. The overlay of the reference diﬀraction pattern (initial state) and a strained diﬀraction pattern for a portion of the same azimuthal bin (∆η ) is shown in Figure 2(b). each of the participating crystals may experience diﬀerent boundary conditions and a complicated local stress state [38]. Shift in the peaks create distortions of the Debye rings shown in Figure 2(a). highlighting the shift of the LSHR {200} peak. s. from (a). The stationary peak in Figure 2(b) is from an unstrained cerium dioxide (CeO2 ) calibrant powder. each peak shift corresponds to a particular c||s combination. ∆η. The shift in the {200} LSHR peak towards smaller 2θ is consistent with a tensile strain. (b) A section of the diﬀraction spectra corresponding to an azimuthal bin at angle. Due to anisotropy of the single crystal properties. At a point in the deformation history. and variations in the orientation of neighboring grains. The {220} peak from the calibrant powder is shown on the left and has no change during loading. Each concentric Debye ring corresponds to diﬀraction from a particular family of crystallographic planes ({hkl }s ) from either the LSHR or the CeO2 . The calibrant powder 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 . 230 typically distributed throughout the irradiated volume. To create a spectrum the intensity is integrated over an azimuthal segment. 2 (a) A typical diﬀraction pattern for a Low Solvus High Refractory (LSHR) nickel base superalloy with a calibrant powder (CeO2 ) applied to the surface of the specimen. η.12 (a) (b) Fig.

normal strain measurements at diﬀerent crystal orientations can be made for each new c||s. The second method merely employs the plane spac- 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 . the calculation of lattice strain is analogous to conventional engineering strain: dc||s − d0 c||s d0 c||s 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 ǫc||s = (2) 253 where ǫc||s is the normal strain for the particular c||s combination and d0 c||s is the reference plane spacing. Using this deﬁnition. the pattern center. Once the lattice spacing in the loaded state is determined.13 241 is used to verify instrument parameters such as the sample to detector distance. the residual lattice strain in the material can be determined by comparing to the measured peak positions at zero macroscopic load. To build an SPF. This sphere represents the pole ﬁgure surface and a point on the sphere is deﬁned relative to the sample coordinate system. and the detector tilts [1. Rotation of the sample using the diﬀractometer. If large elastic strains and rotations are anticipated a ﬁnite strain formulation describing the distortion of the unit cell might be warranted. the strain for a particular {hkl } is plotted at the intersection of the scattering vector and a reference sphere. First. By changing the sample orientation. 4]. This approach produces a single reference spacing for each {hkl } that is unchanged by the measurement direction. There are two common methods for deﬁning the initial plane spacing d0 c||s . they can be used to unequivocally calculate d0 c||s . the use of a simple engineering strain as deﬁned in Equation 2 is satisfactory. allows more unique measurements to be obtained. labeled in Figure 1. Due to the typically small magnitude of lattice strains in metallic alloys. A detailed description of basic SPF determination from loaded samples can be found in [1]. More speciﬁc information on the reduction of diﬀraction data for the SPF experiment appears in [4]. if the material has well characterized lattice parameters.

The crystal orientations. referred to as the transverse direction (TD). One of the most intuitive methods is to represent a crystal orientation by the rotation matrix. vsam = Rvcrys . s. as such. is insensitive to residual lattice strains in the material. the two methods would obviously produce equivalent results. The scattering vector is deﬁned by the unit vector s = [u v w]. For a sample with no residual lattice strain. is parallel to the scattering vector. This method is independent of any prior knowledge of the lattice parameters and.5 Crystal Orientations and Fibers Through Orientation Space 269 There are many methods for describing the orientation of a single crystal relative to a ﬁxed sample coordinate system. 265 266 267 268 2. R. Here both vsam and vcrys are deﬁned in Cartesian coordinate systems with orthonormal basis vectors. the long dimension in the cross-section. therefore. diﬀraction occurs when the normal of a candidate set of crystallographic planes deﬁned in the crystal coordinate system. which is written in the sample coordinate system.14 264 ing at zero load for each scattering vector. As described in Figure 1. c. that satisfy these conditions are deﬁned by: 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 Rc = ±s ∀R (3) 278 The subset of orientations that diﬀract are unchanged by the sign of the measurement direction and result in antipodal symmetry on the SPFs. The basis vectors for the sample coordinate system are deﬁned relative to the ﬂat tensile sample as the loading direction (LD). and the short transverse or normal direction (ND). The sample and laboratory coordinate systems are aligned when ND is aligned with 279 280 281 282 283 284 . that maps a vector from the crystal coordinate system to the sample coordinate system.

The deﬁnition of c for a 296 general crystal structure requires a change of the basis vectors to an orthonormal set for use in Equation 3. k. The lattice vectors are said to be primitive when the unit cell deﬁned by the lattice vectors has the minimum possible volume. and l are the Miller indices {hkl }. For the common cubic metallic systems. This change of basis vectors is simpliﬁed by the use of the reciprocal lattice. c = √ 1 [h h 2 + k 2 + l2 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 k l] where h. as: b1 = 2π b2 = 2π b3 = 2π a2 × a3 a1 · ( a2 × a3 ) a3 × a1 a1 · ( a2 × a3 ) a1 × a2 a1 · ( a2 × a3 ) (4) (5) (6) 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 A vector that is normal to the set of diﬀracting planes is deﬁned in reciprocal space by [39]: G = hb1 + kb2 + lb3 (7) 304 . For cubic materials. ai . a3 ) and are selected to represent the periodicity of the lattice.15 285 incoming x-ray and TD is aligned with the vertical direction (labeled y in Figure 1) in the laboratory frame. but a brief overview will be provided here. face centered cubic (FCC) and body centered cubic (BCC). it is conventional to forgo the use of the primitive lattice vectors and to deﬁne the crystal basis vectors to be aligned with the {100} cube plane normals. therefore. The basis vectors for the reciprocal lattice are deﬁned relative to the lattice vectors. Each point in the reciprocal lattice represents an {hkl } and is commonly used to describe diﬀraction. The basis vectors for the crystal frame are referred to as lattice vectors (a1 . An introduction to the reciprocal lattice can be found in [39]. a2 . The relationship between the basis vectors for the crystal coordinate system and the Miller indices ({hkl }) is more complicated.

as described previously. and the magnitude of the vector is related to the rotation angle: 308 309 310 311 r = n tan 312 „ « φ 2 (9) where n is the axis of rotation and φ is the angle of rotation about the axis [40–42]. the dyad. The direction of a Rodrigues orientation vector from the origin of the space deﬁnes a rotation axis. and I × r indicates the dot product. 43]. This line is known as a crystallographic ﬁber. Any segment of a ﬁber that extends beyond the boundary of the fundamental zone can be remapped back to an equivalent location within the 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 . When crystal symmetries are accounted for.16 305 Using the reciprocal lattice we map each {hkl } to an orthonormal set of basis vectors and normalize G to deﬁne the relevant crystal direction for use in Equation 3: c= G G (8) 306 307 In addition to the rotation matrix R. 42]. A single diﬀraction measurement corresponds to a point on the detector and. the space comprised of all possible Rodrigues vectors is bounded for many crystal types. Perhaps the most useful for computing within orientation space and for graphical depiction is the Rodrigues parameterization [40]. and ·. 42. is deﬁned by both a crystal and sample direction. respectively [41. ⊗. and referred to as the fundamental zone [40. The relationship between the Rodrigues vector and the orientation matrix R is: 313 R= 314 1 (I(1 − r · r) + 2(r ⊗ r + I × r)) 1+r·r (10) where I is the identity tensor. and the skew tensor from r. The orientations participating in a single diﬀraction measurement share a common plane normal and form a straight line in Rodrigues space. there are a number of ways to parameterize orientations.

The mesh has 600 independent nodes and is composed of tetrahedral elements. The fundamental zone for a cubic material is shown in Figure 3 with a ﬁnite element mesh overlaid [42]. More on the fundamental zone for crystal symmetries other than cubic can be found in [43]. the authors recommend [40. 42–44]. ﬁrst introduced in [42]. Any point in the fundamental zone speciﬁes a crystal rotation with respect to the sample axes shown. 335 As discussed.17 324 fundamental zone resulting in the ﬁber being broken into many segments constituting the set of crystal orientations represented by a rotation of 2π about the scattering vector. and normal direction (ND). The point in the center of the region corresponds to the identity matrix (no rotation). let us ﬁrst consider the results from the azimuthal bin highlighted in Figure 2(a). Here the axes indicate the sample loading direction (LD). 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 Fig. and to understand the regions of orientation space probed by each measurement. To design a diﬀraction experiment that fully probes orientation space. allows us to fully represent ﬁeld quantities in Rodrigues space such as the ODF and the lattice strain distribution function deﬁned in the next section. For an introduction to Rodrigues space and calculations over the fundamental zone. The scattering vectors associated with each 336 337 338 339 . each lattice strain measurement is the average normal strain from all the crystal orientations satisfying the diﬀraction condition. 3 The cubic fundamental zone in Rodrigues space parametrized with ﬁnite elements. The FEM discretization of the fundamental zone. transverse direction (TD).

it is clear that for micromechanical testing especially. it is also necessary to consider the section of orientation space being sampled during each measurement. From Figure 4.the LSDF. going left to right are plotted in the fundamental zone. With the exception of the {200}||LD ﬁber. Each measurement contains information about the weighted projection of the orientation-averaged strain tensors that fall along the ﬁber. 4 The {111}||LD.a property known as multiplicity [24]. or 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 . these are the crystallographic orientations that can contribute intensity for each {hkl } for a scattering vector near LD. Probing a wide range of orientation space is essential for determining the lattice strain tensor at each orientation .diﬀering between the {111} and the {311} by only 3o (for λ = 0. 350 The quality of orientation pole ﬁgures is often linked to pole ﬁgure coverage [30]. diﬀerent regions of orientation space are sampled for each {hkl }. {220}||LD. The striking diﬀerences between the ﬁbers are due to the cubic symmetry of the LSHR crystal and the resulting diﬀerence in the number of equivalent planes within each {hkl } family . However. These ﬁbers are shown in Figure 4. and {311}||LD ﬁbers. {200}||LD. due to the diﬀerences in the crystal directions. The inﬂuence of each lattice strain measurement. the ﬁbers associated each {hkl } are signiﬁcantly diﬀerent. for identical pole ﬁgure coverage.18 340 {hkl } in the η bin shown in Figure 2(a) are nominally in the sample loading direction . the conﬁguration of these lines in orientation space are not especially intuitive. Speciﬁcally. ◦ 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 Fig.2480 A). Recall from Equation 3.

6 The Lattice Strain Distribution Function (LSDF) 366 The Lattice Strain Distribution Function (LSDF) is the lattice strain tensor at each orientation. must equal one and f (R) ≥ 0. Here. The hope for a solution lies in multiple lattice strain measurements that involve each crystal orientation. the integral of the ODF over the orientation space. Additionally. on the determination of the LSDF (Inversion) is coupled to the region and direction of the corresponding crystallographic ﬁber. 374 375 .19 358 point on the pole ﬁgure. Mapping peak shifts (lattice strains) from diﬀraction measurements back to individual orientations is the fundamental challenge of the SPF inversion. VΩ is the associated volume in orientation space. Ω . ǫ(R). 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 2. s: Z sǫ(R)sT f (R)dR Z f (R)dR c||s 369 370 ǫc||s = dc||s − d0 c||s d0 c||s = c||s e (11) 371 where T indicates the transpose. the intensity for each diﬀracted peak comes e 367 368 from the crystals along the ﬁber deﬁned by c||s. In a powder sample. Vβ VΩ 372 (12) 373 Here Vβ is the volume of the real material. f (R) is the Orientation Distribution Function (ODF) [8] deﬁned as: dVβ 1 ≡ f (R)dR. The peak shift on the detector is due to the orientation averaged projection of the LSDF along the ﬁber in the direction of the scattering vector. Obtaining the greatest amount of lattice strain information from each orientation during an SPF experiment improves our ability to determine the LSDF.

Similar to increasing the distance between a projector and a screen.20 376 The LSDF is often the objective of the powder experiments and can be used with Hooke’s law and the single crystal elastic constants. C. 384 385 386 387 388 389 3 Measuring SPFs at CHESS Experimental Station A2 390 The {hkl }s that produce diﬀracted intensity are governed by the crystal structure and lattice parameters of the sample. x-ray wavelength. The LSDF is deﬁned within an element in orientation space as. The SPF experiment can now be described from the standpoint of deﬁning the LSDF at each node in orientation space. 380 381 382 e ǫ(R) = [N (R)]{ǫ} (14) 383 where {ǫ} is the vector of nodal point values of the LSDF and [N (R)] are shape functions deﬁned in orientation space. 10]: σ (R) = Cǫ(R) e ≈e (13) 379 The inversion process presented in [7] seeks to determine the LSDF using the ﬁnite element discretization shown in Figure 3. 7. results in 3600 degrees of freedom (number of nodes × the six components of the LSDF) necessary for the inversion process. to obtain the average stress for ≈ 377 378 each crystal orientation [3. the shift of a peak 391 392 393 394 . combined with the six components of the LSDF. an increase in the sample to detector distance while holding the material and wavelength ﬁxed will result in fewer diﬀracted {hkl }s captured by the detector. The 600 node ﬁnite element mesh shown in Figure 3. and the experiment geometry. 4. However. The LSDF can be represented with a ﬁnite element discretization over the fundamental zone.

which was developed by NASA as a new high temperature turbine disk alloy that can be heat treated to produce ﬁne or coarse grains to vary the mechanical performance [45]. The azimuthal bin size is also linked to the number of 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 . For diﬀraction experiments in transmission. If the number of participating crystals decreases. the general concept of a material point is violated.83 mm and a cross section of 1 mm x 1. which is determined from the absorption characteristics of the material and the x-ray energy [1]. 396 397 398 399 3. the allowable specimen thickness is governed by the penetration depth of the x-rays.25 mm (ND x TD). To build reliable SPFs and to quantify the LSDF. The specimen geometry for the LSHR corresponded to a ﬂat sample with a gage length of 36.21 395 results in a larger physical distance on the detector which improves the strain resolution. Each measurement must constitute the response from a material point (in the continuum sense). The LSHR material had an average grain size of approximately 3µm and the x-ray intensities measured indicate a near uniform ODF. Clearly. the material grain size and x-ray beam size must be coordinated so the diﬀraction volume contains “enough” grains to satisfactorily represent a distribution. The LSHR sample thickness was designed speciﬁcally for the 50 keV x-rays at CHESS A2.1 Material and Specimen Design 400 The SPF experiments we describe were conducted on the nickel base superalloy LSHR. experiment conditions should be optimized to produce the maximum number of {hkl }s while still maintaining adequate sensitivity for peak shifts measured on the detector. so that the lattice strain response can be signiﬁcantly changed by the addition of several crystals to the diﬀraction volume.

The x-ray beam from the wiggler contains a wide range of energies.5 m downstream from the wiggler (series of magnets with alternating polarity) where the x-rays are produced [46]. which is orders of magnitude greater than a typical rotating anode laboratory source at the same energy. indicate that idea of material point is satisﬁed with each diﬀraction pattern divided into 72. A MAR345TM area detector was placed 645 mm from the sample.2480 A) x-rays in the A2 experimental station at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS). The beam path for the x-ray experiment can be seen in the schematic in Figure 5.989 keV (λ = 0.5 x 0.2 Experiment Conditions 422 The SPF experiment was conducted in transmission with 49. 419 420 421 3. The cross-section of the incoming beam is set to 0. The complete LSHR Debye rings shown in Figure 2(a). {220}. The ﬂux at this energy for a 5. The detector has 100µm square pixels and a diameter of 345 mm.3GeV synchrotron is approximately 5. {200}. the x-ray strikes the sample mounted within the diﬀractometer.22 418 crystals interrogated. ◦ 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 .52 × 1011 photons/mm2 /second. and {311} as shown in Figure 2.5 mm2 by two sets of tungsten slits. 5o azimuthal bins (η ). The ﬂight chamber (helium ﬁlled chamber to minimize x-ray interaction with air) and a collimator (lead cylinder to minimize x-ray scattering along the beam path) are used to minimize the amount of spurious x-rays. After leaving the collimator. and the relatively small grain size of the LSHR. The A2 hutch is approximately 4 x 2 m2 and is located 35. A silicon {111} double-crystal monochromater is used to select a single energy to within a bandwidth of 50 eV. For these experiment conditions the {hkl }s considered are the {111}.

labeled in Figure 5 and pictured in Figure 6. For sample symmetry considerations. We typically conduct load control experiments due to the strong dependence of lattice strain on the applied load [2]. 5 Schematic showing the relevant components in the x-ray beam path at CHESS A2 for the SPF experiment. The addition of the loadframe. Two rotational axes are used to reorient the specimen relative to the x-ray beam. drastically increases the amount of rotated mass and the need for substantial structural members to resist deﬂection. The angular range for the rotations are from ω = [−40o to 35o ] and χ = [0o to 25o ]. Once the desired point in the load history is attained the load is reduced to a constant value at 90% of the peak value to 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 . Traditional diﬀractometers can precisely reorient small samples. At ω = χ = 0o the sample ND is aligned with the direct beam. 440 The diﬀractometer. The loadframe is capable of holding a constant load while being rotated and can apply and maintain loads of up to ± 2250 N in tension or compression at a frequency of up to 100 Hz. but do not oﬀer in situ loading capabilities [24]. allows for the reorientation of the loaded sample [47]. labeled G in Figure 6. the specimen loading direction (LD) was chosen as one rotational axis (χ) and the vertical axis perpendicular to the beam as the second (ω ). The most important attribute for our diﬀractometer is the ability to reorient a specimen during loading with minimal changes to the position of the specimen centroid with respect to the incoming x-ray beam. The experimental procedure using the system shown in Figure 6 consists of a sequence of diﬀraction measurements and sample rotations [1].23 Fig.

Due to the limited set of crystallographic planes that diﬀract and the nature of Bragg’s law.24 Fig. Optimal design of a diﬀraction experiment comes from a recognition of the connection between sample orientations relative to the x-ray beam and the nature of the relationship between {hkl }s and po- 464 465 466 467 468 469 470 . 6 Loadframe/diﬀractometer employed for the SPFs experiments depicting the relevant components. 460 461 462 4 Orientation Space Sampling 463 In this section we derive an explicit relationship between the sample orientations that are possible at each load step. A complete in situ tension test contains many hold periods in the load history (in both the elastic and elastic-plastic regimes) to measure SPFs at speciﬁc points [1–4]. for a given experimental setup there are a ﬁxed number of crystallographic ﬁbers (diﬀraction measurements) that can pass through a point in orientation space. the set of {hkl }s observed and the crystal orientations interrogated during each diﬀraction measurement. 459 reduce the eﬀect of creep during the diﬀraction measurements [48].

Our focus is on deﬁning a technique for quantifying the extent to which each crystal orientation is interrogated during a diﬀraction experiment.25 471 tential ﬁber directions. Presentation of the technique will be shown for a range of SPF coverage using the crystal structure of the LSHR and the experiment conditions presented in Sect.1 The Orientation Space Sampling Matrix. therefore to allow for each ﬁber to be identiﬁed. Γ(R) 490 To quantify the relationship between the experimental conditions and the regions and directions in orientation space that each ﬁber probes we consider a single orientation Ri . c. plotting many ﬁbers produces a completely intractable ﬁgure. and three results achieved using diﬀerent ranges of ω and χ. 0o ). To illustrate the problem. s. The experiment conﬁgurations considered are: diﬀraction measurements in the LD and TD directions only (typical neutron experiment). let us consider three sample orientations used on the LSHR material: (ω. and (35o .2. In Figure 7 the SPF coverage is shown with the corresponding ﬁbers in orientation space. (0o . As expected. An understanding of how each diﬀraction measurement probes orientation space and the selection of key measurement directions can be used to optimize an investigation of the crystal scale mechanical response. The relationship between all of these ﬁbers and a single crystal orientation is complex. we can unequivocally deﬁne a scattering vector. 3. with an elastic strain tensor ǫ(Ri ). From Figure 7 we can see that the challenge of determining the impact of these measurements at each crystal orientation is nontrivial. As deﬁned in Equation 3 for a given crystal e 491 492 493 vector. 0o ). the ﬁbers are shaded from black to gray with every other azimuthal bin omitted. χ)= (−40o . 0o ). a single diﬀraction pattern (ω = χ = 0o ). such that a crystallographic . 472 473 474 475 476 477 478 479 480 481 482 483 484 485 486 487 488 489 4.

494 ﬁber will pass through Ri . (c) and (d) are each from a single band of data indicated in (a). {220}. The ﬁbers shown in (b). The maximum set of ﬁbers that interrogate Ri is ﬁxed by two things: 1) the {hkl }s that can be measured in the diﬀraction experiment and 2) their crystallographic multiplicities. {200}. In the LSHR experiment we collect data for the {111}.26 (a) (b) (c) (d) Fig. {220}. and {311} going left to right. The multiplicity of an {hkl } depends on the 495 496 497 . 7 (a) Results from three diﬀerent diﬀraction patterns are shown on both the SPFs and in the fundamental zone. The shading varies from gray to black along a single band to allow for identiﬁcation of each point. {200}. and {311} planes. The results correspond to the {111}.

1 2 [0 2 0]. Each lattice strain measurement constitutes a projection of the e 513 514 515 tensor in the measurement direction: ǫc||s = sǫ(Ri )sT e (15) . the multiplicities for each {hkl } are combined with Equation 3 to generate a list of c||s combinations. 505 Due to the antipodal symmetry of pole ﬁgure data (±s). LSHR is FCC and the multiplicities for the observed {hkl }s are shown in Table 1. For instance the scattering vectors required to produce all six possible {200} ﬁbers correspond to Ri c where c = 1 2 499 500 501 502 503 504 [ 2 0 0]. and 1 2 [0 0 -2].1 Single Crystal Measurements 512 To illustrate the importance of measuring lattice strains in many directions.27 Table 1 Multiplicity values for an FCC material. let us consider a single crystal i of the LSHR. there are 25 possible lattice strain measurements that can probe ǫ(Ri ). e 506 507 508 509 510 511 4. the number of possible measurement directions that probe Ri is one-half the multiplicity. the potential number of measurement directions is halved. Therefore. at an orientation Ri .1. {hkl }s Multiplicity (M) {111} 8 {200} 6 {220} 12 {311} 24 498 crystal system and is deﬁned as the number of unique crystallographic planes within a unit cell that have diﬀerent orientations but share a common plane spacing [24]. with an orientation Ri subjected to an elastic strain state ǫ(Ri ). For the four {hkl }s in Table 1. 1 2[ -2 0 0]. For each {hkl } considered. the total number of unique ﬁbers that probe each orientation is limited to 25. 1 2 [0 0 2]. To quantify the set of ﬁbers that probe Ri . 1 2 [0 -2 0].

Additional measurements beyond the 25 unique ﬁbers would be replicants and could be used to minimize the inﬂuence of experimental ﬂuctuations. is deﬁned: 2v1 w1 2u1 w1 2u1 v1 7 6 6 7 6 7 6 2 2 2 7 6 u2 v2 w2 2v2 w2 2u2 w2 2u2 v2 7 6 7 6 7 6 7 6 7 . 6 7 6 7 6 7 6 7 . [ǫc||s ] is the list of measured lattice strains for the m measurements. previously deﬁned as s = [u v w].28 516 By expressing ǫ(Ri ) as a vector this expression can be rearranged as [49]: e ǫc||s = [u2 v 2 w2 2vw 2uw 2uv ] 9 8 > > > > > ǫ11 (Ri ) > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > ǫ ( R ) > 22 i > > > > > > > > > > > > > > = < ǫ33 (Ri ) > > > > > > ǫ23 (Ri ) > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > ǫ (R ) > > > > > 13 i > > > > > > > > > > > . s. For m measurements (scattering vectors) of the same crystal i. 25 for a single crystal of LSHR using the experiment conditions presented in Sect. : ǫ12 (Ri ) > (16) 517 with the unit scattering vector. 6 7 6 7 4 5 2 2 2 um vm wm 2vm wm 2um wm 2um vm 2 u2 1 2 v1 2 w1 521 522 3 (18) 523 where m can be at most the number of unique ﬁbers for each orientation. and the orientation space sampling matrix. To determine the lattice strain 524 525 526 . Equation 16 can be written in matrix form as: [ǫc||s ] = Γ(Ri ){ǫ(Ri )} (17) 518 519 520 where {ǫ(Ri )} = {ǫ11 (Ri ) ǫ22 (Ri ) ǫ33 (Ri ) ǫ23 (Ri ) ǫ13 (Ri ) ǫ12 (Ri )}T .2. 6 7 Γ(Ri ) = 6 7 6 7 6 7 . Γ(Ri ). 3.

we restrict our investigation to the orientations deﬁned by the nodes of the ﬁnite element discretization described previously. For the LSHR and the experiment conditions presented in Sect. If additional measurements are made the problem of determining the lattice strain tensor becomes one of linear least squares. then the strain tensor for the crystal i can be determined from the lattice strain measurements.1. For Γ(Ri ) the maximum rank is equal to the number of independent strain components. can be calculated for each orientation (node). So if Γ(Ri ) spans R6. Γ(R). we know that six measurements (rows of Γ(Ri )) do not ensure that Γ(Ri ) spans R6. the maximum possible rank of Γ(R) is equal to the number of 537 538 539 540 541 542 543 544 545 546 547 548 549 . six. The rank of a matrix is deﬁned as the number of linearly independent rows. Using this criteria. for each orientation.5o between the measured scattering vector and the set of potential scattering vectors for the orientation is employed. this set of scattering vectors is limited to 25. To discern whether a measurement probes a given orientation. Recall that for each orientation. a tolerance of 2. To quantify the orientation space matrix. From linear algebra. Γ(R). and the extent to which each orientation is interrogated can be quantiﬁed. The rank of Γ(R) for each crystal orientation can be used to generate a ﬁeld over orientation space that indicates how well each orientation is sampled by a set of SPF data. there exits a ﬁnite set of potential scattering vectors deﬁned by Ri c. Figure 3. 528 529 530 531 532 533 534 535 4. 3.2. each lattice strain measurement comes from many crystal orientations along individual ﬁbers. Γ(Ri ) must contain six linearly independent rows. the orientation space sampling matrix.2 Orientation Space Sampling Matrix for a Polycrystal 536 For a polycrystal. Again. a six-dimensional space of real numbers.29 527 tensor for a single crystal i.

B (Rn )} (22) . ǫ33 (Rn ) (19) ǫ23 (R1 ) .. 7 6 7 6 7 4 5 ǫp 556 (20) where the subscript c||s for each lattice strain measurement is replaced with an index that ranges from 1 to p.30 550 independent strain components. For p measurements the set of lattice strains is expressed as: 2 3 555 6 ǫ1 7 6 7 6 7 6 7 6 . The polycrystal sampling matrix combines information from the scattering vector with a weight for the contribution of each orientation to the lattice strain measurement... ǫ13 (Rn ) ǫ12 (R1 ) ..... 7 6 7 6 7 6 7 6 .. So if the orientation space sampling matrix spans R6 at each orientation. In an analogous manner to that of the single crystal example. then the inversion process simpliﬁes to a matrix operation. ǫ11 (Rn ) ǫ22 (R1 ) . The subset of orientations that contribute to a single measurement is indicated by a characteristic function deﬁned: 560 561 562 {Bc||s } = {B (R1 ) . ǫ22 (Rn ) ǫ33 (R1 ) .. ǫ12 (Rn )} . the relationship between the LSDF and the SPFs is deﬁned: 557 558 [ǫc||s ] = Γ∗ {ǫ} (21) 559 where Γ∗ is the polycrystal sampling matrix.... 554 T where n equals 600 and is the total number of nodes in the fundamental zone shown in Figure 3.. six. The relationship between the LSDF and the SPFs can be expressed using nodal point values. Here the LSDF for each node is deﬁned as a vector: 551 552 553 {ǫ} = {ǫ11 (R1 ) .. ǫ23 (Rn ) ǫ13 (R1 ) . 7 6 7 6 7 6 7 [ǫc||s ] = 6 .

To solve Equation 21 for the LSDF using matrix operations requires the rank of Γ∗ to be 3600 (the number of nodes × the six degrees of freedom in the LSDF). f (Rn )}...31 563 where {Bc||s } is deﬁned for each node in orientation space to be one if the orientation contributes to the measurement. When the rank of Γ∗ is 3600. s. the contribution of each orientation to a single lattice strain measurement is deﬁned: {Fc||s } = {f (R1 )B (R1 ) . act to minimize the inﬂuence of experimental error and enables the use of least squares for 572 573 574 575 576 577 578 579 . Γ(R). Using {Fc||s } and the scattering vector. and zero if it does not. The ODF is deﬁned for each node as: {f } = {f (R1 ) . 7 7 7 7 . f (Rn )B (Rn )} . the polycrystal sampling matrix is deﬁned: 2 2 6 u1 {F1 } 569 570 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 ∗ Γ =6 6 6 6 6 6 6 4 571 2v1 w1 {F1 } 2u1 w1 {F1 } 2u1 v1 {F1 } 7 7 7 7 7 . 7 7 5 2 2 2 up {Fp } vp {Fp } wp {Fp } 2vp wp {Fp } 2up wp {Fp } 2up vp {Fp } 2 v1 {F1 } 2 w1 {F1 } 3 (25) where the subscript c||s for each {Fc||s } is replaced with an index that ranges from 1 to p to indicate each measurement. is six for all nodes in the mesh. 7 7 7 7 .. the rank of the orientation space sampling matrix.. {f }{Bc||s }T (24) 567 568 Here {Fc||s } is a vector containing normalized weights such that the components sum to one. Measurements in addition to the six linearly independent required for Γ(R) to span R6 for each orientation (p > n). It is beneﬁcial to measure as many of the 25 potential ﬁbers at each orientation as possible. (23) 564 565 566 Using both {Bc||s } and {f }.

the LSDF value for an arbitrary orientation can be determined with Equation 14 using the ﬁnite element shape functions. The ﬁve conﬁgurations were selected to demonstrate the orientation space sampling matrix for common diﬀraction experiments where conﬁguration (1) represents a typical neutron experiment. For (5) a minimum of 10 ﬁbers pass through each orientation. 9]. The orientation space sampling matrix is explored using a range of experimental conﬁgurations. It is worth noting that the LSDF obtained by solving Equation 21 is inﬂuenced by experimental errors and additional constraints may be needed depending on the quality of the lattice strain data.32 580 determining the LSDF. measurements that produce linearly independent rows of Γ∗ can be identiﬁed. The number of ﬁbers that pass through each orientation is shown over the fundamental zone for the diﬀerent experiment conﬁgurations in Figure 9. 581 582 583 584 585 586 587 588 589 590 591 592 593 594 595 596 597 598 599 600 601 602 603 . Using both the orientations where Γ(R) is rank deﬁcient and the set of 25 potential ﬁbers for each orientation. additional constraints are necessary to ﬁnd a unique solution to the inversion process [7. The total number of unique measurements. The SPF coverage investigated is shown for the {111} SPF in Figure 8. The orientation space sampling matrix. For the set of {hkl }s measured there exists at most 25 independent ﬁbers that can pass through a single orientation. where each SPF corresponds to one of the experiment conﬁgurations deﬁned in Table 2. can be used to identify the orientations that are poorly sampled. Once the LSDF is determined for each node. increases from left to right in Figure 9. and (3) to (5) represent increasing amounts of SPF coverage obtained with the diﬀractometer shown in Figure 6. When the rank of Γ∗ is less than 3600. Γ(R). (2) represents a single sample orientation using an area detector.

For SPF conﬁguration (4). For conﬁgurations 2 to 5 the measurement positions on the SPF correspond to the {111}. left to right in Figure 8. Γ(R). 8 SPF coverage for the experiment conﬁgurations described in Table 2. 604 The rank of the orientation space sampling matrix. The measurement positions for the remaining {hkl }s diﬀer from the {111} by less than a few degrees. the 605 606 607 608 609 610 .5o and ω =-25o to 25o in six increments with χ = 25o ) Fig. For (5). If necessary the rank deﬁcient nodes could be isolated and additional measurements prescribed from the set of 25 potential ﬁbers to increase the rank of Γ(R) for the speciﬁc orientations. The results show a drastic increase in the rank of the orientation space sampling matrix at each orientation with increasing SPF coverage. 588 of the 600 nodes in the ﬁnite element mesh are of rank six. Conﬁguration 1 Description Measurements in the LD and TD directions only (conventional neutron diﬀraction experiment) 2 3 4 Single diﬀraction pattern (ω = χ = 0o ) Conﬁguration presented in Figure 7 Rotations about the vertical axis (ω =-40o to 35o in nine increments with χ = 0o ) using the diﬀractometer shown in Figure 6 5 SPF coverage used in the LSHR experiments (ω =-40o to 35o in nine increments with χ = 0o and χ = 12. for each of the experiment conﬁgurations is plotted over orientation space in Figure 10.33 Table 2 SPF experiment conﬁgurations investigated.

The upper limit for the {hkl }s measured is 25 ﬁbers per orientation. and the corresponding ﬁbers shown in Figure 7. Due to incomplete SPF coverage for the diﬀerent conﬁgurations the most ﬁbers to pass through a single orientation is 17 for (5).34 611 SPF coverage used in the LSHR experiment. The top row shows the outer surface of the fundamental zone and the bottom row shows three interior orthogonal plane sections of the same region. to the subset of ﬁbers that probe each 614 615 Fig. 9 The number of unique ﬁbers that pass through each orientation for the conﬁgurations described in Table 2 are shown of the fundamental zone. By moving from (1) to (5) the inversion problem becomes over constrained. 613 We motivated our eﬀort to quantify how well a set of SPF data probes orientation space with (3). 10 The rank of the orientation space sampling matrix over orientation space for each of the conﬁgurations described in Table 2. By shifting the focus from all the ﬁbers in the fundamental zone. . the rank of the orientation space sampling matrix has a uniform value of six over orientation space. 612 Fig.

and potential rank of the orientation space sampling matrix for each crystal orientation. 10]. we are able to quantitatively investigate the orientation space coverage as shown by Figure 9 and Figure 10 . and 720 MPa in uniaxial tension. Diﬀraction measurements of LSHR were made while the load was held at 225 MPa. pole ﬁgure coverage. the largest tensile lattice strains are nominally in LD and most compressive in TD from the Poisson eﬀect. Each diﬀraction pattern was divided into 72 azimuthal bins leading to 1728 unique lattice strain measurements per {hkl }. 4. but since the focus of this paper is on developing an understanding of diﬀractometer conﬁguration.35 616 orientation. The magnitude of the lattice strains in LD between the diﬀerent {hkl }s follows the general trends consistent with the single crystal elastic anisotropy of the material where the {200} is the most compliant (largest lattice strain magnitude) and the {111} is the stiﬀest in uniaxial tension. we focus on three loads in the elastic regime. 450 MPa. The SPF for each {hkl } shows that for the in situ conditions. The SPFs are presented in Figure 12 and for plotting purposes lattice strains are shown both for ±s. The SPF experiment is not limited to the elastic regime [1. 617 618 5 SPF Experiment on LSHR 619 The macroscopic behavior of a LSHR specimen subjected to a uniaxial stress state is shown in Figure 11(a). SPFs were measured for the four {hkl }s at the three diﬀerent load steps. The lattice 620 621 622 623 624 625 626 627 628 629 630 631 632 633 634 635 636 637 638 . Each SPF combines lattice strain data from 24 diﬀerent sample orientations. Variation in the lattice strain values between neighboring points on an SPF are not expected to vary signiﬁcantly over a few degrees. The load history for the experiment is shown in Figure 11(b) where both stress and strain are plotted versus time.

During the periods where the load is held constant. Understanding the rank of Γ(R) allows us to judge the quality of a set of SPFs in 643 644 645 646 647 648 649 650 651 . However. designing a measurement capability that would conceivably interrogate every orientation within a deforming polycrystalline aggregate feels like a daunting task. This value is consistent with our experimental data. the sample is rotated to allow additional unique scattering vectors to be measured. for each crystal orientation. engineering strain curve for the LSHR in the as forged state. orientation. 11 (a) Macroscopic engineering stress vs. the geometric predictability that accompanies crystal symmetries and the enormous number of diﬀraction measurements that are possible with high energy x-rays and area detectors have made it possible to deﬁne and easily quantify the orientation space sampling matrix. number. time for the LSHR specimen. Γ(R). For scale our load hold period is approximately an hour using the MAR345TM area detector. (b) Stress and strain plotted vs. and angle range of specimen rotation axes) has on the rank of Γ(R) at each crystal orientation. sample to detector distance.36 (a) (b) Fig. Experiment design then becomes a matter of understanding the eﬀect that each experimental parameter (x-ray energy. To mitigate creep eﬀects the load is decreased to 90% during the diﬀraction measurements. 640 641 6 Discussion 642 Upon initial examination. 639 strain uncertainty that is commonly quoted for these experiments is approximately ±1 × 10−4 [4].

and determine the {hkl }s and scattering vectors to best probe the material response .particularly for the case of limited measurements and materials with strong textures. govern the design of new apparati like a diﬀractometer. 12 SPFs for {111}.37 (a) (b) (c) Fig. Top to bottom corresponds to the SPFs measured at a macroscopic stress of (a) 225 MPa. {220}. (b) 450 MPa. better or best. une 653 654 655 derstanding of the orientation space sampling matrix can be used to select experiment conditions. 652 a more meaningful and quantitative manner than pole ﬁgure coverage. and (c) 720 MPa in tension. {200}. 656 657 658 659 . and {311} going left to right. The deﬁnition of Γ(R) now allows us to declare a set of SPFs as good. Whether our ultimate intent is to compare measured SPFs to simulation results or to invert a set of SPFs for the LSDF and eventually the average stress for each orientation (σ(R)).

and the use of Γ(R) to investigate relationship between SPFs and the LSDF.38 660 Time at synchrotron facilities is a valuable resource. The addition of each independent {hkl } increases the maximum number of ﬁbers that can probe each orientation by onehalf the multiplicity. the sample to detector distance. The SPF coverage and the {hkl }s measured can be used to identify the independent ﬁbers that probe each orientation. 676 677 678 679 680 681 . and the diﬀractometer design dictate the SPF coverage. Understanding the relationship between each diﬀraction measurement and the LSDF elevates the SPF micromechanical testing techniques to a point where the experiment can be optimized prior to making a measurement. The material characteristics. The degree to which the results improve can be quantiﬁed by the rank of Γ(R) for each orientation and the number of ﬁbers measured. and which are accessible to a given experimental setup. the x-ray wavelength.1 The Number of Potential Fibers that Probe Each Orientation 675 The maximum number of ﬁbers that probe a single orientation is ﬁxed by the {hkl }s measured and their corresponding multiplicities. For the LSHR and the experimental conditions employed. The discussion will focus on three topics: the maximum number of ﬁbers that probe a single orientation. the impact of limited SPF coverage. 661 662 663 664 665 666 667 668 669 670 671 672 673 674 6. the detector size. The addition of {hkl }s at higher Bragg angles is often limited by the size of the detector and the experimental conditions. the quality of the information about the three dimensional deformation state of the polycrystalline aggregate improves with increased SPF coverage. Generally speaking. the maximum number of ﬁber the probe each orientation was 25.

For the case where only limited measurements are possible.2 Limited SPF Coverage 691 While the maximum number of ﬁbers that probe each orientation for the LSHR using the experiment conditions presented in Sect. such as the {111} and the {222} does not increase the maximum number of potential ﬁbers that can interrogate each orientation. then for a ﬁxed 686 scattering vector the {111} and {222} ﬁbers are identical. due to time or shadowing constraints.39 682 It is worth noting that for an orientation. the impact of limited SPF coverage due to interference between x-rays and the experimental apparatus during the rotation of the sample (referred to as shadowing) can be quantiﬁed. and the result is analogous to more {111} measurement directions. Ri . the orientation space sampling matrix can be used with the ODF to maximize the volume of the material interrogated. the subset of orientations that represent the largest volume fraction of the material can be used to prescribe measurement directions that most eﬀectively interrogate the material response. Additionally. the scattering vectors are slightly diﬀerent (diﬀerent s’s). the minimum allowable SPF coverage can be established and used to constrain the experiment design. Using the rank of Γ(R) as a metric. measurement of additional higher order planes. 3. Since each ﬁber is deﬁned by Equation 3. 687 688 689 690 6. the quality of an ex- 692 693 694 695 696 697 698 699 700 701 702 703 . the number of diﬀraction measurements made depends on the experimental conﬁguration.2 is 25. Given a desire for the orientation space sampling matrix to be of rank 6 for all orientations. When diﬀraction from the {111} and {222} peaks is measured with an area detector. For a material with a strong texture. where for cubic materials c = 1 √ [h h 2 + k 2 + l2 683 684 685 k l].

a single {200} measurement probes signiﬁcantly fewer orientations than a {311} measurement. Each lattice strain measurement represents a row in Γ∗ . Depending on the nature of the investigation. rather than maximizing orientation space coverage. Though the SPF coverage will be similar for diﬀerent {hkl }s . due to anisotropic single crystal properties. Moreover. it may be valuable to measure certain {hkl }s that correspond to extreme values of the single crystal elastic response. Measurement of several {hkl }s greatly improves the rank of the orientation space sampling matrix for similar SPF coverage.40 704 perimental design can be assessed and adapted if crucial regions of orientation space are not adequately sampled. As the number of measurements decreases. As a result. Γ∗ . It is important to note that though the {200} ﬁbers constitute the minimal amount of orientation space sampling.3 The Link between SPF data and the LSDF 722 The polycrystal projection matrix. the orientation space sampling matrix for each orientation would only span R3. the range of orientations that are encompassed by a single ﬁber scales with the multiplicity. if an experiment was designed such that all possible {200} ﬁbers were accessible. the impact of which {hkl }s are measured increases. 705 706 707 708 709 710 711 712 713 714 715 716 717 718 719 720 721 6. As shown by the the four ﬁbers in Figure 4. the lattice strains for each {hkl } shown in Figure 12 can be diﬀerent. links the experimentally measured lattice strains (SPFs) to the average strain tensor experienced by each crystal orientation within the diﬀraction volume (LSDF). and for Equation 21 to be solved directly there must be at least as many linearly independent rows in Γ∗ as there are degrees of freedom in the LSDF (3600 for the 723 724 725 726 . the variation in the amount of orientation space probed is appreciable.

Such is the case for conﬁgurations 1-4 in Figure 8. Investigation of the rank of Γ(R) focuses on the mapping between the LSDF and the SPF data. have the potential to advance our understanding of crystal scale material response. 728 729 730 731 732 733 734 735 736 737 738 739 740 741 742 743 744 7 Conclusions 745 Investigations of the manner in which the stress is distributed over the orientations within a loaded aggregate. When it is not possible to make additional measurements to improve the inversion process.41 727 mesh shown in Figure 3). the rank of Γ(R) can be used to identify orientations that are insuﬃciently probed (rank less than 6). As with any matrix inversion. If suﬃcient measurements are made for the rank of Γ(R) to be six for each orientation. From an experiment design perspective. the experimental error for the lattice strain measurements inﬂuences the inversion of SPF data for the LSDF. additional constraints can be applied to obtain a unique solution. and the microscale elastic-plastic deformation in general. Instead of manufacturing test specimens on the size scale of the microstructure. When the rank of Γ∗ is insuﬃcient to determine the LSDF directly. the validity of the inversion results will still be directly linked to the experimental error for each measurement. Additional measurements beyond the set required for Γ(R) to span R6 at each orientation can be used to suppress experimental ﬂuctuations. and new measurements that interrogate the rank deﬁcient orientations can be prescribed to generate additional linearly independent rows in Γ∗ . our approach has been to “observe” mechanical tests with high energy x-rays. it is conceivable to use the rank of each orientation space sampling matrix as a conﬁdence measure for inversion results. and should be used as a guide to determine which measurement directions best probe orientation space. Measure- 746 747 748 749 .

developing the means to quantitatively compare sets of lattice strain data is paramount. The penetration of high energy x-rays combined with the availability of x-ray area detectors enables the collection of enormous volumes of lattice strain data from specimens loaded in situ . With access to more independent lattice strain measurements. The set of orientations within a polycrystalline aggregate that are interrogated by each measurement are predictable from the details of the x-ray experiment conﬁguration.42 750 ment of lattice Strain Pole Figures (SPFs) provides a robust technique for quantifying the three dimensional micromechanical state within a polycrystalline sample. A ﬁber is deﬁned by a sample direction. where each measurement represents the orientation averaged normal strain in the direction of the crystallographic ﬁber. and ND. Conventional approaches developed for the limited number of scattering vectors used in neutron diﬀraction experiments do not utilize these potentially massive data sets that can be generated. and a crystal direction indicated by the lattice plane normal ({hkl }). 751 752 753 754 755 756 757 758 759 760 761 762 The interconnected nature of the SPF coverage and the regions of orientation space probed were discussed following the analogy of applying resistance type strain gages to a sample. These orientations lie along a crystallographic ﬁber in orientation space. Low Solvus High Refractory (LSHR). and the material characteristics. Therefore. the focus of this work was to bring the SPF experiment to the level of a measurement capability as opposed to a one-oﬀ style experiment. TD. the x-ray wavelength. relative to LD. Key ﬁndings include: 763 764 765 766 – Each data point on an SPF corresponds to the peak shift from an individual x-ray diﬀraction experiment. Exploration of the experimental technique employed results for a nickel base superalloy. 767 768 769 770 771 772 .

in tern depends on the experimental conﬁguration.43 773 – Due to crystal symmetries and the set of {hkl }s observed. SPFs can be inverted directly for the lattice strain distribution function. In particular. For the FCC LSHR. This results in a maximum of 25 ﬁbers per orientation. The rank of Γ(R). If the rank of Γ(R) is six at every orientation. Γ(R). SPF data ﬁll a critical role in corroborating crystal based mechanics simulations and bolster in- 774 775 776 777 778 779 780 781 782 783 784 785 786 787 788 789 790 791 792 793 794 795 796 797 . and {311} lattice planes and the total number of ﬁbers that can probe each orientation is equal to one-half the sum of multiplicity for each {hkl }. produced from the SPF data. Sets of lattice strain measurements can be quantitatively compared. {220}. – The rank of Γ(R) can be used to optimize the selection of diﬀraction measurements for the SPF experiment and prescribe experiment conditions. {200}. – A ﬁnite element discretization of orientation space provided a list of orientations at which the ﬁbers. Measurement of several {hkl }s for the same SPF coverage greatly increases the number of independent ﬁbers that interrogate each orientation. The orientation space sampling matrix. R. is an important quantity related to SPF inversion. the maximum number of potential ﬁbers that can interrogate each orientation within a polycrystal is ﬁnite. the rank of Γ(R) can be used in the selection of SPF coverage and the {hkl }s that best probe orientation space. – SPFs from LSHR depict lattice strains that are consistent with the relative stiﬀness between {hkl }s for measurements in the loading direction. we observed the {111}. allowing for the SPF micromechanical experiment to be optimized prior to making a measurement at the x-ray beam line. could be investigated. which. which also varies over orientation space. comprises the direction information for each ﬁber that probes an orientation. The actual number of ﬁbers accessible for each orientation depends on the SPF coverage.

J. 3. Craig Hartley program manager. F49620-03-1-0322.44 798 vestigations of the mechanical response at the crystal scale. Todd J. A methodology for measuring in situ lattice strain of bulk polycrystalline material under cyclic load. Bernier. Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology. and A. Bernier. The ﬁnite element representation of orientation space employed. Park. Jaimie Tiley program manager. are part of a software package generated by Donald Boyce (deb14@cornell. Miller. Park. Revesz. Review of Scientiﬁc Instruments. and tools to identify the orientations that are represented by a ﬁber. Jun-Sang Park. The package has several example problems and is available upon request. This work represents an important step in the process of standardizing the SPF experiment in order to better understand the ‘quality’ of the data. P. Dr. 130(2):021021. Kazimirov.-S. 815 816 817 818 819 820 821 822 . Joel V. J. FA9550-06-1-0168. 2. and M. The authors wish to thank Professor Paul Dawson and Donald Boyce for their insightful comments. 2008. 802 803 804 805 806 807 808 809 810 811 812 813 References 814 1. Quantitative stress analysis of recrystallized OFHC Cu subject to deformation in situ. Miller.-S. 799 800 801 Acknowledgements The ﬁnancial support for this work was provided by the Air Force Oﬃce of Scientiﬁc Research (AFOSR) under Grant No. V.edu). The LSHR material was provided by Dr. This work is based upon research conducted at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS) which is supported by the National Science Foundation under NSF award DMR-0225180. 2007. and Ulrich Lienert. P. Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). J. 78(2):023910. 76(11):113903. Experimental measurement of lattice strain pole ﬁgures using synchrotron x rays. The diﬀractometer/loadframe was funded by the Defense University Research Instrumentation Program (DURIP) under Grant No. Dr. Turner of the Materials Directorate. M. P. Review of Scientiﬁc Instruments. Kazimirov. A. 2005. Matthew P. Miller.

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