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Studies in Cervantes. Part I. "Persiles y Sigismunda" Author(s): Rudolph Schevill Source: Modern Philology, Vol. 4, No. 1 (Jul., 1906), pp.

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ModernPhilology
VOL.IV

July,1906

No. i

STUDIES
I.

IN CERVANTES Y SIGISMUNDA"
INTRODUCTION

I. "PERSILES

When, on September 9, 1616, but a few months after the death of Cervantes,el Maestro Josef de Valdiviesso1 penned the necessary aprobacion prefixedto the firstedition of the Persiles y Sigismunda, he perhaps unconsciously gave to his opinion of the work a personal note which lends it a charm and value selofficialapproval. dom or never founi in the usually perfunctory The cheerful and buoyant spirit of the aged romancer was now no more,but he had left to posterityworkswhich were destined to become thenceforward a part of the national life of Spain. his official Addressing approval to the king, Valdiviesso says: he vistoel librode los trabajosde Por mandadode Vuessa Alteza, Persiles de Miguel de CeruantesSaauedra, illustrehijo de nuestra buenoshijos,con que dichosamente la de tantos nacion, y padreillustre Santa FA Catolica, enoblezib;no hallo en el cosa c6tranuestra y buenas antes muchasde honesta, costumbres, y apazible recreacion, y por el se lo que san Geronimo de Origines sobre por el comentario podriadezir, los Cantares: Cum in omnibusomnes, in hoc se ipsum superauitOries mas ingenioso, genes; pues de quantos nos dexb escritos, ninguno
1Also writtenValdivielso; an account of his life and writingsmay be found in Ticknor's History of Spanish Literature (London, 1863),Vol. II, p. 331; the single volume which contains his dramatic works is veryrare, but the Imperial Library at Vienna has a copy. The title reads: Doce actos sacramnentales y dos comedias divinas por el Maestro Joseph de ValdiLitteratur und Kunst in vielso (Toledo, 1622). Cf. Schack, Geschichte der dramnatischen Spanien (Frankfurt,1854),Vol. II, pp. 491,497,651,and Obras de Francisco de Quevedo ViIlegas, edited by Don A. FernAndez-Guerra y Orbe (Madrid, 1876),Vol. II, p. 467.

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1906 [MODERN PHILOLOGY, July,

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Koeppel. that the indecency is all Fletcher's own. The firstedition was printed by Juan de la Cuesta. in his Beitrage zur Geschichteder romantischenPoesie (Berlin). "Spanische Quellen der dramatischen Litteratur. Leo Bahlsen. p. Vol.128. by an unknown person. IX. II. 1619. and that of SalvA. Huntington's library in New York. I shall give the page according to the edition of Rivadeneyra. by an unusual demand for the book immediatelyafterits publication. also Englische Studien. morall. I. 1895). In referringhereafter to the romance. Geschichteder Prosadichtung. The first English version is in the British Museum. I. Obras de Miguel de Cervantes. Schmidt. When Alex. 480. 9. 592. W. n. p.the firstby Francois de Rosset. cf. at the same time. II. Vol. n. Vol. p. who had issued the Don Quixote. 37. Various translations have followed since. p. en fincisnede su buena vegez: casi entr los aprietos de la muerte ingenio. 385) in the Works of Beaumont and Fletcher (11 vols. A northern history: Wherein amongst the variable Fortunes of the Prince of Thule. p. Quellen-Studienzu den Dramen Ben Jonson's. 1904). Dyce edited it (Vol. aftera lapse of three hundred years its praise findsno echo. W. cf.p.511. 722. 685). according to most critics. 133. In the nineteenth century there were twelve editions. 2 No. A History of English Dramatic Literature (London. " On the Chronologyof the Plays of Fletcher and Massinger" (Fleay). and the second by le Sieur D'Audiguier. p. this exaggerated appreciation has little value beyond that of a friendlytribute. of which one saw the light in New York (1827).and one in Paris (1835). 1619.etc. 1844).2 and by 1629 ten editions had seen the light. and A.of Rius). Yet the verdict of the aprobacion was justified. Thus the Persiles 1A complete list of all the editions of the Persiles may be found in the Bibliografia Critica de las Obras de Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra. A translation of the Persiles into Italian appeared in Venice in 1626. 2 (cf. 2 This content downloaded from 212. No." Upon this English version John Fletcher based his play. and now last into English. Biblioteca de Autores Espafloles. fir vergleichendeLitteraturgeschichte 1893]. etc. 278. Variorum edition (London. cantbestepartode su venera(n)do To us. would appear to be well deserved.No.2 RUDOLPH SCHEVILL mas culto.. 13 May 2013 22:50:57 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Vol.' Within the same year of the firstedition (1617) six others appeared. for no workby Cervantes has been so thoroughlyconsigned to an oblivion which.ni mas entretenido. 65. 1899). I am not aware that any thoroughgoingcomparison of the romance with the play has yet been made. London. 3). making it clear. Translations of the story were made almost immediately after its appearance (cf. however.he was unaware that Cervantes' Persiles was the source.Vol. also Dunlop-Liebrecht. had been used by Francisco de Roxas Zorrilla in his comedia Persiles y Sigismunda. Vol.when eight new issues appeared.repeats the gist of Ticknor's comparison.. p.that of the British Museum.one of the vilest ever put upon the stage. and delightfull. and one in English. I. also Fraser's Magazine. Ward. V. IV. The Worksof Beaumont and Fletcher. of which the earliest printed copy known is dated 1636(cf. Barrera's catalogue.493. 5. politicall. The firstedition of the Persiles y Sigismunda may be consulted in the Ticknor library in Boston and in Mr. and this Princesse of Frisland. The title is of interest: "The Travels of Persiles and Sigismunda. The firstcopie was written in Spanish. no doubt. 1895-1905. Afterthat of 1629there was no other until the eighteenth century. 1618.129. besonders Englands zu Shakespeares Zeit" (Zeitschrift [Berlin. 160ff.Vol. The romance. L. in London. pp. II. por D. Leopoldo Rius (Madrid. pp. 363. also the catalogue of Ticknor's library.for a time at least. 346of Rius' catalogue is considered a counterfeit. (Erlangen und Leipzig. two in French appeared in Paris. p. translated afterward into French. though the fact had been pointed out as early as 1818 by F. Printed by H. p. 3 vols.) . 155). 1753. VI. 2) mentions some of the ideas and episodes which were taken from Cervantes by Fletcher.Vol. I. 180 (cf. p. Ticknor. London. L. n. Cf.. New Series. p. are interlaced many witty discourses. Here Ward says that the actual origin of the play was firstpointed out in 1875! Cf.100 on Mon. Vol. The Custom of the Country. 24. p. for M.

p. regards popularity whether justifiedor not will be seen later-there is some evidence. which was printed eleven times from 1605 to 1617. 1733). of which a reprintwas considered opportune. in 1728 an edition of the Persiles had already been printed by Alonso de (sic) Padilla in Madrid. printed in Barrera's Nueva Biografia de Lope de Vega. y muchos no tienen noticia de ellos por el transcurso de el tiempo.129. deny. quien desea dar noticia a los Aficionados.STUDIES IN CERVANTES 3 My copy of the list is printed in a volume entitled Historias peregrinas y exemnplares. etc.100 on Mon. Librero de Camara de su Magestad. The list is called: "Indice de libros entretenidos de Novelas. que no los ay. namely the Peregrino en su patria or the Novelas by Lope. saw almost as many issues withintwelveyears of its first appearance as Part I of Don Quixote. 13 May 2013 22:50:57 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .could do nothing but accept into the body of currentliteraturea novel so thoroughlyin keeping with it as the fancifulexperiencesof Persiles and Sigismunda. also the prologue al lectorof Lope de Vega's Romacero Espiritual (Madrid. hecho por Don Pedro Joseph Alonso y Padilla. that it was still a favoritebook about the middle of the eighteenthcentury. most of the tales which could have been found on the shelves of the aficionados.y con el tiempo los irk reimprimiendomuchos de los que aqui van anotados. at least. The Persiles stands among the first.or far superior to. To realize that this is the truth.Cuentos." Then follows the list which was probably prefixed to all the books issued fromAlonso y Padilla's press at about this time. Cf. and the public. Historias. 1720) (writtenby Alonso y Padilla). That even the latter class are frequentlya to tissue of extravagances and impossibilitieswould be difficult As the of the howeverPersiles.128. PatrafTas.we need but examine not only such romances of a purely irrational type as the Pastoral novels. For in its imaginative and frequently irrational character this remarkable "Story of the North" was either on a par with. or the tales of Montalban incorporatedin his Para Todos. The large demand for the romance must 1 3 This content downloaded from 212. para divertirla ociosidad.' Now. for its part. 392. and it is certain that a bookseller who knew his market would issue only books of whicha profitable sale seemed assured. but also such tales as were meant ostensiblyto reproduce the everyday life in the peninsula.. recognizing the taste then in vogue among readers of romance.and occupies two introductory leaves. Master Valdiviesso had unquestionably diagnosed his times well. which would indicate that the prospectus of forthcoming books had been compiled but a few years previous. y Casos tragicos. por Don Gonzalo de Cespedes y Meneses (Madrid. There exists a valuable list of entertaining stories (made up by one Alonso de Padilla).

que su Persiles y Sigismunda se atrevia a competir con Heliodoro. i de otros. This is an eloquent testimony to the which the former at late held the As as time. that they generally preferit to Don Quixote. que pr6digo su ingenio. and has always been considered as one of the purest specimens of Castilian writing. What he says of the Persiles combines the appreciation of the eighteenth centurywith the indifference of the nineteenth. es algo afectado. xxx of Life. through The Life and Exploits of . J. merelycopies fromthe Spanish biography of Mayans y Siscar. siendo el Tercero i Quarto Libro mucho mejores que el Primero i Segundo.' high position Cf. la fecundidad de la invencion maravillosa.. p.. seeing that this firstimportant judgment passed 1 upon the romance is inaccessible to most students. porque aunque el de Heliodoro es elegantisimo. hechos i caracteres de cada una.. p. when he speaks of the elegance of diction. It is in such esteem with the Spaniards. but without any referenceto the source: "Cervantes dijo.4 RUDOLPH SCHEVILL have justified still another edition.it has not preserved any verydistinguished popularity nor been classed (except in regard to style) by any intelligent critic of more recent times with the best of Cervantes' works.el Letor retiene mejor la memoria de las costumbres.for in 1734 the Persiles was published again in Barcelona. Los continuos trabajos Ilevados en paciencia acaban en descanso. It displays felicityof invention and power of description. substituted another biography of Cervantes. con circunstancias casi siempre verosimiles. excedib en la multitud de Episodios. 1822. I. 1742). Gregorio Mayans y Siscar. London. Fuera de esso el estilo es mas natural.129. He says: " This performance [the Persiles] is an elegant and elaborate imitation of the style and manner of Heliodorus. liv.in the importantedition of Don Quixote published in London in 1738 (4 vols. "[The Persiles] is a romance of the grave sort written after the manner of Heliodorus' Ethiopics with which Cervantes says it dared to vie. Los sucesos son muchos i mui varios.Vol. The testimonyof this upon the standing of the Persiles during the latter half of the eighteenth centuryis of interest. En unos se descubre la imitacion de Heliodoro. 101of the Vida de Cervantes. Los amores que refiere son castisimos.Vol. quanto menos sublime. I. es decir. Las deste suelen ser sobrado frequentes. que es cierto. i como son menos en numero. i bien explicados. translated . En las descripciones excedib a Heliodoro. by D. life of 1755(cf. and fecundityof in the Persiles (p.. Subsequent editions of Jarvis' translation. Quanto mas se interna el Letor en esta Obra. esta Obra es de mayor invencion.128. p.) Coleridge. Vol. translated by Ozell. Lockhart. modestamente figurado. Las de Cervantes a su tiempo. Edin." (From ed. xxvi of Life of Cervantes. also Clemencin's edition of Don Quixote (Madrid.i mas Poetico de lo que permitela Prosa . i mui pomposas. I quote fromit the following... & R. 1894). to be noted invention 1761). prefatory Cervantes).i de estilo mas sublime que la de Don Quijote de la Mancha. en los demhs campea la novedad. Tonson). entertaining incidents. The favorable opinion of Mayans y Siscar probably became known in Don Quixote . I contains the life of Cervantes by Mayans y Siscar. i tanto mas descansado. 2d ed. demasiamente figurado. I.stands at the parting of the ways. artificio. En suma. La mayor alabanza que podemos darle.. the latter does not hesitate to give Persiles y Sigismunda the preference over Don Quixote. to which was prefixedthe first scholarlylife of Cervantes (dated 1737). en tanto grado. Todos esthn dispuestos con arte. i mui naturales. London. xlviii. in his translation. in a 4 This content downloaded from 212.. mui mejorada. England chiefly by Charles Jarvis (London." Cf.Vol. proporcionadamente sublime. 1821.which can only be owing to their not being sufficiently cured of their fondness for romance. i templadamente Poetico en tal qual descripcion.para manifestar la felicidad de su raro ingenio. 1879. Pero el de Cervantes es propio. tanto es mayor el gusto de leerla. Moreover. sin mdquina alguna: porque un hombre como Cervantes. 13 May 2013 22:50:57 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .) Smollett. G.100 on Mon..much of which has been so frequentlyrepeated. however. printed by J. i contiene Personas mas graciosas." (P.. Pero no ha tenido igual acetacion: porque la invencion de la Historia de Don Quijote es mas popular. Aventaj6le tambien en el estilo. in the biography of Cervantes which he prefixed to his edition of Motteux's translation of Don Quixote.. seria milagro que acabasse con algun milagro. nevertheless....

" (Printed in Vol. vermahlt mit der zartesten irdischen.STUDIES IN CERVANTES 5 1811 Sismondi felt justified in telling hearers of the lectures which he delivered at Geneva. . Val. L. a search among German men of letters. Bestrebungen und Gesinnungen sich schwingen. 2D. Wilh." etc. scheint ntberallungebtirlichwenig bekannt. C.of De la littdraturedu midi de l'Europe. p. par J. [small] 8vo). the excellence in style and plan of the work ("Prologo del Editor"). que. Beitrdge zur Geschichteder Poesie. It is too bad that Coleridge did not enlarge upon this rather vague assertion. of Complete Works [New York. De aqui resulta que esta obra de Cervantes sea de mayor invencion y artificio. as 5 This content downloaded from 212. in his Vida de Cervantes which was prefixed to the Spanish Academy's fourthedition of Don Quixote (1819). 1813]). 4. 1802). endlich zum Schauen des langersehnten gelangend.y de estilo mas igual y elevado que el Quixote..100 on Mon. 3As an excellent example. romnantischen (Berlin. n.immerwie der Karfunkel strahlend durch die Nacht der gemeinen Umgebung. Only a few years later Navarrete. as others had done. 1). Schlegel took in the Persiles was apparently limited chieflyto the romantic or poetic features of the novel. Then the editor goes on to praise.1 He unfortunately does not say fromwhat evidence he reaches this conclusion. reveals an enthusiasm for the last workof Cervantes which. das ist die Axe um welche herum die verschiedensten Erscheinungen des Lebens. Los Trabajos de Persiles y Sigismunda. they might have been written by Aug. however (Madrid. que ha corrido siempre con la primera estimacion.. Sismondi must have known this edition. p. Vicente de los Rios (1780) and D. (p. Die himmlische Liebe. 179." etc. or Fried. 1"Le jugement des Espagnols place en effetce roman A cOt6 de Don Quichotte. 1818. Wilh.Vol. 190).128.3 lecture on Don Quixote and Cervantes. p. no obstante el notorio m6ritode todas las obras del famoso Espafiol Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra.129. y sin embargo de los repetidos elogios prodigados principalmente A la Vida y Hechos de Don Quixote de la Mancha. In the prologue to Sancha's excellent edition of the Persiles. 419. that the Spaniards rated the story of Persiles as the equal of Don Quixote. Thus it may be seen how writers who came after Mayans y Siscar did little more than adopt his view (cf. pues corrigi6 en ella las faltas de lenguaje y construccion." Cf. III. and in his Persiles and Sigismunda the English may find the germ of their Robinson Crusoe" (p. IV. Und dennoch kennen wir keinen geistlichen Roman. der sich mit diesem vergleichen dtirfte. Schmidt may be cited. and even his words. the words of so noted a Spanish scholar as Fried.says of the Persiles: " El [estilo] de este [Cervantes] es siempre propio con igualdad. but it is not likely that the large number of the editions of the Persiles which were published during the eighteenth centurywas sufficient to account for such a view.2 On the other hand. was familiar withthe high regardin whichthe Persiles was held by severalcontemporary Spanish writers. was apparentlyunqualified. The interest which August W. especially such as were under the influenceof the Romantic movementat the time. au dessus de tout le reste de ce qu'a 6crit Cervantes. y sublime con templanza y proporcion . dan la preferencia sobre todas ellas A los Trabajos de Persiles y Sigismunda.durch tausendfache Noth gelautert. sion of the opinion then current in Spain: "No son pocos los sabios.may be found an expres. Simonde de Sismondi [Paris. 13 May 2013 22:50:57 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Juan A. 274. 1871]).no doubt.while limited to those in sympathywith the peculiar tenets of a school of fiction. Sismondi. Pellicer (1797) say nothing worthyof note in the introductorymatter to their respective editions of Don Quixote. Schlegel: "Das letzte Werk des grossen Cervantes. says the latter "was the inventor of novels for the Spaniards.

while the opinion of Friedr. poets.and are consequently highly appreciative of all of the writings of Cervantes. which is the order in which Schlegel's translations are printed.2 judgment can be inferredfromthe three translations which he made of two sonnets and an ode to be found therein (pp. 1846]).. Ferd. Being Vol. whose verdicts are. Wilh. 1837). oder jener steifen und unwahrscheinlichen Heldenromane anzusehen. But Dorer's book deserves to be cited. An unimportant work by Edmund Dorer. das Vaterland. and philosophers. aber doch noch frisch und gewfirzhaftduftende Frucht dieses liebenswtrdigen Geistes [i. Wolf. Reiseabenteuer zweier Liebenden. Among the most important opinions is that of Ludwig Tieck (p. III of a work entitled: Geschichteder Poesie und Beredsamkeit seit dem Ende des dreizehntenJahrhunderts (G6ttingen. W. Vol. Studien zur Geschichteder spanischen und portugiesischenNationalLitteratur (Berlin. sein Gedicht selbst ironisch zu betrachten und itber die Unmoglichkeit der Begebenheit zu scherzen . For. He says: "Dieses bunte. Bouterwek (1804). 665.contains a collection of opinions expressed by German novelists. IV.. Ton und Sprache sind hochst mannigfaltig.p. ist wie eine Abzweigung jener prosaischen Ritterpoesie. if only because it adduces furtherevidence that the Persiles was one of the hobbies of almost everyone of the noted writersof the Romantic School. Begebenheiten angedeutet . dass merkwairdige es der launige Cervantes nicht unterlassen kann. berahmte Namen werden genannt und Die Erfindung ist oft so seltsam. Schlegel there is a sonnet (p. p. 2Cf. of Aug.etc. 55) extolling the excellence of the Persiles.633. Schlegel might be taken to voice the enthusiasm of the whole school (p. Spanien. for the most part.583of the Persiles. wird geschildert.128. 1881). whose history of of the Spanish literature' is the earliest systematicpresentation in Bouterwek's of is interest because subject German.." 1Geschichteder schOnen Wissenschaften (with subtitle). he had become one of their standards of excellence in fiction..inadequate and repetitionalthough they be. imbued with the spirit of the Romantic School of Germany. " Geschichte der spanischen und portugiesischen Poesie und Beredsamkeit." Von Fried. 45). 6 This content downloaded from 212. fast zu reife. or even tentative." From the pen of A.. 13 May 2013 22:50:57 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . entitled Cervantesund seine Werke nach deutschen Urtheilen(Leipzig. what adequate.. .1801-19). 1859). Cervantes ftthrt die wunderbare Geschichte in die vertrauliche Nahe seiner Leser. Schlegel's Sdmmtliche Werke [Leipzig.129. e. Friedrich Bouterwek.100 on Mon.6 RUDOLPH SCHEVILL In the face of this highly commendatory attitude toward the Persiles in the past. in accordance with the theories proclaimed by the school. taken from his introduction to Dorothea Tieck's translation of the Persiles (Leipzig.... 1.or by the modernanalytic scholar? In this connection it will be necessaryto summarizethe verdictspassed on Persiles y Sigismunda during the nineteenthcentury. Many of the opinions have rather the interest of a novel point of view than the value of critical discrimination. Cervantes] der noch im letzten Hauch Poesie und ewige Jugend athmete. 189.appreciation can we turn to in our own times? Could this creation by Cervantes have been treated with greater indifference if it had been turnedout by some unremembered literarydrudge? What importantproductionsby the world's trulygreat correspondingly writers-even thoughtheybe classed among their "minor works" -have been so consistently laid upon the shelf by either literary critic and historian. criticismworthyof considerationis naturallythat of The first the German scholar. seltsame Werk. 60): "Es ist die spateste.

He regards the Persiles as "ein interessanterNachtrag zu seinen [i.and is the unimportant. The remainder of Bouterwek'sjudgment is fair and to the point. has constituted chief. 7 This content downloaded from 212. cannot be determined.has none the less the meritsof an original creation. by not makingit clear that the Persiles.where the scene is Spain and Italy. 1Bouterwek. To what extentBouterwekwas influencedby Mayans y Siscar and subsequent critics of the eighteenthcentury. In stating his opinion. it could not have made the book attractive to the ordinaryreader. especially in substance.such as it is. He has become responsibleforthe sweepinggeneralities patterned after his own by other writers. but.128. but an absurd mixtureof the real and fabulous. by Frederick Bouterwek (London. does not harmonizewith the spirit of the first. Bouterwekmade a most insufficient statement. cf. As regards the imitationof Heliodorus. Cervantes'] tibrigen Werken. praise which the work has met with since his day. however. if not the only. Aberdie Idee reinsten Simplicitat. p. History of Spanish Literature.. e. einessolchenRomanswar keinerneuen Ausfiihrung werth. what follows later will show how few are the reminiscencesof the Greek romance.when he commends especially the simplicity of composition as well as the excellence in style of the Persiles.while the last half. also the English translation of Thomasina Ross.129.1 Bouterweksums up the work as a romanticdescriptionof fearful adventures with a sustained interest in the situations.that Cervantes had taken it into his head to imitate and misleading Heliodorus. just as does a new play though it be based upon an old plot. Cervantes Laufbahnnoch den Heliodornachwollteam Ende seinerglorreichen ahmen. being unfavorableto the Persiles." and he adds: habenin diesemRomanbesonders. bei der Spracheund Darstellung eine seltenePricisionund Politur. that the idea of the romance was old and did not deserve to be reproducedin a new manner.whencompared with the rest of the materialgleaned fromthe storehouse of Cervantes' reading.STUDIES IN CERVANTES 7 it contains in a nutshell practicallyall that has been said of the romance since his day. 252.p.100 on Mon. 13 May 2013 22:50:57 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . But this criticism. 1847). though it is but an old theme in a new form. 359.

5. Persiles y Sigismunda] den ganzen Zuschnitt der griechischen Zeit vielerlei Griechisches in die neue romanische Poesie Romane tragt.2 The formersaw to repeat merelythe unqualified statement that fit. No.. 404. Even Gervinus. II. XVIII.wie Cervantes' ernsterRoman [i. He says (Vol. 3). n. 4th Engl. 2The title reads: J." This view was modified in the fifth edition..aftera lapse of thirty-five years. supplied by Felix Liebrecht... 1888. 472. 3. Anzeige-Blatt ffir Wissenschaft und Kunst. 1814.perhaps.. 1900).100 on Mon. of the utmost importance for a study of the genre to which the Persiles belongs. p. In the English edition of Dunlop's work the Persiles is called by the peculiar title of The Sorrows of Persiles and Sigismunda.. so auch in frftherer Eingang gefunden haben mag..nevertheless. 5.which is all the more remarkablesince he was an enthusiastic admirer of the Persiles. The omission is. Schmidt (Elberfeld. wie spater Tasso den Heliodor benutzte. 1840). is an imitationof Heliodorus.Mdrchen .' I This work. 1857).left the opinion of his predecessors unchallenged.128. 1).Vol.8 RUDOLPH SCHEVILL When in 1814 John C. Cf.cites Liebrecht's note without comment (p. a title which Liebrecht may have taken from Dorothea Tieck's translation called Die Leiden des Persiles und der Sigismunda (cf. 8vo. 1851.." since the plural Trabajos is used in this connection to signifythe hardships of adventure. Romane. and in German Die Leidensgeschichtedes Persiles und der Sigismunda. XVIII. 2 vols..in his Geschichteder poetischenNational-Litteratur der Deutschen (2d ed. . Whereas we have extravagant praise in his Beitrage referredto above (p. so we have the same idea unchanged. 4Die Schauspiele Calderon's dargestellt und erldutertvon Fried.. p. p. however.p. Der griechischeRoman und seine Vorlaufer (2d ed. A better rendition of Trabajos would be "Wanderings. Dunlop published his History of Prose Fiction. was entitled: The History of Fiction: Being a Critical Account oftheMost Celebrated Prose Worksof Fiction from the Earliest Greek Romances to the Novels of the Present Day (Edinburgh.dass.1he appears to have been unaware of any relationbetween Heliodorus and Cervantes. Val."3 In 1857 Schmidt's early studies on Calderon's plays were incorporated in his importantwork on that poet. of latter work. Schmidt. Leipzig. e. ed. 3 Wiener Jahrbticher der Litteratur. 458and 511).. n. 13 May 2013 22:50:57 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . In 1822 the same idea had emanated from the pen of the noted Calderon scholar. who translatedDunlop's workinto German with the addition of numerousvaluable notes. 290. Vol.pp. versehen(Berlin.129. n. I. 263): " Es ist aber zu vermuthen. V. Erwin Rohde. Friederich W. in his excellent work. whichhe took. the Persiles as much fromTicknor as fromBouterwek. The remark referredto is on p. Wilh.. we are now told merely that "die berfihmteste Nachahmung [des Heliodor] bei den Spaniern ist die nordische Geschichte Persiles und Sigismunda von Cervantes. vermehrt. wie den italienischen und spanischen Schaferdichtern Longus vorschwebt. 1822.from which I shall quote fromtime to time). 3).. 8. and must have recognized in it somethingmore than a mere imitationof Heliodorus. 3 vols.. Dunlop's Geschichte der Prosadichtungen oder Geschichte der mit aus demEnglischen iibertragen. entitled 8 This content downloaded from 212. London. of. Liebrecht's notes were incorporated Anmerkungen into the fourthEnglish edition. Novellen. n. Leipzig.

) 9 This content downloaded from 212.1 We come now to the judgment passed upon the Persiles by George Ticknor. Vol.129. referring to all the scholars who completed his work: "From the results of their labors. a thoroughlyindependent or one. III (Leipzig. 274). the long list of translations as well as of editions in the original Spanish printed in Germany (given by Rius. and as regards the interesttaken in Cervantes alone.2 Ticknor's criticismis. I) is an ample testimony.100 on Mon. 206: "In Persiles und Sigismunda Geschichte ging er [Cervantes] bis auf die Quelle der ernsten Ritterdichtungen zurack. pp. where common-sense what is rational forms the only criterion-remain irrefutable. on the genius of Cervantes.p. 13 May 2013 22:50:57 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 1850.. Bibliografia. x. Wolf's work on Spanish and Portuguese literature (1859). Among those which suffered in his clear. interest. 1To be convinced of the interest and activity in behalf ofSpanish literature in Germany at this time. O. schildert uns gleichsam zur Erkenntniss den Typus dieser ganzen Litteratur." The latter idea is importaut and will be considered in connection with Cervantes' theoryof fiction. adds nothing to our knowledge. could add value. .he was temperamentally less fittedto judge some worksthan he was others. 1863). Ticknor himselfsaid. Geschichte des spanischen Dramas (Vol.or completeness to the present revised edition. by George Ticknor (3 vols.where scientificresearch and scholarly criticismin the fieldof Spanish made practically the-only proghalfof the nineteenth ress achieved duringthe first century. 1872. L. II.Vol. Ticknor begins by saying that the purpose of Cervantesseems to have been to writea serious novel when he undertookthe Perder deutschenDichtung. . whose importance lies in the fact that it is a characteristic production of its epoch. . 2d ed.it will also be admitted. as it has seemed to me. J. L. generally speaking. Wolff. Vol. in dem er uns ein liebendes Paar. and will to a large extent-at least. p. das durch ein stetiges Geffthl aneinander geknftpft und als Spielball einer gatnstigen ist. or Lemcke's Handbuch der spanischen Litteratur. as usual. p. sees no saving qualities whatsoever in the Persiles.Allgemeine Geschichte des Romans (Jena.128. Klein. which is the most importantof all. a creation not only typical of but one indispensable in any final word Spanish temperament. Leipzig. IX of Geschichtedes Dramas. London. 119). one need but consult the notes in Ferd.. But while." (Preface. von dem wunderlichstenWechsel der Dinge ergriffen GOttin. This neitherTicknor nor any critic who followedhim has duly recognized. zeigt.Fortuna. great as is his historyas a whole.p. B.or such works as Schack's history of the Spanish drama.STUDIES IN CERVANTES 9 I have dwelt thus far only upon the appreciation which the Persiles met in Germany. auf den alexandrinischen Roman.. everything that. 1872). 133if. that. in the particular case of Ticknor. it is impossiblefora historianwho covers a nation's whole literatureto do justice to every important work. or the Spanish edition by Gayangos. I have taken . carefully prosecuted .. 2Historyof Spanish Literature. unemotionaltreatment we must place the Persiles. inasmuch as it has been unhesitatingly accepted and repeated up to the present time. The edition fromwhich I quote differsbut little fromthe German version of Julius.

algunasde las historias hallado tantas invenciones servir6 a vuestra para milcomedias.100 on Mon... Near the beginning of meaning of entretenimiento the novela. Characters and sentimentswere not subjected to scrutiny." 2Printed in La Filemena. however. that the events described therein be verosimiles or credible. All that the public demanded of a libro de entretenimiento is voiced in the desire so oftenexpressed.is that he hopes to produce an excellent libro de entreand nothingcould have been farther his thoughts from tenimiento. merced con esta." Don Quixote. accessible in "Biblioteca de Autores Espafloles" (Rivadeneyra). o el mas malo.' than Ticknor's "serious"-that is. el qual ha de ser. He admitsthe success of Cervantesin this field. libro a quien dare fin dentro de quatro meses. 10 This content downloaded from 212. y digo que me arrepientode auer dicho el mas malo.128. Ex.10 RUDOLPH SCHEVILL siles. "Con esto me despido. Deo volente. ha de legar al estremo de bondad possible. Therefore. obras no dramaticas de Lope de Vega (Madrid.provided theywerepleasing or amusing. who was probablynot This. was addressed to his mistress. 13 May 2013 22:50:57 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . All that the latter says..the large majority of the reading public. Y habiendo ejemplares. in a tale written for expecting any serious psychological treatment her pleasure and entertainment. "modern"--conception of fiction. and not even a limited circle of the educated classes was trained to look of society upon a novela or a comedia as an accurate reproduction and its environment. los Trabajos de Persiles y Sigismunda.which he had leftuntried up to that time. 1. That this is all he implied can be seen from thecommon in his day. even such produc1Cf. Prosas y Versos. "Dedicatoria al Conde de Lemos.p. however.Lope de Vega tells of his hesitancyin undertaking this genre in literature...129.namely.. 1621).de Lope de Vega Carpio (Madrid. especially the women. Moreover. and which seemed to him more at home in Italy and France than in Spain. Part II." Las fortunas de Diana. y que podrianser como de Bandelo ..considered a book of fictionas a pleasant means of passing an hour of leisure. porque segun la opinion de mis amigos. and then he casts about to see what models Cervantes could have foundfor serious romanticfiction. con otras diversas Rimas. written shortly after the death of Cervantes.and then adds: Confieso que son librosde grandeentretenimiento. 1872). What Cervantes meant to produce was simply a tale of adventure extended beyond the ordinary length of the current novela. ofreciendo a V. o el mejor que en nuestra lengua se haya compuesto: quiero dezir de los de entretenimiento.

Vol. as well as to a long historylike that of Persiles (the tenimiento. an imaginarycreation.pp. though drawn froma germ of truthlodged in some chronicle or popular ballad.STUDIES IN CERVANTES 11 tions in Spanish literatureas may be said to give a good picture of contemporary life mustbe carefully results examined. It is thereforeplain that Cervantes was merely in need of some frameworkwhich would enable him to draw out indefinitely the mannerof the novela. and therebycreate a book forgeneral entertainment. and all thathe can hit upon is "the imaginary travels of Lucian. playwrights they were ostensiblywalking upon the solid ground of history. That was all he could have intended to do. In the and an excess of rolatter. oftrainhowever." longer than the tale. the comedia is one of the most important sources that we have forthe studyofSpanish culture. 3. 13 May 2013 22:50:57 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . n. To be sure. aprobacion of the Spanish version of Tatius [cf. regarding This is especially true in the case of the theaterof Cervantes'day. but the farther a comedia gets fromthat which is simply natural and actually representative. and didlogos (cf.128. n. as in Valdiviesso's aprobacion. p. 14. The power of appreciating the distinctionsbetweenfact and fiction. by Timoneda.absence of psychologicaltruthfulness mantic or imaginative elementsare pardonable and even logical. is in its ultimateform.100 on Mon.129. he would be guided by the spirit and practice of contemporary writers. Not do we find the claim of a historia verdadera' made infrequently for a comedia which." I have been 1For a full discussion of the term historia verdadera in connection with the comedia der Spanier. "serious" models for his work. cf.and the romances of chivalry. 1) had come to "2The include all prose creations of fiction. III (Leipzig. p.is a matter and were indifferent to them even when ing. El Patrafuelo. or by apacible recreacion.if definite and of are the culture the times to be customs reached. Or we find it replaced by pasatiempo and recreo (cf. those de apacible entreby Gaspar Lucas Hidalgo). cited above. It was applied to trifleslike patraiias. 1887). epistola al amantisimo lector). 21ff. 1] says it was worthyof being printed "para apacible entretenimientoy exemplo de artificiosas y utiles ficciones"). Such being the spirit of a novelist would not feel temptedto look for every kind of fiction. three or four Greek romances.just as the termcomedia included both tragedy and comedy. for the most part.but its value is frequently vitiated by the playwright's failure to differentiate sufficiently the spirit of fiction in comedy fromthat of the novela. Max Krenkel.the less it can be used as a reliable documenton contemporary life. But ordinary Ticknor is troubledto finda guide forthe Persiles. 11 This content downloaded from 212. Klassische Bilhnendichtungen term libro de entretenimiento or libros entretenidos(cf.

3935 of his catalogue). but this contains only Book I. III. The True History of Lucian is a wild extravaganza.it would be a diffithat he could cult task to prove either fromhis life or his writings read Greek-or had the time to do it. pp. another edition. Lucian may thereforebe dismissed without further thought. Trdsorde livres rares et pricieux (Dresden. The firstimpulse to write his great work would thus have come fromItaly. in which the soldiers from the Great Bear are mounted on fleas as large as elephants. Moreover. both his long sojourn in Italy as well as the testimony derivedfromhis worksjustifytheconclusionthathe was thoroughany menly acquainted with Italian. 1726). Vol.p. by Franc. which may have suggested to him the origin of Don Quixote's madness.' I have been unable to find tion of a completeSpanish translationof Lucian2 printed within the lifetime of Cervantes. Cervantes. and again in 1621. 1551). Cf. and I see no reason to believe that he could read French. 13 May 2013 22:50:57 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ." according to Ticknor. a battle between the hosts of the Sun and the Moon. Rohde. 2 SalvA's catalogue No. etc.' a satire on previous books of travel. But ter he could therefore the idea of Ticknor is at bottom somewhat illogical. 1894). Der griechische Roman. op. are shipwrecks upon islands where the rivers are of wine and the trees women fromthe waist upward. p.Studi diLetteratura Italiana (Firenze. de Herrera Maldonado. 4 It will be rememberedthat among the various experiences throughwhich Lucian and his companions go in their travels. Lucian's translated Dialogues. Trdsorde livresrares et prbcieux. Graesse.128. cit. where they meet men carried by great vultures. On the other hand. B.129. 3934. is. Lucian's works were first translated 'into French in 1583 (Paris). and. but at least seven editions in Italian half of the sixteenth appeared in the first century. 165. cf. Both are mentioned by SalvA (Nos."as Ticknor rathervaguely puts it. 1863. 3Cf. and by Graesse. Graesse. Cf.appeared in Spanish in 1550(anonymously).3 One of the lathave seen duringhis sojournin Italy. notwithstanding this fact. Bibliotheca Graeca. 277). In the absence of any specific names. however. is supposed to have had it among the fewbooks whichservedas a guide for the Persiles. 507 (Hamburg. Zumbini. a trip to the moon. who a "serious had planned romance. Vol. I hope to show in what followslater that the knowledge which he had of Latin authors could have been obtained through the medium of translations. is mentioned in Fabricius.12 RUDOLPH SCHEVILL able to discoverno evidence fromthe Persiles itselfthatCervantes ever saw Lucian's True History. on the other hand. 1634(Paris). p. under Lucian. worthy of the most careful consideration. a sojourn in the belly of a whale large enough to hold forestsand great cities.. 12 This content downloaded from 212. 1879mentions a Historia verdadera de Luziano traduzida de Griego en lengua Castellana (Argentina. we 1 It is possible that Cervantes knew the works of Teofilo Folengo (1491-1544). IV. 204ff. The influence"of three or four Greek romances.100 on Mon.

128.. and that of and Antheia. p. cit. 797) gives them the dates of 1568. pp. and shall consequently speak of Tatius first. such influence will be found to be only in the mannerism which distinguishes the Spanish prose pastoral of the Renaissance epoch. by Xenophon the Ephesian.129. followHabrokormes ing a translation into Italian also published there. pp. pp. and then in an attenuatedform. however.are so different from those of the other two that it can more easily be disposed of first. (Cf. Vol. its influenceupon literatureduring the Renaissance might have been as great as that of the latter novel. If the romanceof the faithful loves of Klitophon and Leucippe. and though it will be clear later that some influencewas exerted upon the latter by the pastoral novel.owing to the similarity of its nature to that of the eclogues of Theocritus and Virgil.STUDIES IN CERVANTES 13 may take it for granted that Ticknor meant Heliodorus. 556 ff. 13 May 2013 22:50:57 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Dunlop. 3The firstedition of Amyot's Heliodorus.1575 (Paris). such as the storyof Hysmine and Hysminias by Eustathius. first printed at Amsterdam in 1750. op. I. or whoeverwas the author of the pastoral romance of Daphnis and Chloe. The atmosphereas well as the entire make-up of the last. 517ff.' Whatever influenceit exertedupon Spanish literaturewas most likely throughthe channel of the Italian pastoral. by Chariton. published in 1726at London. Achilles Tatius..as was the case with the Theagenes and Chariklea of Heliodorus. with the title Histoire Aethiopique d'Heliodorus traitant des loyales et pudiques amours de Thdagnes et de Charicle appeared in 1547(Paris. 1723.3 but theymust have made 1 The romance of Daphnis and Chloe was first translated into French in 1559by Amyot.in a translation made by Juan Valera. Tr6sor. and Rohde. Noted Greek romances which were unknown in the seventeenth century are the romance of Chaereas and Kallirrhoe. Vol. 2Fabricius (Bibliotheca Graeca. Two translations2 of Tatius into French appeared within a few decades of the publicationof Amyot's Heliodorus. 13 This content downloaded from 212. The Daphnis and Chloe has consequentlynothingto do with the genre to which the Persiles belongs. had been favored by fortunewith a great translator like Amyot. British Museum catalogue. Rohde. I have found no reason fortouching upon the Byzantine imitations. It firstappeared in a Spanish garb anonymously in our own times (1880). 58 and 61. fol.409iff.). but it was not printed in Italian before 1643. Graesse. by Tatius. for.100 on Mon. It is not likely that Cervantes ever read the story. according to numerous catalogues which I have consulted. its influence must at an early date have become indistinguishablyfused with theirs. and possibly Longus. This leaves the works of Heliodorus and Achilles Tatius to be dealt with. I shall treat the question of Heliodorus at length in my next article. VI.

1) includes a novel.14 RUDOLPH SCHEVILL comparativelyfar less impression. and translated into French in 1547. AlcalA de Henares (Juan Gracian) 1587. III. by Amyot (cf.128. n. p.2 The characterof the latter tale.namelyin the bare outline or of a storyof adventure. supra). A Spanish version appeared at Antwerpin 1554. but it cannot be definitely proven.for during the latter half of the sixteenth centuryno less than six editions of Tatius appeared in that language. 1552(fol. Its title reads: "Historia Ethiopica de Heliodoro trasladada de frances en vulgar Castellano por un segretoamigo de su patria y corregidosegun el Griegopor el mismo. Esp.). Vol. 13 May 2013 22:50:57 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .the British Museum catalogue attributes the edition of 1554 to Mena. called Los mas fieles amantes Leucipe y Clitofonte. Vol. En Madrid por Juan de la Cuesta." Novelistas anteriores A Cervantes. I cannot findany mentionof it in the catalogues of rare books. 1598. 13. 2Graesse (cf.8vo.3 But in order thatthe nature and substance The list of Alonso de Padilla cited above (p.). any translationinto Spanish' earlier thanthe seventeenth But Cervantes could have seen some Italian version. but the prologue to Fernando de Mena's translation of Heliodorus (1787. p." The aprobacion speaks of a previous translation by another author. while the prologue by Mena says that a translation of Heliodorus made froma French version had come into his hands.gives the dates 1546. En casa de Martin Nucio (12mo British Museum) (8vo SalvA).1598 for Italian versions.Madrid) cites it in a footnote: " Los mas fieles amantes. by Alonso Nuflezde Reinoso. 3). 13. as is well proven by the aprobacion and prologo of a new translation which followed in 1587 with the title: " La historia de los dos leales amantes Theagenes y Chariclea. de Mena.100 on Mon.1563. and Graesse (cf. vecino y natural de la villa de Madrid.1550. one in Italian at Venice in 1556.n. Nicolas Antonio confuses the 3The original romance 'HALto8pov AiOLtortKie icrropias PtAXia 86ca was first printed in 1534 1 14 This content downloaded from 212. Diego Agreda y Vargas. printed in Bibl. etc. In spite of this testimony. censurada y parte compuesta por D. Leucipe y Clitophonte: historia Griega por Achiles Tacio Alexandrino: Traducida.is so similar to that of Heliodorus that the influence of both becomes more or less identical in those elementsof the Persiles where it may be noted. and that the numerous errorsand suppressions to be noted therein justified the new version which was made fromthe Latin and then compared with the Greek. his Tr6sor under " Heliod. 17. Only the Spanish version concerns us here.which appeared in Venice 1552.as will appear in another paper. 431. de Aut. trasladada agora de nuevo de Latin en romance por Fernando de Mena Vezino de Toledo. p. (4to Basileae. Madrid. n.1608. I. while the British Museum catalogue mentions fourwith the dates 1560. has one or two episodes reminiscentof Tatius (cf. for up to the time of his death there is a record of at least four editions in Spanish." It is an anonymous translation and not by F. we have the statementof Cervantes himselfthat he was competingwithHeliodorus when he wrote the Persiles and he had ample opportunity of former romance in his own with the becoming acquainted tongue. Hervag...") makes the same mistake. however.that such was the case.for I cannot find a record of century. 1858).en Anvers1554." edited by D. Bas. In a fewunimportant details framework it is possible that the historyof Klitophon and Leucippe lurked in the memoryof Cervantes. 1). Buenaventura C. Aflo de 1617. withthe title of Historia de 108amores de Clareo y Florisea y de los trabajos de Isea. As regards the Theagenes and Chariklea." The romance. 3.129. then into Latin. (Rivadeneyra). Aribau (3d ed. p. and one in English at London in 1587.

Nov. op. de Sotos (Madrid. (2) Madrid (Alonso Martin).n." and how does the term.8vo. and (3) Paris (" Vista y corregia por Cesar Oudin"). What did he mean." that is. and (4) in 1787Mena's version was reprinted by A.129. Thus in the first dedicatoria to his Historia de los de Clareo Florisea amores y y de los trabajos de Isea. escrebir esta mi obra.. 1Cf.. Owing to the growing demand for romantic novels of adventure. p. it will be necessary to dwell at length on the latter's statementjust mentioned. 1616. 3. and yet Cervantes cannot be blamed for confessing to a competition or imitation in the sense in which he would have used the word. of the fragmentary two translations (Biblioteca. 13 May 2013 22:50:57 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . differ the lifetime of Cervantes? Upon this differencehinges my objection to the unqualified dicta uttered all through the nineteenth century. Vol.of which I have given specimens above. 8vo. "no uso mas que de la invencion. There can be no doubt that the admission quoted fromthe prologue to the novelas has been the firstand chief cause of all thegeneralitiesand vague opinionsutteredabout the Persiles. Of these versions. The prologue to the edition of 1787speaks of an anonymous translation published at Salamanca in 1581. small 8vo). and as a further testimonyto the fact that he is standing on his own feet he says. e.y algunas palabras de book he had aquellos razonamientos" (i. p.128. I. 15 This content downloaded from 212. of which I have not seen mention elsewhere.having found in a certain bookstore a fragment of a Greek story.saying that Mena's version was made fromthe French and not fromthe Latin or the Greek. 380). he characterizesthe Persiles as a libro que se atreve d competir con Heliodoro? Cervantes would undoubtedly have admitted that he had imitated the Greek writer.STUDIES IN CERVANTES 15 of the influence of Heliodorus on Cervantes may be perfectly clear when we are ready to take it up. de Castillejo published a new translation (Madrid.' Alonso de Reinoso Nunez says that. In the first place. y no romanzando.8vo. 14. when in the prologue to his Novelas exemplares. "Por lo cual. In 1722F. the last two are in the Ticknor library. 1614 (Colophon 1615).100 on Mon.when baldly apin meaning fromthat given it in plied to a storynowadays. 1615.. cit. M.thoughthelatterdid not. his imritando intentionwas to be original and not to copy his model. 4to). it was employedby novelists to contrastwiththe term"to translate" (romanzar or romancear). Mena's version was reprinted (1) Barcelona (Ger. but what would he have meant by "imitation. 1783." he adds "acord6 de.12mo. mean a close and faithfulrendering of the original. 2 vols. Margarit). generally speaking..he was greatly taken with its lively and pleasing invention.

one similar in genre to its model. it seems to me.n.with episodes and adventuresnewly imagined. borrowed elementswould have to assume a new garb . proponiendose en su Persiles no solo imitar.129.or some kind of effectivedisguise-before they could be placed to the credit of the man who reinvented them. 432. could in no way the invencionor framework be considered open to censure. in a moregeneral sense.128.! The plea of originalitywould therefore be based largely upon the way in which the framework had been filledout with original material. he thinks of both in a modern sense.16 RUDOLPH SCHEVILL found). as he goes on to say. at least. amomas rososy A otrosautores no tengo pena.' todoshartomas sabiose ingeniosos And just as Nunez de Reinoso applies the word invencion in a very broad way to the skeleton or frameworkof a romance. cited above. as the Theagenes and Chariklea belongs to the class of the roman d'aventure. since he was not imitatingHeliodorus so much in substance as he was competing with him in popularityamong the lovers of romance. the common practiceof the age. would be foundsufficient to justifyit: AOvidioen los libros Cuantoen esta mi obraen prosahaberimitado I Seneca en las tragedias. however.since it followed merely of some other fiction. 1797]). los que hicieron lo mismode lo que yo tengo. porqueno tuvieron latinos. p.so also does Lope2 use it to designate the plot or outline of any one of the thousand comedias which he has invented. would imply merelyan effort on the part of the novelist to produce another libro de entretenimiento for the idle reader. in most cases the reading public was not acquainted with the innumerable sources open to a writerof romances.thewordimitar as well as invencion. Thus.when he calls competira strongerword than intitar. such imitation. xxx of "discurso preliminar" to his edition of Don Quixote [Madrid. p. In the second place.I aquellos razonamientos de Tristibus. Naturally enough. 13 May 2013 22:50:57 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 3Pellicer. 10. the passage in his novela. 2. And the latter conception of imitation explains Cervantes' substitutionof the word competirforimitar.100 on Mon. misunderstands the meaning of Cervantes entirely. and so the tendency to call that which was not exactly a translationan original story Second dedicatoria. sino competir con Heliodoro" (p.so also does the Persiles. 2Cf. Consequently. when he says: "ni el mismo Cervantes creyb desayrar su ingenio original.siendoellos privilegio de lo que yo soy.anyone should be unreasonable enough to blame such a procedure. I 16 This content downloaded from 212. Las fortunas de Diana. If.

2But testimony anotherand moreurgent reason for "daring to competewithHeliodorus" will be given in mynext paper. 1) a close imitation (in its firstpart) of the story by Tatius.leads to woefully inadequate results. 173). edited by Gayangos [Madrid.in planning his Persiles. Beforegoing further afield in this matter. also " Biblioteca de Autores Espafioles.once common upon the title pages of many of the romances of chivalry. le genre romanesque espagnol. 13 May 2013 22:50:57 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .) 1 17 This content downloaded from 212. (Cf. 134.129.so that it may be clear with what qualificationsthe words of Ticknor can be accepted. was hard to eradicate. It maybe remembered that.it will be necessaryto complete the studyof Ticknor's appreciation. for the story is patterned after the novels ofchivalry. celui des nouvelles de Cervantes] " (Critiques et portraits littiraires [Paris. p. 1839]. 1857].' To say. But it is hazardous to apply our word "imitation" to these novels in too general and off-hand a way. 14.100 on Mon.n. II. Close studyreveals the absorption of numerous ideas or episodes fromvarious unacknowledgedsources." 2This affectation. it must be remembered connection that the mention of Heliodorus was. This characterization will hardly hold. II. If we look upon the romances of chivalryas a "serious" part of the Thus Dunlop (supra." pp. according to Ticknor. and the romances of chivalryto guide him. 404) calls the above-mentionedromance of Florizel (sic) Clareo and the UnfortunateYsea (p.only Lucian. would be a further to your erudition. The influenceof the latter type remains to be considered. promptedby a certain literaryaffectation It was the fashion to mention the source of your inspirationin the formof some worthyand popular writer. commonin those times. some Greek romances. Besides.p. that Cervantes imitated Heliodorus is to say little or therefore. des d6serts. p. Vol.lest the implied imitation be taken to mean a copy of its model throughout.who represents the limit of their vision. and then unjustly adds. and the inclination which critics have had in the past to hit upon some one writer. 1xiii if."CatAlogo.who.128.STUDIES IN CERVANTES 17 was no doubt frequentlyabused. and must thereforebe made entirelyresponsible for the inventionof the story. in part at least. if he were an ancient one. Cervantes had.notably in the case of such a genre as that to which the Persiles belongs. et des ravissements. of in this nothing significance.des descentes par nier. "these words describe more than half of the Persiles and Sigismunda. 83). In the same off-hand manner Ticknor (Vol.' Libros de Caballerias. 5) quotes SainteBeuve in part: " des naufrages. ihren Dichtungen einen grosseren Anschein der Wahrheit und mehr Autoritat verleihen" (Kritischer Versuchiuberden Roman Amadis von Gallien [Leipzig.n. c'est done toujours plus ou moins l'ancien roman d'Heliodore [celui de d'Urf6.and that of some of those who came afterhim. 1876]. Braunfels says of it: " Die Romanschreiber wollten durch das Vorgeben auslAndischerund meistens entlegener Quellen.p.

18. 571if. I shall speak of Cervantes' apparent amusement over the extravagant possibilities of his romance.18 RUDOLPH SCHEVILL genre of adventure. 583if. in addition to the informationbrought home by merchants. 2Cf. 8 of Book I. or by extended printednarrativeson the other. Occasionor a has where he ally. Historia de la Florida (1605)..' In what. chap. Much of what to us seems lous event.pp.Vol. or a story of Moorish conquest. as models capable of suggesting possible with the reader. classed with been pleased to see his libro de entretenimiento books which were almost wholly a tissue of extravagant and impossible adventures.then.128.neverwithAmadis in strangeand fantasticalexperiences. 2 of Book II. to within remain strove that Cervantes be said theless. generally the bounds of what to him seemed perfectly possible. pp.plant and animal distribution.' thatPersiles vies it may. when I treat of his conception of fiction.of wonderful events which had come to pass in some unknownparts of the world. 4The increase in commercial relations between southern Europe and the countries of the far North was a steady one after the rise of the mercantile class in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. the customs which prevailed among distant and scarcely heard-of peoples. accepted legend incorporateda miracuhe does so apologetically.geography.and chap. Garcilasso de la Vega.could Cervantes' storyof 1Cf. Schack. Geschichteder dramatischen Litteratur und Kunst in Spanien (Frankfurt. the werwolfincident. 591if.which is a historyof the conquest of Florida written in the spirit of a romance of chivalry. For.we may follow Ticknor's suggestion and put them into the same type with But it is not likely that Cervantes would have the Persiles. and the episode of the capsized boat.100 on Mon.how- 18 This content downloaded from 212. p.3 Unscrupulous travelers who returnedhome afteryears of wandering no doubt found willing ears for theirbiggest tales.2 so impossible in his Persiles can be accounted forif we take into considerationthe absolute ignorance of the times in mattersof and finallyof climate. 13 May 2013 22:50:57 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . II.and so Cervantesmust unquestionably have taken the accounts about the northerncountrieswhich he describes in the Persiles frompossible eyewitnesseswithoutthe necessarygrain of salt. 29. Even among the sober historians their narrativehas at whiles the style of romance. and events in a world supposedly contemporary believe that they were taken seriouslyby Cervantes.129. The age of discoverywas now in full swing. whatever modicum of truth there may be in the criticismmade in some quarters. pp. 3Cf.and Europe was constantlythrilledby the unsubstantiatedreportson the one hand. chap. 1854).

" H. F. September. Vol. other sources of knowledge were the foreignpilgrims who visited Spanish shrines. 760ff. 1 (New York. 4. Cf. "Les origines de la carte d'Espagne. and. 164. therefore. p.128. While. 1888). Western Europe.it is logical to place the Persiles in the genre of adventureafter the stories of Amadis. neverthelessof the spiritand principles of the age of chivalry there is nowhere the slightest sign. History of the World. we must not lose sight of the continuitywhich characterizesthe transmission of the roman d'aventure from ancient times through the Middle Ages to the Renaissance. then. The Persiles is a descendant-in a greatly modifiedform-of a type which flourished in Byzantine intermittently literature(inspired by the Greek romances)." Revue hispanique. that Cervantes' novel stands withoutthe pale of any direct influencefromthe romances of chivalry. Helmolt.as these were no longer in keeping with the spiritof the Renaissance. VI. If.which flourished notably in Spain. VII. the mannerismof the latter may have left a trace.pp.a comparison between the romances 19 This content downloaded from 212.129. While. chap.chap. 1898. nevertheless it must be remembered. The chaste love and lofty ideals which characterize Cervantes' hero and heroine are part of the invenciontaken over fromthe Greek romance. La littiraturefranqaise au moyenage (Paris. inasmuch as theyformthe principlesupon which the Persiles was founded. in the firstplace..STUDIES IN CERVANTES 19 ever.pp. in mediaevalFrench literature (where we find the loves and adventures of devoted couples described.Die wirthJahrhundert schaftlicheBliatheSpaniens intsechzehnten und ihr Verfall (Berlin. Vol.100 on Mon. as in Floire et Blanchefleur.to the correcting influence of contemporaryrealism reflected from the rogue-story. adventure have been influencedby the romances of chivalry? Perhaps here and there his way of stringingtogetheradventures was promptedby his remembranceof the many tales which he had read years before. Gaston Paris.Partdnopeus de Blois. the romance of chivalry. 1890). 1902)." Cosmopolis. as well as. 81 ff.' and in the offspring the latter class. "Industrie und Handel. no matterhow far the romance deviated fromthe prototypewhich inspired it.that it was subject to the influence of the in affected its turn by the Italian contemporarylove-story. etc. 1Cf.or the soldiers who returned from campaigns in distant lands.). therefore. But in spite of the wide breach which separates the romancesof chivalryfromthe Persiles. Aucassin et of Nicolette. Part I. Gabriel Marcel. third. novella and the revived Greek romance. "Le roman d'aventure. second. 13 May 2013 22:50:57 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .they could not be greatly modified. Konrad HAbler.

In the case of the Persiles. As regards occasional episodes.factorin the long career of the roman d'aventure.129. of.and the .100 on Mon.128. 13 May 2013 22:50:57 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . the influenceof the A. of course. "Sinbad the Sailor" (probably of ancient Indian or Persian origin. and even then the comparison holds only with the firsthalf of the Persiles. 191ff. an examination of all the books of chivalryknownto Cervantes would probably bring to light more resemblances than I have been able to find hitherto.had thereforegrown to be a potent. into which it only enters fromtime to time. ence of travel by land and sea.).Eneid. Apart from the classics. pp.even though frequentlya rather indirect. Rohde. the Herein also we have as the main thememanifoldexperiA. a machineryof adventurein the germ. Der griechischeRoman.and will thereforebe treated in a separate chapter. First.while the second part moves entirely among known customs and peoples. had been incorporatedin various guises into many a literary creation before the epoch of Cervantes.and this will be shownto be the fact in a treatment of some of Cervantes' classical sources.Cervantescould have found further suggestionsforthe make-up of a libro de entretenimiento IIn these earliest stories of adventure.specificallyemanating fromthe AXneid. however.20 RUDOLPH SCHEVILL of chivalryand the Persiles is admissible.neid is marked.by growing with the succeeding ages.not likely that the theme of adventure would be exhausted by a writerof the Renaissance withoutample reminiscences fromother ancientworks.and quite direct. there were the Greek and Latin classics. and theycertainly affected the writers of the Renaissance most. it is so only because both are loosely constructedstories of adventure. however. But there were other serious workswhich Ticknor overlooked. such as the Odyssey.neid. and among the first fromthe great Latin roman d'aventure. it is noteworthythat the occasional episodes in which love plays an important part leave the strongest impression.which had come down fromHomer and which. we shall detect an occasional reminiscencefromthem. which has an imaginaryworld as a background. 20 This content downloaded from 212. In the case of the Eneid. the theme of love plays only an insignificantrole compared with the action of the whole. It is. and if we examine the Persiles. however. and withwhichCervanteswas acquainted as one is with all standard creationswhichformpart of one's education and blood. But the tendencyto detect these with frequencymust be guarded against until substantiatedby a more thoroughinvestigation.' The influenceof the machineryof adventure.

461. Vol. Warton. 325. In addition to the serious vein of the Peregrino. The ways by which oriental tales and bits of folklorecould penetrate into Europe were many.2 Moreover. owing to his long and forced sojourn in an orientalenvironment-is more difficultto determine. Schack. etc. 1895). Take. Les fabliaux. (Paris. La litteraturefrangaise au moyen dge (Paris. Poesie und Kunst der Araber (Stuttgart. Gaston Paris. Romania. must be evident to everyoneacquainted with Spain and her history.128. 1877).STUDIES IN CERVANTES 21 of the adventuretype. History of English Poetry. 13 May 2013 22:50:57 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . there was the lighter and more realistic rogue-story.Introduction. for instance. The main difficulty.but those of Andalusia also.miraculousescapes. p. the Peregrino en su patria. Groeber. and consequently any possible similarityhas been overlooked. chaps. Joseph B6dier. however. For it is also the historyof a young couple who reach their goal only after numerousshipwrecks. the residue of Moorish influence is most difficultto determine. In the field of fiction. LII (1887). To what extent the adventure genre in Spanish was influencedby Moorish tales-which Cervantes must have knownbetter than anyone else. p. on the versions of a single tale carried by Arabs into Spain and thence into France. II. not only of Africa. Gast. but in finding the time as well as the channels of their transmission fromone people to another. 81. among the novelists of his own people and century. ed. probably narrated stories of travel and adventure after the mannerof "Sinbad's Voyages. 1871).however. 1). There was." Deutsche Rundschau. Estudios de critica literaria." If we are to adopt Rohde's view (p. which representa typeof adventurestorythe spirit of which is reflected in no small part of the worksof Cervantes. 62. here is a tale which might have come from India through a Persian intermediaryinto 21 This content downloaded from 212. for example.' by Lope de Vega. Men6ndez y Pelayo. 9tude de litt6raturepopulaire. pp. Vol. Most writersof authorityare consequently agreed in believing in the communication of a large number of oriental stories through oral transmission."Influencias semiticas. Lope may have taken his themefromHeliodorus as well as Cervantes. notably the various parts of Lazarillo de Tormes and the Guzman de Alfarache. XXVII. 1897).because of the complete lack of satisfactorydocumentaryevidence. and belonging to the same kind of story.from earliest times throughthe Renaissance. 1890).though of a lower degree in the quality of imaginationbetrayed. only he did not say so.100 on Mon. on Spanish Literature. and strange chance reunions. the storyof "Sinbad the Sailor. Aug. 2That the close contact of oriental and Christian civilizations in Spain during many centuries was of enormous influenceupon the latter. Indeed.129. 13 and 14." and other tales incorporatedinto the Arabian Nights. Cf. 20. published only some ten years before the Persiles. Paris. "Die Marchen 1001Nacht. 108. in many peculiarities of her social and family life that such was the case. 381if.Vol. p. 2a serie (Madrid. 1893). p.Vol. 92.par. II. Hazlitt (London." pp. Miiller. yet the Moors. 111. the numerous contemporary historiesabout the various voyages of discoveryare of value in a 1Cf. Grundriss der romanischen Philologie (Strassburg. It is manifesteven today.n.lies not only in establishing the character of the original germs of stories. chapter by Baist.

128.herausg.100 on Mon.). When all is said and done. with his customarysobriety. As regards the large body of material which Cervantes gleaned from everywhereto fill out the frameworkof his storyof adventure. 101ff. printed in Vol." and finally. op.some of the apparent characteristicsof the romance. Ticknor hardly advances the study of the Persiles much beyond the position in which it was left by his predecessors. therefore. whence it would be easy to believe that the whole or a part could have been carried into Europe at various periods of the Middle Ages. XVIII of the Litterarhistorische Forschungen. Since Ticknor's day nothing has been done which makes for a worthierappreciation of the Persiles. in the hope that it. 1To give an example of the persistencewith which his opinions are copied by those who know nothingof Spanish at firsthand. H. mention may be made of a study by Michael Oeftering. of the source which inspired the Persiles. Bibliographie des arabes ceuvres [Libge.of either the Arabian Nights or Sinbad's travels has yet been discovered. for all that is said of the Persiles is taken almost verbatim fromTicknor and Bouterwek. I. small though it be. his finalattitudeon various subjects. 1901).political.' If we were to select.578. Cf. its numerous sources will be discussed in due time. 25.)say nothing satisfactoryon this interestingquestion of Sinbad's travels and their influencein European literature.. 1903]. while such works as I have been able to consult (mentioned in V. ffar but without any originality whatsoever. Thus much then may be said in behalf of some additional guides. either of a literary. the verdict of Ticknor can be summedup in a general disapprobation. He mentions. pp.129. cit. and mighthave been communicated by the Arabs to their neighbors in southern Italy and Sicily. hints about the nature of Cervantes' travel experiences. pp. p. Geschichtedes franzOsischenRomans im siebzehnten Jahrhundert(Oppeln und Leipzig. one read with some frequency.but he fails to see that the Persiles is an inexhaustiblesource from which may be derived valuable biographical details.his manifoldreading.as usual. 1891). In the latest edition of his history 22 This content downloaded from 212. 1 ff. at least. 568.Vol."amidst the multitude with which this wild workis crowded. or to the Spaniards in the Peninsula. among latter-daybooks on Cervantes. Finally. especially for the outline of the Persiles. In this uncritical work. 13 May 2013 22:50:57 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .qualified by a measure of praise for the astonishing imaginationdisplayed by Cervantesin this romanceof his old age. Koerting. VII. however. entitled "Heliodor und seine Bedeutung die Litteratur. No early Spanish version. or social nature-all of which is so indispensable in the study of his peculiar type of genius. says practically what Bouterwek had said. for an occasional graceful story." a few pages are devoted to the Spanish side of the question (pp. It was also adopted into Arabic literature. or Wolff's Geschichtedes Romans. Chauvin. von Schick und Waldberg (Berlin. Vol. and appear to have formeda part. also Rohde. might present something Greece.22 RUDOLPH SCHEVILL study of Cervantes' learning. for the careful finishof the style.

The review of the book in the Revue hispanique forthe same year is by Fitzmaurice-Kelly and. for it is a work writtenby one who has devotedlygiven many years to the study and translationof the Spanish novelist.pp. and the true place of a great man be established.which is but the measure of immortality granted to the children of fame. 221 ff.STUDIES IN CERVANTES 23 as the Persiles.-K. since it deals of Spanish literature in French (Littrature espagnole.129.or tion. rather personal than literary. [the Persiles] bears on its face but too palpable traces of its birth.240. and Ch.of greater value than the Persiles. The only interest it has is a pathetic one. Cf.and only displays a greaterfinish includingWatts himself.specificallyliterary. none." Without discussing the difference popularity-in which sense the word is used here-and ultimate position in literature. 1895). while just. F. Fitzmaurice-Kelly. says. 249). a new edition. Black.pp. speaking of the Galatea: "sauf peut-Otre dans le Persiles y Sigismunda Cervantes n'6crivit jamais avec un plus conscient effortvers la perfection" (p." We are told also that the book is a return to the style of artificialromance which Cervantes had exploded in the Don Quixote. 228). 1904)Mr.all but one have perished. Watts continues: "written in Cervantes' old age. if we are willing to overlooksuch worksof his as have had no sustained popularity. in style. 1Miguel de Cervantes: His Life and Works. 1898). the biographyof of so importantan effort worthy Cervantes by Henry Edward Watts would perhaps suggest itself first. traduction de H-D." etc.100 on Mon. indeed. and of the Persiles he says: "cette oeuvre de manibre et de vis6es ambitieuses n'a pas reussi h int6resser malgr6 ses aventures et ses boutades. 23 This content downloaded from 212. How does Watts view the Persiles aftera lapse of three hundred years. Theagenes and Chariklea. Or are we. also English edition (New York. 13 May 2013 22:50:57 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Davray. Paris. is somewhat severe. in whose long perspectivethe romance has had the time to findits proper place ? The biographer of Cervantes' begins with the uncritical statementthat "of the worksabout which in his last days Cervantes showed so much anxiety. 219. according to all critics.by Henry Edward Watts. probably withoutany great loss to the author's reputabetween reputation.one may ask how the latter can be duly metedout." And yet no work of Cervantesshows a more vigorous gift of imagination. the Don Quixote has an interest. to look upon it as of a doddering old man? We the last "pathetic" performance that "the storyis in professedimitationof the hear. par J. furthermore.128. (p. revised and enlarged (London: Ad." and that "it is only just to say that it is equal to its model-quite as dull and tedious.

that this most insipid Watts closes by expressinghis astonishment of Cervantes' worksshould have come fromthe same hand which wroteDon Quixote-a circumstance almostincredible. for a wholly fictitious romance. among others of that name. however. Spanish as well as foreign.395. A r6sum6of what has been said and done to further an adequate appreciationof the last than that long work of Cervantes." incidentally it will become evident fromthis article how common the name "Maurice" was in that family. Mainez. by Rius may be gathered how few and how unimportant are the criticisms and opinions which have been expressed on the Persiles during several centuries. This ponderous work is an indigesta moles. is a specimen of the more unfortunate type." range and diversity ample proof extraordinary In view of the monotonousrepetitions ofthe criticismsalready given. Hume. the monstrous tome of D.382.it cannot but appear unusually strange that any which can aid us to understandthe genius knowledgewhatsoever.pp.24 RUDOLPH SCHEVILL with a life that was never led.tells us hardly more. forexample.307.129. in which all characters go under an absurd nomenclature.who perished (1579)in the Irish Rebellion in which Philip II of Spain played an important part. op.59.1and several other sweeping generalities. Cervantes. Cf. cit. Cf.128. laughs at Cervantes forgiving the name " Mauricio" (Maurice) to a familysprung " froman island in the neighborhoodof Ibernia " (p."had we not of the of his powers. especially pp.46. 24 This content downloaded from 212. 2The latest life of Cervantes. in which authentic documents alternate with uncontrolled bursts of extravagant praise. of the foremostof Spaniards. huge 4to). Cervantes y su 6poca (J6rez y Madrid.the name " Mauricio" is not bad foran Irishman.140. Count Desmond's nephew. 577of the Persiles).to one who realizes the innumerableelements which must have contributedto the make-up of the mind of a Cervantes. genre of romancein the midst of whichit grew. no doubt. 235ff. should have been so persistently disregarded. Espaffoles6 Ingleses en el siglo xvi (Madrid and London. YALE UNIVERSITY RUDOLPH SCHEVILL 1Watts.the modicumof the truthof which is concealed or distortedby a failure to see the virtues or of the Persiles in theirproperrelationswiththe the shortcomings as as the well age. If we make due allowance. of little scientific value. it is at best an imitationof Heliodorus written in a polished style.100 on Mon. Cf. while the most unfavorableverdictwould seem to call it a gratuito a type of romancewhich had long beforeseen tous contribution its day. 1901-3. by people who could not exist.therefore. Ram6n L. III of the Bibliografia critica. had heard of James Fitzmaurice. Especially fromVol.107. Consequently. 13 May 2013 22:50:57 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 64. it would be of no value to add to their generalities the opinions of various Spanish writers2whose uncriticalenthusiasm for Don Quixote has leftno room for any scholarly consideration of the literaryimportanceof the Persiles. 1903).. also Dictionary of National Biography under "James Fitzmaurice Fitzgerald.