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DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS
(MA2211)
TRANSFORMS AND PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
FOR
THIRD SEMESTER ENGINEERING STUDENTS
ANNA UNIVERSITY SYLLABUS (R-2008-2009)
This text contains some of the most important short-answer (Part A) and long- answer
questions (Part B) and their answers. Each unit contains 30 university questions. Thus, a
total of 150 questions and their solutions are given. A student who studies these model
problems will be able to get pass mark (hopefully!!).
Prepared by the faculty of Department of Mathematics
AUGUST, 2009
P.S.R.ENGINEERINGCOLLEGE, SIVAKASI 626 140
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UNIT I FOURIER SERIES
PART – A
Problem 1 Write the formula for finding Euler’s constants of a Fourier series in ( 0, 2t ).
Solution:
Euler’s constants of a Fourier series in ( 0, 2t ) is given by
( )
( )
( )
2
0
0
2
0
2
0
1
1
cos
1
sin
n
n
a f x dx
a f x nxdx
b f x nxdx
t
t
t
t
t
t
=
=
=
}
}
}
Problem 2 Write the formula for Fourier constants for f(x) in the interval ( ) , t t ÷ .
Solution:
( )
( )
( )
0
1
1
cos
1
sin
n
n
a f x dx
a f x nxdx
b f x nxdx
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
÷
÷
÷
=
=
=
}
}
}
Problem 3 Find the constant a
0
of the Fourier series for the function f(x) = k , 0 2 x t s s .
Solution:
( )
( )
2
0
0
2
0
2
0
1
1
1
2
a f x dx
kdx
kx
k
t
t
t
t
t
t
=
=
=
=
}
}
Problem 4 If f(x) = e
x
in x t t ÷ < < , find a
n
.
Solution:
1
cos
x
n
a e nxdx
t
t
t
÷
=
}
( )
2
1
cos sin
1
x
e
nx n nx
n
t
t
t
÷
¦ ¹
= +
´ `
+
¹ )
3
( ) ( )
2 2
1
1 1
1 1
n n e e
n n
t t
t
÷
¦ ¹
= ÷ ÷ ÷
´ `
+ +
¹ )
( )
( )
{ }
2
1
1
n
n
a e e
n
t t
t
÷
÷
= ÷
+
.
Problem 5 Write the formula’s for Fourier constants for f(x) in (c, c+2l).
Solution:
( )
( )
( )
2
0
2
2
1
1
cos
1
sin
c
c
c
n
c
c
n
c
a f x dx
a f x nx dx
b f x nx dx
+
+
+
=
=
=
}
}
}






Problem 6 Write the formulas for Fourier constants for f(x) in (-l, l).
Solution:
( )
( )
( )
0
1
1
cos
1
sin
n
n
a f x dx
a f x nx dx
b f x nx dx
÷
÷
÷
=
=
=
}
}
}









Problem 7 What is the sum of Fourier series at a point x = x
0
, where the function f(x) has a
finite discontinuity ?
Solution:
Sum of the Fourier series at
0
x x = is
( ) ( )
0 0
2
f x f x
+ ÷
+
Problem 8 If
t | |
= ÷ ÷ ÷ · ÷
|
\ .
2
2
2 2 2
cos cos2 cos3
4 .......... (1)
3 1 2 3
x x x
x to
in x t t ÷ s s , find
2 2 2
1 1 1
.............
1 2 3
to + + + ·.
Solution:
Put
2
x
t
= a point of continuity
2 2
2 2
1 1
(1) 4 ........
4 3 1 2
t t ¦ ¹
¬ = ÷ + +
´ `
¹ )
4
2 2
2 2
1 1
4 .......
4 3 1 2
t t ¦ ¹
¬ ÷ = ÷ + + ·
´ `
¹ )
2
2 2
1 1 1
. .......
12 4 1 2
t ÷
= + + ·
÷
2
2 2 2
1 1 1
.....
1 2 3 48
t
+ + + · =
Problem 9 Check whether the function is odd or even, where f(x) is defined by
( )
2
1 0
2
1 0
x
x
f x
x
x
t
t
t
t
¦
+ ÷ < <
¦
¦
=
´
¦
÷ < <
¦
¹
Solution:
( )
( )
( )
2 2
0, 1 1 , 0
x x
For x f x f x where x t t
t t
÷
÷ < < ÷ = + = ÷ = < <
( ) f x ¬ is an even function.
Problem 10 When an even function f(x) is expanded in a Fourier series in the interval
x t t ÷ < < , show that b
n
= 0.
Solution:
( )
1
sin
n
n
n
b f x nxdx
n
÷
=
}
Given ( ) f x is even and
sin nx is odd function
even X odd = odd. Therefore ( )sin f x nx is odd function.
( )
1
sin
n
b f x nx dx
t
t
t
÷
=
}
= 0.
Problem 11 Find the Fourier constant b
n
for x sin x in x t t ÷ < < , when expressed as a
Fourier series.
Solution:
( )
( ) ( )
( )
sin
sin
sin
f x x x
f x x x
x x f x
=
÷ = ÷ ÷
= =
Here ( ) f x is an even function
0
n
b =
Problem 12 If f(x) is a function defined in 2 2 x ÷ s s , what is the value of b
n
?
Solution:
5
( )
2
2
1
sin
2 2
n
n x
b f x dx
t
÷
=
}
Problem 13 Explain half range cosine series in ( ) 0,t .
Solution:
Half range cosine series in ( ) 0,t is given by
( )
0
1
cos
2
n
a
f x a nt
·
= +
¿
( )
0
0
2
a f x dx
t
t
=
}
( )
0
2
cos
n
a f x nxdx
t
t
=
}
Problem 14 Find the sine series of f(x) = k in ( ) 0,t .
Solution:
( )
1
sin
n
f x b nx
·
=
¿
0
2
sin
n
b k nxdx
t
t
=
}
0
2 cos k nx
n
t
t
¦ ¹
= ÷
´ `
¹ )
( ) 1 1 2
n
n
k
b
n t
¦ ¹
÷ ÷
¦ ¦
=
´ `
¦ ¦
¹ )
( )
( )
1
1 1 2
sin
n
k
f x nx
n t
·
(
÷ ÷
= (
(
¸ ¸
¿
.
Problem 15 Write Parseval’s formula in the interval ( ) , 2 c c n + .
Solution:
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
2
2 2 0
1
1 1
2 4 2
c
n n
c
a
f x dx a b
t
t
+
·
= + +
¿
}
PART – B
Problem 16 If ( )
2
2
x
f x
t ÷ | |
=
|
\ .
in 0 2 x t < < . Hence show that
(a)
2
2 2 2
1 1 1
.............
1 2 3 6
t
+ + + = .
(b)
2
2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1
...
1 2 3 4 12
t
÷ + ÷ + = .
6
Solution:
We know that
( ) ( )
0
1
cos sin
2
n n
a
f x a nx b nx
·
= + +
¿
2 2
0
0
1
2
x
a dx
t
t
t
÷ | |
=
|
\ .
}
( )
2
2
0
1
4
x dx
t
t
t
= ÷
}
( )
( )
3
1
4 3
x t
t
| |
÷
= |
|
÷
\ .
3 3 2
1
4 3 3 6
t t t
t
| | ÷
= + =
|
÷
\ .
2
2
0
1
cos
n
x
a nxdx
t
t
t o
÷ | |
=
|
\ .
}
( )
2
2
0
1
cos
4
x nxdx
t
t
t
= ÷
}
( ) ( )
2
2
2 3
0
1 sin cos sin
2 2
4
nx nx nx
x x
n n n
t
t t
t
¦ ¹ | ÷ | | ÷ | | | | |
= ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ +
´ `
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ . ¹ )
2 2
1 cos 2 2
0 2 0 0
4
n
n n
t t
t
t
(
= + + ÷ +
(
¸ ¸
2 2
1 4 1
4 n n
t
t
(
= =
(
¸ ¸
( )
2
2
0
1
sin
4
n
b x nxdx
t
t
t
= ÷
}
( ) ( ) ( )
2
2
2 3
0
1 cos sin cos
2 2
4
nx nx nx
x x
n n n
t
t t
t
( ÷ | ÷ | | | | | | | | |
= ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ +
( | | | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ . \ . ¸ ¸
2 2
3 3
1 2 2
0
4 n n n n
t t
t
(
= ÷ + + ÷ =
(
¸ ¸
( )
2
2
1
1
cos .
12
f x n x
n
t
·
= +
¿
( )
2
2 2
1 1
cos cos .... 1
12 1 2
x x
t | |
= + + + ÷
|
\ .
0 Put x =
( ) ( )
2
2 2
1 1
0 ... 2
12 1 2
f
t | |
= + + + ÷
|
\ .
0 x = is a pt of discontinuity.
7
( )
2 2 2
1
0
2 4 4 4
f
t t t | |
= + =
|
\ .
( )
2 2
2 2
1 1
2 ...
4 12 1 2
t t | |
=> = + + +
|
\ .
2 2
2 2
1 1
......
4 12 1 2
t t
÷ = + + ·
2
2 2
1 1
.....
1 2 6
t
+ + · =
Put x t = in (1)
( )
( )
( )
2
2
1
1
3
12
n
f x
n
t
·
÷
= + ÷
¿
Here t is a pt of continuity.
( ) 0. f t =
( )
2
2 2 2
1 1 1
3 0 .....
12 1 2 3
t
=> = ÷ + ÷ + ·
2
2 2 2
1 1 1
.....
12 1 2 3
t
÷ = ÷ + ÷ + ·
2
2 2 2
1 1 1
.....
12 1 2 3
t
÷ = ÷ + + ·
Problem 17 Find the Fourier series of f (x) = xsin x in 0 2 x t < < .
Solution:
( ) ( )
0
1
cos sin
2
n n
a
f x a nx b n x
·
= + +
¿
2
0
0
1
sin a x x dx
t
t
=
}
( ) ( )( ) ( )
{ }
( ) ( )
2
0
1 1
cos 1 sin 2 1 2 x x x
t
t
t t
= ÷ ÷ ÷ = ÷ = ÷
2
0
1
sin sin
n
b x x nxdx
t
t
=
}
( ) ( ) { }
2
0
1
cos 1 cos 1
2
x n n dx
t
t
= ÷ ÷ +
}
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
2
cos 1 sin 1 1
1
2 1
1
n x n x
x
n
n
t
| |
¦ ÷ ÷ ÷ | |
¦
= ÷ |
´ |
|
÷
÷ ¦ \ . ¹
\ .
( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2
0
sin 1 cos 1
1
1
1
n x n x
x
n
n
t
¹ | |
+ + | |
¦
÷ ÷ ÷ |
` |
|
+
+
\ . ¦
\ .)
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1 1
2 1
1 1 1
n
n n n
t
¦ ¹
¦ ¦
= ÷ + ÷
´ `
+
÷ ÷ +
¦ ¦
¹ )
0 1 n = =
8
2
1
0
1
sin sin b x x x dx
t
t
=
}
2
2
0
1
sin x x dx
t
t
=
}
( )
2
0
1 cos 2 1
2
x
x dx
t
t
÷
=
}
( )
2
2
0
1 sin 2 cos 2
1
2 2 2 4
x x x
x
t
t
¦ ¹ ÷ | | | |
= ÷ +
´ `
| |
\ . \ .
¹ )
2
1 4
0 0
2 2
t
t
t
¦ ¹
= + + =
´ `
¹ )
2
0
1
sin cos
n
a x x nx dx
t
t
=
}
( ) ( ) { }
2
0
1
sin 1 sin 1
2
x n x n x dx
t
t
= + ÷ ÷
}
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2 2
0
cos 1 sin 1 cos 1 sin 1
1
1 1
2 1 1
1 1
n x n x n x n x
x x
n n
n n
t
t
¦ ¹ | | | | | |
| | ÷ + + ÷ ÷ ÷ | |
¦ ¦
| = ÷ ÷ ÷ + ÷ | |
| ´ ` |
|
| | | + ÷
+ ÷
\ . \ . ¦ ¦
\ . \ . \ . ¹ )
1 2 2
2 1 1 n n
t t
t
÷ ¦ ¹
= +
´ `
+ ÷
¹ )
2
1 1 2
, 1
1 1 1
n
n n n
= ÷ + = =
+ + ÷
2 2
1
0 0
1 1
sin cos sin 2
2
a x x x dx x x dx
t t
t t
= =
} }
( ) (
2
0
1 cos 2 sin 2
1
2 2 4
x x
x
t
t
¦ ¹ | ÷ | | |
= ÷ ÷
´ `
| |
\ . \ . ¹ )
1 2
2 2
t
t
÷ ¦ ¹
=
´ `
¹ )
1
1
2
a = ÷
( )
2
2
2 1 1
cos 2 cos sin
2 2 1
f x x nx x
n
t
·
÷ | |
= ÷ ÷ + +
|
÷
\ .
¿
( )
2
2
1 1
1 cos 2 cos sin .
2 1
f x x nx x
n
t
·
= ÷ ÷ + +
÷
¿
Problem 18 Find the Fourier series for f(x) = x
2
in x t t ÷ s s and deduce that
(c)
2
2 2 2
1 1 1
.............
1 2 3 6
t
+ + + = .
(d)
2
2 2 2
1 1 1
.............
1 2 3 12
t
÷ + ÷ = .
9
(e)
2
2 2 2
1 1 1
.............
1 3 5 8
t
+ + + = .
Solution:
Given: ( )
2
f x x =
( ) ( )
2
f x x f x ÷ = =
( ) f x is an even function. Hence 0
n
b =
( )
1
cos
2
n
n
a
f x a nx
t
·
= +
¿
3 3 2
2
0 0
2 2 2 2
.
3 3 3
n
x
a x dx
t
t
t t
t t t
¦ ¹
= = = =
´ `
¹ )
}
( ) ( )
2 2
2
0
0
2 2 sin cos sin
cos 2 2 .
n x
nx nx nx
a x nx dx x x
n n n
t
t t
¦ ¹ | | | | | | | | | |
= = ÷ ÷ + ÷
´ `
| | | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ . \ . ¹ )
}
( )
2
2 1 2
0
n
n
t
t
¦ ¹
÷
¦ ¦
= +
´ `
¦ ¦
¹ )
( ) ( )
2 2
4 1 4 1
n n
n n
t
t
÷ ÷
= =
( ) ( ) ( )
2
2
1
1
4 1 cos 1
3
n
f x nx
n
t
·
= + ÷
¿
Put x t = in (1)
( ) ( ) ( )
2
2
1
1
4 1 1
3
n n
f
n
t
t
·
= + ÷ ÷
¿
x t = is a point of continuity.
( )
2
2
2 2
1 1
2 4 ....
3 1 2
t
t
¦ ¹
=> = + + +
´ `
¹ )
2
2
2 2
1 1
4 ....
3 1 2
t
t
¦ ¹
÷ = + +
´ `
¹ )
2
2 2
2 1 1
4 ...
3 1 2
t
× = + +
( )
2
2 2
1 1
.... 3
6 1 2
t
= + + ÷
(ii) put x = 0, a point of continuity
( )
2
2
1
1
0 4 1
3
n
n
n
t
·
=
= + ÷
¿
( )
2
2
1
1
4 1
3
n
n
n
t
·
=
÷ = ÷
¿
( )
2
2
1
1
1
3
n
n
n
t
·
=
÷ = ÷
¿
10
2
2 2 2
1 1 1
.......
12 1 2 3
t | |
÷ = ÷ + ÷
|
\ .
2
2 2 2
1 1 1
12 1 2 3
t
= ÷ +
( )
2
2 2 2
1 1 1
........ 4
1 2 3 12
t
÷ + + = ÷
Add (3) and (4)
2 2
2 2
1 1
....
6 12 1 3
t t (
+ = + +
(
¸ ¸
2
2 2
1 1
2 ....
4 1 3
t (
= + +
(
¸ ¸
2
2 2
1 1
....
8 1 3
t (
= + +
(
¸ ¸
Problem 19 If f (x) = x + x
2
in x t t ÷ < < . Hence show that
i.
2
2
1
1
6 n
t
·
=
¿
ii.
2
2 2 2
1 1 1
.............
1 2 3 12
t
÷ + ÷ = .
Solution:
Given: ( )
2
f x x x = +
( )
2
f x x x ÷ = ÷ +
( ) f x is neither even nor odd
( ) ( )
0
1
cos sin
2
n n n
a
f x a x b x
·
= + +
¿
( )
2 3
2
0
1 1
2 3
x x
a x x dx
t
t
t t
t t
÷ ÷
¦ ¹
= + = +
´ `
¹ )
}
2 3 2 3 3 2
1 1 2 2
2 3 2 3 3 3
t t t t t t
t t
¦ ¹ | | ¦ ¹
= + ÷ ÷ = =
´ ` ´ ` |
¹ ) \ . ¹ )
( )
2
1
cos
n
a x x nxdx
t
t
t
÷
= +
}
( ) ( ) ( )
2
2 3
1 sin cos sin
1 2 2
nx nx nx
x x x
n n n
t
t
t
÷
¦ ¹ | | | | | | | |
= + ÷ + ÷ + ÷
´ `
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ . ¹ )
( )
( )
( )
( )
2 2
1 1 1
1 2 1 2
n n
n n
t t
t
¦ ¹
÷ ÷
¦ ¦
= + ÷ ÷
´ `
¦ ¦
¹ )
( )
| |
( )
2 2
1 4 1
4
n n
n n
t
t
÷ ÷
= =
11
( )
2
1
sin
n
b x x nx dx
t
t
t
÷
= +
}
( ) ( ) ( )
2
2 3
1 cos sin cos
1 2 2
nx nx nx
x x x
n n n
t
t
t
÷
¦ ¹ ÷ | | | | | | | |
= + ÷ + ÷ +
´ `
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ . ¹ )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
2 2
3 3
1 1 1 2 2
1 1
n n
n n
n
n n n n
t t t
t
¦ ¹
÷ ÷
¦ ¦
= ÷ + + ÷ ÷ ÷ + + ÷
´ `
¦ ¦
¹ )
( )
2 2
2 3
1 1 2 2
n
n n n
t t t t
t
÷
¦ ¹
= ÷ ÷ + ÷ + ÷
´ `
¹ )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2
1 1
2
2
1 1
2
2
1
2 1
4 1 2 1
cos sin
3
1 1
4 cos 2 sin 1
3
0 1
1
0 4 2
3
n
n
n
n
n
b
n
f x nx nx
n n
f x nx nx
n n
Put x in
f
n
t
t
t
· ·
· ·
·
÷
= ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
= + +
÷ ÷
= + ÷ ÷
=
÷
= + ÷
¿ ¿
¿ ¿
¿
Here 0 is a pt of continuity
( )
( )
2
2 2
2
2 2 3
2
2 2 3
0 0
1 1
2 0 4 ....
3 1 2
1 1 1
4 ...
3 1 2 3
1 1 1
......
12 1 2 3
f
t
t
t
=
¦ ¹
=> = + ÷ +
´ `
¹ )
¦ ¹
÷ = ÷ + ÷
´ `
¹ )
= ÷ +
Hence (ii)
Put x t = in (1)
( )
( )
( ) ( )
2
2
1
1
4 1 3
3
n
n
f
n
t
t
·
÷
= + ÷ ÷
¿
x t = , is a pt of discontinuity
( )
( ) ( )
( ) { }
2 2
1
2 2
f f
f x
t t
t t t t
+ ÷
= = + + ÷ +
{ }
2 2
1
2
2
t t = =
( )
2
2
2
1
1
3 4
3 n
t
t
·
=> ÷ =
¿
2
2 2 3
2 1 1 1
...
3 4 1 2 3
t
= ÷ + + ·
×
12
2
2 2
1 1
...
6 1 2
t
= ÷ + ·
Hence (i)
Problem 20 a. Expand ( ) ( ) 2 f x x x t = ÷ as a Fourier series in ( ) 0, 2t .
Solution:
We know that
( ) ( )
0
1
cos sin
2
n n
a
f x a nx b nx
·
= + + +
¿
( )
2
2 3 3 2
2
3 2
0
0
0
1 1 1 8
2 2 4 8 4
2 3 3 3
x x
a x x dx
t
t
t t
t t t t
t t t
¦ ¹ ¦ ¹ | |
¦ ¦
= ÷ = ÷ = ÷ = ÷
´ ` ´ ` |
¦ ¦ ¹ ) \ . ¹ )
}
2
0
4
3
a s
t
=
( )
2
2
0
1
2 cos
n
a x x nxdx
t
t
t
= ÷
}
( ) ( ) ( )
2
2
2 2
0
1 sin cos sin
2 2 2 2
nx nx nx
x x x
n n n
t
t t
t
¦ ¹ | ÷ | | | | | | | | |
= ÷ ÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷
´ `
| | | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ . \ . ¹ )
2 2 2
1 2 2 4
n n n
t t
t
÷ ¦ ¹
= ÷ = ÷
´ `
¹ )
( )
2
2
0
1
2 sin
n
b x x nx dx
t
t
t
= ÷
}
( ) ( ) ( )
2
2
2 3
0
1 cos sin cos
2 2 2 2
nx nx nx
x x x
n n n
t
t t
t
¦ ¹ ( | | | | | |
= ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ + ÷
´ `
| | | (
\ . \ . \ . ¸ ¸ ¹ )
3 3
1 2 2
0
n n t
¦ ¹
= ÷ =
´ `
¹ )
( )
2
2
1
2 4
cos .
3
f x nx
n
t
·
÷ | |
= +
|
\ .
¿
b. Find the Fourier series for f (x) = e
x
defined in ( ) , t t ÷ .
Solution:
( ) ( )
1
cos sin
2
n
n n
a
f x a nx b nx
·
= + +
¿
0
1
x
a e dx
t
t
t
=
}
{ }
1
x
e
t
t
t
÷
=
{ }
1
e e
t t
t
÷
= ÷
1
cos
x
n
a e nx dx
t
t
t
÷
=
}
13
( )
2
1
cos sin
1
x
e
nx n nx
n
t
t
t
÷
¦ ¹
= +
´ `
+
¹ )
2 2
1
cos cos
1 1
e e
n n
n n
t t
t t
t
¦ ¹
= ÷
´ `
+ +
¹ )
( )
( )
{ }
2
1
1
n
e e
n
t t
t
÷
÷
= ÷
+
1
sin
x
n
b e nx dx
t
t
t
÷
=
}
( )
2
1
sin cos
1
e
nx n x
n
t
t
t
t
÷
¦
= ÷
´
+
¹
( )
( )
( ) |
2 2
1
1 cos
1 1
n e e
n n nx
n n
t t
t
÷
¦
= ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
´
+ +
¹
( )
( )
2 2
1 1
1
1 1
n
n
n e e
n
n n
t
t
t
÷
¦ ¹
÷
¦ ¦
= ÷ + ÷
´ `
+ +
¦ ¦
¹ )
( )
( )
{ }
2
1
1
n
n
b n e e
n
t t
t
÷
÷
= ÷
+
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
2 2
1
1 1
1
cos sin .
2 1 1
n n
n
f x e e e e nx e e nx
n n
t t t t t t
t t t
·
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
| |
÷ ÷
| = ÷ + ÷ + ÷
|
+ +
\ .
¿
Problem 21 Obtain the Fourier series expansion of f (x) where ( )
t
t
t
t
¦
+ ÷ s s
¦
¦
=
´
¦
÷ s s
¦
¹
2
1 , 0
2
1 0
x
x
f x
x
x
and hence deduce that
2
2 2 2
1 1 1
.............
1 3 5 8
t
+ + + = .
Solution:
( )
( )
( )
2 2
1 1
x x
f x f x
t t
÷
÷ = ÷ = + =
0 0 . x x t t ÷ s s => s s
The given function is an even function.
Hence 0
n
b =
( )
0
1
cos
n
a
f x a nx
t
·
= +
¿
0
0
2 2
1
x
a dx
t
t t
| |
= +
|
\ .
}
2
0
2 2
0
2
x
x
t
t t
¦ ¹
= ÷ =
´ `
¹ )
14
0
2 2
1 cos
n
x
a nx dx
t
t t
| |
= ÷
|
\ .
}
2
0
2 2 sin 2 cos
1
x nx nx
n n
t
t t t
¦ ÷ ¹ | || | | || |
= ÷ ÷ ÷
´ `
| | | |
\ .\ . \ .\ . ¹ )
( )
2 2
2 1 2 2
n
n n t t t
¦ ¹
÷
¦ ¦ | |
= + +
´ `
|
\ .
¦ ¦
¹ )
( )
{ }
2 2
4
1 1
n
n t
= ÷ ÷
0
n
a = if n is even
2 2
8
n
a
n t
= is n is odd.
( )
2 2
1,3,5
8
cos f x nx
n t
·
=
¿
2 2 2
8 cos cos3
...
1 3
x x
t
¦ ¹
= + +
´ `
¹ )
( )
2 2 2
8 cos cos3
0 ...
1 3
x x
f
t
¦ ¹
= + +
´ `
¹ )
0 Putx =
( ) ( )
2 2 2
8 1 1
0 ... 1
1 3
f
t
¦ ¹
= + + ÷
´ `
¹ )
0 is a pt of continuity ( ) 0 1 f =
( )
2 2 2
8 1 1
1 1 .....
1 3 t
¦ ¹
=> = + +
´ `
¹ )
2
2 2 2
1 1 1
....
8 1 3 5
t
= + + + ·
Problem 22 Obtain the Fourier series to represent the function f(x) = | x | is x t t ÷ < < and
deduce that
2
2 2 2
1 1 1
.............
1 3 5 8
t
+ + + = .
Solution:
Given ( ) f x x =
( ) ( ) f x f x ÷ =
The given function is an even function.
Hence 0
n
b =
( )
0
1
cos
2
n
a
f x a nx
·
= +
¿
0
2
n
a x dx
t
t
=
}
15
2
0
2
2
x
t
t
t
| |
= =
|
\ .
0
2
cos
n
a x nxdx
t
t
=
}
( )
{ }
2 2 2 2
0
2 sin cos 2 cos 1 2
1 1
n nx nx n
x
n n n n n
t
t
t t t
¦ ¹ ¦ ¹
= + = ÷ = ÷ ÷
´ ` ´ `
¹ ) ¹ )
0
n
a = if n is even
2
4
n
a
n t
= ÷ if n is odd
( )
2
1,3
4
cos
2
f x nx
n
t
t
·
÷
= +
¿
2
4 cos3
cos ...
2 3
x
x
t
t
÷ ¦ ¹
= ÷ + +
´ `
¹ )
0 Put x =
( )
2 2
4 1 1
0 1 ...
2 3 5
f
t
t
¦ ¹
= ÷ + + +
´ `
¹ )
Here 0 is a pt of continuity
( ) 0 0 f =
2 2
4 1 1
0 1 ...
2 3 5
t
t
¦ ¹
= ÷ + + +
´ `
¹ )
2 2
4 1 1
1 ...
2 3 5
t
t
¦ ¹
= + + +
´ `
¹ )
2
2 2
1 1
1 ... .
8 3 5
t ¦ ¹
= + + +
´ `
¹ )
Problem 23 Find the Fourier series expansion of period 2 for the function f(x) = ( )
2
x ÷  in
the range ( ) 0, 2 . Deduce the sum of the series
·
¿
2
1
1
n
.
Solution: The Fourier series of ( ) f x in ( ) 0, 2 is given
( )
0
1
cos sin
2
n n
a n x n x
f x a b
l l
t t
·
(
= + +
(
¸ ¸
¿
( ) ( )
( )
2
3
2 2
2
2
0
0 0
0
1 1 2
3 3
l
l l
l x
a f x dx l x dx l
l l l
(
÷
= = ÷ = = (
÷
(
¸ ¸
} }
( )
2
2
0
1
cos
l
n
n x
a l x dx
l l
t
= ÷
}
16
( ) ( )( )
2
2
2 2 3 3
2 3
0
sin cos sin
1
2 1 2
l
n x n x n x
l l l
l x l x
n
n n l
l
l l
t t t
t
t t
( ¦ ¹ ¦ ¹
¦ ¹
( ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
= ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ + ÷ (
´ ` ´ ` ´ `
(
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
( ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¹ )
¹ ) ¹ ) ¸ ¸
2 2 2 2
2 2
1 2 cos 2 2 l n l
n n l
l l
t
t t
(
(
= +
(
(
(
¸ ¸
2
2 2
4
n
l
a
n t
=
( )
2
2
0
1
sin
l
n
n x
b l x dx
l l
t
= ÷
}
( ) ( )( )
2
2
2 2 3 3
2 3
0
sin cos
1
cos 2 1 2
l
n x n x n x
l l l
l x l x
n
n n l
l
l l
t t t
t
t t
( ( | | | |
¦ ¹
( ( | |
¦ ¦
( = ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ + ( | |
´ `
( ( | |
¦ ¦
| |
( (
¹ )
\ . \ . ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
2
2
3 3 3 3
3 3
1 cos 2 2cos 2 2 n n l
l
n n
n n l
l l
l l
t t
t t
t t
¦ ¹
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
= ÷ + + ÷
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¹ )
2 2
1
0
l l
n n
l
l l
t t
¦ ¹
¦ ¦
÷
= + =
´ `
¦ ¦
¹ )
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
1
4
cos 1
3
l l n x
f x
n l
t
t
·
| |
= + ÷
|
+
\ .
¿
0 x = in (1)
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
1
4
0 2
3
l
f
n t
·
= + ÷
¿

Here 0 is a Pt of discontinuity
( )
( ) ( ) 0 2
0
2
f f l
f
+
=
( )
2 2 2
1
2
l l l = + =
( )
2 2
2
2 2
1
4
2
3
l l
l
n t
·
=> = +
¿
2 2
2
2 2
1
4 1
3
l l
l
n t
·
÷ =
¿
2 2
2 2 2
2 4 1 1
...
3 1 2
l l
t
¦ ¹
= + +
´ `
¹ )
17
2
2 2 2
1 1 1
... .
6 1 2 3
t
= + + + ·
Problem 24 a. Find the Fourier expansion of ( ) f x if
0 , 2 1
1 , 1 0
( )
1 , 0 1
0 , 1 2
x
x x
f x
x x
x
÷ < < ÷ ¦
¦
+ ÷ < <
¦
=
´
÷ < <
¦
¦
< <
¹
.
Solution:
( )
0
1
cos sin
2
n n
a n x n x
f x a b
l l
t t
·
| | | | | |
= + +
| | |
\ . \ . \ .
¿
( )
2
0
2
1
2
a f x dx
÷
=
}
( ) ( )
1 0 1 2
2 1 0 1
1
0 1 1 0
2
dx x dx x dx dx
÷
÷ ÷
¦ ¹
= + + + ÷ +
´ `
¹ )
} } } }
0 1
2 2
1 0
1
2 2 2
x x
x x
÷
¦ ¹
| | | |
¦ ¦
= + + ÷
´ ` | |
\ . \ .
¦ ¦
¹ )
1 1 1
0 1 1 0
2 2 2
¦ ¹
= ÷ + + ÷ =
´ `
¹ )
( ) ( )
0 1
1 0
1
1 cos 1 cos
2 2 2
n
n x n x
a x dx x dx
t t
÷
¦ ¹
| | | |
= + + ÷
´ `
| |
\ . \ .
¹ )
} }
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
0 1
2 2 2 2
1 0
sin cos sin cos
1
2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1
2
2 2
4 4
n x n x n x n x
x x
n n
n n
t t t t
t t
t t
÷
¦ ¹
| | ( | | | |
| |
¦ ¦
| ( | |
|
¦ ¦
| = + ÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷ ( | |
´ ` |
| ( | |
¦ ¦ |
| | |
( \ . ¦ ¦ \ . \ . \ . ¸ ¸
¹ )
0 =
( ) ( )
0 1
1 0
1
1 sin 1 sin
2 2 2
n
n x n x
b x dx x dx
t t
÷
¦ ¹
= + + ÷
´ `
¹ )
} }
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
0 1
2 2 2 2
1 0
cos sin cos sin
1 2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1
2
2 2
4 4
n x n x n x n x
x x
n n
n n
t t t t
t t
t t
÷
¦ ¹
| | ( | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
¦ ¦ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
| | | | | ( | | |
¦ ¦
\ . \ . \ . \ .
| ( | | | = + ÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷
´ `
| ( | | |
¦ ¦
| | | | (
¦ ¦
\ . \ . \ . \ . ¸ ¸
¹ )
2 2 2 2
1 4 4 1
0 sin sin 0
2 2 2
n n l
n n n n
t t
t t t t
¦ ¹
= + ÷ + + =
´ `
¹ )
( )
1
1
sin .
2
n x
f x
n
t
t
·
=
¿
18
b. Find the Fourier series for f (x) where
( )
0, 1 0
1, 0 1
x
f x
x
÷ < < ¦
=
´
< <
¹
.
Solution:
( )
0
1
cos sin
2
n n
a x n x
f x a b
l l
t t
·
¦ ¹
= + +
´ `
¹ )
¿
( )
0
1
a f x dx
l
=
0 1
1 0
0dx dx
÷
= +
} }
( )
1
0
1 x = =
0 1
1 0
1
0 cos
1
n
a dx n x dx t
÷
¦ ¹
= +
´ `
¹ )
} }
1
0
sin
n x
n
t
t
(
=
(
¸ ¸
0
sin sin 0
n n
n n
t
t t
(
= ÷ =
(
¸ ¸
1
0
1
1sin
1
n
b n x dx t =
}
( )
1
0
1 1
cos cos 1
n
n n
n n n n
t t
t t t t
÷ ÷
( (
= ÷ = ÷ + =
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
( )
1,3
1 2
sin .
2
f x n x
n
t
t
·
= +
¿
Problem 25 Find the half – range cosine series for f (x) = (x – 1)
2
in (0, 1). Hence show that
2
2 2 2
1 1 1
...
1 2 3 6
t
+ + + = .
Solution:
Here 1 l =
( )
0
1
cos
2
n
a
f x a n x t
·
= +
¿
( )
( )
1
2
1
2
0
0
0
1
2 1 2
3
x
a x dx
(
÷
= ÷ = (
÷
(
¸ ¸
}
0
2
3
a =
( )
1
2
0
2 1 cos
n
a x n xdx t = ÷
}
( ) ( ) ( )
1
2
2 2 3 3
0
sin cos sin
2 1 2 1 2
n x n x n x
x x
n n n
t t t
t t t
¦ ¹ | | | | | | | | | |
= ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ + +
´ `
| | | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ . \ . ¹ )
19
2 2 2 2
2 4
2
n n t t
¦ ¹
= + =
´ `
¹ )
( )
2 2
1
1 4
cos
3
f x n x
n
t
t
·
= +
¿
( ) ( )
2 2
1
1 4 1
cos 1
3
f x n x
n
t
t
·
= + ÷
¿
( ) 0 1 Put x in =
( ) ( )
2 2
1
1 4 1
0 2
3
f
n t
·
= + ÷
¿
Here 0 is o pt of discontinuity
( )
( ) ( )
0 0
0 1
2
f f
f
÷ +
+
= =
2 2
1
1 4 1
1
3 n t
·
¦ ¹
= +
´ `
¹ )
¿
2 2 2
2 4 1 1
...
3 1 2 t
¦ ¹
= + +
´ `
¹ )
2
2 2
1 1
.......... .
1 2 6
t
+ + · =
Problem 26 a. Express ( )
¦
s s
¦
¦
=
´
¦
÷ < s
¦
¹
1, 0
2
1,
2
a
x
f x
a
x a
as a cosine series
Solution: ( )
0
1
cos
2
n
a n x
f x a
a
t
·
= +
¿
( )
2
0
0
2
2 2
1 0 0
2 2
a
a
a
a a
a dx dx a
a a
¦ ¹
¦ ¦ ¦ ¹
= + ÷ = ÷ ÷ + =
´ ` ´ `
¹ )
¦ ¦
¹ )
} }
2
0
2
2
cos cos
a
a
n
a
nx nx
a dx dx
a a a
t t
¦ ¹
¦ ¦
= ÷
´ `
¦ ¦
¹ )
} }
2
0
2
sin sin
2
a
a
a
n x n x
a a
n n
a
a a
t t
t t
¦ ¹
| | | |
¦ ¦
| |
¦ ¦
= ÷
´ ` | |
¦ ¦ | |
\ . \ . ¦ ¦
¹ )
2 4
sin sin sin
2 2 2
a n a n n
a n n n
t t t
t t t
¦ ¹ (
= + =
´ `
(
¹ ) ¸ ¸
( )
1
4
sin cos .
2
n n
f x
n a
t t
t
·
=
¿
20
b. Express ( ) f x as a Fourier sine series where
( )
¦ | |
÷
| ¦
¦ \ .
=
´
| |
¦
÷
|
¦
\ . ¹
1 1
, 0,
4 2
3 1
, ,1
4 2
x
f x
x
.
Solution:
We know that ( )
1
sin
n
n x
f x b
l
t
·
=
¿
1
1 2
1 0
2
2 1 3
sin sin
1 4 4
n
b x n x dx x n x dx t t
¦ ¹
¦ ¦ | | | |
= ÷ + ÷
´ `
| |
\ . \ .
¦ ¦
¹ )
} }
( )
1
1
2
2 2 2 2
1
0
2
1 cos sin 3 cos sin
2 1 (1)
4 4
n
n x n x n x n x
b x x
n n n n
t t t t
t t t t
¦ ¹
| ÷ | | ÷ | ¦ ¦ | || | | | | || | | |
= ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
´ `
| | | | | | | |
\ .\ . \ . \ .\ . \ . \ . \ .
¦ ¦
¹ )
2 2
2 2 2 2
cos sin
1 1 1 1
2 2
2 0
4 2 4
cos sin
3 cos sin 1 3
2 2
2 1
4 2 4
n n
n n n
n
n
n n
n n n n
t t
t t t
t t
t t
t t t t
( | |
( |
| | | || |
= ÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷
( | | | |
\ . \ .\ .
( |
(
\ . ¸ ¸
( | |
( |
| || | | | | |
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
( | | | | |
\ .\ . \ . \ .
( |
( \ . ¸ ¸
2 2
sin
1 2
2
4
n
n n
t
t t
( | |
|
(
| |
\ .
( = ÷ ÷
|
\ . (
(
¸ ¸
( )
2 2
sin
1 cos
2
2 0
4
n
n
n n
t
t
t t
( | |
( |
| || |
÷ ÷ ÷
( | | |
\ .\ .
( |
(
\ . ¸ ¸
( )
2 2
4sin
1 1
2
2 2
n
n
n n n
t
t t t
÷
÷
= + ÷
2 2
4sin
1
2
is
n
n
b if n odd
n n
t
t t
÷
= +
= 0 if even
( )
2 2
1/ 3
4sin
1
2
sin .
n
f x n x
n n
t
t
t t
·
| |
÷
|
= +
|
|
\ .
¿
Problem 27 a. Find the Fourier cosine series for
( ) x x t ÷ in 0 x t < < .
21
Solution:
( )
0
1
cos
2
n
a
f x a nx
·
=
¿
( )
0
0
2
a x x dx
t
t
t
= ÷
}
2 2
0
2
2 3
x x
t
t
t
¦ ¹
= ÷
´ `
¹ )
3 3 2
2
2 3 3
t t t
t
¦ ¹
= ÷ =
´ `
¹ )
( )
0
2
cos
n
a x x nx dx
t
t
t
= ÷
}
( ) ( ) ( )
2 3
0
2 sin cos sin
2 2
nx nx nx
x x x
n n n
t
t t
t
¦ ¹ | ÷ | | ÷ | | | | |
= ÷ ÷ ÷ + ÷
´ `
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ . ¹ )
( )
2 2
1 2
n
n n
t t
t
¦ ¹
÷
¦ ¦
= ÷ ÷
´ `
¦ ¦
¹ )
( )
{ }
2
2
1 1
n
n
= ÷ + ÷
2
4
n
a
n
= = ÷ If n is even
0
n
a = If n is odd.
( )
2
2
2,4
4
cos .
6
f x nx
n
t
·
= + ÷
¿
b. Prove that complex form of the Fourier series of the function ( ) , 1 1
x
f x e x
÷
= ÷ < < is
( ) ( )
2 2
1
1 sin 1.
1
n
in x
in
f x h e
n
t
t
t
·
÷·
÷
= ÷
+
¿
.
Solution:
Here 2 2, 1 l l = =
( )
in x
n
f x C e
t
·
÷·
=
¿
1
1
1
2
x in x
n
C e e dx
t ÷ ÷
÷
=
}
( )
1
1
1
1
2
in x
e dx
t ÷ +
÷
=
}
( )
( )
1
1
1
1
1
2
in x
in
e
t
t
÷ +
÷ +
÷
¦ ¹
¦ ¦
=
´ `
¦ ¦
¹ )
( )
( ) ( )
{ }
1 1
1
2 1
in in x
e e
in
t t
t
÷ + +
÷
= ÷ ÷
+
22
( )
( )
( ) ( ) { }
1 1
2 2
1
cos sin cos sin
2 1
in
e n i n e n i n
n
t
t t t t
t
÷
÷ ÷
= ÷ ÷ +
+
( )
( )
( )
1 1
2 2
1
cos
2 1
in
n e e
n
t
t
t
÷
÷
= ÷ ÷
+
( )
( )
( ) ( )
1
2 2
1
1
2 1
n
in
e e
n
t
t
÷
÷
= ÷ ÷
+
( )
( )
( ) ( )
2 2
1
1 sinh 1
2 1
n
in
n
t
t
÷
= ÷
+
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
2 2
1
1 sinh 1 .
2 1
n
in x
in
f x e
n
t
t
t
·
÷·
÷
= ÷
+
¿
Problem 28 Find the cosine series for f (x) = x in (0, t ) and then using Parseval’s theorem,
show that
4
4 4
1 1
....
1 3 96
t
+ + = .
Solution:
( )
0
1
cos
2
n
a
f x a nx
·
= +
¿
( )
0
0
2
a f x dx
t
t
=
}
0
2
x dx
t
t
=
}
2
0
2
2
x
t
t
t
¦ ¹
= =
´ `
¹ )
0
2
cos
n
a x nx dx
t
t
=
}
( )
2
0
2 sin cos
1
x nx nx
n n
t
t
¦ ¹ | |
= ÷ ÷
´ `
|
\ . ¹ )
2 2
0
2 cos 1
0
n
n n
t
t
t
¦ ¹
= ÷ ÷
´ `
¹ )
2
2 cos 1 n
n
t
t
÷ ¦ ¹
=
´ `
¹ )
( )
{ }
2
2
1 1
n
n t
= ÷ ÷
2
4
n
a
n t
÷
= if n is odd
0
n
a = if n is even
( )
2
2
1,3
4
cos
2
f x nx
n
t
t
·
÷
= +
¿
23
By Parseval’s theorem
( )
2
2
2
0
0
1 1
4 2
n
a
f x dx a
t
t
= + (
¸ ¸
¿
}
2
2
2
2
1,3
0
1 1 4
4 2
x dx
n
t
t
t t
·
| |
= +
|
\ .
¿
}
2 2
2 4
1,3
0
1 1 16
3 4 2
x
n
t
t
t t
·
| |
= +
|
\ .
¿
3 2
2 4 4
1 8 1 1
....
3 4 1 3
t t
t t
(
¦ ¹
= + + +
´ `
(
¹ )
¸ ¸
2 2
2 4 4
8 1 1
....
3 4 1 3
t t
t
¦ ¹
÷ = + +
´ `
¹ )
2 2
4 4
1 1
.....
12 8 1 3
t t
× = + + ·
4
4 4
1 1
.....
96 1 3
t
= + + ·
Problem 29 a. Find the complex form of Fourier series of ( ) f x if
( ) sin f x ax in x t t = ÷ < < .
Solution: ( )
in x
n
f x C e dx
·
÷·
=
¿
1
sin
2
inx
n
C ax e dx
t
t
t
÷
÷
=
}
( )
( )
2 2
1
sin cos
2
inx
e
in ax a ax
a n
t
t
t
÷
÷
¦ ¹
¦ ¦
= ÷ ÷
´ `
÷
¦ ¦
¹ )
( )
( ) ( )
2 2
1
sin cos sin cos
2
in in
e in a a a e in a a a
a n
t t
t t t t
t
÷
( = ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
¸ ¸
÷
( )
| |
2 2
1
sin 2cos cos 2i sin
2
in a n a a n
a n
t t t t
t
= ÷ +
÷
( )
( )
( )
( )
1
2 2 2 2
2 1 sin 1 sin
2
n n
in a in a
a n a n
t t
t t
+
÷ ÷ ÷
= =
÷ ÷
( )
( )
( )
1
2 2
1 sin
.
n
inx
in a
f x e
a n
t
t
+
·
÷·
÷
=
÷
¿
b. Find the first two harmonic of the Fourier series of f (x) given by
x 0 1 2 3 4 5
f (x) 9 18 24 28 26 20
24
Solution:
Here the length of the in level is 2 6, 3 l l = =
( )
0
1 1 2 2
2 2
cos sin cos sin
2 3 3 3 3
a x x x x
f x a b a b
t t t t | | | |
= + + + +
| |
\ . \ .
x
3
x t 2
3
x t
y
cos
3
x
y
t
sin
3
x
y
t 2
cos
3
x
y
t 2
sin
3
x
y
t
0 0 0 9 9 0 9 0
1
3
t 2
3
t 18 9 15.7 -9 15.6
2 2
3
t 4
3
t 24 -12 20.9 -12 -20.8
3 t 2t 28 -28 0 28 0
4 4
3
t 8
3
t 26 -13 -22.6 -13 22.6
5 5
3
t 10
3
t 20 10 17.6 -10 -17.4
125 -25 -3.4 -7 0
( )
0
2 125
2 41.66
6 6
y
a = = =
¿
1
1
2
cos 8.33
6 3
2
sin 1.15
6 3
x
a y
x
b y
t
t
¦ ¹
= = ÷
´ `
¹ )
= = ÷
¿
¿
2
2 2
cos 2.33
6 3
x
a y
t ¦ ¹
= = ÷
´ `
¹ )
¿
2
2 2
sin 0
6 3
x
b y
t
= =
¿
( )
41.66 2
8.33cos 2.33cos 1.15sin .
2 3 3 3
x x x
f x
t t t
= ÷ ÷ ÷
Problem 30 a. Find the first two harmonic of the Fourier series of f (x). Given by
x 0
3
t 2
3
t t 4
3
t 5
3
t 2t
f (x) 1 1.4 1.9 1.7 1.5 1.2 1.0
Solution:
 The last value of y is a repetition of the first; only the first six values will be used
The values of cos , cos 2 , sin , sin 2 y x y x y x y x as tabulated
25
x
( ) f x
cos x sin x cos 2x sin 2x
0 1.0 1 0 1 0
3
t 1.4 0.5 0.866 -0.5 0.866
2
3
t 1.9 -0.5 0.866 -0.5 0.866
t 1.7 -1 0 1 0
4
3
t 1.5 -0.5 -0.866 -0.5 -0.866
5
3
t 1.2 0.5 -0.866 -0.5 -0.866
0
2 2.9
6
y
a = =
¿
1
cos
2 0.37
6
y x
a = = ÷
¿
2
cos 2
2 0.1
6
y x
a = = ÷
¿
1
sin
2 0.17
6
y x
b = =
¿
2
sin 2
2 0.06
6
y x
b = = ÷
¿
b. Find the first harmonic of Fourier series of ( ) f x given by
x 0
6
T
3
T
2
T 2
3
T 5
6
T T
f (x) 1.98 1.30 1.05 1.30 -0.88 -0.35 1.98
Solution:
First and last valve are same Hence we omit the last valve
x 2 x
T
t
u =
y
cosu sinu cos y u sin y u
0 0 1.98 1.0 0 1.98 0
6
T
3
t 1.30 0.5 0.866 0.65 1.1258
3
T 2
3
t 1.05 -0.5 0.866 -0.525 0.9093
2
T t 1.30 -1 0 -1.3 0
26
2
3
T 4
3
t -0.88 -0.5 -0.866 0.44 0.762
5
6
T 5
3
t -0.25 0.5 -0.866 -0.125 0.2165
4.6 1.12 3.013
0
2 4.6
1.5
6 3
a y = = =
¿
( )
1
2 cos
2
1.12 0.37
6 6
y
a
u
= = =
¿
( )
1
2
3.013 1.005
6
b = =
( ) 0.75 0.37cos 1.005sin f x u u = + +
UNIT II FOURIER TRANSFORMS
PART – A
Problem 1 If the Fourier transform of ( ) f x is ( ) F s then, what is Fourier transform of
( ) f ax ?
Solution:
Fourier transform of ( ) f x is
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
is
1
2
x
F s F f x f x e dx
t
·
÷·
= =
}
( ) ( ) ( )
is
1
2
x
F f ax f ax e dx
t
·
÷·
=
}
Put t ax =
dt adx =
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) is /
1
2
t a
dt
F f ax f t e
a t
·
÷·
=
}
( )
is /
1 1
.
2
t a
f t e dt
a t
·
÷·
=
}
( ) ( )
1
. .
s
F f ax F
a a
| |
= =
|
\ .
Problem 2 Find the Fourier sine transform of
3x
e
÷
.
Solution:
( ) ( ) ( )
0
2
sin
s
F f x f x sx dx
t
·
=
}
( )
3 3
0
2
sin
x x
s
F e e sx dx
t
·
÷ ÷
=
}
( )
3
2
0
2
3sin cos
9
x
e
sx s x
s t
·
÷
¦ ¹
= ÷ ÷
´ `
+
¹ )
| |
2 2 2
2
sin sin cos
9
ax
ax
s e
e bx dx a bx b bx
s a b t
(
| |
= = ÷
| (
+ +
\ .
¸ ¸
}
.
Problem 3 Find the Fourier sine transform of ( )
ax
f x e
÷
= , 0 a > . Hence deduce that
2
0
sin
1 2
x x
dx e
x
o
o t
·
÷
=
+
}
.
Solution:
( ) ( ) ( )
0
2
sin
s
F f x f x sx dx
t
·
=
}
( )
0
2
sin
ax ax
s
F e e sx dx
t
·
÷ ÷
=
}
2 2
2 s
s a t
| |
=
|
+
\ .
By inverse Sine transform, we get
( ) ( )
0
2
sin
s
f x F s sx ds
t
·
=
}
2 2
0
2 2
sin
s
sx ds
s a t t
·
| |
=
|
+
\ .
}
( )
2 2
0
2 sin s sx
f x ds
s a t
·
=
+
}
( )
2 2
0
sin
2
s sx
f x ds
s a
t
·
=
+
}
2 2
0
sin
2
ax
s sx
e ds
s a
t
·
÷
=
+
}
Put 1, a = x o =
2
0
sin
2 1
s sx
e ds
s
o
t
·
÷
=
+
}
Replace ‘s’ by ‘ x ’
2
0
sin
.
1 2
s sx
dx e
x
o
t
·
÷
=
+
}
Problem 4 Prove that ( ) ( ) ( )
1
cos
2
C C C
F f x ax F s a F s a = + + ÷ ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
.
Solution:
( ) ( ) ( )
0
2
cos
c c
F s F f x f x sx dx
t
·
= = (
¸ ¸ }
( ) ( )
0
2
cos cos cos
c
F f x ax f x ax sx dx
t
·
= (
¸ ¸ }
( )
( ) ( )
0
cos cos 2
2
a s x a s x
f x dx
t
·
+ + ÷ (
=
(
¸ ¸
}
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
0 0
1 2 1 2
cos cos
2 2
f x s a xdx f x s a xdx
t t
· ·
¦ ¹ ¦ ¹
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
= + + ÷
´ ` ´ `
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
¹ ) ¹ )
} }
( ) ( )
1
.
2
c c
F s a F s a = + + ÷ (
¸ ¸
Problem 5 Find the Fourier cosine transform of ( )
cos , 0
0,
x x a
f x
x a
< < ¦
=
´
>
¹
.
Solution:
( ) ( ) ( )
0 0
2 2
cos cos cos
a
c
F f x f x sx dx x sxdx
t t
·
= =
} }
( ) ( )
0
cos 1 cos 1 2
2
a
s x s x
dx
t
+ + ÷ (
=
(
¸ ¸
}
( ) ( )
0
sin 1 sin 1 1
1 1 2
a
s x s x
s s t
+ ÷ (
= +
(
+ ÷
¸ ¸
( ) ( ) sin 1 sin 1 1
1 1 2
s a s a
s s t
+ ÷ (
= +
(
+ ÷
¸ ¸
, provided 1, 1. S S = = ÷
Problem 6 Find
( )
ax
C
F xe
÷
and
( )
ax
S
F xe
÷
.
Solution:
( ) ( )
ax
c s
d
F xe F f x
ds
÷
= (
¸ ¸
( )
ax ax
c s
d
F xe F e
ds
÷ ÷
( =
¸ ¸
0
2
sin
ax
d
e sx dx
ds t
·
÷
(
=
(
¸ ¸
}
( )
2 2
2 2 2
2 2
2 2
.
d s a s
ds s a
s a
t t
(
(
÷
(
= =
(
( +
+ ¸ ¸
¸ ¸
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
ax ax
s c s c
d d
F xe F e F xf x F f x
ds ds
÷ ÷
| |
( ( = ÷ = ÷
|
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
\ .
0
2
cos
ax
d
e sx dx
ds t
·
÷
(
=
(
¸ ¸
}
( )
2 2 2
2 2
2 2 2
.
d a as
ds s a
s a
t t
(
(
(
= ÷ =
(
( +
+ ¸ ¸
¸ ¸
Problem 7 If ( ) F s is the Fourier transform of ( ) f x , then prove that the Fourier transform of
( )
ax
e f x is ( ) F s a + .
Solution:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
is
1
2
x
F s F f x f x e dx
t
·
÷·
= =
}
( ) ( ) ( )
is
1
2
iax iax x
F e f x e f x e dx
t
·
÷·
=
}
( )
( )
1
2
i a s x
e f x dx
t
·
+
÷·
=
}
( ). F s a = +
Problem 8 Find the Fourier cosine transform of
2
3
x x
e e
÷ ÷
+ .
Solution:
Let ( )
2
3
x x
f x e e
÷ ÷
= +
( ) ( ) ( )
0
2
cos
c
F f x f x sx dx
t
·
=
}
2 2
0 0
2
3 cos 3 cos
x x x x
c
F e e e sx dx e sx dx
t
· ·
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
¦ ¹
( + = +
´ `
¸ ¸
¹ )
} }
2 2
2 2 3
.
4 1 s s t
(
= +
(
+ +
¸ ¸
Problem 9 State convolution theorem.
Solution:
If F(s) and G(s) are Fourier transform of ( ) f x and ( ) g x respectively, Then the Fourier
transform of the convolutions of ( ) ( ) and f x g x is the product of their Fourier transforms.
i.e. ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) * F f x g x F f x F g x = ( ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
Problem 10 Derive the relation between Fourier transform and Laplace transform.
Solution:
Consider ( )
( )
( )
, 0
1
0 , 0
xt
e g t t
f t
t
÷
¦ >
÷
´
<
¹
The Fourier transform of ( ) f x is given by
( ) ( )
is
1
2
t
F f t f t e dt
t
·
÷·
= (
¸ ¸ }
( )
is
1
2
xt t
e g t e dt
t
·
÷
÷·
=
}
( )
( )
is
1
2
x t
e g t dt
t
·
÷
÷·
=
}
( )
1
2
pt
e g t dt
t
·
÷
÷·
=
}
where p x = ÷is
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
0
1
2
st
L g t L f t e f t dt
t
·
÷
( | |
= =
( |
(
\ . ¸ ¸
}
Fourier transform of ( )
1
2
f t
t
= ×Laplace transform of g(t) where g(t) is defined by (1).
Problem 11 Find the Fourier sine transform of
1
x
.
Solution:
( ) ( ) ( )
0
2
sin
s
F f x f x sx dx
t
·
=
}
0
1 2 1
sin
s
F sx dx
x x t
·
| |
=
|
\ .
}
Let sx u =
; : 0 sdx du u = ÷ ·
0
1 2 s
sin
s
d
F
x s
u
u
t u
·
| |
=
|
\ .
}
0 0
2 sin sin
2
d d
u u t
u u
t u u
· ·
(
= =
(
¸ ¸
} }
2
.
2 2
t t
t
| |
= =
|
\ .
Problem 12 Find ( ) f x if its sine transform is , 0
as
e a
÷
> .
Solution:
( ) ( ) ( )
s
F f x F s =
Given that ( ) ( )
as
s
F f x e
÷
=
( ) ( )
0
2
sin
s
f x F s x dx
t
·
=
}
0
2
sin
as
e sx ds
t
·
÷
=
}
( )
2 2
0
2
sin cos
as
e
a sx x sx
a s t
·
÷
(
= ÷ ÷
(
+
¸ ¸
2 2
2
.
x
a x t
| |
=
|
+
\ .
Problem 13 Using Parseval’s Theorem find the value of
( )
2
2
2 2
0
, 0
x
dx a
x a
·
>
+
}
. Find the Fourier
transform of , 0
a x
e a
÷
> .
Solution:
Parseval’s identify is ( ) ( )
2 2
f x dx F s ds
· ·
÷· ÷·
=
} }
Result :
( )
2 2
2
ax
s
s
F e
s a t
÷
(
=
(
+
¸ ¸
( )
2
2
2 2
2
ax
s
e dx ds
s a t
· ·
÷
÷· ÷·
| |
=
|
|
+
\ .
} }
( )
2
2
2 2
0 0
2
2 2
ax
s
e dx ds
s a t
· ·
÷
| |
=
|
|
+
\ .
} }
( )
2 2
2
2 2
0 0
2
2
ax
e s
ds
a
s a
t
·
· ÷
| |
=
|
÷
\ . +
}
( )
2
2
2 2
0
0 1
. ., .
2 2 4
s
i e ds
a a
s a
t t
·
+ | |
= =
|
\ .
+
}
( )
2
2
2 2
0
4
x
dx
a
x a
t
·
=
+
}
.
Problem 14 Find the Fourier sine transform of ( )
1, 0 1
0, 1
x
f x
x
< < ¦
=
´
>
¹
.
Solution:
The Fourier sine transform of ( ) f x is given by ( ) ( ) ( )
0
2
sin
s
F f x f x sx dx
t
·
=
}
1 1
0 0 1
2 2 cos
sin 0 sin
sx
sx dx sx dx
s t t
·
¦ ¹
÷ (
= + =
´ `
(
¸ ¸
¹ )
} }
2 cos 1 2 1 cos
.
s s
s s s s t t
÷ ¦ ¹ (
= + = ÷
´ `
(
¹ ) ¸ ¸
Problem 15 Find the Fourier transform of e
-a|x|
, a > 0
Solution:
( ) ( ) ( )
is
1
2
x
F f x f x e dx
t
·
÷·
=
}
is
1
2
a x x
e e dx
t
·
÷
÷·
=
}
( )
1
cos i sin
2
a x
e sx sx dx
t
·
÷
÷·
= +
}
1
cos sin 0,
2
a x a x
e sx dx e sx dx odd function
t
· ·
÷ ÷
÷· ÷·
(
= =
(
¸ ¸
} }
2
cos
2
a x
e sx dx
t
·
÷
÷·
=
}
( )
2 2
2
.
2
a x
a
F e
a s t
÷ | |
=
|
+
\ .
PART- B
Problem 16 (i) Express the function ( )
1, 1
0, 1
x
f x
x
¦ s
¦
=
´
>
¦
¹
as a Fourier integral. Hence evaluate
0
sin cos x
d
ì ì
ì
ì
·
| |
|
\ .
}
and find the value of
0
sin
d
ì
ì
ì
·
| |
|
\ .
}
.
(ii) Find the Fourier integral of the function ( )
0, 0
1
, 0
2
, 0
x
x
f x x
e x
÷
< ¦
¦
¦
= =
´
¦
> ¦
¹
verify the representation
directly at the point 0 x = .
Solution:
(i) The Fourier Integral formula for ( ) f x is
( ) ( ) ( )
0
1
cos f x f t t x dt d ì ì
t
· ·
÷·
= ÷
} }
Given ( )
1 1
0 1
for t
f t
for t
¦ s
¦
=
´
>
¦
¹
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 1
0 1 1
1
0cos cos 0cos f x t x dt d t x dt d t x dt d ì ì ì ì ì ì
t
· ÷ ·
÷· ÷
(
= ÷ + ÷ + ÷
(
¸ ¸
} } } }
( )
1
0
1
sin 1 t x
d
ì
ì
t ì
·
÷
÷ (
=
(
¸ ¸
}
( ) ( )
0
sin 1 sin 1
1
x x
d
ì ì
ì
t ì
·
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
=
}
( ) ( )
0
sin 1 sin 1
1
x x
d
ì ì
ì
t ì
·
÷ + ÷ ÷
=
}
( ) | |
0
2 sin cos
2sin cos sin( ) ( )
x
f x d A B A B Sin A B
ì ì
ì
t ì
·
= = + + ÷
}
( ) ( )
0
sin cos
1
2
x
f x d
t ì ì
ì
ì
·
= ÷
}
Deduction part:
When 0 x =
( )
0
2 sin
0 1, 1 f dì
t ì
·
= =
}
(from 1)
0
sin
/ 2. dì t
ì
·
=
}
(ii) The Fourier integral of ( ) f x is
( ) ( ) ( )
0
1
cos f x f t t x dt d ì ì
t
· ·
÷·
= ÷
} }
( ) ( )
0
0 0
1
0 cos
t
f x dt e t x dt d ì ì
t
· ·
÷
÷·
¹ ¦
= + ÷
´ `
¹ )
} } }
( )
0 0
1
cos
t
e t x dt d ì ì
t
· ·
÷
¦ ¹
= ÷
´ `
¹ )
} }
( )
0 0
1
cos
t
e t x dt d ì ì ì
t
· ·
÷
( = ÷
¸ ¸ } }
( ) ( ) ( )
2
0 0
1
cos sin
1
t
e
t x t x dt d ì ì ì ì ì ì
t ì
·
· ÷
(
= ÷ ÷ + ÷
(
+
¸ ¸
}
( ) ( )
2
0
1 cos sin
1
1
x x
f x d
ì ì ì
ì
t ì
·
+
= ÷
+
}
Putting 0 x = in (1)
( )
2
0
1
0
1
d
f
ì
t ì
·
=
+
}
1
0
1
tan ì
t
·
÷
( =
¸ ¸
1 1
1
tan tan 0
t
÷
( = ·÷
¸ ¸
( )
1
0 0
2 2
f
t t
t
( | |
= × ÷ =
|
(
¸ ¸ \ .
( )
1
0
2
f
t
t
(
=
(
¸ ¸
( )
1
0 .
2
f =
The value of the given function at 0 x = is ½
Hence verified.
Problem 17 (i) Using Fourier integral, prove that
( )
2
4
0
2 cos
2
cos
4
x
x
e x d
ì ì
ì
t ì
·
÷
| |
+
| =
|
+
\ .
}
.
(ii) Using Fourier integral prove that
2
0
sin , 0
sin sin
2
1
0,
x x
x
d
x
t
t
tì ì
ì
ì
t
·
¦| |
s s
¦ | | |
=
\ . ´
|
÷
\ .
¦
>
¹
}
.
Solution:
(i) The Fourier cosine integral of ( ) f x is
( ) ( )
0 0
2
cos cos f x x f t t dt d ì ì ì
t
· ·
=
} }
0 0
2
cos cos cos
t
x e t t dt d ì ì ì
t
· ·
÷
¦ ¹
=
´ `
¹ )
} }
( ) ( )
0 0
cos 1 cos
2
cos
2
t
t t t
x e d
ì ì
ì ì
t
· ·
÷
¦ ¹ + + ÷ (
¦ ¦
=
´ ` (
¦ ¦ ¸ ¸ ¹ )
} }
( ) ( )
0 0 0
1
cos cos 1 cos
t t
x e t dt e t t dt d ì ì ì ì
t
· · ·
÷ ÷
¦ ¹
= + + ÷
´ `
¹ )
} } }
( ) ( )
2 2
0
1 1 1
cos
1 1 1 1
x d ì ì
t
ì ì
·
(
= + (
+ + + ÷
(
¸ ¸
}
( )( )
2 2
2 2
0
1 1 1 2 1 1 2
cos
2 2 2 1
x d
ì ì ì ì
ì ì
t ì ì ì ì
·
(
+ + ÷ + + + +
( =
+ + ÷ +
(
¸ ¸
}
( )
2
2
0
2 2
1
cos
4
x d
ì
ì ì
t ì
·
(
+
( =
+
(
¸ ¸
}
( )
2
4
0
2
2
cos cos
4
x
e x x d
ì
ì ì
t ì
·
÷
+
=
+
}
(Proved).
(ii)
Given ( )
sin , 0
2
0 ,
x x
f x
x
t
t
t
¦
s s
¦
=
´
¦
>
¹
Since the LHS in the given problem is in terms of sine, let as use Fourier sine integral
formula.
Fourier since integral of ( ) f x is
( ) ( )
0 0
2
sin sin f x x f t t dt d ì ì ì
t
· ·
=
} }
( )
0 0
2
sin sin sin sin
2 2
x t t dt d as f x x
t
t t
ì ì ì
t
·
= =
} }
in 0 x t s s
( ) ( )
0
cos 1 cos 1 2
sin
2 2
t t
x dt d
t
ì ì t
ì ì
t
÷ ÷ + (
= ×
(
¸ ¸
}
( ) ( )
0
0
sin 1 sin 1 1
sin
2 1 1
t t
x d
t
t
ì ì
ì ì
ì ì
÷ + (
= ÷
(
÷ +
¸ ¸
}
0 0
1 sin cos cos sin sin cos cos sin
sin
2 1 1
t t t t t t t t
x d
t
ì ì ì ì
ì ì
ì ì
·
÷ ÷ (
= ÷
(
÷ +
¸ ¸
}
0
1 sin sin
sin
2 1 1
x d
ìt ìt
ì ì
ì ì
·
(
= +
(
÷ +
¸ ¸
}
( ) ( )
2
0
1 sin 1 sin 1
sin
2 1
x
ì ìt ì ìt
ì
ì
·
+ + ÷ (
=
(
÷
¸ ¸
}
2
0
1 2sin
sin
2 1
x d
ìt
ì ì
ì
·
(
=
(
÷
¸ ¸
}
( )
2
0
sin sin
1
x
f x d
ì ìt
ì
ì
·
=
÷
}
2
0
sin , 0 sin sin
. . .
2
1
0, 0
x x x
i e d
x
t
t ì ìt
ì
ì
·
¦
s <
¦
=
´
÷
¦
>
¹
}
Problem 18 (i) Using Fourier sine integral for ( ) , 0
ax
f x e a
÷
= > . Show that
2 2
0
sin
2
ax
x
d e
a
ì ì t
ì
ì
·
÷
| |
=
|
+
\ .
}
(ii) Find the Fourier transform of ( )
,
0,
a x x a
f x
x a
¦ ÷ <
¦
=
´
>
¦
¹
. Hence deduce
that
2
0
sin
2
t
dt
t
t
·
| |
=
|
\ .
}
.
Solution:
(i). Fourier sine integral of ( ) f t is
( ) ( )
0 0
2
sin sin f x x f t t dt d ì ì ì
t
· ·
=
} }
Given ( )
ax
f x e
÷
=
( )
( )
( )
( )
at
0 0
at
2 2
0 0
2 2
0
2 2 2 2
0 0
2
sin sin
2
sin sin cos
2
sin
sin sin
. .
2 2
ax
f x x e t dt d
e
x a t t d
a
f x x d
a
x x
f x d e d
a a
ì ì ì
t
ì ì ì ì ì
t ì
ì
ì ì
t ì
t ì ì t ì ì
ì ì
ì ì
· ·
÷
·
· ÷
·
· ·
÷
=
(
= ÷ ÷
(
+
¸ ¸
| |
=
|
+
\ .
= =
+ +
} }
}
}
} }
(ii) ( ) ( )
is
1
2
x
F f x f x e dx
t
·
÷·
= (
¸ ¸ }
( ) ( )
is
1
0 0
2
a a
x
a a
f x dx a x e dx dx
t
÷ ÷ ·
÷· ÷
(
= + ÷ +
(
¸ ¸
} } }
( )( )
1
cos i sin
2
a
a
a x sx sx dx
t
÷
÷
= ÷ +
}
( )
1
cos 0 sin & sin are
2
a
a
a x sx dx a sx x sx odd functions
t
÷
÷
(
= ÷ +
¸ ¸
} }
( )
0
1
2 cos
2
a
a x sx dx
t
(
= ÷
(
¸ ¸
}
( ) ( ) ( )
2
0
2 sin cos
1
2
a
sx sx
f x a x
s s t
÷ ( | | | |
= ÷ ÷ ÷
| | (
\ . \ . ¸ ¸
2 2
2 cos 1
0
sx
s s t
(
= ÷ +
(
¸ ¸
2
2 1 cos as
s t
÷ (
=
(
¸ ¸
( )
2
2
2sin
2
2
1
as
s t
(
(
= ÷
(
(
¸ ¸
By inverse Fourier transform ( ) ( )
1
2
isx
f x F s e ds
t
·
÷
÷·
=
}
.
2
is
2
2sin
1 2
2
2
x
as
e ds
s t t
·
÷
÷·
(
(
=
(
(
¸ ¸
}
Put 0 x =
( )
2
2
sin
2
2
0
as
f ds
s t
·
÷·
=
}
2
2
0
sin
2
4
as
a
ds
s
t
·
| |
|
\ .
=
}
Put 2 a =
2
2
0
sin
2
s
ds
s
t
·
=
}
[ s is a dummy variable, we can replace it by ‘t’]
i.e
2
0
sin
.
2
t
dt
t
t
·
| |
=
|
\ .
}
Problem 19 (i) Prove that
2
2
x
e
÷
is self – reciprocal with respect to Fourier transform.
(ii) Find the Fourier transform of ( )
1,
0,
x a
f x
x a
¦ s
¦
=
´
>
¦
¹
. Hence evaluate
0
sin s
ds
s
·
}
.
Solution:
(i) ( )
2
/ 2 x
f x e
÷
=
( ) ( ) ( )
F s F f x =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
is
1
2
x
F s F f x f x e dx
t
= =
2
/ 2 is
1
2
x x
e e dx
t
·
÷
÷·
=
}
2 2 2 2
2 is
/ 2
2 2
1
2
i s i s
x
x
e dx
t
·
+ + ÷
÷
÷·
=
}
( )
2
2
is
2 2
1
2
x s
e e dx
t
÷ · ÷
÷
÷·
=
}
is
2
x
Let y x y
÷
= = · => = ·
2 dx dy x y = = ÷· => = ÷·
( )
2 2
/ 2
0
1
2
2
y s
F s e e dy
t
·
÷ ÷
=
}
2
2
/ 2
0
2
s
y
e
e dy
t
· ÷
÷
=
}
2 2
2 2
/ 2 / 2
0 0
2 2
2 2
s s
y x
e e
e dy e dx
t t
t t
· · ÷ ÷
÷ ÷
(
= = × =
(
¸ ¸
} }
( )
2 2
/ 2 / 2
. . is
s x
F s e i e e
÷ ÷
= self reciprocal hence proved.
(ii). Fourier transform of ( ) f x is
( ) ( ) ( )
is
1
2
x
F f x f x e dx
t
·
÷·
= =
}
is
1
2
a
x
a
e dx
t
÷
= =
}
( )
1
cos sin
2
a
a
sx i sx dx
t
÷
= = ÷
}
( )
0
1
cos sin is .
2
a
sx dx sx anodd fn
t
= =
}
1
cos
2
a
a
sx dx
t
÷
=
}
0
2 sin
a
sx
s t
(
=
(
¸ ¸
( )
2 sin as
F s
s t
(
=
(
¸ ¸
By inverse Fourier transforms,
( ) ( )
is
1
2
x
f x F s e dx
t
·
÷
÷·
=
}
( )
1 2 sin
cos i sin
2
as
sx sx dx
s t t
·
÷·
= ÷
}
( )
1 sin sin
cos 0 sin is
as as
sx dx sx odd
s s t
·
÷·
(
= ÷
(
¸ ¸
}
0
2 sin
cos
as
sx ds
s t
·
| |
=
|
\ .
}
1, 0 put a x = =
( )
0
2 sin s
f x ds
s t
·
=
}
( ) ( )
0
sin
1 1,
2
s
ds f x a x a
s
t
·
× = = ÷ s s
}
0
sin
.
2
s
ds
s
t
·
=
}
Problem 20 (i) Using Fourier integral formula prove that
( )
( )( )
2 2
2 2 2 2
0
2
sin
, , 0
ax bx
b a
x
e e d a b
a b
ì ì
ì
t ì ì
·
÷ ÷
÷
÷ = >
+ +
}
.
(ii) State and Prove convolution theorem on Fourier transforms.
Solution:
(i) Given ( )
ax bx
f x e e
÷ ÷
= ÷
( ) ( ) 1
at bt
f t e e
÷ ÷
= ÷ ÷
By Fourier sine integral of ( ) f x ,
( ) ( )
0 0
2
sin sin . f x x f t t dt d ì ì ì
t
· ·
=
} }
( ) ( )
at
0 0
2
sin sin
bt
f x x e e t dt d ì ì ì
t
· ·
÷ ÷
(
= ÷
(
¸ ¸
} }
( )
at t
0 0 0
2
sin sin sin 1
b
x e t dt e t dt d by ì ì ì ì
t
· · ·
÷ ÷
(
= ÷
(
¸ ¸
} } }
2 2 2 2
0
2
sin x d
a b
ì ì
ì ì
t ì ì
·
(
= ÷
(
+ +
¸ ¸
}
( )( )
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
0
2
sin
b a
x d
a b
ì ì
ì ì ì
t ì ì
·
( ( + ÷ ÷
¸ ¸
( =
+ +
(
¸ ¸
}
( )
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2 2 2
0
sin .
2
x b a
d
a b
ì ì
ì
t ì ì
·
(
+
( =
+ +
(
¸ ¸
}
( )
( )( )
2 2
2 2 2 2
0
2
sin .
. .
ax bx
b a
x
i e e e d
a b
ì ì
ì
t ì ì
·
÷ ÷
÷
÷ =
+ +
}
( )
( )( )
2 2
2 2 2 2
0
2
sin
. .
ax bx
b a
x
i e e e d
a b
ì ì
ì
t ì ì
·
÷ ÷
÷
÷ =
+ +
}
(ii) State and Prove convolution theorem on Fourier transforms
Statement: The Fourier transforms of the convolution of ( ) f x and ( ) g x is the product of their
Fourier transforms.
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) * F f x g x F f x F g x = ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
Proof:
( ) ( ) ( )
is
1
* *
2
x
F f g f g x e dx
t
·
÷·
=
}
( ) ( )
is
1 1
2 2
x
f t g x t dt e dx
t t
· ·
÷· ÷·
= ÷
} }
( ) ( )
is
1 1
2 2
x
f t g x t e dx dt
t t
· ·
÷· ÷·
= ÷
} }
( ) ( )
is
1 1
2 2
x
f t g x t e dx dt
t t
· ·
÷· ÷·
| |
= ÷
|
\ .
} }
( ) ( ) ( )
1
2
f t F g x t dt
t
·
÷·
= ÷
}
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
is is
1
2
t t
f t e F g t dt f g x t e F g t
t
·
÷·
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸ }
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
is
1
2
t
f t e dt G s F g t G s
t
·
÷·
( = =
¸ ¸ }

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) * . . . F f g F s G s F f t F s ( = = =
¸ ¸

Problem 21 (i) Using Fourier Integral prove that
2
0
cos
, 0
1 2
x
x
d e x
ì t
ì
ì
·
÷
| |
= >
|
+
\ .
}
.
(ii). Find the Fourier transform of ( )
2 2
,
0,
a x x a
f x
x a
¦ ÷ s
¦
=
´
>
¦
¹
and hence evaluate
(i)
3
0
sin cos t t t
dt
t
·
÷ | |
|
\ .
}
(ii)
2
3
0
sin cos t t t
dt
t
·
÷ | |
|
\ .
}
(i) Given ( )
2
x
f x e
t
÷
= . Therefore ( )
2
t
f t e
t
÷
=
The Fourier cosine integral of ( ) f x is ( ) ( )
0 0
2
cos cos f x x f t t dt d ì ì ì
t
· ·
=
} }
0 0
2
cos cos
2
t
x e t dt d
t
ì ì ì
t
· ·
÷
=
} }
( )
2 2
0 0
2
cos cos sin
2 1
t
e
x t t d
t
ì ì ì ì
t ì
·
· ÷
(
= × ÷ +
(
+
¸ ¸
}
2
0
1
cos
1
x d ì ì
ì
·
| |
=
|
+
\ .
}
2
0
cos
.
2 1
x
x
e d
t ì
ì
ì
·
÷
=
+
}
(ii). Fourier transform of ( ) f x is
( ) ( ) ( )
is
1
.
2
x
F f x f x e dx
t
·
÷·
=
}
( )
2 2 is
1
0 0
2
a
x
a
a x e dx
t
÷
(
= + ÷ +
(
¸ ¸
}
( )( )
2 2
1
cos sin
2
a
a
a x sx i x dx
t
÷
(
= ÷ +
(
¸ ¸
}
( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
0
2
cos sin is .
2
a
a x sx dx a x sx an odd fn
t
(
= ÷ ÷
¸ ¸
}
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
2 3
0
2 sin cos sin
2 2
a
sx sx sx
a x x
s s s t
÷ ÷ ( | | | | | |
= ÷ ÷ ÷ +
| | | (
\ . \ . \ . ¸ ¸
2 3
2 2 cos 2 sin
0
a as a as
s s t
(
= ÷ +
(
¸ ¸
3
2 2 cos 2sin a as as
s t
+ (
= ÷
(
¸ ¸
( ) ( )
3
2 sin cos
2 1
as as as
F s
s t
÷ (
= ÷
(
¸ ¸
By inverse Fourier transforms,
( ) ( )
is
1
2
x
f x F s e dx
t
·
÷
÷·
=
}
( )
3
1 2 sin cos
2 cos sin
2
as as as
sx i sx ds
s t t
·
÷·
÷ | |
÷
|
\ .
}
( )
3
2 sin cos
cos
as as as
f x sx dx
s t
·
÷·
÷
=
}
(the second terms is on odd function )
Put 1 a =
( ) ( )
2
3
1 , 1
2 sin cos
2 cos
0 , 1
x x
s s s
f x sx ds f x
s x t
·
÷·
( ¦ ÷ s
÷ ¦
= × = (
´
>
(
¦
¹ ¸ ¸
}
Put 0 x =
( )
( )
3
0
0 1 0
4 sin cos
0
1
f
s s s
f ds
s t
·
= ÷ (
÷
=
(
=
¸ ¸
}
3
0
4 sin cos
1
s s s
ds
s t
·
÷
=
}
3
0
sin cos
.
4
t t
dt
t
t
·
÷
=
}
Hence (i) is proved. Using Parseval’s identify
( ) ( )
2 2
F s ds f x dx
· ·
÷· ÷·
=
} }
2
2 2
3
2 sin cos
2
a
a
as as as
ds a x dx
s t
·
÷· ÷
(
÷ | |
= ÷
( |
\ .
¸ ¸
} }
( )
2 1
2
2
3
1
8 sin cos
1
s s s
ds x dx
s t
·
÷· ÷
÷ | |
= ÷
|
\ .
} }
( )
2 1
2
3
0 0
8 sin cos
2 2 1
s s s
ds x dx
s t
·
÷ | |
× = ÷
|
\ .
} }
1 2
5 3
3
0 0
16 sin cos 2
2
4 3
s s s x x
ds x
s t
·
( ÷ | |
= + ÷
| (
\ .
¸ ¸
}
2
3
0
sin cos 8
2
16 15 15
s s s
ds
s
t t
·
÷ | | | |
= × =
| |
\ . \ .
}
Put 1 a =
Put s = t
2
3
0
sin cos
.
15
t t t
dt
t
t
·
÷ | |
=
|
\ .
}
Hence (ii) is proved.
Problem 22 (i) Using Fourier Integral prove that
0
, 0 1 cos
sin
2
0,
x
xd
x
t
t ìt
ì ì
ì
t
·
¦
s s ÷ ¦ | |
=
´
|
\ .
¦
>
¹
}
(ii) Find the Fourier transform of ( )
1 , 1
0, 1
x x
f x
x
¦ ÷ <
¦
=
´
>
¦
¹
and hence find the value of
(i)
2
2
0
sin t
dt
t
·
}
. (ii)
4
4
0
sin t
dt
t
·
}
.
Solution:
(i) ( ) ( )
0
1
2
0
x
f x
x
t
t
t
¦
s s
¦
= ÷
´
¦
>
¹
( )
0
2
0
t
f t
t
t
t
t
¦
s s
¦
=
´
¦
>
¹
Fourier sine integral of ( ) f x is
( )
0 0
2
sin sin f x x t dt d ì ì ì
t
· ·
=
} }
0 0
2
sin sin
2
x t dt d
t
t
ì ì ì
t
·
=
} }
0 0
sin sin x t dt d
t
ì ì ì
·
=
} }
0 0
cos
sin
t
x d
t
ì
ì ì
ì
·
÷ (
=
(
¸ ¸
}
Hence ( )
0 0
0 1 cos
sin sin 1
2
0
in x
x x from
in x
t
t
t ìt
ì ì
ì
t
·
¦
s s ÷ ¦ (
=
´
(
¸ ¸
¦
>
¹
}
(ii) The Fourier transform of ( ) ( )
is
1
2
f x f x e dx
t
·
÷·
=
}
( )( )
1
1
1
1 cos sin
2
x sx i sx dx
t
÷
= ÷ +
}
( ) ( )
1
1
1
1 cos 1 sin is .
2
x sx dx x sx anodd fn
t
÷
( = ÷ ÷
¸ ¸ }
( ) ( )
1
2
0
2 sin cos
1 1
2
sx sx
x
s s t
¦ ¹ | | | |
= ÷ ÷ ÷
´ `
| |
\ . \ . ¹ )
2 2
2 cos 1
2
s
s s t
¦ ¹
= ÷ +
´ `
¹ )
( ) ( )
2
2 1 cos
1
s
F s
s t
÷ (
= ÷
(
¸ ¸
(i) By inverse Fourier transform
( ) ( )
1
2
isx
f x F s e ds
t
·
÷
÷·
=
}
( ) ( ) ( )
2
1 2 1 cos
cos i sin 1
2
s
ssx sx by
s t t
·
÷·
÷ (
= ÷
(
¸ ¸
}
2
1 1 cos
cos
s
sx ds
s t
·
÷·
÷ | |
=
|
\ .
}
(Second term is odd)
( )
2
0
2 1 cos
cos
s
f x sx ds
s t
·
÷ | |
=
|
\ .
}
0 Putx =
2
0
2 1 cos
1 0
s
ds
s t
·
÷ | |
÷ =
|
\ .
}
2
0
1 cos
2
s
ds
s
t
·
÷ | |
= =
|
\ .
}
( )
2
2
0
2sin / 2
2
s
ds
s
t
·
= =
}
/ 2 2 put t s ds dt = =
( )
2
2
0
2sin
2
2
2
t
dt
t
t
·
=
}
2
2
0
sin
.
2
t
dt
t
t
·
=
}
(ii) Using Parseval’s identity.
( ) ( )
2 2
F s ds f x dx
· ·
÷· ÷·
=
} }
( )
2
1
2
2
1
2 1 cos
1
s
ds x dx
s t
·
÷· ÷
(
÷ | |
= ÷
( |
\ .
¸ ¸
} }
( )
2 1
2
2
1
2 1 cos
1
s
ds x dx
s t
·
÷· ÷
÷ | |
= ÷
|
\ .
} }
( )
2 1
2
2
0 0
4 1 cos
2 1
s
ds x dx
s t
·
÷ | |
= ÷
|
\ .
} }
2
2
1
3
2
0
0
2sin
4 1 2
2
3
s
x
ds
s t
·
| | | |
| |
(
÷ | |
\ .
| =
(
|
÷
| \ .
(
¸ ¸
|
\ .
}
4
2
2
0
sin
16 2 2
; / 2,
3 2
s
ds
ds Let t s dt
s t
·
| | | |
| |
\ .
| = = =
|
|
\ .
}
4
0
16 sin 2
2
2 3
t
dt
t t
·
| |
=
|
\ .
}
4
0
16 sin 1
16 3
t
dt
t t
·
| |
=
|
\ .
}
4
0
sin
.
3
t
dt
t
t
·
| |
=
|
\ .
}
Problem 23 (i) Find the Fourier sine transform of
x
e
÷
. Hence prove that
2
0
sin
, 0
1 2
x x
dx e
x
o
o t
o
·
÷
| |
= >
|
+
\ .
}
.
(ii)Find the Fourier sine transform of ( ) 0
ax
e a
÷
> .Hence find (a)
( )
ax
C
F xe
÷
and
(b)
ax
S
e
F
x
÷
| |
|
\ .
.
Solution:
(i) ( ) ( ) ( )
0
2
sin
s
F f x f x sx dx
t
·
=
}
( )
0
2
sin
x x
s
F e e sx dx
t
·
÷ ÷
=
}
2
0
2 2
sin sin
1
x
s
e sx dx sx dx
s t t
·
÷
| |
= =
|
+
\ .
}
Result:
2 2
0
sin
ax
b
e bxdx
a b
·
=
+
}
By Fourier sine inversion formula, we have
( ) ( )
0
2
sin
s
f x F s sx ds
t
·
=
}
2
0
2 2
sin
1
x
s
e sx ds
s t t
·
÷
| |
=
|
+
\ .
}
2
0
2 sin
1
s sx
ds
s t
·
=
+
}
2
0
sin
1 2
x
s sx
ds e put x a
s
t
·
÷
= =
+
}
2
0
sin
1 2
a
s sa
ds e
s
t
·
÷
=
+
}
Replace S by x
2
0
sin
.
1 2
a
x ax
dx e
x
t
·
÷
=
+
}
(ii) . ( ) ( ) ( )
0
2
sin
s
F f x f x sx dx
t
·
=
}
( )
0
2
sin
ax ax
s
F e e sx dx
t
·
÷ ÷
=
}
( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
2 2
sin cos ....... 1
ax
e s
a sx s sx
a s a s t t
÷
¦ ¹
| |
= ÷ ÷ =
´ `
|
+ +
\ .
¹ )
By Property
( ) ( ) ( )
s c
d
F x f x F f x
ds
( = ÷ (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
( ) ( ) ( )
s s
d
F x f x F f x
ds
= (
¸ ¸
(a) To Find
ax
c
F x e
÷
(
¸ ¸
( )
ax ax
c s
d
F x e F e
ds
÷ ÷
( =
¸ ¸
2 2
2 d s
ds s a t
(
| |
=
( |
+
\ .
¸ ¸
( )
2 2 2
2
2 2
2 2 a s s
a s
t
(
+ ÷
(
=
(
+
¸ ¸
( )
( )
2 2
2
2 2
2
.
c
a s
F x f x
a s
t
(
÷
(
= (
¸ ¸
(
+
¸ ¸
(b) To find
ax
s
e
F
x
÷
(
(
¸ ¸
( ) ( ) ( )
at
0
2
sin 1
s
e
F f x st dt
t t
· ÷
= ÷
}
( )
at
0
2
sin
e
F s st dt
t t
· ÷
=
}
Diff. on both sides w.r to ‘s’ we get
( ) ( )
at
0
2
sin
d d e
F s st dt
ds ds t t
· ÷
=
} 2 2
0
cos
ax
a
e bx dx
b a
·
÷
(
=
(
+
¸ ¸
}
at
0
2
sin
e
st dt
s t t
· ÷
¦ ¹ c
=
´ `
c
¹ )
}
at
0
2 cos te st
dt
t t
· ÷
=
}
at
0
2
cos e st dt
t
·
÷
=
}
( )
at
2 2
0
2 2
cos
d a
F s e st dt
ds s a t t
·
÷
| |
= =
|
+
\ .
}
Integrating w.r. to ‘s’ we get
( )
2 2
2 a
F s ds c
s a t
= +
+
}
1
2 1
. tan
s
a c
a a t
÷
| |
= +
|
\ .
But ( ) 0 F s = When 0 s = 0 c = from (1)
( )
1
2
tan .
s
F s
a t
÷
| |
=
|
\ .
Problem 24 (i) Find the Fourier transform of
2 2
a x
e
÷
Hence prove that
2
2
x
e
÷
is self reciprocal
with respect to Fourier Transforms.
(ii) Find the Fourier cosine transform of
1 n
x
÷
. Hence deduce that
1
x
is self-reciprocal
under cosine transform. Also find
1
F
x
| |
|
|
\ .
.
Solution:
(i) ( ) ( )
is
1
2
x
F f x f x e dx
t
·
÷·
= (
¸ ¸ }
2 2
is
1
2
a x
e e dx
t
·
÷
÷·
=
}
( )
2 2
is
1
2
a x
x
e dx
t
·
÷
+
÷·
=
}
( )
( )
2 2
is 1
1
2
a x x
e dx
t
·
÷ ÷
÷·
= ÷
}
Consider
2 2
a x isx ÷
( ) ( )
( )
2 2
2
is
is is
2
2 2 2
ax ax
a a a
| | | |
= ÷ + ÷
| |
\ . \ .
( )
2
2
2
is s
2
2 4
ax
a a
| |
= ÷ + ÷
|
\ .
Sub: (2) in (1) ,We get
( )
2
2
is
2 4
1
2
s
ax
a a
F f x e dx
t
(
| |
·
÷ + ( |
\ . ÷ (
¸ ¸
÷·
= (
¸ ¸ }
2
2
2
is
2
4
1
2
s
ax
a
a
e e dx
t
| | ·
÷ ÷
|
÷
\ .
÷·
=
}
2
2
2
4
1 is
,
2 2
s
t
a
dt
e e Let t ax dt adx
a a t
·
÷
÷
÷·
= = ÷ =
}
2
2 2 2
2
4
1
2
s
a x t
a
F e e e dt
a
t t
t
·
÷
÷ ÷
÷·
(
(
= =
(
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
}
( )
2
2
4
1
3
2
s
a
e
a
÷
= ÷
( )
1
3
2
Put a in =
2 2
/ 2 / 2 x S
F e e
÷ ÷
(
=
¸ ¸
2
/ 2 S
e
÷
is self reciprocal with respect to Fourier Transforms.
(ii). ( ) ( ) ( )
0
2
cos
c
F f x f x sx dx
t
·
=
}
( ) ( )
1 1
0
2
cos 1
n n
c
F x x sx dx
t
·
÷ ÷
= ÷
}
We know that ( )
1
0
y n
n e y dy
·
÷ ÷
I =
}
Put , y ax = we get ( ) ( )
1
0
n
ax
e ax adx n
·
÷
÷
= I
}
( )
1
0
ax n
n
n
e x dx
a
·
÷ ÷
I
=
}
Put a = is
( )
( )
is 1
0
is
x n
n
n
e x dx
·
÷ ÷
I
=
}
( )
( )
1
0
cos sin
n n
n
n
sx i sx x dx i
s
·
÷ ÷
I
÷ =
}
( )
cos i sin
2 2
n
n
n
s
t t
÷
I
| |
= +
|
\ .
( )
cos i sin
2 2
n
n n n
s
t t I
(
= ÷
(
¸ ¸
Equating real parts, we get
( )
( )
1
0
cos cos 2
2
n
n
n
n
x sxdx
s
t
·
÷
I
= ÷
}
Using this in (1) we get
( )
( )
1
2
cos
2
n
c n
n n
F x
s
t
t
÷
I
=
Put
1
2
n =
1
1 2 2
cos
4
c
F
x s
t
t
| |
I
|
| |
\ .
=
|
\ .
2 1 1
2 2 s
t
t
t
( | |
= I =
| (
\ . ¸ ¸
1
s
=
Hence
1
x
is self-reciprocal under Fourier cosine transform
To find
1
1 1
F
x
¦ ¹
´ `
¹ )
1 1 is
2
x
F e dx
x x t
·
÷·
¦ ¹
¦ ¦
=
´ `
¦ ¦
¹ )
}
( )
1 1
cos is
2
sx insx dx
x t
·
÷·
= +
}
| |
0
2 1
cos sec
2
sx dx The ond termodd
x t
·
=
}
Put n =1/2 in (2), we get
0
cos 1/ 2
cos
4
sx
dx
x s
t
·
I
=
}
1
2 2 s s
t t
= =
1 2 1
.
2
F
s s x
t
t
¦ ¹
¦ ¦
= × =
´ `
¦ ¦
¹ )
Problem 25 (i) Find ( ) f x if its Fourier sine Transform is
as
e
s
÷
.
(ii) Using Parseval’s Identify for Fourier cosine and sine transforms of
ax
e
÷
, evaluate
(a).
( )
2
2 2
0
1
dx
a x
·
+
}
(b).
( )
2
2
2 2
0
x
dx
x a
·
+
}
Solution:
(i) Let ( ) ( )
as
s
e
F f x
s
÷
=
Then ( ) ( )
0
2
sin 1
as
e
f x sx dx
s t
· ÷
= ÷
}
2 2
0
2 2
cos
as
df a
e sx ds
dx a x t t
·
÷
= =
+
}
( )
2 2
2 dx
F x a
a x t
=
+
}
( )
1
2
tan 2
x
c
a t
÷
| |
= + ÷
|
\ .
At ( ) 0, 0 0 x f = = using (1)
(2) => ( ) ( )
1
2
0 tan 0 0 f c c
t
÷
= + =
Hence ( )
1
2
tan .
x
f x
a t
÷
| |
=
|
\ .
(ii) (a)To find
( )
2
2 2
0
dx
a x
·
+
}
( )
0
2
cos
ax ax
c
F e e sx dx
t
·
÷ ÷
=
}
( )
2 2
0
2
cos sin
ax
e
a sx s sx
a s t
·
÷
(
= ÷ +
(
+
¸ ¸
( ) ( )
2 2
2
1
ax
c
a
F e
a s t
÷
| |
= ÷
|
+
\ .
By Passeval’s identify.
( ) ( )
2 2
0 0
c
f x dx F s ds
· ·
=
} }
2
2
2 2
0 0
2
, (1)
ax
a
e dx ds from
a s t
· ·
÷
(
=
(
+
¸ ¸
} }
( )
2
2
2
2 2
0 0
2
2
ax
e ds
a
a
a s
t
·
· ÷
(
=
(
÷
¸ ¸ +
}
2
2 2
0
1 2
2
a ds
a a s t
·
=
+
}
( )
| |
2
2 3
2 2
0
. e ' '
4
x
i e R place s by x
a
a x
t
·
=
+
}
(b) To find
( )
2
2
2 2
0
x
dx
a x
·
=
+
}
( )
0
2
sin
ax ax
s
F e e sx dx
t
·
÷ ÷
=
}
( )
2 2
0
2
sin cos
ax
e
a sx s sx
a s t
·
÷
(
= ÷ ÷
(
+
¸ ¸
( )
2 2
2
ax
s
s
F e
a s t
÷
| |
=
|
+
\ .
By parseval’s identify
( ) ( ) ( )
2
2
0 0
s
f x dx F f x ds
· ·
=
} }
( )
2
2
2 2
0 0
2
ax
s
e dx ds
a s t
· ·
÷
| |
=
|
+
\ .
} }
( )
2
2 2
0 0
1
.
2 2 2 2
ax
s e
i e ds
a a a s
t t
·
· ÷
(
= = ×
(
÷ +
¸ ¸
}
( )
( )
2
2
2 2
0
Re ' ' ' ' .
4
x
dx place s by x
a
x a
t
·
=
+
}
Problem 26 (i). Find the Fourier cosine transform of cos
ax
e ax
÷
(ii). Evaluate (a).
( )( )
2 2
0
1
1 4
dx
x x
·
+ +
}
(b).
( )( )
2
2 2 2 2
0
x
dx
x a x b
·
+ +
}
, using Fourier cosine and
sine transform.
Solution:
(i) ( ) ( ) ( )
0
2
cos
c
F f x f x sx dx
t
·
=
}
( )
0
2
cos
ax ax
c
F e e sx dx
t
·
÷ ÷
=
}
( )
2 2
2
c
a
F s
s a t
| |
=
|
+
\ .
By Modulation Theorem,
( ) ( ) ( )
1
cos
2
c c c
F f x ax F a s F a s = + + ÷ ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
1 2
cos
2
ax
c
a a
F e ax
a a s a a s
t
÷
( ¦ ¹
¦ ¦
( ( = +
´ `
¸ ¸
+ + + ÷ (
¦ ¦
¹ ) ¸ ¸
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
1 2
.
2
a a s a a s
a
a a s a a s
t
¦ ¹
+ ÷ + + +
¦ ¦
= × ×
´ `
( (
+ + + ÷
¦ ¦
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¹ )
2 2
4 4
4 2
4 2
a a s
s a t
( +
=
(
+
¸ ¸
2 2
4 4
2 2
cos .
4 2
ax
c
a a s
F e ax
s a t
÷
( +
( =
(
¸ ¸
+
¸ ¸
(ii) (a) Let ( ) ( )
2
and
x x
f x e g x e
÷ ÷
= =
( )
0
2
cos
x x
c
F e e sx dx
t
·
÷ ÷
=
}
( )
2
0
2
cos sin
1
x
e
x s sx
s t
·
÷
(
= ÷ +
(
+
¸ ¸
( )
2
2 1
1
1 s t
(
= ÷
(
+
¸ ¸
( )
2 2
0
2
cos
x x
c
F e e sx dx
t
·
÷ ÷
=
}
( )
2
2 2
2
4 s t
| |
= ÷
|
+
\ .
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
0 0
c c
f x g x dx F f x F g x ds
· ·
=
} }
( ) ( ) ( )
2
2 2
0 0
2 1 1
. 1 & 2
1 4
x x
e e dx ds from
s s t
· ·
÷ ÷
| |
=
|
+ +
\ .
} }
( )( )
3
2 2
0 0
4
1 4
x
ds
e dx ds
s s t
· ·
÷
=
+ +
} }
( ) ( )
3
2 2
0 0
1
4 3 4 3 1 4
x
ds e
s s
t t
·
· ÷
(
| |
= =
| (
÷ + + \ .
¸ ¸
}
( )( )
2 2
0
.
12 1 4
ds
s s
t
·
=
+ +
}
(b) To find
( ) ( )
2
2 2 2 2
0
.
x
dx
x a x b
·
+ +
}
Let
( ) ( ) ( ) ,
ax bx
f x e g x e
÷ ÷
= =
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
0
2 2
sin 1
ax
s
s
F g x e sx
s a t t
·
÷
| |
= = ÷
|
+
\ .
}
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
0
2 2
sin 2
bx
s
s
F g x e sx
s b t t
·
÷
| |
= = ÷
|
+
\ .
}
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
0 0
. (1) and(2)
s s
f x g x dx F f x F g x ds From
· ·
= ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ } }
( )( )
2
2 2 2 2
0 0
2
ax bx
s
e e dx ds
s a s b t
· ·
÷ ÷
=
+ +
} }
( )( )
( )
2
2 2 2 2
0 0
2
a b x
s
ds e dx
s a s b
t
· ·
÷ +
=
+ +
} }
( )( )
( )
( ) ( )
2
2 2 2 2
0
0
. .
2 2
a b x
x e
i e dx
a b a b x a x b
t t
·
· ÷ +
(
= =
(
÷ + + + +
¸ ¸
}
Problem 27 (i). Solve for ( ) f x from the integral equation ( )
0
1, 0 1
sin 2, 1 2
0, 2
s
f x sxdx s
s
·
s s ¦
¦
= s s
´
¦
>
¹
}
.
(ii). If the Fourier transform of ( ) f x , defined by ( )
1,
0,
x a
f x
x a
¦ s
¦
=
´
>
¦
¹
is
2 sin as
s t
| |
|
\ .
.
Find ( ) 1 cos
x
F f x
a
t ( | | | |
+
( | |
\ . \ . ¸ ¸
.
Solution:
(i) ( ) ( ) ( )
0
2
sin
s
F f x f x sx dx
t
·
=
}
( ) ( )
1 0 1
2 1 2
2
0 2
s
for s
F f x for s
for s
t
s s ¦
¦
= s s
´
¦
>
¹
By invese Fourier sine transform ,
( ) ( ) ( )
0
2
sin
s
f x F f x sx ds
t
·
=
}
1 2
0 0 1 2
2 2
sin 2sin 0.sin sx dx sx sx ds
t t
· ·
¦ ¹
= + +
´ `
¹ )
} } } }
1 2
0 1
2 cos 2cos sx sx
x x t
¦ ¹
÷ ÷ ¦ ¦ | | | |
= +
´ `
| |
\ . \ .
¦ ¦
¹ )
2 cos 1 2cos 2 2cos x x x
x x x x t
÷ ¦ ¹
= + ÷ +
´ `
¹ )
2 cos 1 2cos 2 x x
x t
+ ÷ ¦ ¹
=
´ `
¹ )
( ) ( )
2
1 cos 2cos 2 . f x x x
x t
= + ÷
(ii). Given ( ) ( ) ( )
2 sin
1
as
F f x
s t
= ÷
From Modulation Theorem
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1
cos where
2
F f x ax f s a f s a F f x f s = + + ÷ = ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
Let a
a
t
=
( )
1
cos
2
x
F f x F s F s
a a a
t t t ( ¦ ¹ | | | |
= + + ÷
´ `
| | (
¹ ) \ . \ . ¸ ¸
( )
sin sin
1 2 2 sin
2
a s a s
as a a
F s
s
s s
a a
t t
t t
t t
( | | | |
+ ÷
| |
(
| |
\ . \ .
( = × +
|
|
(
\ .
+ ÷
(
¸ ¸
| | | |
1
sin cos cos sin sin cos cos sin
2
a a
as as as as
as as
t t t t
t t t
(
= + + ÷
(
+ ÷
¸ ¸
( ) ( )
1
sin sin
2
a a
as as
as as t t t
(
= ÷ + ÷
(
+ ÷
¸ ¸
( )
2 2
2 2 2
1 sin sin sin sin
2
a s as a as a s as a as
a s
t t
t t
(
÷ + ÷ ÷
( =
÷ ÷
(
¸ ¸
( )
2
2 2 2
2 sin
2
a s as
a s t t
÷
=
×÷ ÷
( )
( )
2
2 2 2
2 sin
cos
x a s as
F f x
a a s
t
t t
¦ ¹
=
´ `
÷ ¹ )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 cos cos
x x
F f x F f x F f x
a a
t t ( | | (
+ = +
| ( (
\ . ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
2
2 2 2
2 sin 2 sin as a as
s a s t t t
= +
÷
2
2 2 2
2 1
sin
a s
as
s a s t t
( (
= +
( (
÷
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
( )
2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2
2
sin
a s a s
as
s a s
t
t t
(
÷ +
( =
÷
(
¸ ¸
2
2 2 2
2 sin as
s a s
t
t t
(
=
(
÷
¸ ¸
( )
2
2 2 2
2 2 sin .
2
as
s a s
t
t t
= ×
÷
.
Problem 28 (i). Find Fourier transform of
a x
e

and hence deduce that
(a).
2 2
0
cos
2
a x
xt
dt e
a t a
t
·
÷
=
+
}
(b).
( )
2
2 2
2 2
a x
as
F xe i
s a
t
÷
(
=
¸ ¸
+
.
(ii) . Find Fourier cosine transform of sin
ax
e ax
÷
.
Solution;
(i) Fourier transform of ( ) f x is
( ) ( ) ( )
is
1
2
x
F f x f x e dx
t
·
÷·
=
}
( )
1
cos i sin
2
a x
e sx sx dx
t
·
÷
÷·
= +
}
1
cos sin is .
2
a x a x
e sx dx e sx odd fn
t
·
÷ ÷
÷·
(
=
¸ ¸
}
( ) ( )
2 2
2
1
2
a x
a
F e F s
a s t
÷ (
(
= = ÷
( ¸ ¸
+
¸ ¸
(a) Using Fourier inverse transform,
( )
1
2
a x isx
e F s e ds
t
·
÷ ÷
÷·
=
}
( )
2 2
1 2
cos sin
2
a
sx i sx ds
a s t t
·
÷·
(
= +
(
+
¸ ¸
}
2 2 2 2
cos sin
0 is .
a sx sx
ds an odd fn
a s s a t
·
÷·
(
= +
(
+ +
¸ ¸
}
( )
2 2
2 cos
Re ' ' ' '
a xt
dt place s by t
a t t
·
÷·
=
+
}
2 2
cos
.
2
a x
xt
e dt
a a t
t
·
÷
÷·
=
+
}
(b) . Find Fourier cosine transform of sin
ax
e ax

.
To prove
( )
2
2 2
2 2
a x
as
F xe i
s a
t
÷
(
=
¸ ¸
+
Property:
( ) ( )
n
n
n
n
d F
F x f x i
ds
( = ÷
¸ ¸
( )
( ) dF s
F x f x i
ds
= ÷ (
¸ ¸
( )
a x
a x
i dF e
F xe
ds
÷
÷
÷
(
=
¸ ¸
2 2
2 d a
i
ds a s t
| |
= ÷
|
|
+
\ .
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
.
s as
ia i
a s a s
t t
| |
÷
|
= ÷ =
|
+ +
\ .
(ii) Find the Fourier cosine transform of sin
ax
e ax

.
( ) ( ) ( )
0
2
cos
c
F f x f x sx dx
t
·
=
}
0
2
sin sin cos
ax ax
c
F e ax e ax sx dx
t
·
÷ ÷
( =
¸ ¸ }
( ) ( )
0
2 1
sin sin
2
ax
e s a x s a x dx
t
·
÷
= + ÷ ÷ (
¸ ¸ }
( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
2 2
0
1
sin
2
ax
s a s a b
e bx dx
a b
a s a a s a t
·
÷
¦ ¹
(
+ ÷ ¦ ¦
= ÷ =
´ ` (
+
+ + + +
¸ ¸ ¦ ¦
¹ )
}
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
1
2
a s a s a s a a s a
a s a a s a
t
¦ ¹
+ + + ÷ ÷ + +
¦ ¦
=
´ `
+ + + ÷
¦ ¦
¹ )
2 3 2 3 2 2 2 3 2 3 2 2
4 2 3 3 2 2 4 3 3 2 2 2
1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
4 2 4 2 2 4 2 4 2
a s s as a as a s s s as a s a sa
a a s a s a s s as a s as a s t
¦ ¹ + ÷ + + ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ + + +
=
´ `
+ ÷ + + ÷ + + ÷
¹ )
( )
2 2
3 2
4 4 4 4
2
2 2 2
.
4 4 2
a a s
a as
a s a s t t
| |
÷
¦ ¹ ÷
| = =
´ `
|
+ +
¹ )
\ .
Problem 29 (i). State and Prove Parseval’s Identity in Fourier Transform.
(ii). Find Fourier cosine transform of
2
x
e

Solution:
(i) Parseval’s identity:
Statement: If ( ) F s is the Fourier transform of ( ) f x , then ( ) ( )
2 2
f x dx F s
· ·
÷· ·
=
} }
| | ( ) ( ) Pr * oof by convolution theorem F f g F s G s =
( ) ( )
1
* f g F F s G s
÷
= (
¸ ¸
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
is
1 1
1
2 2
x
f t g x t dt F s G s e ds
t t
· ·
÷· ÷·
÷ = ÷
} }
Put ( ) ( ) 0and , x g t f t = ÷ = then it follows that ( ) ( ) G s F s =
( ) 1 becomes
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) f t f t dt F s F s ds
· ·
÷· ÷·
( (
=
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
} }
( ) ( )
2 2
. . i e f t dt F s ds
· ·
÷· ÷·
=
} }
( ) ( )
2 2
. . i e f t dx F s ds
· ·
÷· ÷·
=
} }
(ii)
( ) ( )
0
2
cos
c
F f x f x sx dx
t
·
= (
¸ ¸ }
2 2
0
2
cos
x x
c
F e e sx dx
t
·
÷ ÷
(
=
¸ ¸
}
2 2 1
cos
2
x
e sx dx
t
·
÷
÷·
= ×
}
2 1
cos
2
x
e sx dx
t
·
÷
÷·
=
}
2 1
2
x
e
t
·
÷
÷·
=
}
RP of
isx
e dx
÷
= R.P of
2
is
1
2
x x
e e dx
t
·
÷
÷·
}
= R.P of
2
is
1
2
x x
e dx
t
·
÷ +
÷·
}
= R.P of
2
2
2
4
is
4
1
2
s
x x
s
e
e dx
e
t
·
÷ +
÷·
}
= R.P of
2 2 2
/ 4 / 4
1
2
s x isx s
e e dx
t
·
÷ ÷ + +
÷·
}
= R.P of
( )
2
2
/ 2 / 4
1
2
x is s
e e dx
t
·
÷ ÷ ÷
÷·
}
Put
is
2
x
t dx dt
÷
= =
When t y = ÷· = ÷·
t y = · = ·
( ) .
c
F f x R P = (
¸ ¸
of
2
2
/ 4
2
s
t
e
e dt
t
· ÷
÷
÷·
}
R.P.of
2
2
/ 4
2
s
t
e
e dt t t
t
· ÷
÷
÷·
(
× =
(
¸ ¸
}
2
/ 4
2
s
e
÷
=
2
2
/ 4
.
2
s
x
c
e
F e
÷
÷
(
=> =
¸ ¸
Problem 30 (i). Find the Fourier transform of
sin ax
x
and hence prove that
2
2
sin
4
ax
dx a
x
t
·
÷·
=
}
.
(ii). Find ( ) f x , if the Fourier transform of ( ) F s is
( )
( )
2sin3 2
2
s
s
t
t
÷
÷
.
Solution:
(i) ( ) ( )
is
1
2
x
F f x f x e dx
t
·
÷·
= (
¸ ¸ }
is
sin 1 sin
2
x
ax ax
F e dx
x x t
·
÷·
( (
=
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
}
( )
1 sin
cos sin
2
ax
sx x dx
x t
·
÷·
(
= +
(
¸ ¸
}
2
t
t
= ×
( )
sin
2 1
ax
F
x
t
(
= ÷
(
¸ ¸
( ) ( )
0
sin sin
2 2
0& 0
2 2
0& 0 0& 0
a s x a s x
dx if a s a s
x x
if a s a s or a s a s
t t
t t
·
( ¦ ¹ + ÷ (
¦ ¦ (
+ = + + > ÷ >
( ´ ` (
(
¸ ¸ ¦ ¦ ( ¸ ¸ ¹ ) ¸ ¸
+ > ÷ < + < ÷ >
}
By Parseval’s identity
( ) ( )
2 2
f x dx F s ds
· ·
÷· ÷·
=
} }
2
2
2
sin
2
a
a
ax
dx ds
x
t
·
÷· ÷
=
} }
| | ( ) 2 2 4
a
a
s a a a t t t
÷
= = + =
2
2
sin
. . 4 .
ax
i e dx a
x
t
·
÷·
=
}
(ii) Let us find
1
2sin3s
F
s
÷
¦ ¹
´ `
¹ )
1 is
2sin3 1 2sin3
2
x
s s
F e ds
s s t
·
÷ ÷
÷·
¦ ¹
=
´ `
¹ )
}
( )
1 2sin3
cos sin
2
s
sx i sx ds
s t
·
÷·
= +
}
0
1 2sin3 cos s sx
ds
s t
·
=
}
(By the property of odd and even function)
( ) ( )
0
sin 3 sin 3 1 x s x
ds
s s t
·
+ ÷ ¦ ¹
= +
´ `
¹ )
}
( ) ( )
0 0
sin 3 sin 3 1 x s x s
ds ds
s s t
· ·
( + ÷
= +
(
¸ ¸
} }
1
3 0&3 0
2 2
3 0&3 0
0 3 0&3 0
if x x
if x x or
x x
t t
t
¦ ¹ (
+ + > ÷ >
¦ ¦ (
¸ ¸
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
= + > ÷ <
´ `
¦ ¦
+ < ÷ >
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¹ )
0
sin
according as m >0 or m < 0 .
2 2
mx
dx or
x
t t
·
(
= ÷
(
¸ ¸
}
1 3 3
0 3 3
if x
if x or x
÷ < < ¦
=
´
< ÷ >
¹
( )
1 3
0 3 1
if x
if x
¦ <
¦
=
´
> ÷
¦
¹
By the shitting property, ( ) { } ( )
iax
F e f x F s a = ÷
( ) ( ) { }
1 iax
e f x F F s a
÷
= ÷
Thus
( )
1 2 1
2sin 3 2
2sin3
2
i
s
s
F e F
s s
t
t
t
÷ ÷
¦ ¹ ÷ (
¦ ¦ | |
¸ ¸
=
´ `
|
÷
\ .
¦ ¦
¹ )
2
1 3
0 3
i
if x
e
if x
t
¦ <
¦
= ×
´
>
¦
¹
2
2
3
0 3
i x
i
e if x
e
if x
t
t
¦ <
¦
= ×
´
>
¦
¹
.
1
UNIT III PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
PART – A
Problem 1 Form the partial differential equation by eliminating a and b from
( )( )
2 2 2 2
z x a y b = + + .
Solution:
( )( )
2 2 2 2
z x a y b = + + - (1)
Differentiating (1) partially w.r. t x and y we get
( )
2 2
2
z
p y b x
x
c
= = +
c
- (2)
( )
2 2
2
z
q x a y
y
c
= = +
c
- (3)
Multiplying Eqn. (2) and Eqn (3) ¬
( )( )
2 2 2 2
4 pq x a y b xy = + +
4 pq xyz = [using (1)]
Problem 2 Obtain the partial differential equation by eliminating arbitrary constants a
and b from ( ) ( )
2 2
2
1 x a y b z ÷ + ÷ + = .
Solution:
( ) ( )
2 2
2
1 x a y b z ÷ + ÷ + = - (1)
Differentiating (1) partially w.r. t x and y we get
( ) 2 2 0 x a zp ÷ + =
x a zp ¬ ÷ = ÷ - (2)
( ) 2 2 0 y b zq ÷ + =
y b zq ¬ ÷ = ÷ - (3)
Substituting (2) & (3) in (1) we get
2 2 2 2 2
1 z p z q z + + =
i.e.,
( )
2 2 2
1 1 z p q + + =
Problem 3 From the partial differential equation by eliminating f from
( )
2 2 2
, 0 f x y z x y z + + + + = .
Solution:
We know that if f (u, v) = 0
then u = f (v)
( )
2 2 2
x y z f x y z + + = + + - (1)
Differentiating (1) partially w.r. t x and y
We get
2
( )( )
'
2 2 1 x zp f x y z p + = + + + - (2)
( ) ( )
'
2 2 1 y zq f x y z q + = + + +
Divide (2) & (3)
1
1
x zp p
y zq q
+ +
=
+ +
x qx zp zpq y py zq zpq + + + = + + +
( ) ( ) z y p x z q y x ÷ + ÷ = ÷
Problem 4 Form the partial differential equation by eliminating f from
2
1
2 log z x f x
y
| |
= + +
|
\ .
.
Solution:
Let
2
1
2 log z x f x
y
| |
= + +
|
\ .
- (1)
Differentiate (1) w.r. t x and y
'
1 1
2 2 log
z
p x f x
x y x
| | c | |
= = + +
| |
c
\ .
\ .
- (2)
'
2
1 1
2 log
z
q f x
y y y
| || | c ÷
= = +
| |
c
\ .\ .
- (3)
Eliminating
'
f from (2) & (3)
( )
2
2 1 p x
y
q x
÷ ÷
=
2 2
2 px x qy ÷ = ÷
2 2
2 px qy x + =
Problem 5 Obtain the partial differential equation by eliminating the arbitrary constants
a & b from
2 2
z xy y x a b = + ÷ + .
Solution:
2 2
z xy y x a b = + ÷ + - (1)
Differentiating (1) partially w.r. t x and y
| |
2 2
1
2
2
z
p y y x
x
x a
(
c
= = +
(
c
÷
¸ ¸
2 2
yx
p y
x a
= +
÷
2 2
1
p x
y
x a
= +
÷
3
2 2
1
p x
y
x a
÷ =
÷
- (2)
2 2
z
q x x a
y
c
= = + ÷
c
2 2
q x x a ÷ = ÷ - (3)
Multiplying (2) & (3)
( )
( )
2 2
2 2
1
1
p x
q x x a
y
x a
p
q x x
y
| |
÷ ÷ = ÷
|
÷ \ .
| |
÷ ÷ =
|
\ .
( )( ) p y q x xy
pq xp yq xy xy
px qy pq
÷ ÷ =
÷ ÷ + =
+ =
Problem 6 Find the complete integral of p q pq + = where
z z
p and q
x y
c c
= =
c c
.
Solution:
p q pq + = - (1)
This is of the form ( ) , 0 f p q =
Let z ax by c = + + - (2) be the complete solution of the partial differential
equation.
z
p a
x
z
q b
y
c
= =
c
c
= =
c
(1) reduces to a+b=ab
( ) 1
1
a b a
a
b
a
= ÷
=
÷
1
a
z ax y c
a
| |
= + +
|
÷
\ .
Problem 7 Obtain the complete integral of
2 2
z px qy p q = + + + .
Solution:
2 2
z px qy p q = + + + - (1)
This equation is of the form ( ) , z px qy f p q = + + (clairaut’s type)
the complete integral is
2 2
z ax by a b = + + + .
4
Problem 8 Solve ( ) 1 p q qz + = .
Solution:
( ) 1 p q qz + = - (1)
This equation is of the form ( ) , , 0 f z p q =
( ) z f x ay = + be the solution
( ) x ay u z f u + = =
dz adz
p q
du du
= =
(1) reduces to
1
1
1
1
1
dz dz dz
a a z
du du du
dz
a az
du
dz
a az
du
dz
z
du a
dz
du
z
a
| |
+ =
|
\ .
+ =
= ÷
= ÷
=
÷
Integrating
1
log z u b
a
| |
÷ = +
|
\ .
i.e.,
1
log z x ay b
a
| |
÷ = + +
|
\ .
is the complete solution.
Problem 9 Solve the equation tan tan tan p x q y z + = .
Solution:
Given tan tan tan p x q y z + =
This equation is of the form
p q
P Q R + =
When P = tan x Q = tan y R = tan z
The subsidiary equations are
. .,
tan tan tan
dx dy dz
P Q R
dx dy dz
i e
x y z
= =
= =
Considering the first two,
tan tan
dx dy
x y
=
Sign,
5
cot cot
logsin logsin log
sin
log log
sin
sin
sin
sin
. .,
sin
xdx ydy
x y a
x
a
y
x
a
y
x
i e a
y
=
= +
| |
=
|
\ .
=
=
} }
Take,
tan tan
tan tan
dy dz
y z
dy dz
y z
=
=
} }
cot cot
logsin logsin log
sin
log log
sin
ydy zdz
y z b
y
b
z
=
= +
| |
=
|
\ .
} }
sin
sin
y
b
z
=
Hence the general solution is
sin sin
, 0
sin sin
x y
y z
|
| |
=
|
\ .
Problem 10 Solve
( )
3 2 3
3 2 0 D DD D Z ' ' ÷ + = .
Solution:
Substituting D = m, & D
1
= 1
The Auxiliary equation is m
3
- 3m + 2 = 0
m = 1, 1, -2
Complimentary function is ( ) ( ) ( )
1 2 3
2 y x x y x y x | | | + + + + ÷
i.e., ( ) ( ) ( )
1 2 3
1 2 Z y x y x y x | | | = + + + + ÷
Problem 11 Find the general solution of
2 2 2
2 2
4 12 9 0
z z z
x x y y
c c c
÷ + =
c c c c
.
Solution:
( )
2 1 12
4 12 9 0 D DD D Z ÷ + =
The auxiliary equation is
2
4 12 9 0 m m ÷ + =
4m
2
– 6m – 6m +9 = 0
2m (2m – 3) – 3 (2m – 3) = 0
6
(2m – 3)
2
= 0
m =
3
2
(twice)
C.F. =
1 2
3 3
2 2
y x x y x | |
| | | |
+ + +
| |
\ . \ .
the General solution is Z = C.F. + P.I
1 2
3 3
2 2
z y x x y x | |
| | | |
= + + +
| |
\ . \ .
Problem 12 Solve
( )
3 2 2 3
0 D DD D D D z ' ' ' + ÷ ÷ = .
Solution:
The Auxiliary equation is
( ) ( )
( )( )
3 2
2
2
1 0
1 1 0
1 1 0
. . 1, ,
m m m
m m m
m m
i e m i i
÷ + ÷ =
÷ + ÷ =
+ ÷ =
= ÷
The general solution is ( ) ( ) ( )
1 2 3
Z y x y ix y ix | | | = + + + + ÷
Problem 13 Find the particular integral of
( )
3 2 2 3
cos2
x
D D D DD D z e y ' ' ' + ÷ ÷ = .
Solution:
P.I.
3 2 2 3
1
cos 2
x
e y
D D D DD D
=
'
' ' + ÷ ÷
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )( )
( )
( )
3 2
2 3
2
3 2
2 3
2
cos 2
1 1 1
R.P. of
1 1 1
R.P. of
1 2 4 8
1 2
R.P. of cos 2 sin 2
5 1 2 1 2
1 1
. cos 2 2sin 2
5 5
x
iy
x
iy
x
x
x
y
e
D D D D D D
e
e
D D D D D D
e
e
i i
e i
y i y
i i
e y y
=
' ' ' + + + ÷ + ÷
=
' ' ' + + + ÷ + ÷
=
+ + +
÷
= +
+ ÷
= +
P.I. ( ) cos 2 2sin 2
25
x
e
y y = +
Problem 14 Solve
( )
2
1 0 D DD D z ' ' ÷ + ÷ = .
Solution:
7
( )
( )( )
2
1 0
1 ' 1 0
D DD D
D D D
' ' ÷ + ÷ =
÷ ÷ + =
This is of the form
( )( )
1 1
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
0
0, 1, 1, 1
D m D D m D
m m
o o
o o
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ =
= = = = ÷
C.F. is ( ) ( )
1 2
1 1 2 2
x x
Z e f y m x e f y m x
o o
= + + +
( ) ( )
1 2
x x
Z e f y e f y x
÷
= + +
Problem 15 Solve ( )( )
2
1 2
x y
D D D D z e
÷
' ' ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = .
Solution:
This is of the form
( ) ( ) ( )
1 1 2 2
.... 0
n n
D m D C D m D C D m D C Z ' ' ' ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ =
Hence
1 1 2 2
1 1 1 1 m c m c = = = =
2
2 c =
Hence the C.F. is ( ) ( )
2
1 2
x x
z e y x e y x | | = + + +
P.I.
( )( )
2
1 2
x y
e
D D D D
÷
=
' ' ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
( )( )
2
2
2 1 1 2 1 2
1
2
x y
x y
e
e
÷
÷
=
+ ÷ + ÷
=
Hence, the complete solution is ( ) ( )
2 2
1 2
1
2
x x x y
Z e y x e y x e | |
÷
= + + + +
PART – B
Problem 16
a. From the partial differential equation by eliminating f and |
from ( ) ( ) z f y x y z | = + + + .
Solution:
( ) ( ) z f y x y z | = + + + - (1)
Differentiating partially with respect to x and y, we get
( )( ) 1 P x y z p |' = + + + - (2)
( ) ( )( ) ' ' 1 q f y x y z q | = + + + + - (3)
( ) ( )( )
2
' . " 1 r x y z r x y z p | | = + + + + + + - (4)
( ) ( )( )( ) ' . " 1 1 s x y z s x y z p q | | = + + + + + + + - (5)
( ) ( ) ( )( )
2
" ' '' 1 t f y x y z t x y z q | | = + + + + + + + - (6)
8
From (4) ( ) { } ( ) ( )
2
1 ' 1 " r x y z p x y z | | ÷ + + = + + + - (7)
From (5) ( ) { } ( )( ) ( ) 1 ' 1 1 " s x y z p q x y z | | ÷ + + = + + + + - (8)
Dividing (7) & (8) we get
( )
( )
( ) ( )
1
1
1 1
p r
s q
q r p s
+
=
+
+ = +
b. Solve
( )
2 2 3
2
x
D DD z e x y ' ÷ = + .
Solution:
Auxiliary Equation is given by
2
2 0 m m ÷ =
i.e., m (m – 2) =0
m = 0, m = 2
C.F. = ( ) ( )
1 2
2 f y f y x + +
( )
2
1
2
2
1
2
(Replace D by 2 and D by 0)
4
x
x
PI e
D DD
e
=
' ÷
' =
( )
3
2
2
1
3
2
3
2
3
3
2
5 6
5 6
1
2
1 2
1
1 2
1 ......
1 2
2.
20 4.5.6
20 60
PI x y
D DD
D
x y
D D
D
x y
D D
x
x y
D D
x x
y
x x
y
÷
=
' ÷
'
| |
= ÷
|
\ .
'
| |
= + +
|
\ .
| |
= +
|
\ .
= +
= +
The complete solution is
( ) ( )
1 2
2 5 6
1 2
. .
2
4 20 20
x
Z C F PI PI
e x y x
Z f y f y x
= + +
= + + + + +
Problem 17
a. Find the complete integral of p q x y + = + .
Solution:
9
The given equation does not contain z explicitly and is variable separable.
That is the equation can be rewritten as p – x = y – q =a, say - (!)
and p a x q y a = + = ÷
Now dz = pdx + qdy
( ) ( ) dz a x dx y a dy = + + ÷ (2)
Integrating both sides with respect to he concerned variables, we get
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
a x y a
z b
+ ÷
= + + - (3)
when a and b are arbitrary constants.
b. Solve ( )
2
2 y p xyq x z y ÷ = ÷ .
Solution:
This is a Lagrange’s linear equation of the form Pp Qq R + =
The subsidiary equations are
( )
2
2
dx dy dz
P Q R
dx dy dz
y xy x z y
= =
= =
÷ ÷
Taking I & II ratios
2
dx dy
y xy
xdx ydy
=
÷
= ÷
Integrating,
2 2
2 2
1
2 2
2
x y
C
x y c c
÷
= +
+ = =
Taking II & III ratios
( ) 2
dy dz
xy x z y
=
÷ ÷
( )
( )
2
2
2
Z y dy ydz
ydz zdy ydy
d yz ydy
÷ = ÷
+ =
=
Integrating,
2
2
2
2
yz y c
yz y c
= +
÷ =
the solution is
( )
2 2 2
, 0 x y yz y | + ÷ =
Problem 18
a. Find the singular integral of the partial differential equation
2 2
z px qy p q = + + ÷ .
10
Solution:
The given equation
2 2
z px qy p q = + + ÷ is a clairaut’s type equation.
Hence the complete solution is
2 2
z ax by a b = + + ÷ -(1)
To get singular Solution :
Differentiate (1) w.r.t. a and b
0 = x + 2a - (2)
0 = y – 2b - (3)
and
2 2
x y
a b
÷
= =
Substituting in (1),
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2
2 2 4
2 2
4
4 is the singular solution.
x y x y
z
x y x y
z
z y x
÷ ÷
= + +
÷ + + ÷
=
= ÷
b. Solve
( ) ( )
2 2 2
4 5 3 sin 2
x y
D DD D z e x y
÷
' ' + ÷ = + ÷ .
Solution:
The Auxiliary equation,
( ) ( )
( )( )
2
2
4 5 0
5 5 0
5 5 0
1 5 0
1, 5
m m
m m m
m m m
m m
m
+ ÷ =
+ ÷ ÷ =
+ ÷ + =
÷ + =
= ÷
C.F. = ( ) ( ) 5 f y x g y x + + ÷
2
1 2 2
2
2
2
1
3
4 5
3
4 8 5
3
9
1
3
x y
x y
x y
x y
PI e
D DD D
e
e
e
÷
÷
÷
÷
=
' ' + ÷
=
÷ ÷
=
÷
÷
=
11
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
2 2 2
1
sin 2
4 5
1
sin 2
1 4 2 5 4
1
sin 2
1 8 20
1
sin 2
27
PI x y
D DD D
x y
x y
x y
= ÷
' ' + ÷
= ÷
÷ + ÷ ÷
= ÷
÷ + +
= ÷
the complete solution is
1 2
Z CF PI PI = + +
i.e. ( ) ( ) ( )
2
1 1
5 sin 2
3 27
x y
Z f y x g y x e x y
÷
= + + ÷ ÷ + ÷
Problem 19 a. Find the general solution of ( ) ( ) 3 4 4 2 2 3 z y p x z q y x ÷ + ÷ = ÷ .
Solution:
This is a Lagrange’s linear equation of the formPp Qq R + = .
The subsidiary equations are
dx dy dz
P Q R
= =
3 4 4 2 2 3
dx dy dz
z y x z y x
= =
÷ ÷ ÷
- (1)
Use Lagrangian multipliers x, y, z we get each ratio is
3 4 4 2 2 3
xdx ydy zdz
xz xy xy yz yz xz
+ +
÷ + ÷ + ÷
( )
2 2 2
1
2
0
d x y z + +
=
Hence
( )
2 2 2
0 d x y z + + =
Integrating both the sides,
2 2 2
1
x y z C + + = - (2)
using multipliers 2, 3, 4 each of equation (1) is
2 3 4
6 8 12 6 8 12
2 3 4
0
dx dy dz
z y x z y x
dx dy dz
+ +
=
÷ + ÷ + ÷
+ +
=
2 3 4 0 dx dy dz + + =
Hence
2
2 3 4 x y z C + + = - (3)
the General solution is
( )
2 2 2
, 2 3 4 0 x y z x y z | + + + + =
b. Solve
( ) ( )
2
2 2 3 2
2 3 3 2 2
x y
D DD D D D z e e
÷
' ' ' ÷ + ÷ + + = + .
Solution:
12
( ) ( )( )
( )( )
2 2
6 3 2 4
1 1 2 2
2 3 3 2 ' 2 ' 1
' 2 ' 1 4 4
1, 2, 1, 1
x x y y
D DD D D D z D D D D z
D D D D z e e e
m m o o
÷ ÷
' ' ' ÷ + ÷ + + = ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ (
¸ ¸
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = + + (
¸ ¸
= = = =
( ) ( )
2
C.F.
x x
e f y x e f y x = + + +
( )( )
( )( )
6
1
6
6
1
2 1
1
6 0 2 6 0 1
1
20
x
x
x
PI e
D D D D
e
e
=
' ' ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
=
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
=
( )( )
( )( )
( )
3 2
2
3 2
3 2
3 2
1
4
2 1
4
3 2 2 3 2 1
4
3 4
1
3
x y
x y
x y
x y
PI e
D D D D
e
e
e
÷
÷
÷
÷
=
' ' ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
=
+ ÷ + ÷
=
=
( )( )
( )( )
( )( )
4
3
4
4
4
1
4
2 1
4
0 4 2 0 4 1
4
2 3
2
3
y
y
y
y
PI e
D D D D
e
e
e
÷
÷
÷
÷
=
' ' ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
=
+ ÷ + ÷
=
=
the general solution
( ) ( )
2 6 3 2 4
1 1 2
20 3 3
x x x x y y
Z e f y x e f y x e e e
÷ ÷
= + + + + + +
Problem 20
a. Form the differential equation by eliminating the arbitrary function f and
g in ( ) ( ) z f x y g x y = + ÷
Solution:
( ) ( ) z f x y g x y = + ÷
13
Let u x y v x y = + = ÷
( ) ( ) . Z f u g v = - (1)
Differentiating partially with respect to x and y, we get
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) . ' ' . p f u g v f u g v = + - (2)
( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( ) ' 1 ' q f u g v f u g v = ÷ + - (3)
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) " 2 ' ' " . r f u g v f u g v f u g v = + + - (4)
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) " 1 " . s f u g v f u g v = ÷ + - (5)
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) " 2 ' ' " t f u g v f u g v f u g v = ÷ + - (6)
Subtracting (4) from (6) , we get
( ) ( ) 4 . r t f u g v ' ' ÷ = - (7)
From (2) & (3), we get
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
4 . . ' . ' p q f u g v f u g v ÷ =
= Z (r – t) from (1) & (7)
i.e.,
2
2
2 2
2 2
z z z z
z
x y x y
| | | | c c c c | |
÷ = ÷
| | |
c c c c
\ .
\ . \ .
b. Solve the equation( )( ) pq p q z px qy pq ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = .
Solution:
Rewriting the given equation as
pq
Z px qy
pq p q
= + +
÷ ÷
- (1)
we identify it as a clairaut’s type equation. Hence its complete solution is
ab
Z ax by
ab a b
= + +
÷ ÷
- (2)
The general solution of (1) is found out as usual from (2).
Let us now find the singular solution of (1).
Differentiating (2) partially with respect to a and then b, we get
( ) ( )
( )
2
1
0
ab a b b ab b
x
ab a b
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= +
÷ ÷
i.e.,
( )
2
2
0
b
x
ab a b
= ÷
÷ ÷
- (3)
and similarly
( )
2
2
0
a
y
ab a b
= ÷
÷ ÷
- (4)
From (3) & (4), we get
2
2
a y
b x
= or
a b
k
y x
= = , say
a k y = and b k x =
Using there values in (3) we get
14
( )
( )
2
2 2
2 2
0 k x k xy k y k x x
k x k xy k y k x x
÷ ÷ ÷ =
= ÷ ÷
i.e.,
( )
1 k xy x y ÷ ÷ =
1 x y
k
xy
+ +
=
Hence
1 1
and
x y x y
a b
x y
+ + + +
= =
Also
1 1
1 1
1
1
1 1
1
ab
ab a b y x
b a
x y x y
x y
= =
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
+ + + +
= + +
Using these values in (2), the singular solution of (1) is
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2
1 1 1
1
z x x y y x y x y
z x y
= + + + + + + + +
= + +
Problem 21
a. Form the partial differential equation by eliminating
f from
( )
2 2 2 2
, 2 0 f x y z z xy + + ÷ = .
Solution:
( )
2 2 2 2
, 2 0 f x y z z xy + + ÷ =
Let
2 2 2 2
and v 2 u x y z z xy = + + = ÷ then
the given equation is ( ) , 0 f u v = - (1)
Differentiating (1) partially w.r.t. x and y respectively
we get . 0
f u f v
u x v x
c c c c
+ =
c c c c
and . . 0
f u f v
u y v y
c c c c
+ =
c c c c
( ) ( ) 2 2 2 2 0
f f
x zp zp y
u v
c c
¬ + + ÷ =
c c
- (4)
( ) ( ) 2 2 + 2zq-2x 0
f f
y zq
u v
c c
+ =
c c
-(5)
from (4) and (5)
we get 0
x zp zp y
y zq zq x
+ ÷
=
+ ÷
15
( ) ( ) ( )( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )( )
( )
2 2 2 2
2 2
x zp zq x y zq zp y
zqx x z pq xzp zpy y z pq zqy
zp x y zq x y x y
zp x y zq x y x y x y
zp zq x y
zp zq y x
z p q y x
+ ÷ = + ÷
÷ + ÷ = ÷ + ÷
÷ + + + = ÷
÷ + + + = ÷ +
÷ + = ÷
÷ = ÷
÷ = ÷
b. Solve the equation
( ) ( )
2
1 1 p q q z ÷ = ÷ .
Solution:
The given equation is of the from ( ) , , 0 f z p q =
( ) ( )
2
1 P q q p z ÷ = ÷ - (1)
Let ( ) z f x ay = + be the solution of (1)
If
( ) If then
and
x ay u z f u
dz adz
p q
du du
+ = =
= =
(1) reduces as
( )
2
2
1 1
z dz adz
a z
u du du
(
c | |
÷ = ÷
(
|
c
\ .
(
¸ ¸
i.e.,
2
2
1 0
dz dz
a a az
du du
(
| |
÷ ÷ + =
(
|
\ .
(
¸ ¸
As z is not a constant, 0
dz
du
=
2
2
1 0
dz
a a az
du
| |
÷ ÷ + =
|
\ .
i.e.,
2
2
1
dz
a az a
du
| |
= + ÷
|
\ .
1
dz
a az a
du
= + ÷ - (3)
solving (3), we get
( ) ( )
2
1
2 1
2 1
4 1
dz
a du
az a
az a u b
az a x ay b
az a x ay b
=
+ ÷
+ ÷ = +
+ ÷ = + +
+ ÷ = + +
} }
16
which is the complete solution of (1)
Problem 22
a. Solve the equation
( )
2 2 2 2 2
p q z x y + = + .
Solution:
The given equation dues not belong to any of the standard types.
It can be rewritten as
( ) ( )
2 2
1 1 2 2
z p z q x y
÷ ÷
+ = + - (1)
As the Equation (1) contains
1 1
and z p z q
÷ ÷
we make the substitution Z = log z
-1 -1
z p=P and z q Q =
Using there values in (1), it becomes
2 2 2 2
P Q x y + = + (2)
As Eq. (2) dues not contain Z explicitly, we rewrite it as
2 2 2 2 2
P x y Q a ÷ = ÷ = , say (3)
From (3)
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
and
and
P a x Q y a
P a x Q y a
dz Pdx Qdy
dz a x dx y a dy
= + = ÷
= + = ÷
= +
= + + ÷
Integrating, we get
2 2
2 2 1 2 2 1
sin cos
2 2 2 2
x a x y a y
Z x a h y a h b
a a
÷ ÷
| | | |
= + + + ÷ ÷ +
| |
\ . \ .
the complete solution of (1) is
2 2
2 2 1 2 2 1
log sin cos
2 2 2
x a x y a y
z x a h y a h b
a a a
÷ ÷
| | | |
= + + + ÷ ÷ +
| |
\ . \ .
where a and b are arbitrary constants.
Singular solution does not exist and the General solution is found out as usual.
b. Solve the equation
( ) ( )
2 2 2
sin2 sin3 2sin D D z x y x y ' + = + + .
Solution:
The auxiliary equation is m
2
+ 1 = 0
i.e., m i = ±
C.F. = ( ) ( ) f y ix g y ix + + ÷
17
( ) ( ) { }
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) { }
1 2 2
2 2
1
sin 2 sin3
'
1 1
. cos 2 3 cos 2 3
' 2
1 1 1
cos 2 3 cos 2 3
2 4 9 4 9
1 1
. cos 2 3 cos 2 3
13 2
1
sin 2 sin3
13
PI x y
D D
x y x y
D D
x y x y
x y x y
x y
=
+
= ÷ ÷ +
+
(
= ÷ ÷ +
(
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
¸ ¸
÷
= ÷ ÷ +
÷
=
( )
( ) { }
( ) ( )
( )
( )
2
2 2 2
2 2
2 2 2 2
0
2 2
2
1
2sin
'
1
1 cos 2 2
'
1 1
1 cos 2 2
' '
1 1
cos 2 2
' 4 4
1
cos 2 2
2 8
x
PI x y
D D
x y
D D
x y
D D D D
e x y
D D
x
x y
= +
+
= ÷ +
+
= ÷ +
+ +
= ÷ +
+ ÷ ÷
= + +
The complete solution is
1 2
. . Z C F PI PI = + +
i.e., ( ) ( ) ( )
2
1 1
sin 2 sin3 cos 2 2
13 2 8
x
Z f y i x g y i x x y x y = + + ÷ ÷ + + +
Problem 23
a. Solve 1 p q + = .
Solution:
This is of the form ( ) , 0 f p q = .
The complete integral is given by z ax by c = + + where
( )
2
1
1
1
a b
b a
b a
+ =
= ÷
= ÷
The complete solution is
( )
2
1 z ax a y c = + ÷ + - (1)
Differentiating partially w.r.t. c we get 0 = 1 (absurd)
There is no singular integral
Taking ( ) c f a = where f is arbitrary,
( )
( )
2
1 z ax a y f a = + ÷ + - (2)
Differentiating partially w.r.t a, we get
18
( )
( )
1
0 2 1 '
2
x a y f a
a
÷ | |
= + ÷ +
|
\ .
- (3)
Eliminating ‘a’ between (2) & (3) we get the general solution.
b. Solve
( ) ( )
2 2 2
x yz p y zx q z xy ÷ + ÷ = ÷ .
Solution:
This is a Lagrange’s linear equation of the form Pp Qq R + =
The subsidiary equations are
2 2 2
dx dy dz
x yz y zx z xy
= =
÷ ÷ ÷
- (1)
( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 2 2
dx dy dy dz dx dz
y zx z xy x yz z xy x yz y zx
÷ ÷ ÷
= =
÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷
i.e.,
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
2 2 2 2 2 2
1
d x y d y z d x z
y z x y z x z y z x y z x y
÷ ÷ ÷
= =
÷ + ÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷ + ÷
i.e.,
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
d x y d y z d x z
x y x y z y z x y z x z x y z
÷ ÷ ÷
= =
÷ + + ÷ + + ÷ + +
- (2)
i.e.,
( )
( )
( ) ( ) d x y d y z d x z
x y y z x z
÷ ÷ ÷
= =
÷ ÷ ÷
- (3)
Taking the first two ratios, and integrating ( ) ( ) log log log x y y z a ÷ = ÷ +
x y
a
y z
÷
=
÷
- (4)
Similarly taking the last two ratios of (3) we get,
y z
b
x z
÷
=
÷
- (5)
But
x y
y z
÷
÷
and
y z
x z
÷
÷
are not independent solutions for 1
x y
y z
÷
+
÷
gives
x z
y z
÷
÷
which is the reciprocal of the second solution.
Therefore solution given by (4) and (5) are not independent. Hence we have to
search for another independent solution.
Using multipliers x, y, z in equation (1) each ratio is
3 3 3
3
xdx ydy zdz
x y z xyz
+ +
=
+ + ÷
Using multipliers 1, 1, 1 each ratio is
2 2 2
dx dy dz
x y z xy yz zx
+ +
=
+ + ÷ ÷ ÷
3 3 3 2 2 2
3
xdx ydy zdz dx dy dz
x y z xyz x y z xy yz zx
+ + + +
=
+ + ÷ + + ÷ ÷ ÷
( )
( )( )
( )
2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2
1
2
d x y z
d x y z
x y z xy yz zx x y z x y z xy yz zx
+ +
+ +
=
+ + ÷ ÷ ÷ + + + + ÷ ÷ ÷
19
Hence
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
1
2
d x y z x y z d x y z + + = + + + +
Integrating
( )
( )
2
2 2 2
1
2 2
x y z
x y z k
+ +
+ + = +
( ) ( )
2
2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2
2
2 2 2 2
x y z x y z k
x y z x y z xy yz zx k
+ + = + + +
+ + = + + + + + +
i.e., xy yz zx b + + =
the general solution is , 0
x y
xy yz zx
y z
|
| | ÷
+ + =
|
÷
\ .
Problem 24
a. Solve 2 log yp xy q = + .
Solution:
( )
2 log
2 log
2 log
log
2 ( )
yp xy q
yp xy q
p x y q
q
p x a say
y
= +
÷ =
÷ =
÷ = =
1
2 and log p x a q a
y
÷ = = - (1)
2 , log
ay
p x a q ay
q e
= + =
=
Now dz pdx qdy = +
( ) 2
ay
dz x a dx e dy = + + - (2)
Integrating (2), we get
2
1
ay
z x ax e b
a
= + + + - (3)
Where a and b are arbitrary constant.
Equation (3) is the complete solution of the given equation.
Differentiating (3) partially w.r.t b we get 0 = 1 (absurd)
There is no singular integral.
Put ( ) b a | = in (3)
( )
2
ay
e
z x ax a
a
| = + + + - (4)
Differentiating partially w.r.t a we get
20
( ) ( )
( )
2
2
1 1
0 0 '
1
0 ' -(5)
ay ay
ay ay
x e y e a
a a
y
x e e a
a a
|
|
÷ | |
= + + + +
|
\ .
= + ÷ +
Eliminating ‘a’ between (4) & (5) we obtain the general solution.
b. Solve
4 2 2
2 3 0 x p yzq z ÷ ÷ = .
Solution:
Rewriting this equation, we get
2
2
2 3 0
x p yq
z z
| |
÷ ÷ =
|
\ .
This is an equation of the form
( )
, 0
m k n k
f x z p y z q = may be transformed into
the standard type ( ) , 0 f P Q = by putting
1 1
,
m n
X x Y y
÷ ÷
= = and
1
, 1
k
Z z whereK
+
= = ÷
(or) log log log X x Y y Z z = = = if 1, 1 m n = = and 1 k = ÷
Here 2 1 m n = =
Hence
1
log and log X x Y y Z z
÷
= = =
( )
2
2
1
1
.
Z Z z x px
P p x
X z x X z z
Z Z z y y
Q q y q
Y z y Y Z Z
c c c c ÷
= = = ÷ =
c c c c
c c c c
= = = =
c c c c
the equation becomes,
2
2 3 0 P Q ÷ ÷ =
This is of the form ( ) , 0 f P Q =
Hence the complete integral is Z aX bY c = + +
Where
2
2
2 3 0
2 3
a b
b a
÷ ÷ =
= ÷
the complete solution is Z aX bY c = + +
i.e.,
( )
2
log 2 3 log
a
z a y c
x
= + ÷ + - (1)
Differentiating equation (1) partially w.r.t to c
We get 0 = 1 (absurd)
Singular integral does not exist.
Taking C = f (a) where f is arbitrary
( ) ( )
2
log 2 3 log
a
z a y f a
x
= + ÷ + - (2)
Differentiating partially w.r.t a we get
( )
1
0 4 log ' a y f a
x
= + + - (3)
Eliminating ‘a’ between (2) & (3) we get the general solution.
21
Problem 25
a. Find the complete solution of ( ) ( )
2 2
1 x pz y qz + + + = .
Solution:
( ) ( )
2 2
1 x pz y qz + + + = - (1)
This equation is of the form
( )
, 0
k k
f z p z q =
If 1 k = ÷ and
1 k
Z z
+
=
Hence put Z = z
2
. 2
Z Z z
P zp
x z x
c c c
= = =
c c c
2
p
Pz =
. 2
Z Z z
Q zq
y z y
c c c
= = =
c c c
2
Q
qz =
Substituting there results in (1)
2 2
1
2 2
P Q
x y
| | | |
+ + + =
| |
\ . \ .
This is a separable equation
2 2
2
1
2 2
P Q
x y a
| | | |
+ = ÷ + =
| |
\ . \ .
( )
2
2 2 1
dZ Pdx Qdy
dZ a x dx a y dy
= +
(
= ÷ + ÷ ÷
¸ ¸
Integrating,
( )
( )
2
2
2
2
2 2 2
2 1
2
2 1
y
Z a x a y dy
Z a x a y y b
(
= ÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷
(
¸ ¸
= ÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷ +
is the complete solution.
b. Solve
( ) ( )
2 2
2 z yz y p xy zx q xy zx ÷ ÷ + + = ÷ .
Solution:
This is a Lagrange’s linear equation of the form Pp Qq R + =
The subsidiary equations are
2 2
2
dx dy dz
z yz y xy zx xy zx
= =
÷ ÷ + ÷
Taking x, y, z as multipliers, we have each fraction
0
xdx ydy zdz + +
=
0 xdx ydy zdz + + =
22
Integrating
2 2 2
2 2 2
x y z
c + + =
i.e.,
2 2 2
1
x y z C + + = - (1)
Again, taking the last two members, we have
( ) ( )
dy dz
x y z x y z
=
+ ÷
i.e.,
dy dz
y z y z
=
+ ÷
( ) ( )
( )
( )
0
0
y z dy y z dz
ydy zdy ydz zdz
ydy zdy ydz zdz
ydy d yz zdz z
÷ = +
÷ = +
÷ + ÷ =
÷ ÷ =
Integrating we get
2 2
2
2 y yz z C ÷ ÷ = - (2)
From (1) & (2) the general solution is
( )
2 2 2 2 2
, 2 0 x y z y yz z | + + ÷ ÷ =
Problem 26
a. Solve the equation
( )
4 3
9 4 1 pqz z = + .
Solution:
( )
4 3
9 4 1 pqz z = + - (1)
The given equation is of the form ( ) , , 0 f z p q =
Let ( ) z f x ay = + be the solution of (1)
If x ay u + = then ( ) z f u =
dz
P
du
= and
dz
q a
du
=
Substituting the values of p & q in (1), we get
( )
2
4 3
2 3
2
3
9 4 1
3 2 1
3
2
1
dz
a z z
du
dz
az z
du
a z dz
du
z
| |
= +
|
\ .
= +
=
+
Integrating we get
2
3
3
2
1
a z
dz du
z
=
+
} }
Put 1 + z
3
= t
2
2
3 2 z dz tdt =
23
2
2
a tdt
du
t
=
} }
a dt du
a t u b
=
= +
} }
i.e,
3
1 a z x ay b + = + +
( ) ( )
2
3
1 a z x ay b + = + + - (2)
The singular solution is found as usual
Put ( ) b a | =
( ) ( ) ( )
2
3
1 a z x ay a | + = + + - (3)
Differential w.r.t. a
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
3
1 2 z x ay a y a | |' + = + + + - (4)
The elimination of ‘a’ between (3) & (4) gives the General solution.
b. Solve
( ) ( )
2 2 2
3 2 2 4
x y
D DD D z x e
+
' ' ÷ + = + .
Solution:
The Auxiliary equation is
( )( )
2
3 2 0
1 2 0
1, 2
m m
m m
m
÷ + =
÷ ÷ =
=
C.F. ( ) ( )
1 2
2 y x y x | | = + + +
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )( )
( )
( )
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2 4
. .
3 ' 2 '
2 4
2 ' '
Re 1, ' ' 2
., , ' '
2 4
1 2 ' 2 1 ' 2
2 4
2 ' 3 ' 1
2 4
2 '
3 1 1 '
3
x y
x y
x y
x y
x y
e x
P I
D DD D
e x
D D D D
placeD D D D
ie D D a D D b
x
e
D D D D
x
e
D D D D
x
e
D D
D D
+
+
+
+
+
+
=
÷ +
+
=
÷ ÷
= + = +
= + = +
+
=
+ ÷ + + ÷ + ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
+
=
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
+
=
÷ ( | |
÷ ÷ ÷ (
| ¸ ¸ (
\ . ¸ ¸
24
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
1
1
2
2
2
2
2 2
1 2 '
1 1 ' 2 4
3 3
1 2 '
1 ... 1 ' ... 2 4
3 3
1 4 5 ' ...
1 2 4
3 3
1 1
2 4 16
3 3
1 22 2
4 11 6
3 3 9
x y
x y
x y
x y
x y x y
D D
e D D x
D D
e D D x
D D
e x
e x
e x e x
÷
÷
+
+
+
+
+ +
÷ (
= ÷ ÷ ÷ + (
¸ ¸ (
¸ ¸
÷ (
= + + + ÷ + + (
¸ ¸ (
¸ ¸
÷ + (
= + +
(
¸ ¸
(
= + +
(
¸ ¸
(
= + == +
(
¸ ¸
Hence the general solution is
( ) ( ) ( )
2
1 2
. . . .
2
2 11 6
9
x y
Z C F P I
Z y x y x e x | |
+
= +
= + + + + +
Problem 27
a. Solve
2 4 2 2
2 p x y zq z + = .
Solution:
This can be written as
( ) ( )
2
2 2 2
2 Px qy z z + = - (1)
Which is of the form
( )
, , 0
m n
f x p y q z =
Where m = 2, n= 2
put
1 1
1 1
;
m n
X x y y
x y
÷ ÷
= = = =
( )
( )
2 2
2 2
.
.
Z Z x
P p x px
X x X
Z Z y
Q q y qy
Y y X
c c c
= = = ÷ = ÷
c c c
c c c
= = = ÷ = ÷
c c c
Substituting in (1) the given equation reduces to
2 2
2 P Qz z ÷ =
This is of the form ( ) , , 0 f p q z =
Let ( ) Z f X aY = + where u = X + aY
,
dz adz
P Q
du du
= =
Equation becomes,
2
2
2 0
dz dz
az z
du du
| | | |
÷ ÷ =
| |
\ . \ .
Solving for
dz
du
,we get
25
( )
2 2 2
2
2
2
2
8
2
8
2
8
log
2
8
log
2
8 1
log
2
dz az a z z
du
dz a a
du
z
a a
z u b
a a
z X ay b
a a a
z b
x y
± +
=
± +
=
± +
= +
| |
± +
= + + |
|
\ .
| |
| | ± +
= + + |
|
|
\ .
\ .
is the complete solution.
The singular and general integrals are found out as usual.
b. Find the general solution of ( ) ( ) y z p z x q x y + + + = + .
Solution:
This is a Lagrange’s linear equation of the formPp Qq R + = .
The auxiliary equations are
dx dy dz
y z z x x y
= =
+ + +
each is equal to
( ) 2
dx dy dz dx dy dy dz
x y z y x z y
+ + ÷ ÷
= =
+ + ÷ ÷
- (1)
Taking the first two ratios,
( )
( )
( )
( ) 2
d x y z d x y
x y z x y
+ + ÷ ÷
=
+ + ÷
Integrating,
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2
2
1
log log log
2
log log log
x y z x y c
x y z x y k
x y z k x y
÷
÷
+ + = ÷ ÷ +
+ + = ÷ +
+ + = ÷
i.e., ( )( )
2
x y z x y k + + ÷ = - (2)
Taking the last two ratios of equation (1),
( ) ( ) d x y d y z
x y y z
÷ ÷
=
÷ ÷
Integrating, ( ) ( ) log log log x y y z b ÷ = ÷ +
x y
b
y z
÷
=
÷
- (3)
26
Hence the general solution is ( ) ( )
2
, 0
x y
f x y z x y
y z
| | ÷
+ + ÷ =
|
÷
\ .
Problem 28
a. Find the equation of the cone satisfying px qy z + = and passing through the
circle
2 2 2
4, 2 x y z x y z + + = + + = .
Solution:
The auxiliary equations are
dx dy dz
x y z
= =
Taking the first two ratios,
log x = log y + log a
x
a
y
= - (1)
Taking the second and third ratios,
log y = log z + log b
y
b
z
= - (2)
the general solution is , 0
x y
y z
|
| |
=
|
\ .
- (3)
We have to find that function | satisfying (3) and
also x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
= 4 - (4)
and x + y + z = 2 - (5)
Hence, we will eliminate x, y, z from (1),(2),(4),(5)
From (2) y = bz
From (1) x = ay
x =abz
using the value of x & y in (4) & (5)
2 2 2 2 2 2
4 a b z b z z + + =
( )
2 2 2 2
1 4 z a b b + + = - (6)
Also abz + bz + z = 2
( ) 1 2 b ab z + + = - (7)
Eliminating z between (6) & (7)
Squaring (7)
( )
2
2
1 4 b ab z + + = - (8)
From (6) & (8),
( )
2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
1 1 1 2 2 2 b a b b ab b a b b ab ab + + = + + = + + + + +
Simplifying b + ab
2
+ ab = 0
1 0 ab a + + =
27
Using ,
x y
a b
y z
= = in (9)
1 0
xy x
yz y
+ + =
1 0
x x
z y
+ + =
i.e., 0 yz xy xz + + = is the required surface.
b. Solve
( )
2 2
6 cos D DD D z y y ' ' + ÷ = .
Solution:
The Auxiliary equation is m
2
+ m – 6 = 0
m = 2, –3
C.F. = ( ) ( )
1 2
2 3 y x y x | | + + ÷
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
| |
( )
( )( ) ( )( )
2 2
cos
. .
' 6
1 cos
2 ' 3 '
1
3 cos where 3
2 '
1
3 sin 3 sin where 3
2 '
1
sin 3cos
2 '
2 sin 3cos where 2
2 cos 2 sin 3sin wher
y x
P I
D DD D
y x
D D D D
a x xdx a x y
D D
a x x xdx a x y
D D
y x x
D D
a x x x dx a x y
a x x x x
=
' + ÷
=
÷ +
(
= + + =
¸ ¸
÷
(
= + ÷ + =
¸ ¸
÷
= +
÷
= ÷ + ÷ = (
¸ ¸
= ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ + (
¸ ¸
}
}
}
e 2 a x y ÷ =
( ) ( )
1 2
. . cos sin
2 3 sin cos
P I y x x
Z y x y x x y x | |
= ÷ +
= + + ÷ + ÷
Problem 29
a. Solve the equation
2 2 2 2
sin cos 1 pz x qz y + = .
Solution:
The given equation contains (z
2
p) and (z
2
q).
Therefore we make the substitution Z = z
3
2 2
3 and Q=3z
Z
P z p q
x
c
= =
c
Using there values in the given equation, it becomes
2 2
sin cos 1
3 3
P Q
x y + =
28
Equation 1 does not contain Z explicitly.
Rewriting (1), we have
2 2
sin 1 cos
3 3
P Q
x y a = ÷ = , say - (2)
From (2), ( )
2 2
3 cos and 3 1 sec P a ec x Q a y = = ÷
Now dZ = Pdx + Qdy
= 3a cosec
2
xdx + 3 (1 – a) sec
2
y dy - (3)
Integrating (3),
( )
( )
3
3 cot 3 1 tan
3 cot 3 1 tan (4)
Z a x a y b
z a x a y b
= ÷ + ÷ +
= ÷ + ÷ + ÷
is the complete solution.
Singular solution does not exist.
put ( ) b a | = in (4)
( ) ( )
3
3 cot 3 1 tan z a x a y a | = ÷ + ÷ + - (5)
Differentiating (5) w.r.t. to a we get
( ) 0 3cot 3tan ' x y a | = ÷ ÷ + - (6)
Eliminating a between (5) & (6) we get the required solution.
b. Solve the equation
( )
2 2 2 2
2
x y
D DD D z x y e
+
' ' ÷ + = .
Solution:
The Auxiliary equation is m
2
- 2m + 1 = 0
(m – 1)
2
= 0
m = 1 twice
( ) ( )
1 2
. . C F y x x y x | | = + + +
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
2 2
2 2
2 2
2
2 2
2
2 2
2
2
2 2
2
2
2 2
2 2
1
. .
2
1
1
1 1
1
1
1
1 2 3 '
1
x y
x y
x y
x y
x y
x y
P I e x y
D DD D
e x y
D D
e x y
D D
e x y
D D
D
e x y
D D
D D
x y e
D D D
+
+
+
+
÷
+
+
=
' ' ÷ +
=
' ÷
=
' + ÷ + (
¸ ¸
=
' ÷
'
| |
= ÷
|
\ .
' | |
= + +
|
\ .
29
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
2 2
2 2 2 2
2 3 4
1 2 3
2 2
1 1 1
4 6
x y
x y
e x y x y x
D D D
e y x y x x
D D D
+
+
(
= + +
(
¸ ¸
(
= + +
(
¸ ¸
4 2 5 6
1 1 1
. .
12 15 60
x y
P I x y x y x e
+
| |
= + +
|
\ .
( ) ( )
4 2 5 6
1 2
. .
1 1 1
12 15 60
x y
Z C F P I
y x x y x x y x y x e | |
+
= +
| |
= + + + + + +
|
\ .
Problem 30
a. Solve the equation( ) ( ) mz ny p nx lz q ly mx ÷ + ÷ = ÷ . Hence write down the
solution of the equation( ) ( ) 2 2 0 z y p x z q x y ÷ + + + + = .
Solution:
The equation ( ) ( ) mz ny p nx lz q ly mx ÷ + ÷ = ÷ is a Lagrange’s linear equation of the
formPp Qq R + = .
The Subsidiary equations are
dx dy dz
mz ny nx lz ly mx
= =
÷ ÷ ÷
- (1)
Using l, m, n as a set of multipliers, the ratio in (1)
0
ldx mdy ndz + +
=
i.e., 0 ldx mdy ndz + + =
Integrating we get lx my nz a + + =
Choosing x, y, z as another set of multipliers, the ratio in (1)
0
xdx ydy zdz + +
=
Integrating we get
2 2 2
x y z b + + =
the general solution of the given equation is
( )
2 2 2
, 0 f lx my nz x y z + + + + =
comparing the equation ( ) ( ) ( ) 2 2 ......... 2 z y p x z q x y ÷ + + = ÷ ÷
With the pervious equation 1, we get 1, 2, 1 l m n = ÷ = =
Therefore the solution of equation (2) is
( )
2 2 2
2 , 0 f x y z x y z ÷ + + + + =
b. Solve
( )
2 2
3 3 7 D D D D z xy ' ' ÷ ÷ + = + .
Solution:
( )
2 2
3 3 7 D D D D z xy ' ' ÷ ÷ + = +
( )( ) 3 7 D D D D z xy ' ' ÷ + ÷ = +
Here
1 1 2 2
1 0 1 3 m c m c = = = ÷ =
C.F ( ) ( )
3x
y x e y x | = + + ÷
30
P.I
( ) ( )
7
3
xy
D D D D
+
=
' ' ÷ ÷ ÷
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
1 1
2
2
2
1 2
1 7
1 3 1
3
1
1 1 7
3 3
1
1 ...
3
1
1 ... 7
3 9
2
1 ... 7
3 3 9 9 3
xy
D D D D
D
D D D
xy
D D
D D
D D D
D D
D D xy
D D D DD DD
xy
D
÷ ÷
+
=
' ' + | | | |
÷ ÷ ÷
| |
\ . \ .
' ' ÷ + | | | |
= ÷ ÷ +
| |
\ . \ .
' ' (
= ÷ + + +
(
¸ ¸
' + (
' + + + + +
(
¸ ¸
( ' '
= ÷ + + + + + +
(
¸ ¸
( )
2
2 2 3
2 2 3
1 1 1 2 4
7
3 3 3 2 3 27
1 67
7
3 2 3 27 3 3 6 9
1 67
7
3 2 3 3 3 9 6 27
D D D D DD
xy
D D D
x xy x x x y
y x
x y xy x x y x
x
' ' ' ' ÷ (
= + + + + + + +
(
¸ ¸
( ÷
= + + + + + + +
(
¸ ¸
( ÷
= + + + + + + +
(
¸ ¸
Hence the general solution is
( ) ( )
2 2 3
3
1 67
7
3 2 3 3 3 9 6 27
x
x y xy x x y x
z y x e f y x x |
(
= + + ÷ ÷ + + + + + + +
(
¸ ¸
.



1
UNIT IV APPLICATIONS OF PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL
EQUATIONS

PART – A

Problem 1 What are the conditions assumed in deriving one dimensional wave
equation?
Solution:
i. The motion takes place entirely in one plane.
ii. We consider only transverse vibrations, the horizontal displacement of
the particles of the string is negligible.
iii. The tension T is constant at all times and at all points of the deflected
string.
iv. Gravitational force is negligible.
v. The effect of friction is negligible.
vi. The string is perfectly flexible.
vii. The slope of the deflection curve at all points and at all instants is so
small that sinα can be replaced by α , where α is the inclination of
the tangents to the deflection curve.

Problem 2 State the suitable solution of the one dimensional heat equation.
Solution:
One dimensional heat equation is
2
2
2
u u
a
t x
∂ ∂
=
∂ ∂
and the suitable solution is
( ) ( )
2 2
, cos sin
a p t
u x t A px B px e

= + .

Problem 3 State the wave equation and give the various possible solutions.
Solution:
The wave equation is
2 2
2
2 2
y y
a
t x
∂ ∂
=
∂ ∂

The various possible solutions are
1. ( ) ( )( )
1 2 3 4
,
px px pat pat
y x t Ae A e A e A e
− −
= + +
2. ( ) ( ) ( )
5 6 7 8
, cos sin cos sin y x t A px A px A pat A pat = + +
3. ( ) ( )( )
9 10 11 12
, y x t A x A A t A = + +

Problem 4 Write all variable separable solutions of the one dimensional heat equation
2
t xx
u u α = .
Solution :
The various possible solutions of one dimensional heat equation are
1. ( ) ( )
2 2
1 2 3
,
px px p t
u x t Ae A e A e
α −
= +
2. ( ) ( )
2 2
4 5 6
, cos sin
p t
u x t A px A px A e
α −
= +



2
3. ( ) ( )
7 8 9
, u x t A x A A = +

Problem 5 A string is stretched and fastened to two points l distance apart. Motion is
started by displacing the string into the form
0
sin
x
y y
l
π | |
=
|
\ ¹
from which it is released at
time 0 t = . Formulate this problem as a boundary value problem.
Solution :
The one dimensional wave equation is
2 2
2
2 2
y y
a
t x
∂ ∂
=
∂ ∂

The boundary conditions are
i. y (0, t) = 0
ii. y ( l , t) = 0
iii. ( , 0) 0
y
x
t

=


iv. ( )
0
, 0 sin
x
y x y
π | |
=
|
\ ¹
l
.

Problem 6 A rod of length 20 cm whose one end is kept at 30
o
C and the other end is
kept at 70
o
C is maintained so until steady state prevails. Find the steady state
temperature.
Solution:
In the steady state temperature the temperature will be a function of x alone

2
2
0
u
x

=


( ) u x ax b = +
when 0 x = , ( ) 0 30 u =
when 20 x = , ( ) 20 70 u =
( ) u x ax b = +
( ) 0 0 u a b = +
30 b =
( ) 20 20 30 u a = +
70 20 30 a = +
20 40 a =
2 a =
( ) 2 30 u x a ∴ = +

Problem 7 State two dimensional Laplace equation.
Solution :



3
2 2
2 2
0
u u
x y
∂ ∂
+ =
∂ ∂

Problem 8 Write any two solutions of the Laplace equation 0
xx yy
U U + = involving
exponential terms in x .
Solution :
The correct solutions are
1. ( ) ( ) ( )
1 2 3 4
, cos sin
py py
u x y c px c px c e c e

= + +
2. ( ) ( )( )
5 6 7 8
, cos sin
px px
u x y c py c py c e c e

= + +

Problem 9 A square plate is bounded by the lines 0, 0, 20 x y x = = = and 20 y = . Its
faces are insulated. The temperature along the upper horizontal edge is given by
( ) ( ) , 20 20 , 0 20 u x x x x = − < < while the other three edges are kept at
0
0 C . Formulate
the problem to find the steady state temperature in the plate.
Solution :
The two dimensional heat equations is
2 2
2 2
0
u u
x y
∂ ∂
+ =
∂ ∂
with the boundary conditions
1. ( ) 0, 0, 0 20 u y y = < <
2. ( ) 20, 0, 0 20 u y y = < <
3. ( ) , 0 0, 0 20 u x x = < <
4. ( ) ( ) , 20 20 , 0 20 u x x x x = − < <

Problem 10 A string is stretched between two fixed points at a distance 2l apart and the
points of the string are given velocity given by ( ) f x , x being the distance from one end
point. Formulate the problem to find the displacement of the string at any time.
Solution:
2 2
2
2 2
y y
a
t x
∂ ∂
=
∂ ∂
with the boundary conditions
1. ( ) 0, 0, y t t = ∀
2. ( ) 2 , 0, y l t t = ∀
3. ( ) ( ) , 0 0 0, 2 y x x l = ∀ ∈
4. ( ) ( , 0)
y
x f x
t

=



Problem 11 A string of length 2l stretched to a constant tensionT , is fastened at both
the ends and hence fixed. The mid point of the string is taken to a height ‘b’ and then
released from rest in that position. Formulate the problem to find the transverse
vibrations of the string.
Solution :




4
The P.D.E. is
2 2
2
2 2
y y
a
t x
∂ ∂
=
∂ ∂

The boundary conditions are
i. ( ) 0, 0 0 y t V t = ≥
ii. ( ) 2 , 0 0 y t V t = ≥ l
iii.
( ) ,0
0 0 2
x
y
x
t
∂ | |
= < <
|

\ ¹
l
iv. ( )
( )
, 0
, 0
2
, 2
bx
x
y x
b x
x
¦
< <
¦
¦
=
´

¦
< <
¦
¹
l
l
l
l l
l









Equation of OB is
b
y x =
l

Equation of BA is
2l x
y b
l
− (
=
(
¸ ¸
.

Problem 12 What are the assumptions made before deriving the one dimensional heat
equation?
Solution :
(i) Heat flows from a higher to lower temperature.
(ii) The amount of heat required to produce a given temperature change in a body is
proportional to the mass of the body and to the temperature change.
(iii) The rate at which heat flows through an area is proportional to the area and to
the temperature gradient normal to the area.

Problem 13 Classify the equations.
i.
4 3
2
xx yy y
u y u y u − = .
ii.
( )
2 2
1 0
xx yy
x f y f + − = , 1 1 y − < < , x −∞< < ∞
Solution :
(i).
4 3
2
xx yy y
u y u y u − =
1 A = , 0 B = ,
4
C y = −
( )
2 4
4 0 4 1 B AC y − = − × × −
Y
B

b X
o ( ) , l b A( ) 2 , 0 l



5
4
4 0 y V y = >
∴ The equation is hyperbolic equation.
(ii).
( )
2 2
1 0
xx yy
x f y f + − =
2
A x = , 0 B = ,
2
1 C y = −
( )
2 2 2
4 0 4 1 B AC x y − = − −
( )
2 2
4 1 x y = −
Since
2 2
1 1, 1 4 0 y y B AC − < > < ∴ − <
⇒ The equation is elliptic for 0 x ≠
If 0 x = , the equation is parabolic.

Problem 14 Find the nature of the PDE
i. 4 4 2 0
xx xy yy x y
u u u u u + + + − = .
ii.
( )
2 2
2 1 2 0
xx xy yy x
x u xyu y u u + + + − = .
Solution :
(i) A = 4, B = 4, C = 1
( ) ( ) ( )
2
2
4 4 4 4 1 0 B AC − = − =
⇒ the equation is parabolic.
(ii) A = x
2
B = 2xy C = (1 + y
2
)
( )
2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2
2
4 4 4 1
4 4 4
4 0
B AC x y x y
x y x x y
x V x
− = − +
= − −
= − <

⇒ The equation is elliptic.

Problem 15 Classify the following P.D.Es
i.
2 2
2 2
u u
x y
∂ ∂
=
∂ ∂

ii.
2
u u u
xy
x y x y
| | ∂ ∂ ∂ | |
= +
| |
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
\ ¹
\ ¹

Solution :

(i). A = 1, B = 0, C = -1
( )( )
2
4 0 4 1 1 4 0 B AC − = − − = >
The equation is hyperbolic.
(ii) A = 0, B = 1, C = 0
( ) ( )( )
2
4 1 4 0 0 1 0 B AC − = − = >
⇒ The equation is hyperbolic.






6
PART – B

One dimensional wave equation

Problem 16 A tightly stretched string of length ‘ l ’ has its ends fastened at 0 x = and
x l = . The mid point of the string is then taken to a height ‘ b ’ and then released from
rest in that position. Obtain an expression for the displacement of the string at any
subsequent time.
Solution :
Equation of AC is
0 0
0
0
2
x y
l
b
− −
=




2
, 0
2
bx l
y x
l
= < <
Equation of BC is
2
0
2
l
x
y b
l
b
l


=



( )
2
,
2
b l
y l x x l
l
= − < <
( )
( )
2
, 0
2
, 0
2
,
2
bx l
x
l
y x
b l
l x x l
l
¦
< <
¦
¦
=
´
¦
− < <
¦
¹

Wave equation is
2 2
2
2 2
y y
a
t x
∂ ∂
=
∂ ∂

The boundary conditions are
i. ( ) 0, 0 0 y t V t = >
ii. ( ) , 0 0 y l t V t = >
iii. ( ) ( ) , 0 0 0,
y
x V x l
t

= ∈


iv. ( )
( )
2
, 0
2
, 0
2
,
2
bx l
x
l
y x
b l
l x x l
l
¦
< <
¦
¦
=
´
¦
− < <
¦
¹

Suitable solution is
( ) ( ) ( ) , cos sin cos sin y x t A px B px C pat D pat = + + - (1)
Apply (i) in (1)
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 0, 1 0 cos sin 0
0
y t A B C pat D pat
A
= + + =
⇒ =

Equation (1) becomes



7
( ) ( ) , sin cos sin y x t B px C pat D pat = + - (2)
Apply (ii) in (2)
( ) ( ) , sin cos sin 0
sin 0
y l t B pl C pat D pat
pl
pl n
n
p
l
π
π
= + =
⇒ =
⇒ =
⇒ =

Thus (2) becomes
( ) , sin cos sin
n x n at n at
y x t B C D
l l l
π π π | | (
= +
|
(
\ ¹ ¸ ¸
- (3)
( ) ,
sin sin cos
y x t
n x n at n a n at n a
B C D
t l l l l l
π π π π π

( | | | | | |
= +
| | | (

\ ¹ \ ¹ \ ¹ ¸ ¸
- (4)
Apply (iii) in (4)
( ) ( ) , 0 .sin sin 0 cos 0 0
sin 0
0
y n x Cn a Dn a
x B
t l l l
n x n a
B D
l l
D
π π π
π π
∂ − | | (
= + =
|
(

\ ¹ ¸ ¸
(
⇒ =
(
¸ ¸
⇒ =

How (3) becomes
( ) , sin cos
n x n at
y x t B C
l l
π π | |
=
|
\ ¹

Most general solution is
( )
1
, sin cos
n
n
n x n at
y x t b
l l
π π

=
=

-(4)
Apply (iv) to equation (4)
( )
1
, 0 sin
n
n
n x
y x b
l
π

=
=


But condition (iv) implies
( )
( )
2
0
2
, 0
2
2
b l
x x
l
y x
b l
l x x l
l
¦
< <
¦
¦
=
´
¦
− < <
¦
¹

This can be expended as a half range sine series
i.e. ( ) , 0 sin
n
n x
y x c
l
π
=


where ( )
0
2
, 0 .sin
l
n
n x
C y x dx
l l
π
=





8
( )
2
0
2
2 2 2
sin sin
l
l
l
bx n x b n x
dx l x dx
l l l l l
π π
(
| | | | (
= + −
| |
(
\ ¹ \ ¹
(
¸ ¸
∫ ∫

2
2
2 2
2
0
0
cos
sin
2 2
1
l
l
n x
n x
b l
l
x
n
n l l
l
l
π
π
π
π
(
| | | | | | | |
(

− | | |
|
(
\ ¹
| | = − |
(
| |
|
(
|
| |
( \ ¹
\ ¹ \ ¹
¸ ¸

( ) ( )
2 2
2
2
cos
sin
2
1
l
l
n x
n x
b l
l
l x
n
n l
l
l
π
π
π
π
( | | | | | |

− | ( |
|
\ ¹
( | + − − − |
( |
|
|
|
(
\ ¹
\ ¹ ¸ ¸

2 2
2 2
2 2
cos 0 sin 0
2 2
b l n l
n
l l n n
π
π
π π
( | | −
= − + −
( |
\ ¹ ¸ ¸
( )
2 2
2 2
2
0 0 cos sin
2 2 2
b l n l n
l n n
π π
π π
( | | −
+ − − −
( |
\ ¹ ¸ ¸

2
2 2
2 2 2
sin
2
b l n
l l n
π
π
( | |
| |
=
( | |
\ ¹
\ ¹ ¸ ¸

2 2
8
sin
2
b n
n
π
π
=
But
n n
b c =
( )
2 2
1
8
, sin sin cos
2
n
b n n x n at
y x t
n l l
π π π
π

=
| |
∴ =
|
\ ¹

.

Problem 17 A tightly stretched flexible string has its ends fixed at x = 0 and x = l. At
time t = 0, the string is given a shape defined by f(x) = kx
2
(l – x), where ‘k’ is a
constant, and then released from rest. Find the displacement of any point x of the string
at any time t > 0
Solution:
Equation of Motion is
2 2
2
2 2
y y
a
t x
∂ ∂
=
∂ ∂

Boundary conditions are
(i) ( ) 0, 0, y t V t =
(ii) ( ) , 0, y l t V t =
(iii) ( ) , 0 0, 0
y
x x l
t

= < <


(iv) ( ) ( )
2
, 0 , 0 y x kx l x x l = − < <



9
The suitable solution is
( ) ( ) ( ) , cos sin cos sin y x t A px B px C pat D pat = + +
As in the previous problem, using conditions (i), (ii) and (iii) we get the most
general solution as ( )
1
, sin cos
n
n
n x n at
y x t b
l l
π π

=
| | | |
=
| |
\ ¹ \ ¹


( ) ( )
2
1
, 0 sin
n
n
n x
y x b kx l x
l
π

=
| |
= = −
|
\ ¹

by (iv)
Now ( ) , 0 y x can be expressed as a half range sine series
( ) , 0 sin
n
n x
y x c
l
π | |
=
|
\ ¹


Where ( )
2
0
2
sin
l
n
n x
C kx l x dx
l l
π
= −


( )
2 3
0
2
sin
l
k n x
lx x dx
l l
π | |
= −
|
\ ¹

. This
n n
b c =
Now
( )
2 3
0
sin
l
n x
lx x dx
l
π | |

|
\ ¹


( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2 3 2
2 2
2
3 3 4 4
3 4
0
cos sin
2 3
cos sin
2 6 6
n x n x
l l
lx x lx x
n
n
l
l
n x n x
l l
l x
n n
l l
π π
π
π
π π
π π
| | | | | | | |
− −
| | | |
\ ¹ \ ¹
| | = − − −
| |
| |

\ ¹ \ ¹ ¸
( | | | | | | | |
| | ( | |
\ ¹ \ ¹
( | | + − − −
( | |
| |
(
\ ¹ \ ¹¸
l

( )
4 4
3 3 3 3
4
4
3 3 3 3
4 2
0 0 cos 0 0 0
4 1
2
n
l l
n
n n
l
l
n n
π
π π
π π
( | | | |
= + − + − + +
( | |
\ ¹ \ ¹ ¸ ¸
− −
= −

( )
( )
( )
4
3 3
3
3 3
2 2
2 1 1
4
1 2 1
n
n
n
k l
C
l n
kl
n
π
π
( −
= − +
(
¸ ¸

(
= + −
¸ ¸

( ) ( )
3
3 3
1
4
, 1 2 1 sin cos
n
n
kl n x n at
y x t
n l l
π π
π

=
− | | | |
(
∴ = + −
| |
¸ ¸
\ ¹ \ ¹

.



10
Problem 18 If a string of length l is initially at rest in its equilibrium position and each
of its points is given the velocity
( )
3
0
, 0
sin
y x x
v
t l
π ∂
| |
=
|

\ ¹
, 0 x l < < . Determine the
displacement function ( ) , y x t .
Solution:
The wave equation is
2 2
2
2 2
y y
a
t x
∂ ∂
=
∂ ∂

The boundary conditions are
(i) ( ) 0, 0 0 y t V t = >
(ii) ( ) , 0 0 y l t V t = >
(iii) ( ) ( ) , 0 0 0, y x V x l = ∈
(iv) ( ) ( )
3
0
, 0 sin 0,
y x
x v V x l
t l
π ∂
= ∈


The suitable solution is
( ) ( ) ( )
1 2 3 4
, cos sin cos sin y x t C px C px C pat C pat = + +
Condition (i) ( )
1
0, 0 0 y t C = ⇒ =
∴ The solution is ( ) ( )
2 3 4
, sin cos sin y x t C px C pat C pat = +
Condition (ii) ( ) ( )
2 3 4
, 0 sin cos sin 0 y l t C pl C pat C pat = ⇒ + =

pl n
n
p
l
π
π
⇒ =
⇒ =

∴ The solution is
( )
2 3 4
, sin cos sin
n x n at n at
y x t C C C
l l l
π π π | |
= +
|
\ ¹

Condition (iii) ( ) , 0 y x l = implies
( ) ( )
2 3 3
, sin 0 0
n x
y x l C C C
l
π
= = ⇒ =
( )
2 4
, sin sin
n x n at
y x t C C
l l
π π
∴ =
Most general solution is ( )
1
, sin sin
n
n
n x n at
y x t C
l l
π π

=
=


( )
( )
1
1
1
, sin cos
, 0 sin
sin
n
n
n
n
n
n
y n x n at n a
x t C
t l l l
y n x n a
x C
t l l
n a n x
C
l l
π π π
π π
π π

=

=

=
∂ | |
=
|

\ ¹
∂ | |
=
|

\ ¹
=







11
But condition (iv) gives ( )
3 0
0
3
, 0 sin 3sin sin
4
v y x x x
x v
t l l l
π π π ∂ | | (
= = −
|
(

\ ¹ ¸ ¸

1 2 3
2 2 3 3
sin sin sin .....
a x a x a x
C C C
l l l l l l
π π π π π π
+ + +

0 0
3 3
sin sin
4 4
v v x x
l l
π π
= −
0 0
1 1
3 3
4 4
v v a l
C C
l a
π
π
∴ = ⇒ = ×
0
2 3
3
0,
4
v a
C C
l
π −
= = =
0
3
12
v l
C
a π

⇒ =
remaining C
n
’s are zero
( )
1 3
3 3 3
, sin sin sin sin
a x at a x at
y x t C C
l l l l l l
π π π π π π
∴ = +
( )
0 0
3 3 3
, sin sin sin sin
4 12
v l v l x at x at
y x t
a l l a l l
π π π π
π π
= −

Problem 19 A string is stretched between two fixed points at a distance of 60 cm and
points of the string are given initial velocities v, where
30
x
v
λ | |
=
|
\ ¹
in 0 30 x < <
( ) 60
30
x
λ | |
= −
|
\ ¹
in 30 60 x < < , x being the distance from an end point.
Find the displacement of the string at any time.
Solution:

The equation of motion is

2 2
2
2 2
y y
a
t x
∂ ∂
=
∂ ∂

The boundary conditions are
(i) ( ) 0, 0 0 y t V t = >
(ii) ( ) 60, 0 0 y t V t = >
(iii) ( ) , 0 0 0 60 y x x = ≤ ≤
(iv) ( )
( )
, 0 30
30
, 0
60 , 30 60
30
x
x
y
x v
t
x x
λ
λ
¦
< <
¦
∂ ¦
= =
´

¦
− < <
¦
¹

The suitable solution is
( ) ( )( ) , cos sin cos sin y x t A px B px p at D pat = + +



12
As in previous problem, Using the boundary conditions (i), (ii) & (iii), we get the
most general solution as
( )
( )
1
1
, sin sin
60 60
, sin cos
60 60 60
n
n
n
n
n x n at
y x t C
y n x n at n a
x t C
t
π π
π π π

=

=
=

= ×




By Condition (iv)
( )
( )
1
, 0 30
30
, 0 sin
60 60
60 , 30 60
30
n
n
x
x
y n a n x
x C
x t
x x
λ
π π
λ

=
¦
< <
¦
∂ ¦
= =
´

¦
− < <
¦
¹


This can be expanded as a half range sine series
1
sin
60
n
n
n x
v b
π

=
| |
=
|
\ ¹


Where
60
0
2
sin
60 60
n
n x
b v dx
π | |
=
|
\ ¹


Then
60
60
n n
n
n
n a
b C
b
C
n a
π
π
=
⇒ =

Now,
( )
( ) ( )
30 60
0 30
30
2 2
2
0
2 2
1
sin 60 sin
30 30 60 30 60
cos sin
1
60 60
30 30
60
60
cos sin
60 60
60 1
60
60
n
x n x n x
b dx x dx
n x n x
x
n
n
n x n x
x
n
n
λ π λ π
π π
λ
π
π
π π
π
π
(
= + −
(
¸ ¸
¦
( | |
| |
¦ − −
( |
|
× ¦
= − + ( |
´ |
×
( |
¦ |
|
(
\ ¹ ¦ \ ¹ ¸ ¸
¹
| |
| |
− −
|
|
− − − |
|
|
|
|
\ ¹
\ ¹ ¸
∫ ∫
60
30
¹
(
¦
(
¦
(
`
(
¦
(
¦
¸
)

( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
1800 3600
cos sin 0 0 0 0
900 2 2
1800 3600
cos sin
2 2
n n
n n
n n
n n
λ π π
π π
π π
π π
− | |
= + − − + −
|
\ ¹ ¸
− ( | |
− −
|(
\ ¹¸

2 2
7200
sin
900 2
n
n
λ π
π
(
=
(
¸ ¸

2 2
8
sin
2
n
n
λ π
π
=



13

2 2
3 3
3 3
60 8 sin
60
2
.
480
sin
2
0 is even
480
sin is odd
2
n
n
n
b
C
n a n n a
n
n a
if n
n
if n
n a
π
λ
π π π
λ π
π
λ π
π
×
×
∴ = =
| |
=
|
\ ¹
¦
¦
=
´
¦
¹

( )
3 3
1,3,5
480 1
, sin .sin sin
2 60 60
n
n n x n at
y n t
a n
λ π π π
π

=
∴ =




Problem 20 The points of trisection of a tightly stretched string of length l with fixed
ends are pulled aside through a distance ‘ d ’ on opposite sides of the position of
equilibrium, and the string is released from rest. Obtain an expression for the
displacement of the string at any subsequent time and show that the mid point of the
string always remains at rest.
Solution:
D ,
3
l
h
| |
|
\ ¹













Let B and C be the point of trisection of the string OA. The initial position of the
string is shown by the lines ODEA.
Let BD = CE = h
The equation of motion is
2 2
2
2 2
y y
a
t x
∂ ∂
=
∂ ∂

The boundary conditions are
(i) ( ) 0, 0 0 y t V t = ≥
(ii) ( ) , 0 0 y l t V t = ≥
Y
h C
2
, 0
3
l | |
|
\ ¹

A ( ) , 0 l X
B , 0
3
l | |
|
\ ¹
h
E
2
,
3
l
h
| |
|
\ ¹




14
(iii) ( ) ( ) , 0 0 0,
y
x V x l
t

= ∈


Let us find the initial position of the string
Equation of OD is
3hx
y
l
=
Equation of DE is ( )
3
2
h
y x
l
= − l
Equation of EA is ( )
3h
y x l
l
= −
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
3
, 0
3
3 2
, 0 2 ,
3 3
3 2
,
3
hx l
x
l
h l l
iv y x l x x
l
h l
x l x l
l
¦
≤ ≤
¦
¦
¦
∴ = − ≤ ≤
´
¦
¦
− ≤ ≤
¦
¹


As in problem (1) using the boundary condition (i) (ii) & (iii) we get he most
general solution
( )
( )
1
1
, sin cos
, 0 sin
n
n
n
n
n x n at
y x t B
l l
n x
y x B
l
π π
π

=

=
=
=



Condition (iv) gives
( ) ( )
( )
3
, 0
3
3 2
, 0 2 ,
3 3
3 2
,
3
hx l
x
l
h l l
y x l x x
l
h l
x l x l
l
¦
≤ ≤
¦
¦
¦
= − ≤ ≤
´
¦
¦
− ≤ ≤
¦
¹

Now y (x, 0) can expended as a half range sine series ( )
1
, 0 sin
n
n
n x
y x C
l
π

=
=


Where ( )
0
2
, 0 sin
l
n
n x
C y x dx
l l
π
=


Then
n n
B C =
Now,
( ) ( )
2
3 3
2 0
3 3
2 3 3 3
sin 2 sin sin
l l
l
n
l
hx n x h n x h n x
C dx l x dx x l dx
l l l l l l l
π π π
(
(
= + − + −
(
(
¸ ¸
∫ ∫ ∫
l




15
( )
( ) ( )
( )
3
2 2 2
2
0
2
3
2 2 2
2
3
2
cos sin
6
1
cos
sin
6
2 2
cos
6
l
l
l
n x n x
h l l
x
n x
n l
l
l
n x
n x
h l
l
l x
n
n l
l
l
n x
h l
x l
n
l
l
π π
π
π
π
π
π
π
π
π
( | | | | | | | |
− −
| | ( | |
\ ¹ \ ¹
( | | = −
( | |
| |
(
\ ¹ \ ¹ ¸ ¸
( | | | | | |

− | ( |
|
\ ¹
( | + − − − |
( |
|
|
|
(
\ ¹
\ ¹ ¸ ¸
| | |

|
\ ¹
+ −

\
( )
2 2
2
2
3
sin
1
l
l
n x
l
n
l
π
π
( |
| |

( |
|
( | − |
( |
|
|
|
(
\ ¹
¹ ¸ ¸

( )
( )
2 2
2 2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2
2 2
2 2 2
6
cos sin 0 0
3 3 3
6 2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin
3 3 3 3 3 3
6 2 2
0 0 cos sin
3 3 3
h l n l n
l n n
h l n l n l n l n
l n n n n
h l n l n
l n n
π π
π π
π π π π
π π π π
π π
π π
( −
= + − +
(
¸ ¸
( | | | | −
+ − − −
( | |
\ ¹ \ ¹ ¸ ¸
( | |
+ + − +
( |
\ ¹ ¸ ¸

2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2
2 2 2 2 2
2 2
2 2 2 2
6 2 2
sin sin sin sin
3 3 3 3
6 2
sin sin cos cos sin
3 3 3
2
sin sin cos cos sin
3 3 3
h l n l n l n l n
n n
l n n n n
h l n l n n
n n
l n n
l n l
n n n n
n n
π π π π
π π
π π π π
π π π
π π
π π
π π π
π π
π π
(
| | | |
= − − + − −
| | (
\ ¹ \ ¹
¸ ¸

| |
= − −
|
\ ¹
¸
(
| |
+ − −
|(
\ ¹
¸
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2
6 2 2
sin 1 sin sin 1 sin
3 3 3 3
6
sin 2 1 sin 2sin 1 sin
3 3 3 3
n n
n n
h l n l n l n l n
l n n n n
h n n n n
n
π π π π
π π π π
π π π π
π
(
= + − + + −
(
¸ ¸
(
= + − + + −
(
¸ ¸

( )
( )
2 2
2 2
6
3sin 3 1 sin
3 3
18
sin 1 1
3
n
n
h n n
n
h n
n
π π
π
π
π
(
= + −
(
¸ ¸
(
= − +
¸ ¸




16
2 2
0
36
when n is odd
h
when n is even
n π
¦
¦
=
´
¦
¹

( )
2 2
2,4,6
36 1
, sin sin cos
3
h n n x n at
y x t
n
π π π
π

∴ =

l l

( )
( )
2 2
1
36 1 2 2 2
, sin sin cos
3
2 n
h n n x n at
y x t
n
π π π
π

=
=

l l

2 2
1
9 1 2 2 2
sin sin cos
3
n
h n n x n at
n
π π π
π

=
| |
=
|
\ ¹

l l

2 2
1
2
9 1 2 2
2
, sin sin cos 0
2 3
n
n
h n n at
y t
n
π
π π
π

=
| |
×
|
| | | |
= =
| | |
\ ¹ \ ¹
|
\ ¹

l
l
l l

∴mid point is maximum at rest.

One dimensional heat equation

Problem 21 A uniform bar of length l through which heat flows is insulated at its sides.
The ends are kept at zero temperature. If the initial temperature at the interior points of
the bar is given by
( )
2
k lx x − , 0 x l < < , find the temperature distribution in the bar after
time t .
Solution:
The one dimensional heat equation is
2
2
2
u u
t x
∂ ∂
= ∂
∂ ∂

The boundary conditions are
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
( ) 0, 0 0
( ) , 0 0 and the imital condition is
( ) , 0 0 , where , 0
i u t V t
ii u l t V t
iii u x f x x l f x K lx x x l
= ≥
= ≥
= < < = − < <

The suitable solution is ( ) ( )
2 2
, cos sin
p t
u x t A px B px e
α −
= +
Condition
2 2
( ) 0
0
p t
i Ae V t
A
α −
⇒ =
⇒ =

∴ solution is
( )
2 2
2
2
, sin
n
t
l
n x
u x t B e
l
π
α
π

=
Condition

2 2
( ) sin 0
p t
ii B ple V t
α −
⇒ =



17
n
pl n p
l
π
π ⇒ = ⇒ =
∴ solution is ( )
2 2
2
2
, sin
n
t
l
n x
u x t B e
l
π
α
π

=
Most general solution is

( )
( )
2 2 2
2
1
1
1
, sin
, 0 sin
n t
l
n
n
n
n
n x
u x t B e
l
n x
u x B
l
π α
π
π


=

=
=
=



But condition ( ) ( ) ( )
2
, 0 iii u x k lx x ⇒ = − which can be expanded as a half range sine
series as
( ) ( )
1
0
2
, 0 sin where , 0 sin
l
n n
n
n x n x
u x C C u x dx
l l l
π π

=
= =



Now

( )
2
0
2
sin
l
n n
n x
B C K lx x dx
l l
π
= = −


( )
2
0
2
sin
l
n x k
lx x dx
l l
π
= −


( ) ( ) ( )
2
2 2 3 3
2 3
0
cos sin cos
2
2 2
l
n x n x n x
k
l l l
lx x l x
n
n n l
l
l l
π π π
π
π π
( | | | |
| |
− −
( | |
|
= − − − + − ( | |
|
( | |
|
| |
(
\ ¹
\ ¹ \ ¹ ¸ ¸

3 3
3 3 3 3
2 2 2
0 0 cos 0 0
k l l
l n n
π
π π
( | | | |
= + − − + −
( | |
\ ¹ \ ¹ ¸ ¸

( )
2
3 3
4
1 1
n kl
n π
(
= − −
¸ ¸

2
3 3
8
where is odd
0 where is even
kl
n
n
n
π
¦
¦
=
´
¦
¹

( )
2 2 2
2
1
2
3 3
1,3,5
8
, sin
n t
l
n
kl n x
u x t e
n l
π α
π
π



=
∴ =


( )
( )
( )
2 2 2
2
2 1
2
3 3
1
2 1 8 1
sin
2 1
n t
l
n
n x kl
e
l
n
π α
π
π



=

=







18
Problem 22 A rod, 30 cm long has its ends A and B kept at
0
20 C and
0
80 C
respectively, until steady state conditions prevail. The temperature at each end is reduced
to
0
0 C suddenly and kept so. Find the resulting temperature function ( ) , u x t .
Solution:
The equation is
2
2
2
u u
t x
∂ ∂
= ∂
∂ ∂

In steady- state conditions, the temperature at any particular point does not varies
with time. This any particular point does not very with time. This means that u depends
only on x and not on time
∴The P.D.E. recluses to
2
2
0
u
u ax b
x

= ⇒ = +


The initial conditions is steady state and
u (0, t) = 20 and
u (30, t) = 80
Sine in steady state u is independent of time
( ) ( ) 0 20& 30 80 u u = =
∴ we get a = 2, b = 20
i.e. u (x) = 2x + 20
When the temperature at A and B are reduced to zero, the temperature distribution
changes. For this transiat state the boundary conditions are
( )
( )
( ) 0, 0 0
( ) , 0 0
i u t V t
ii u l t V t
= ≥
= ≥

and the initial temperature distribution is
( ) ( ) , 0 2 20 0 30 iii u x x x = + ≤ ≤
Now we have to find u (x, t) satisfying the conditions (i), (ii) & (iii)
The suitable solution is
( ) ( )
2 2
, cos sin
p t
u x t A px B px e
α −
= +
Using (i) we get A = 0
∴solution is ( )
2 2
, sin
p t
u x t B px e
α −
=
Using (ii) get
30
n
P
π
=
( )
2 2
2
900
, sin
30
n t
n x
u x t B e
π
α
π

∴ =
The most general solution is
( )
2 2
2
900
, sin
30
n t
n
n x
u x t B e
π
α
π

=


( )
sin
, 0
30
n
n x
u x B
π
=


But condition (iv) gives u (x, 0) =2x +20 which can be expended as a half range
Fourier sine series.



19
( ) ( )
1
0
sin 2
, 0 , , 0 sin
30
l
n n
n
n x n x
u x C whereC u x dx
l l
π π

=
= =



Then ( )
30
0
2
2 20 sin
30 30
n n
n x
B C x dx
π
= = +


( ) ( )
( )
30
0
cos sin
1
30 30
2 20 2
15
30 900
40
1 4 1
n
n x n x
x
n n
n
π π
π π
π
( | | | |
− −
( | |
= + −
( | |
( | |
| |
(
\ ¹ \ ¹ ¸ ¸
(
= − −
¸ ¸

( ) ( )
( )
2 2
2
900
1
40
, 1 4 1 sin .
30
n
t
n
n
n x
u x t e
n
π
α
π
π


=
∴ = − −




Problem 23 The temperature at one end of a bar 20 cm long and with insulated sides is
kept at
0
0 C until steady state conditions prevail. The two ends are then suddenly
insulated, so that the temperature gradient is zero at each end there after. Find the
temperature distribution in the bar.
Solution:
When steady state conditions prevail, the temperature boundary conditions for
steady state are
u (0) = 0, u (20) = 60
Solution is u (x) = ax + b
(0) 0
0
u a b
b
= +
⇒ =

( )
( )
(20) 60
60 20
20 0
3
0 3
u
a b
a
a
u x Bx x
=
= +
= +
=
∴ = = =

Since the ends are insulated after the steady state is attended, the heat flow is transient
and the sub sequent temperature distribution is given by

2
2
2
u u
t x
α
∂ ∂
=
∂ ∂

The corresponding boundary conditions are
( ) ( ) 0, 0 0
u
i t V t
x

= ≥


( )
( ) 20, 0 0
u
ii t V t
x

= ≥





20
( ) ( ) , 0 3 0 20 iii u x x x = < <
The suitable solution is
( ) ( )
2 2
, cos sin
p t
u x t A px B px e
α −
= +
( ) ( )
2 2
, sin cos
p t
u
x t A pxp Bp px e
x
α −

= − +


Condition (1) gives

( ) 2 2 0,
0 0
p t
u t
Bpe
x
α −

= = =


Either B = 0 or P = 0
If P = 0, u (x, t) = A which is absurd
∴ B = 0
∴ Solution is

( )
( )
2 2
2 2
, cos
, sin
p t
p t
u x t A pxe
u
x t Ap pxe
x
α
α


=

= −


Condition (ii) gives
( ) 2 2 20,
0 sin 20
p t
u t
Ap pxe
x
α −

= = −


either A = 0 or sin 20p = 0
A = 0 gives trivial solution
sin 20 0 20
20
p p n
n
p
π
π
∴ = ⇒ =
=

∴ The solution is
( )
2 2 2
400
0
, cos
20
n t
n
n
n x
u x t A e
π α
π


=
=


(iii) Condition ( )
0
, 0 cos 3
20
n
n
n x
u x A x
π

=
⇒ = =


u (x, 0) = 32 can be expanded as a half range cosine series
( )
0
0
, 0 cos
2 20
n
n
a n x
u x A
π

=
= +


Where
( )
0
2
, 0 cos
20
l
n
n x
a u x dx
l
π
=


Then

20
0
2
3 cos
20 20
n
n x
a x dx
π
=





21
( )
20
2 2
0
sin cos
3
20 20
1
10
20
400
n x n x
x
n
n
π π
π
π
( | |
| |

( |
|
= − ( |
|
( |
|
|
(
\ ¹
\ ¹ ¸ ¸

2 2 2 2
3 400 400 400
sin cos 0
10
nx n
n n n
π
π π π
( | | | |
= + − +
| | (
\ ¹ \ ¹ ¸ ¸

( )
2 2 2 2
3 400 400
1
10
n
n n π π
(
= − −
(
¸ ¸

( )
2 2
120
1 1
n
n π
(
= − −
¸ ¸

2 2
240
0
if n is odd
n
if n is even
π
− ¦
¦
=
´
¦
¹

Now
0
0
2
a
A =
[ ]
20
20 2
0
0 0
0
2 1 3
3
20 10 2
3
400 0 60
10
60
30
2
x
a xdx
A
(
= =
(
¸ ¸
= − =
∴ = =


( )
2 2 2
400
0
1
, cos
20
n t
n
n
n x
u x t A A e
π α
π


=
∴ = +


( )
2 2 2
400
2 2 2
1,3,5
2 1
1 240
30 cos
20
n t
n
n x
e
n n
π α
π
π


=

= −


( )
( )
( )
2 2 2
2 1
400
2 2
1
2 1
240 1
30 cos
20
2 1
n t
n
n x
e
π α
π
π
π
− −

=

= −




Problem 24 A bar, 10 cm long with insulated sides, has its ends A and B kept at
0
20 C
and
0
80 C respectively, until steady state conditions prevail. The temperature at A is
then suddenly raised to
0
50 C and at the same time that at B is lowered to
0
10 C . Find
the subsequent temperature function ( ) , u x t at any time.

Solution:
The P.D.E. is
2
2
2
u u
t x
α
∂ ∂
=
∂ ∂

In steady state



22

2
2
0
u
x
u ax b

=

⇒ = +

The boundary conditions for steady state is
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
0 20 20 0 20
10 40 40 10 20 2
u a b b
u a a
= ⇒ = + ⇒ =
= ⇒ = + ⇒ =

When the temperatures at A and B are changed, the state is no longer steady. The
boundary conditions are
( )
( )
( )
0, 50 0
0, 40 0 and the initial conditions is
, 0 2 20 0 10
u t V t
u t V t
u x x x
= >
= >
= + < <

Since we have non-zero boundary conditions ,we adopt a modified procedure
We break up the required solution u (x, t) in to two parts as ( ) ( ) ( ) , ,
s t
u x t u x u x t = +
Where ( )
s
u x is called the steady state solution and ( ) ,
t
u x t is called the transient.
Solution ( )
s
u x is given by
2
2
0
s
u
x

=


u
s
(0) = 50 and have
u
s
(10) = 10
Solving u
s
(x) = 50 – 4x
Consequently,

( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
0, 0, 0 50 50 0
10, 10, 10 10 10 0
, 0 , 0 2 20 50 4
6 30
t s
t s
t s
u t u t u
u t u t u
and u x u x u x x x
x
= − = − =
= − = − =
= + = + − −
= −

Now we have to set ( ) ,
t
u n t in such a way that ( ) ,
t
u x t satisfies
2
2
2
u u
t x
α
∂ ∂
=
∂ ∂
with the
boundary conditions
( )
( )
( )
( ) 0, 0
( ) 10, 0
( ) , 0 6 30
t
t
t
i u t
ii u t
iii u x x
=
=
= −

The suitable solution is ( ) ( )
2 2
, cos sin
p t
t
u x t A px B px e
α −
= +
Condition (i) gives
2 2
0
0
p
Ae t
A
α −
=
⇒ =

∴ solution is ( )
2 2 2
2
10
, sin
10
n t
t
n x
u x t B e
α π
π

=
Most general solution is



23
( )
2 2 2
2
10
1
, sin
10
n t
t n
n
n x
u x t B e
α π
π


=
=


(iii) condition gives ( )
1
, 0 6 30 sin
10
t n
n
n x
u x x B
π

=
= − =


( ) , 0
t
u x can be expanded in half range sine series
( )
1
, 0 9 30 sin
10
t n
n
n x
u x x C
π

=
= − =


When ( )
0
2
sin
10
l
n
n x
C f x dx
l
π | |
=
|
\ ¹


Then

( )
( )
( )
10
0
10
2 2
0
2
6 30 sin
10 10
cos sin
1
10 10
6 30 6
5
10
10
1 300 300
cos
5
60
1 1
120
0
n n
n
n x
B C x dx
n x n x
x
n
n
n
n n
n
if n is even
n
if n is odd
π
π π
π
π
π
π π
π
π
| |
= = −
|
\ ¹
( | |
| |
− −
( |
|
= − − ( |
|
( |
|
|
(
\ ¹
\ ¹ ¸ ¸
− (
= −
(
¸ ¸

(
= + −
¸ ¸
− ¦
¦
=
´
¦
¹


( )
2 2 2
100
2,4,6
120
, sin
10
n t
t
n
n x
u x t e
n
α π
π
π


=

∴ =


( )
2 2 2
25
1
60 1 2
, sin
10
n t
t
n
n x
u x t e
n
α π
π
π


=

=



Problem 25 An insulated metal rod of length 100 cm has one end A kept at
0
0 C and the
other end B at
0
100 C until steady state conditions prevail. At time 0 t = , the temperature
at B is suddenly reduced to
0
50 C and there after maintained, while at the same time
0 t = , the end A is insulated. Find the temperature at any point of the rod at any
subsequent time.
Solution:
When the steady state conditions prevail, the portial differential equation is
2
2
0
u
x

=





24
( ) u x ax b ⇒ = +
With the boundary conditions u (0) = 0, u (100) = 100
( ) u x x ∴ =
Once the steady state condition is removed, then the temperature distribution in
the rod is given by
2
2
2
u u
t x
α
∂ ∂
=
∂ ∂
and the corresponding boundary conditions are
( )
( )
( )
( ) 0, 0 0
( ) 100, 50 0 and
( ) , 0 0 100
u
i t V t
x
ii u t V t
iii u x x x

= >

= >
= < <

Since the boundary value is non-zero, we adopt the modified procedure.
Let ( ) ( ) ( ) , ,
s t
u x t u x u x t = +
Where ( )
s
u x satisfies
2
2
0
s
u
x

=

with the boundary conditions
( )
( ) 0
100 50 and 0
s
s
u
u
x

= =


( )
s
u x ax b = +
( ) ( )
( )
( )
0
0
100 100 50
50
50
s s
s
s
u x u
a a
x x
u a b
b
u x
∂ ∂
= ⇒ = =
∂ ∂
= + =
⇒ =
=

How the boundary conditions for ( ) ,
t
u x t and
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) 0, 0, 0 0 0 0
( ) 100, 100, 100 50 50 0
( ) , 0 , 0
50 0 100
s
t s
t s
u u u
i t t t
x x x
ii u t u t u
iii u x u x u x
x x
∂ ∂ ∂
= − = − =
∂ ∂ ∂
= − = − =
= −
= − < <

Suitable solution is
( ) ( )
2 2
, cos sin
n x p t
t
u x t A p B p e
α −
= + - (1)
( )
( )
2 2 ,
sin cos
t p t
u x t
Ap px Bp px e
x
α −

= − +


Condition (1) gives
( )
2 2
, 0
0
p t t
u
t Bpe
x
B
α −

=

⇒ =

∴ solution (1)



25
( ) ( )
2 2
, cos
p t
t
u x t A px e
α −
⇒ = - (2)
condition (ii) gives
( )
( )
( )
2 2
0 100, cos100
cos100 0
100 odd multiple of 2 1
2 2
2 1
200
p t
t
u t A pxe
px
p n
n
p
α
π π
π

= =
=
⇒ = = −

=

∴solution is
( )
( )
( )
2 2
2
2
2 1
200
2 1
, cos
200
n
t
t
n x
u x t A e
π
α
π



=
most general solution is
( )
( )
2 1
1
2 1
, cos
200
t n
n
n x
u x t A
π


=

=


But ( ) , 0 50
t
u x x = − can be expanded on a half range cosine series
( )
( )
2 1
1
2 1
, 0 50 cos
200
t n
n
n x
u x x B
π


=

∴ = − =


where ( )
( )
100
2 1
0
2 1
2
50 cos
100 200
n
n x
B x dx
π


= −


( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
100
2
2
0
2 1 2 1
sin cos
1
200 200
50
2 1 2 1 50
200 200
n x n x
x
n n
π π
π π
( | | − −

( |
( | = − −
− −
( |
|
(
\ ¹ ¸ ¸

( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
2 1
200 200
sin
2 1 2
2 1
200 1 200
2 1
2 1
n
n
n
n x
n
n
π
π
π
π
π
+

= −



= −



( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
1 2
2 2 2
2 2
2
1
200 1 2 1 2 1
200
, cos
2 1 200 200
2 1
n
n
t
n
n x n
u x t e t
n
n
π α π
π
π
+

=
(
− − −
∴ = − (


(
¸ ¸



Hence
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
2 2 2
2
1 2 1
200
2
1
, ,
1 2 1
200 200
50 cos
2 1 2 1 200
s t
n n
t
n
u x t u t u x t
n x
e
n n
α π
π
π π
= − −

=
= + =
(
− −
= + − (
− −
(
¸ ¸







26
Two dimensional heat equation

Problem 26 An infinitely long metal plate in the form of an area is enclosed between
the lines 0 y = and y π = for positive values of x . The temperature is zero along the
edges 0 y = and y π = and the edge at infinity. If the edge 0 x = is kept at temperature
ky , find the steady state temperature distribution in the plate.
Solution:
The steady state temperature u (x, y) at any point (x, y) of the plate is given by the
equation
2 2
2 2
0
u u
x y
∂ ∂
+ =
∂ ∂
with the following boundary conditions :
i. ( ) , 0 0 0 u x V n = >
ii. ( ) , 0 0 u x V n π = >
iii. ( ) , 0 0 u y V y π ∞ = ≤ ≤
iv. ( ) 0, 0 u y ky y π = ≤ ≤

The three possible solutions of the PDE are
a. ( ) ( )( )
1 2 3 4
, cos sin
px px
u x y C e C e C py C py

= + +
b. ( ) ( )( )
5 6 7 8
, cos sin
py py
u x y C px C px C e C e

= + +
c. ( ) ( )( )
9 10 11 12
, u x y C x C C y C = + +
Consider (b)
( ) ( )( )
5 6 7 8
, cos sin
py py
u x y C px C px C e C e

= + +
by cond (i)
( ) ( ) ( )
5 6 7 8
7 8
, cos sin 0
0 - (1)
u x y C px C px C C
C C
= + + =
⇒ + =

( ) ( )( )
5 6 7 8
, cos sin 0
p p
u x C px C px C e C e
π π
π

= + + = - (2)
Solving (1) and (2) we get
7 8
0 C C = = which will lead to trivial solution.
∴is not the correct solution
The suitable solution is
( ) ( )( ) , cos sin
px px
u x y Ae Be C py D py

= + +
Condition (1)
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
, 0 0
0
, sin
px px
px px
u x Ae Be C
C
u x y Ae Be D py


⇒ = + =
∴ =
∴ = +

Condition (ii)



27
( ) ( )
, sin 0
sin 0
px px
u x Ae Be D p
p
p n
p n
π π
π
π π

= + =
⇒ =
⇒ =
=

∴Solution is
( ) ( )
, sin
nx nx
u x y Ae Be D ny

= +
Condition (iii)
( ) ( )
, sin 0
0
u y Ae Be D ny
A
∞ −∞
∞ = + =
⇒ =

Solution is
( ) , sin 0
sin 0
nx
nx
u x y Be D xy
BDe xy


= =
= =

Most general solution is
( )
1
, sin
nx
n
u x y Bne ny


=
=


Condition (iv)
( )
1
0, sin
n
u y ky Bn ny

=
= =


Now ( ) 0, u y ky = can be expended as a half range sine series
( )
1
0, sin
n
n
u y ky C ny

=
= =


Where
0
2
sin
n
C ky nydy
π
π
=

. Then sin
n
C =
2
0
2 cos sin
n
k xy ny
C y
n n
π
π
− − ( | | | |
∴ = −
| | (
\ ¹ \ ¹ ¸ ¸

( )
( )
( )
1
1
1
2
1
1
, 2 sin
n
n
n
nx
n
k
C
n
u x y k e ny
n
+
+


=
= −

∴ =



Problem 27 A plate is in the form of the semi infinite strip 0 10 x ≤ ≤ , 0 y ≤ ≤ ∞, whose
surfaces is insulated. If the temperature at short edge 0 y = is given by

( )
20 , 0 5
20 10 , 5 10
x x
u
x x
≤ ≤ ¦
=
´
− ≤ ≤
¹

and all the other three edges are kept at
0
0 C . Find the steady state temperature at any
point of the plate.
Solution:



28
The three possible solutions are
a. ( ) ( )( ) , cos sin
px px
u x y Ae Be C py D py

= + +
b. ( ) ( ) ( )
, cos sin
py py
u x y A px B px Ce De

= + +
c. ( ) ( ) ( ) , u x y Ax B Cy D = + +
The equation is
2 2
2 2
0
u u
x y
∂ ∂
+ =
∂ ∂
and the boundary conditions are
i. ( ) 0, 0 u y =
ii. ( ) 10, 0 u y =
iii. ( ) , 0 u x ∞ =
iv. ( ) ( ) , 0 u x f x =
Consider (a)
( ) ( )( )
( ) ( )( )
, cos sin
0, cos sin 0
0 (1)
px px
u x y Ae Be C py D py
u y A B C py D py
A B

= + +
= + + =
⇒ = = −

( ) ( )( )
10 10
10 10
10, cos sin 0
0
p p
p p
u y Ae Be C py D py
Ae Be


= + + =
⇒ + =

Solving (1) and (2), we get A = 0, B = 0
Which will give use the trivial solution
∴ (a) is not the correct solution.
Consider (C) ( ) ( ) ( ) , u x y Ax B Cy D = + +
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
0, 0 0
0, 0 10 0 0
u y B Cy D B
u y A Cy D A
= + = ⇒ =
= + = ⇒ =

Which will lead a to trivial solution
∴The suitable solution is (b)
( ) ( ) ( )
, cos sin
py py
u x y A px B px Ce De

= + +
Condition (i) ⇒
( ) ( )
0, 0 0
py py
u y A Ce De A

= + = ⇒ =
∴Solution is ( ) ( )
, sin
py py
u x y B px Ce De

= +
Condition (ii) ⇒
( ) ( )
10, sin10 0
sin10 0
10
py py
u y B p Ce De
n
p p
π

= + =
⇒ = ⇒ =

∴ solution is ( )
10 10
, sin
10
n y n y
n x
u x y B Ce De
π π
π
− | |
= +
|
\ ¹

Condition (iii) ⇒



29
( )
10 10
, sin
10
0
n n
n x
u x B Ce De
C
π π
π
∞ ∞
− | |
∞ = +
|
\ ¹
⇒ =

∴solution is ( )
10
, sin
10
n y
n x
u x y B De
π
π

=
Most general solution is
( )
10
1
, sin
10
n x
n
n
n x
u x y B e
π
π


=
=


condition (iv) gives

( ) ( )
1
, 0 sin
10
n
n
n x
u x f x C
π

=
| |
= =
|
\ ¹


where
( )
10
0
2
.sin
10 10
n
n x
C f x dx
π
=


( )
5 10
0 5
1
20 sin 20 10 sin
5 10 10
n x n x
x dx x dx
π π
(
= + −
(
¸ ¸
∫ ∫

( ) ( )
5
2 2
0
10
2 2
5
cos
sin
10
10
4
10
100
cos sin
10 10
4 10 1
10
100
n x
n x
x
n x
n
n x n x
x
n
n
π
π
π
π
π π
π
π
( | | | | | |

− | ( |
|
\ ¹
( | = − |
( |
|
|
|
(
\ ¹
\ ¹ ¸ ¸
( | |
| |
− −
( |
|
+ − − − ( |
|
( |
|
|
(
\ ¹
\ ¹ ¸ ¸

2 2 2 2
50 100 50 100
4 cos sin cos sin
2 2 2 2
n n n n
n n n n
π π π π
π π π π
− (
= + + +
(
¸ ¸


( )
2 2
10
2 2
1,3,5
800
sin where n is odd
2
0 where n is even
800 1
, sin sin
2 10
n y
n
n
n n x
u x y e
n
π
π
π
π π
π


¦
¦
=
´
¦
¹
∴ =






30
Problem 28 A square plate of length 20 cm has its faces insulated and its edges are
along 0 x = , 20 x = , 0 y = , 20 y = . If the temperature along the edge 20 x = is given
by
( )
, 0 10
10
20 , 10 20
10
T
y y
u
T
y y
¦ | |
≤ ≤
| ¦
¦ \ ¹
=
´
| |
¦
− ≤ ≤
|
¦
\ ¹ ¹

while the other three edges are kept at
0
0 C , find the steady state temperature distribution
in the plate.
Solution:
The partial differential equation to be solved is
2 2
2 2
0
u u
x y
∂ ∂
+ =
∂ ∂

With the boundary conditions
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
, 0 0 0 20
( ) , 20 0 0 20
( ) 0, 0 0 20
( ) 20, 0 0 20
i u x x
ii u x x
iii u y x
iv u y x
= ≤ ≤
= ≤ ≤
= ≤ ≤
= ≤ ≤

since non-zero temperature is prescribed on the edge x = 20, in which y is varying, the
suitable solution is
( ) ( )( ) , cos sin
px px
u x y Ae Be C py D py

= + +
condition (i) gives

( ) ( )
, 20 sin 20 0
20
20
px px
u x Ae Be D p
p n
n
p
π
π

= + =
⇒ =
⇒ =

∴ solution is
( )
20 20
, sin
20
n x n x
n y
u x y Ae Be D
π π
π

| |
= +
|
\ ¹

(iii) condition gives
( ) ( )
( )
20 20
0, sin 0
20
0
, sin
20
n x n x
n y
u y A B D
A B B A
n y
u x y A e e D
π π
π
π

= + =
⇒ + = ⇒ = −
| |
∴ = −
|
\ ¹

Most general solution is
( )
20 20
1
, sin
20
n x n x
n
n y
u x y An e e
π π
π


=
| |
= −
|
\ ¹


(iv) condition gives



31
( ) ( )
1
20, sin
20
n n
n
n y
u y An e e
π π
π


=
| |
= −
|
\ ¹


But ( )
( )
0 10
10
20,
20 10 20
10
T
y y
u y
T
y y
¦
≤ ≤
¦
¦
=
´
¦
− ≤ ≤
¦
¹

Which can be expanded in a half range sine series
( )
1
20, sin
20
n
n
n y
u y B
π

=
| |
=
|
\ ¹

where
( )
( )
( ) ( )
20
0
10 20
0 10
10
2 2
0
2 2
2
20, sin
20 20
sin 20 sin
100 20 20
cos sin
20 20
100
20
20
cos sin
20 20
20 1
100
20
20
n y
Bn u y dy
T n y n y
y dy y dy
n y n y
T
y
n
n
n y n y
T
y
n
n
π
π π
π π
π
π
π π
π
π
=
(
= + −
(
¸ ¸
( | |
| |
− −
( |
|
= − ( |
|
( |
|
|
|
(
\ ¹
\ ¹ ¸ ¸
|
| |
− −

|
+ − − −
|
|
|
\ ¹
\

∫ ∫
20
0
( |
( |
( |
( |
|
(
¹ ¸ ¸

2 2 2 2
2 2
2 2
200 400 200 400
cos sin cos sin
100 2 2 2 2
8
sin
2
8
sin
2
n
T n n n n
n n n n
T n
n
T n
B
n
π π π π
π π π π
π
π
π
π
− ( | | | |
= + + +
| | (
\ ¹ \ ¹ ¸ ¸
=
∴ =

But
( )
2 2
2 2
2 2
8
sinh sin
2
8
sin
sinh 2
8 1
, sin cos sinh sin
2 20 20
n n
n
T n
A n B
n
T n
A
n n
T n n x n y
u x y hn
n
π
π
π
π
π π
π π π
π
π
= =
∴ =
∴ =




Problem 29 Solve the following problem for a rectangle specified below :
0
xx yy
u u + =
1. ( ) 0, 0 u y = ,



32
2. ( ) ( ) , 0 u x f x = ,
3. ( ) , 0 u a y = , 0 y b < < ,
4. ( ) , 0 u x b = , 0 x a < < . Where ( )
3
sin
x
f x
a
π | |
=
|
\ ¹
.
Solution:
The P.D.E. is
2 2
2
0
u u
x y
∂ ∂
+ =
∂ ∂

The boundary conditions in
( )
( )
( )
( )
3
( ) 0, 0 0
( ) , 0 0
( ) , 0 0
( ) , 0 sin , 0
i u y y b
ii u a y y b
iii u x b x a
x
iv u x x a
a
π
= < <
= < <
= < <
= < <

Solving equation (1) we get three types of solutions as given below:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )( )
( ) ( ) ( )( )
1 2 3 4
5 6 7 8
9 10 11 12
, cos sin
, cos sin
,
py py
px px
a u x y c px c px c e c e
b u x y c py c py c e c e
c u x y c x c c y c


= + +
= + +
= + +

Out of these three solutions the correct solution which satisfies our boundary conditions (
as explained in Ex.[1] is
( ) ( )( )
1 2 3 4
, cos sin .....(2)
py py
u x y c px c px c e c e

= + +
Applying condition (i) in (2), we get,
( ) ( )
1 3 4
0, 0
py py
u y c c e c e

= + =
i.e.,
1
0 c = …….(3)
Substituting (3) in (2), we get,
( ) ( )
2 3 4
, sin
py py
u x y c px c e c e

= +
Applying condition (ii) in (4), we get,
( ) ( )
2 3 4
, sin 0
py py
u a y c pa c e c e

= + =
Here
2
0 c ≠ since if
2
0 c = we get trivial solution.
Hence sin pa=0, i.e., pa nπ =
(or)
n
p
a
π
=
Substituting (5) in (4), we get,
( )
2 3 4
, sin .....(6)
n y n y
a a
n x
u x y c c e c e
a
π π
π

| |
= +
|
\ ¹

Applying condition (iii) in (6) we get,



33
( )
2 3 4
, sin 0
n b n b
a a
n x
u x b c c e c e
a
π π
π

| |
= + =
|
\ ¹

Here
2
0 c ≠ and sin 0
n x
a
π

Hence
3 4
0
n b n b
a a
c e c e
π π −
+ =
i.e.,
4 3
n b n b
a a
c e c e
π π −
= −
i.e.,
2
4 3
n b
a
c c e
π
= −
Substituting (7) in (6), we get,
( )
2
3 2
, sin . .....(8)
n y n b n y
a a a
n x
u x y c c e e e
a
π π π
π

| |
= −
|
\ ¹


2 2
sin .
n y n b n y
a a a
n
n x
c e e e
a
π π π
π

| |
= −
|
\ ¹

The most general solution can be written as
( )
2 2
1
, sin . .....(9)
n y n y n b
a a a
n
n
n x
u x y c e e e
a
π π π
π


=
| |
= −
|
\ ¹


Applying condition (iv) in (9), we get,
( )
2
1
, 0 sin 1
n b
a
n
n
n x
u x c e
a
π
π

=
| |
= −
|
\ ¹



3
sin
x
a
π
=
i.e.,
2
1
1 3
sin 1 3sin sin
4
n b
a
n
n
n x x x
c e
a a a
π
π π π

=
| |
| |
− = −
| |
\ ¹
\ ¹


2 4 6
1 2 3
2 3
sin 1 sin 1 sin 1 ...
b b b
a a a
x x x
c e c e c e
a a a
π π π
π π π | | | | | |
− + − + − +
| | |
\ ¹ \ ¹ \ ¹

1 3
3sin sin
4
x x
a a
π π | |
= −
|
\ ¹

Equating like coefficient we get,
2
1
3
1
4
b
a
c e
π
| |
− =
|
\ ¹

i.e.,
1 2
2
3
, 0
4 1
b
a
c c
e
π
= =
| |

|
\ ¹

6
3
1
1
4
b
a
c e
π
| |
− = −
|
\ ¹




34
i.e.,
3 4 5
6
1
, 0, 0,....
4 1
b
a
c c c
e
π
= = =
| |

|
\ ¹

Substituting these values of c’ s in (9), we get
( )
2 2 3 6 6
2 6
3 3 3
, sin sin
4 1 4 1
y y b y y b
a a a a a a
b b
a a
x x
u x y e e e e e e
a a
e e
π π π π π π
π π
π π
− −
| | | |
= − − −
| |
| | | |
\ ¹ \ ¹
− −
| |
\ ¹ \ ¹


Problem 30 A rectangular plate is bounded by the lines
0 x =
,
x a =
, 0 y = and y b = .
Its surfaces are insulated the temperatures along 0 x = and 0 y = are kept at
0
0 C and the
others at
0
100 C . Find the steady state temperature at any point of the plate.
Solution:
Let ( ) , u x y be the temperature satisfying the equation
( )
2 2
2 2
0 1
u u
x y
∂ ∂
+ = −
∂ ∂

Then the boundary conditions are given by
(i) ( ) 0, 0 u y = for 0 y b ≤ <
(ii) ( ) , 0 0 u x = for 0 x a ≤ <
(iii) ( ) , 100 u a y = for 0 x b < <
(iv) ( ) , 100 u x b = for 0 x a < <
we split the solutions into two solution
i.e., ( ) ( ) ( )
2
, , , u x y u x y u x y = +
where ( )
1
, 0 u x y = and ( )
2
, u x y are solutions of (1) and furthers ( )
1
, u x y is the
temperature at any point p with the edge BC maintained at 100
o
and the other three edges
at o C
o
. Where ( )
2
, u x y ± is the temperature at P with the edge AB maintained at 100
o
C
and the other edges at o C
o
.
Therefore the boundary conditions for the function ( )
1
, u x y and ( )
2
, u x y are as follows.
(i) ( )
1
0, 0 u y = , 0 y b ≤ ≤
(ii) ( )
1
, 0 0 u x = , 0 x a ≤ ≤
(iii) ( )
1
, 0 u a y = , 0 x b ≤ ≤
(iv) ( ) , 100 u x b = , 0 x a ≤ ≤

(i) ( )
2
0, 0 u y = , 0 y b ≤ ≤
(ii) ( )
2
, 0 0 u x = , 0 x a ≤ ≤
(iii) ( )
2
, 100 u a y = , 0 x b ≤ ≤



35
(iv) ( )
2
, 0 u x b = , 0 x a ≤ ≤

clearly both
1
u and
2
u satisfy the equation (1) solving (1) and choosing the suitable
solution we have, ( )
1
, u x y = (A cospx + B sinpx )
( )
py py
ce De

+ ………..(2)
using cond (i) in (2) ( )
1
0, u y A =
( )
py py
ce De

+ = 0
= >A= 0
( )
1
, sin u x y B px ∴ =
( )
py py
ce De

+ ……………..(3)
using cond (iii) in (3)
2
( , 0) sin u x B pa =
( )
py py
ce De

+ = 0
=>sin pa = 0
pa = nπ
p = , 0,1, 2, 3...
n
n
a
π
= Then (3) = B sin
n
x
a
π
n n
y y
a a
ce De
π π
− | |
+
|
\ ¹
……….(4)
by apply and (iii) to (4)
( ) ( )
1
, 0 sin 0
n x
u x B c D
a
π
= + =
0 0 B C D D C ∴ ≠ + = ⇒ = −
( )
1
, 2 sin
2
n y n y
a a
n x e e
u x y BC
a
π π
π
− | |

|
=
|
|
\ ¹

The most general solution is given by
( )
1
1
, sin
2
n y n y
a a
n
n
n x e e
u x y B
a
π π
π



| |

|
=
|
|
\ ¹

By the condition
( )
1
1
, sin
2
n y n y
a a
n
n
n x e e
u x y B
a
π π
π



| |

|
=
|
|
\ ¹



1
sinh sin 100
n
n
n x n x
B
a a
π π


| |
= =
|
\ ¹


Which is half range some for ( ) 100 f x = (0.a)
0
2
sinh 100sin
a
n
n b n x
B dx
a a a
π π
∴ =


0
cos
200
a
n x
a
n
a
a
π
π
(

(
=
(
(
¸ ¸




36
[ ]
200
cos cos 0 n
n
π
π
= − −
( )
200
1 1
n

(
= − −
¸ ¸

400
is
0 is
if n odd
n
if n even
π
¦
¦
=
´
¦
¹

400
is
sinh
0 is
if n odd
n h
n Bn
a
if n even
π
π
¦
¦
¦
∴ =
´
¦
¦
¹

( )
1
400
, sin sinh
sinh
n odd
n x n y
u x y
n h
a a
n
a
π π
π
π

=
∴ =


( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
1
1
2 1 2 1
sin sin
400
,
2 1
2 1 sinh
n
n x n x
a a
u x y
n h
n
a
π π
π π

=
− − | |
|
\ ¹
=
− (

(
¸ ¸


Similarly,
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
2
1
2 1 2 1
sin sinh
400
,
2 1
2 1 sinh
n
n y n x
b b
u x y
n a
n
b
π π
π π

=
− − ( (
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
=
− (

(
¸ ¸


( ) ( ) ( )
1 2
, , , u x y u x y u x y ∴ = +
is the required solution where
1
u and
2
u are given above.

```````````
1
UNIT – V Z- TRANSFORMS AND DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS
PART - A
Problem 1 What is the Z- transform of discrete unit step function?
Solution: Discrete Unit step function is
( ) 1, 0
0, 0
u n n
n
= >
= <
( )
1 2
1
0
1
1. 1 ..
1
n
n
Z u n z z z
z
·
÷ ÷ ÷
÷
=
= = + + + = (
¸ ¸
÷
¿
if
1
1 z
÷
<

1
z
z ÷
if 1 z >
Problem 2 Find
1
2
n
Z
| |
|
\ .
.
Solution:
1 2 3
2 3
0
1 1 1 1 1
1
2 2 2 2 2
n
n n
Z z z z z
·
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
| |
= = + + + +
|
\ .
¿


2 3
1 1 1
1 ...
2 4 8 z z z
= + + + +
Problem 3 Find ( ) 1 Z u n ÷ (
¸ ¸
.
Solution:
( ) ( ) ( )
0 1
2 3
1
2
1 1 1
1 1 1
....
1 1 1
1 ....
n n
n n
n
n
Z u n u n z u n z
z
z z z
z z z
· ·
÷ ÷
= =
·
÷
=
÷ = ÷ = ÷ (
¸ ¸
= = + + +
(
= + + +
(
¸ ¸
¿ ¿
¿
1 1 1
1
1 z z z
| |
= ÷ =
|
÷
\ .
if 1 z >
Problem 4 Find the Z- transform of unit impulse function?
Solution: Unit impulse function is
( ) 1, 0
0, 0
n n
n
 = =
= =
( ) ( )
0
0
1
n
n
Z n n z z  
·
÷ ÷
=
= = = (
¸ ¸
¿
.
Problem 5 Find ( ) Z n k  ÷ (
¸ ¸
.
2
Solution: ( ) ( )
0
1
n k
k
n
Z n k n k z z
z
 
·
÷ ÷
=
÷ = ÷ = = (
¸ ¸
¿
.
Problem 6 If ( ) ( ) Z f n U z = (
¸ ¸
then ( )
n
Z a f n ( =
¸ ¸
___________
Solution: ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) / /
n
n n n
Z a f n a f n z f n a z U z a
÷
( = = =
¸ ¸
¿ ¿
.
Problem 7 If ( ) ( ) Z f n U z = (
¸ ¸
, then show that ( ) ( )
k
Z f n k z U z
±
+ = (
¸ ¸
Solution:
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
0 0
0
n k n k
k r k
Z f n k f n k z z f n k z
z f r z z U z
· ·
÷ ± ÷ ±
·
± ÷ ±
± = ± = ± (
¸ ¸
= =
¿ ¿
¿
Problem 8 IF ( ) ( ) z f n U z = (
¸ ¸
, then
( )
( )
1
f n
Z z U z dz
n
÷
| |
= ÷
|
\ .
}
.
Solution:
( ) ( )
1
0 0
( )
n n
f n f n
Z z f n z dz
n n
· ·
÷ ÷ ÷
(
= = ÷
(
¸ ¸
¿ ¿
}
, since
1
n
n
z
z dz
n
÷
÷ ÷
= ÷
}
( ) ( ) ( )
1 1
0
n n
f n z dz z f n z dz
·
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷ = ÷
¿ ¿
} }
( )
1
z U z dz
÷
= ÷
}
.
Problem 9 If ( ) ( ) , Z f n U z = (
¸ ¸
then ( ) Z n f n = (
¸ ¸
__________
Solution:
( ) ( ) ( )
1 n n
Z nf n nf n z z nf n z
÷ ÷ ÷
= = ÷ ÷ (
¸ ¸
¿ ¿
=- ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
n n
d d d
z f n z z f n z z U z
dz dz dz
÷ ÷
÷ = ÷ = ÷
¿ ¿
.
Problem 10 State initial and final valuetheorem of Z - transform.
Solution: Initial value Theorem
( ) ( ), 0 If Z f n U z n = > (
¸ ¸
then ( ) ( ) ( ) 0
n 0
Limit Limit
f n f U z
z
= =
÷ ÷ ·
Final value Theorem
( ) ( ) , 0 If Z f n U z n = > (
¸ ¸
( ) ( ) ( ) 1
1
Limit Limit
f n z U z
n z
= ÷
÷ · ÷
Problem 11 Define convolution of two sequences ( ) { }
f n and ( ) { }
g n
Solution: ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
0
*
n
m
f n g n f m g n m
=
= ÷
¿
3
Problem 12 Find
3 n
Z a
+
(
¸ ¸
.
Solution:
( )
3 3 3 n n n n
Z a a z a Z a
+ + ÷
( = =
¸ ¸
¿
=
3 . 3 3
1
/
.1
/
n
z a z
a Z a a a
z a z a
÷
( = =
¸ ¸
÷
Problem 13 | |
2 n
Z y
+
=__________.
Solution:
| | ( )
2 1
2 0 1 n
Z y z y z y y z
÷
+
( = ÷ ÷
¸ ¸
Problem 14 Find
( )( )
1
1 2
z
Z
z z
÷
(
(
÷ ÷
¸ ¸
Solution: Let
( )( )
( )
1 2
z
U z
z z
(
=
(
÷ ÷
¸ ¸

Then
( )
( )( )
1
1 2 1 2
U z
A B
z z z z z
= = +
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
2, 1
1, 1
z B
z A
= =
= = ÷
( )
( )
1 1
1 2
U z
z z z
÷
= +
÷ ÷

( )
( )
1 2
1 2 2 1
n n
z z
U z
z z
u n
÷
= +
÷ ÷
= ÷ + = ÷
Problem 15 Write the formula to find the inverse Z- Transform using residue method.
Solution: The inverse Z-Transform of ( ) U z is given by the formula
( )
1
1
2
n
n
C
u U z z dz
i 
÷
=
}
=Sum of residues of ( )
1 n
U z z
÷
at the poles of ( ) U z which are inside the
contour C drawn according to the region of convergence given.
PART-B
Problem 16 Find
( )
p
Z n where is p is positive integer and hence find ( ) ( )
2
Z n and Z n
Solution:
4
( )
( )
( )
( )
0
1 1
0
1 1
0
1
0
1
0
1
.
p p n
n
p n
n
p n
n
p n
n
p n
n
p
Z n n z
z n n z
z n nz
d
z n z
dz
d
z n z
dz
d
z z n
dz
·
÷
=
·
÷ ÷ ÷
=
·
÷ ÷ ÷
=
·
÷ ÷
=
·
÷ ÷
=
÷
=
= ÷ ÷
= ÷ ÷
= ÷
= ÷
= ÷
¿
¿
¿
¿
¿
Put p =1
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2
2 2 2
11 .1
1
1
1
1 1
1 1 1
z z d d z
Z n z Z z z
dz dz z
z
z z z
z z
z z z
÷ ÷
| |
= ÷ = ÷ = ÷
|
÷
\ . ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷ = ÷ =
÷ ÷ ÷
Put p =2
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2
2
4 4
2
3 3
1
1 1 2 1
1 1 2
1 1
1
1 1
d d z
Z n z Z n z
dz dz
z
z z z
z
z z z z
z z
z z z
z
z z
| |
= ÷ = ÷ |
|
÷
\ .
(
÷ ÷ × ÷
÷
= ÷ = ÷ ÷ ÷ (
÷ ÷
(
¸ ¸
+
= ÷ ÷ ÷ =
÷ ÷
Problem 17 Find
( )
cos
an
Z e n
÷
.
Solution:
We know that ( ) 1
1
z
Z
z
=
÷
( ) ( )
n
in i
i
z
Z e Z e
z e
 

÷ ÷
÷
(
= =
(
¸ ¸
÷
5
( )
( )
( )( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
cos sin cos sin
2 cos 1 1
cos sin
cos sin
2 cos 1 2 cos 1
i
in
i i i
i i
z z e
z
Z e
z e z e z e
z z i z z iz
z z z z e e
z z z
z n i n i
z z z z


  
 
   

 
 
 
÷
÷ ÷
÷
÷
= =
÷ ÷ ÷
÷ + ( ÷ ÷
¸ ¸
= =
÷ + ÷ + +
÷
+ = ÷
÷ + ÷ +
equating real and imaginary parts,
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2
cos
cos
2 cos 1
cos cos
cos
2 cos 1
n
an a
a a
a a
z z
Z n
z z
Z e n Z e n
ze ze
ze ze



 


÷ ÷
÷
=
÷ +
=
÷
=
÷ +
using theproperty
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
2
cos
cos
2 cos 1
n
n
a a
an
a a
Z a u U az
ze ze
Z e n
ze ze



÷
÷
=
÷
=
÷ +
.
Problem 18 Find
1 1
.
1
Z and Z
n n
| | | |
| |
+
\ . \ .
Solution:
2 3
1
0
2
2 3
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
....
2 3
1 1
1 log log
1
1 1
1 1
1 1 1 1
1 ....
2 3
1 1 1 1 1
..
2 3
1
log 1
n
n
n
n
Z z
n n z z z
z z
log
z z z
Z z
n n
z z
z
z z z
z
z
·
÷
=
·
÷
=
| | | | | |
= = + + +
| | |
\ . \ . \ .
÷ | | | | | |
= ÷ ÷ = ÷ =
| | |
÷
\ . \ . \ .
| |
=
|
+ +
\ .
| | | |
= + + +
| |
\ . \ .
(
| | | |
= + + +
(
| |
\ . \ .
(
¸ ¸
|
= ÷ ÷
¿
¿
1
log
log
1
z
z
z
z
z
z
( ÷ | | |
= ÷
| | (
\ . \ . ¸ ¸
| |
=
|
÷
\ .
6
Problem 19 Find Z-transform of ( ) f n where ( )
( )( )
2 3
1 2
n
f n
n n
+
=
+ +
.
Solution:
Let
( ) ( )
2 3
1 2 1 2
n A B
n n n n
+
= +
+ + + +

( ) ( )
( )( )
2 3 2 1
1, 1 1
2, 1 1
2 3 1 1
1 2 1 2
n A n B n
n A A
n B B
n
n n n n
+ = + + +
= ÷ = ¬ =
= ÷ ÷ = ÷ ¬ =
+
= +
+ + + +

( ) ( )
( )
0
2
3
2
2
2
2 3 1 1
1 2 1 2
1
log .3
1 1
1 1
2 2
1 1 1 1 1
....
2 3 4
1 1 1 1
....
2 3
1 1
log 1
n
n
n
Z Z Z
n n n n
z
Now Z z refer problem
n z
Z z
n n
z z
z
z z
z
z z
·
÷
=
(
+ ( (
= +
(
( (
+ + + +
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
¸ ¸
| | | |
=
| |
+ ÷
\ . \ .
| |
=
|
+ +
\ .
| | | |
= + + +
| |
\ . \ .
(
| | | |
= + +
(
| |
\ . \ .
(
¸ ¸
| |
= ÷ ÷ ÷
|
\ .
¿
( ) ( )
( )
2
2
2
1
log
1
log
2 3
log log
1 2 1 1
1 log .
1
z
z z
z
z
z z
z
n z z
Z z z z
n n z z
z
z z z
z
(
(
¸ ¸
÷
= ÷ ÷
÷ | |
= ÷
|
\ .
(
+ | | | |
= + ÷
(
| |
+ + ÷ ÷
\ . \ .
¸ ¸
| |
= + ÷
|
÷
\ .
Problem 20 Find the Z-transform of cosh
n
a bn .
Solution:
cosh
2
bn bn
n n
e e
Z a bn z a
÷
( | | +
( =
( |
¸ ¸
\ . ¸ ¸
7
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
2 2
2 2
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1 1
2
2
2
2
2 2 cosh
2 2
n bn n bn
n n
b n b n
n n
b b
b b
b b
b b
b b
b b
b b
Z a e Z a e
Z e a Z e a
Z ae Z ae
z z
z ae z ae
z
z ae z ae
z ae z ae
z
z a e e z a
z a e e
z
z a e e z a
z z a b
z
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
(
= +
¸ ¸
(
= +
(
¸ ¸
(
= +
(
¸ ¸
(
= +
(
÷ ÷
¸ ¸
(
= +
(
÷ ÷
¸ ¸
(
÷ + ÷
( =
÷ + +
(
¸ ¸
(
÷ +
( =
÷ + +
(
¸ ¸
÷
=
÷ ( )
( )
2
2 2
cosh
cosh
2 cosh
a b z a
z a b
z
z az b a
(
(
+
¸ ¸
(
÷
=
(
÷ +
¸ ¸
Problem 21 Using
( )
( )
2
2
3
,
1
z z
Z n
z
+
=
÷
Show ( )
( )
3
2
3
1 .
1
z z
Z n
z
+
(
+ =
¸ ¸
÷
Solution: Using shifting theorem,
( ) ( )
1 0 n
Z u z U z u
+
= ÷ (
¸ ¸
Hence,
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
2
2 2
0
2 3 2
2
3 2
,
3
0
1 0 .
1 1
n
z z
Z n U z u n
z
u
z z z z
Z n z
z z
+
= = =
÷
=
(
+ +
(
+ = ÷ = (
¸ ¸
÷ ÷
(
¸ ¸
Problem 22 If ( )
( )
2
4
2 3 12
,
1
z z
U z
z
+ +
=
÷
find
2
u and
3
u .
Solution: we have
8
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
2
0 4
2
1 0 4
2 1
2 0 1
2
2
4
3 1 2
3 0 1 2
lim lim
2 3 12
0
1
lim lim
2 3 12
0 0
1
lim
lim
2 3 12
0 0 2
1
lim
lim
it it
z z
u U z
z z
z
it it
z z
u z U z u
z z
z
it
u z U z u u z
z
it
z z
z
z
z
it
u z U z u u z u z
z
÷
÷ ÷
+ +
= = =
÷ · ÷ ·
÷
(
+ +
( = ÷ = ÷ = ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
÷ · ÷ ·
÷
(
¸ ¸
( = ÷ ÷
¸ ¸
÷ ·
(
+ +
= ÷ ÷ = (
÷ ·
÷
(
¸ ¸
( = ÷ ÷ ÷
¸ ¸
÷ ·
=
( )
( )
( )
( )
2
3
4 2
4 2 4 3 2
3
4
2
3
4
2 3 12 2
0 0
1
2 3 12 2 4 6 4 1
lim
1
lim
11 8 2 11.
1
it
z z
z
z z
z
z z z z z z z
it
z
z
z z
it
z
z z
z
z
(
+ +
÷ ÷ ÷ (
÷ ·
÷
(
¸ ¸
(
+ + ÷ ÷ + ÷ +
( =
÷ ·
÷ (
¸ ¸
( = + ÷ =
¸ ¸
÷ ·
÷
Problem 23 Prove that | |
( )
( )
3 2
2
2
cos 2
cos .
2 cos 1
z z z
Z n n
z z



+ ÷
=
÷ +
Solution: We know that
| |
( )
2
cos
cos ( 2)
2 cos 1
z z
Z n refer problem
z z



÷
=
÷ +
Also we have the property,
9
( ) ( )
| |
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2
2
2 2
2
2
3 2 2 2
3 2 2 2
cos
cos
2 cos 1
cos
2 cos 1
( 2 cos 1) 2 cos cos 2 2cos
2 cos 1
2 cos 4 cos 2 cos 2
cos 2 2 cos 2 2 cos 1
n
d
Z nu z U z
dz
z z
d
Z n n z
dz z z
d z z
z
dz z z
z z z z z z
z
z z
z z z z z
z
z z z z z





   

 
  
= ÷ (
¸ ¸
÷ (
= ÷
(
÷ +
¸ ¸
( ÷
= ÷
(
÷ +
¸ ¸
÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷
÷ +
÷ ÷ + +
= ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ +
( )
2
cos 2 cos z  
(
(
+
(
¸ ¸
( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2
2
3 2
3 2
2 2
2 2
cos cos 2
2 cos 1
cos 2
cos cos 2
.
2 cos 1 2 cos 1
z
z z
z z
z z z
z z z
z z z z
 


 
 
÷
( = ÷ ÷ +
¸ ¸
+ +
+ ÷
+ ÷
= =
÷ + ÷ +
Problem 24 State and prove convolution theorem for Z-transform.
Solution: Statement
If ( ) ( )
1 1
, n n
Z U z u and z V z v
÷ ÷
= = ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
theorem
( ) ( )
1
0
*
n
m n m n n
m
Z U z V z u v u v
÷
÷
=
= = (
¸ ¸
¿
Where* denotes the convolution operation.
Proof:
We have ( )
0 0
( )
n
n n
n n
n n
U z u z and V z v z
·
÷ ÷
= =
= =
¿ ¿
10
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
1 2
0 1 2
1 2
0 1 2
1 2 3
0 0 0 1 0 2 0 3 0
1 2 3 4
1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3
2 3 4 5
2 0 2 1 2 2 2 3
1
0 1
... ... *
.... ...
.... ...
....
....
n
n
n
n
n
n
n n
n n
U z v z u u z u z u z
v v z v z v z
u v u v z u v z u v z u v z
u v z u v z u v z u u z
u v z u v z u v z u u z
u v z u v z u
÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ + ÷
= + + + +
+ + + +
= + + + + +
+ + + + +
+ + + + +
+ + +
( )
( ) ( )
( )
| |
| |
| |
2
2
1 2
0 0 0 1 1 0 0 2 1 1 2 0
0 1 1 2 2 0
0
0 1 1 2 2 0
1
....
..
..
...
* .
( ) ( )
n
n
n
n n n n
n
n n n n
n n
n n
v z
u v u v u v z u v u v u v z
u v u v u v u v z
Z u v u v u v u v
Z u v
Z U z V z u v
÷ +
÷ ÷
·
÷
÷ ÷
=
÷ ÷
÷
+
= + + + + + +
= + + + +
= + + + +
=
= -
¿
Problem 25 Use convolution theorem to evaluate
( )( )
2
1
1 3
z
Z
z z
÷
(
(
÷ ÷
¸ ¸
.
Solution:
We know that
( )
( )
1
1
1
z
Z z
z
÷
(
=
(
÷
¸ ¸
and
( )
1
3
3
n
z
Z
z
÷
(
=
(
÷
¸ ¸
Now
( )( )
2
1 1
0 0
.
1 3 1 3
1 3 1.3 3 3
n n
n n m n m
m m
z z z
Z Z
z z z z
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
= =
(
(
=
(
(
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
= - = =
¿ ¿
( )
( )
1
1 1
0
1 1
1
1
3 1 3 /3
1 3
3 3
1 3 1 3 /3
1
3
1 3 3 1
.
2 2
n
n n n m
n
n n
m
n n
+
+ +
=
+ +
| |
÷
|
÷
| |
\ .
= = =
|
÷ | |
\ .
÷
|
\ .
÷ ÷
= =
÷
¿
Problem 26 Use convolution theorem to evaluate
( )
3
1
1
z
Z
z
÷
(
(
÷
¸ ¸
.
Solution:
3 2
1 1
1 1 1
z z z
Z Z
z z z
÷ ÷
( (
| | | |
=
( (
| |
÷ ÷ ÷
\ . \ .
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
11
We know that
1
1
1
z
z
z
÷
| |
=
|
÷
\ .
( )
( ) ( )
( )( )
2
1 1
0
3 2
1 1
2
1 1
0 0 0
.
1 1 1
1*1 1*1 1
1 1 1
*
1 1
1* 1
1 1 1
1 1
n
m
n n n
m m m
z z z
Z Z
z z z
n
z z z
Z Z
z z z
z z
Z Z
z z
n
n m n m
n
n n
÷ ÷
=
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
= = =
(
( | | | | | |
=
(
| | | (
÷ ÷ ÷
\ . \ . \ . ¸ ¸ (
¸ ¸
= = = +
( (
| | | |
=
( (
| |
÷ ÷ ÷
\ . \ .
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
(
| | | |
=
(
| |
÷ ÷
\ . \ .
(
¸ ¸
= +
= ÷ + = + ÷
= + + ÷
¿
¿ ¿ ¿
( )
( )
2
2 2 2
1
2
1
2 1
2
2 4 2 3 2
.
2 2
n
n n
n n
n n n n n n
+
+
= + + ÷
+ + ÷ ÷ + +
= =
Problem 27 Find the inverse Z-transform of ( )
( )
2
4
1
z
f z
z
=
÷
by long division method.
Solution:
1 2 3 4
4 8 12 16 z z z z
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
+ + +

2
1
2 1)4
4 8 4
z z z
z z
÷
+ +
÷ +

1
2
8 4
8 16 8
z
z z
÷
÷
÷
÷ +

1 2
1 2 3
12 8
12 24 12
z z
z z z
÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
÷
÷ +

2 3
2 3 4
16 12
16 32 16
z z
z z z
÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
÷
÷ +
12
( )
( )
1 2 3 4
2
1 2 3
1 1
4
4 8 12 16 ....
1
4 2 3 ...
4 4
4 .
n n
n n
n
z
z z z z
z
z z z
nz n z
u n
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
· ·
÷ ÷
= =
= + + + +
÷
( = ÷ + +
¸ ¸
= =
=
¿ ¿
Problem 28 Find
( )( )
1
1 2
z
Z
z z
÷
(
(
÷ ÷
¸ ¸
by long division method.
Solution:
( )( )
1
2
1 2 3 2
z z
Z
z z z z
÷
(
=
(
÷ ÷ ÷ +
¸ ¸
1 2 3
3 7 z z z
÷ ÷ ÷
+ +

2
3 2 z z ÷ + )

1
3 2
z
z z
÷
÷ +

1
1 2
3 2
3 9 6
z
z z
÷
÷ ÷
÷
÷ +

1 2
1 2 3
7 6
7 21 14
z z
z z z
÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
÷
÷ +

2 3
15 14 z z
÷ ÷
÷
( ) ( )
( )
( )
1 2 3
1
3 7 ...
1 2
2 1
2 1.
n n
n
n
n
z
z z z
z z
z
u n or u
÷ ÷ ÷
·
÷
=
= + + +
÷ ÷
= ÷
= ÷
¿
Problem 29 Find
( )
2
1
2
8
8 6 1
z
Z
z z
÷
(
(
÷ +
(
¸ ¸
by partial fraction method.
Solution:
Let ( )
2
2
8
8 6 1
z
U z
z z
(
=
(
÷ +
¸ ¸
13
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
2
1
8 8
8 6 1 2 1 4 1 2 1 4 1
8 4 1 2 1
1 1
,2 4
4 2
1
,4 1 4.
2
1 1
4 4
2 1 4 1
1 1
4 4
1 1
2 4
2 4
1 1
2 .
2 4
1 1 1 1 1
/
2 2 4 2 4
n n
n
n n n
U z z z A B
z z z z z z z
z A z B z
z B B
z A A
U z
z z z
z z
U
÷
= = = +
÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷ + ÷
= = ×÷ ¬ = ÷
= = × ¬ =
= × ÷
÷ ÷
= ÷
| | | |
÷ ÷
| |
\ . \ .
| | | |
= ÷
| |
\ . \ .
| | | | | | | | |
= ÷ = ÷
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ . \
1
2 4 .
n
n n ÷ ÷
|
|
.
= ÷
Problem 30 Find
( )( )
1
2
1 1
z
Z
z z
÷
(
(
+ ÷
(
¸ ¸
using the method partial fraction.
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
2 2
2
2
1 1
1
1 1
1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1
1
1, 1 2
2
1
1, 1 4
4
1
, 0 .
4
z
U z
z z
U z
A B C
z z z
z z z
A z B z z C z
z C C
z A A
z A B B
=
+ ÷
= = + +
+ ÷
+ ÷ ÷
= ÷ + + ÷ + +
= = ¬ =
= ÷ = ¬ =
= + ¬ = ÷
14
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2
2
1 1 1 1 1 1
4 1 4 1 2 1
1 1 1
4 1 4 1 2
1
1 1 1
1 1 1
4 4 2
1 1 1
1 .
4 4 2
n n n
n
n
U z
z z z z
z z z
U z
z z
z
U n
n
| |
= ÷ +
|
+ ÷ ÷
\ .
= ÷ +
+ ÷
÷
= ÷ ÷ +
= ÷ ÷ +
Problem 31 Find
( )( )( )
2
1
1 1 1
.
1 1 2 1 3
z
Z
z z z
÷
÷
÷ ÷ ÷
(
(
÷ ÷ ÷
(
¸ ¸
Solution: ( )
( )( )( )
2
2
1 1 1
1
1 2 3
1 1 2 1 3
1 1 1
z
z
U z
z z z
z z z
÷
÷ ÷ ÷
= =
| || || | ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
| | |
\ .\ .\ .
( )( )( )
( )( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
1 2 3
1
( )/
( 1)( 2)( 3) 1 2 3
1 2 3 1 3 1 2
2, 1 1
1
1, 1 2
2
1
3, 1 2
2
1 1 1 1 1
2 1 2 2 3
1 1
2 1 2 2 3
1 1
1 2 3 .
2 2
1 1
2 3.
2 2
n n n
n
n n
z
z z z
A B C
U z z
z z z z z z
A z z B z z C z z
z B B
z A A
z C C
U z
z z z z
z z z
U z
z z z
U
=
÷ ÷ ÷
= = + +
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷
= = ÷ ¬ = ÷
= = ¬ =
= = ¬ =
= ÷ +
÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷ +
÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷ +
= ÷ +
Problem 32 Find
( ) ( )
2
1
2
1 1
1 1
z
Z
z z
÷
÷
÷ ÷
(
(
(
+ ÷
¸ ¸
.
Solution:
15
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
2
2 2
1 1
2
2 2
2
2
1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1
1 1
1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1
1
1, 1 4 , 0
4
1 1
1, 1 2
2 4
z
z
U z
z z
z z
z
z z
U z A B C
z z z
z z z
A z B z z C z
z A A z A B
z c c B
÷
÷ ÷
= =
| | | | + ÷
+ ÷
| |
\ . \ .
=
+ ÷
= = + +
÷ +
÷ + +
= + + ÷ + + +
= = ¬ = = +
= ÷ = ÷ ¬ = ÷ ¬ = ÷
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
1
5
1
2
lim
Re 5
5 2 5 5 2
5
3
lim
Re 2
2 2 5 5 2
2
3
n
n
at z
n
n
n
at z
n
it z
z z
s z
z z z z z
it z
z z
s z
z z z z z
÷

÷

(
= +
(
÷ ÷ + + + +
¸ ¸
÷
=
÷
(
= +
(
÷ ÷ + + + +
¸ ¸
÷
=
( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2
1 1 1 1 1 1
4 1 4 1 2
1
1 1 1
4 1 4 1 2
1
U z
z z z
z
z z z
U z
z z
z
÷
= + ÷
÷ +
+
= ÷ ÷
÷ +
+
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
1 1 1
1 1 1 .
4 4 2
1 1 1
1 1 .
4 4 2
n n n
n
n n
n
u n
u n
= ÷ ÷ + ÷
= ÷ ÷ + ÷
Problem 33 Find the inverse Z-transform of the function
2
7 10
z
z z + +
by the method of
residues.
Solution:
16
( )
( ) ( )
2
7 10 5 2
z z
U z
z z z z
= =
+ + + +
, 5 z = ÷ and 2 z = ÷ are two single poles
( ) ( )
1
5 2
z
Z
z z
÷
(
=
(
+ +
¸ ¸
sum of residuesof
1 n
z
÷
( ) U z at the poles of ( ) U z which are
inside the contour C drawn according to the region of convergence given.
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
5 2
.
3 3
1
2 5 .
3
n n
n
n n
n
u
u
÷ ÷
= +
÷
(
= ÷ ÷ ÷
¸ ¸
Problem 34 Find the
( )
2
1
2
4
2
z z
Z
z
÷
(
÷
(
÷
(
¸ ¸
by the method of residues.
Solution:
Let ( )
( )
2
2
4
2
z z
U z
z
÷
=
÷
Z =2 is a double pole
( )
( )
( )
2
1
2
4
2
n
n
z z
z U z
z
÷
÷
=
÷
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
2
1
2
2
1
1
1
lim 4 2
Re
2
2
lim
4
2
lim
1 4
2
1 2 4 2
2
.2 2 4
2
2 2 2 2
2 2
1 2.
n
n
at z
n n
n n
n n
n
n n
n n n
n n
n
it z z z
d
s z U z
z dz
z
it
d
z z
z dz
it
n z n z
z
n n
n n
n n
n
n
÷
=
+
÷
÷
(
÷ ÷
( = (
¸ ¸
÷
÷
(
¸ ¸
( = ÷
¸ ¸
÷
( = + ÷
¸ ¸
÷
= + ÷
= + ÷
= + ÷
= ÷
= ÷
Problem 35 Find
( ) ( )
1
2
2
2 1
z
Z
z z
÷
(
(
÷ +
(
¸ ¸
by the method of residues.
Solution:
17
Let ( )
( ) ( )
2
2
1 1
z
U z
z z
=
÷ +
( )
( ) ( )
( )( )( )
1
2
2 2
1 1 1
n n
n
z z
z U z
z z i z i z z
÷
= =
÷ + ÷ ÷ +
1, z z i and z i = = = ÷ are simple poles.
( )
1
Z U z
÷
= (
¸ ¸
sum of residues of
1
( )
n
z U z
÷
at the poles of U(z) inside the desired
contour.
( )
1
2
( 1)( )( )
n
z
Z U z sumof residues of
z z i z i
÷
= (
¸ ¸
÷ + ÷
( ) ( )( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( )( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
2
1
lim 1 2 2 2
Re 1
1 1 2 1 1
lim
2 ( )2
Re
1 1
2 2
1 1 1 2 1
n n
z
n n
z i
n n n
it z z z
s of
z z z i z i z z
it
z z i z
s of
z i z z i z i z z i z i
i i i
i i i i i i i
=

(
÷
( = = =
÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷ +
(
¸ ¸
+
=
÷ ÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷ + ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
= = =
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ +
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )( ) ( )
2
1
1 1 1 1
1 1
cos sin
1 1 2 2 2
n n n n
n
i i i i i
i i i i i i i
i i i
n n
i
 
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= = =
+ + ÷ + ÷ + ÷ ÷
+ ÷ ÷ +
(
= ÷ = ÷
(
+
¸ ¸
similarly
( )( )( )
( )
( )( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )( )
( )
2
1
2
lim
2 2
1 1
2 1
1 2 1 1 1
1 1
cos sin
2 2 2 2
cos sin
2 2
cos sin
2 2
1 2
cos sin
2 2 2 1 1
n n
z i
n n n n
n
n
it
z z
residueof z i
z i z z i z i z z i z i
i i i i i
i i i i i i i
i i i
n i n
i i
i i
i z n n
Z i
z z
 
 
 
 
=
÷
÷
÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷ + ÷
÷ +
= = = = ÷ ×
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ +
÷ ÷
(
= = +
(
¸ ¸
| |
= +
|
|
|
= +
|
\ .
(
÷ +
( = ÷
÷ +
(
¸ ¸
( ) 1
cos sin 1
2 2 2
i n n
i
  ÷
| | | |
+ + +
| |
\ . \ .
1
cos sin cos sin cos sin cos sin 1
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
n n n n n n n n
i i i i
        (
÷ + ÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷ +
(
¸ ¸
18
1
2cos 2sin 1
2 2 2
1 cos sin .
2 2
n n
n n
 
 
(
÷ ÷ +
(
¸ ¸
(
= ÷ +
(
¸ ¸
Problem 36 Find the inverse Z-transform of
i) log
1
z
z
| |
|
+
\ .
and ii)( )
3
5 z
÷
÷ for 5 z > by power series method.
Solution:
(i)
1 1
log log log 1
1
z z
z z z
+ | | | |
= ÷ = ÷ +
| |
+
\ . \ .
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
2 3
2 3
3
3
3
3
2 3
3
3 2
2
1 1 1 1 1
. ...
2 3
1 1 1 1 1
. ...
2 3
0 0
1
5
( ) 5 ; 5 1
5
5 1
5 3.4 5 3.4.5 5
1 3 ...
1.2 1.2.3
1 3.4 1 3
1 3 5 5
1.2
n
n
z z z
z z z
u for n
otherwise
n
ii z z
z
z z
z
z
z z z
z
z z
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
(
= ÷ ÷ + ÷
(
¸ ¸
= ÷ + ÷ +
= =
÷
=
÷ > ¬ <
(
÷ = ÷
(
¸ ¸
(
| | | | | |
= + + + +
(
| | |
\ . \ . \ .
(
¸ ¸
= + + +
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )( )
3
3
3 4 2 5 3 6
3
3
3
.4.5 1
5 ...
1.2.3
3.4 3.4.5
3 5 5 5
1.2 1.2.3
3.4.5.... 1
....... 5 ..
1.2.3... 3
3.4.5.... 1
5
1.2.3... 3
1
2 1 5 3
2
0 0.
n n
n
n
n
z
z z z z
n
z
n
n
u
n
n n for n
if n
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷
÷
÷
(
+
(
¸ ¸
= + + +
÷
+ + +
÷
÷
=
÷
= ÷ ÷ >
= s
Problem 37 Form the difference equation corresponding to the family of
curves 2
x
x
y ax b = + .
Solution:
19
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )( ) ( )
( )
1
1
1
2 1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 1 1 0
2
2 (1)
1 2
2 2 2 (2)
2 2
2 (3)
(3),
2
(2)
2
2
(1)
2.
2
1
1 2
. 1
x
x
x
x
x x x
x x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x x
x x x x x x
x
y ax b
y a x b
y a b a b
y a b a b
b
y
from b
sub in
y
y a
a y y
sub in
y
y y y
x y x y or
x y y y x y y y
ie x y
+
+
+
+
+ + + =
+
= + ÷
= + +
A = + ÷ = + ÷
A = + ÷ +
= ÷
A
=
A
A = +
= A ÷ A
A
= A ÷ A +
= ÷ A + A
÷ ÷ + + ÷ ÷
÷ ( )
1
3 2 2 0
x x
x y xy
+
÷ ÷ + =
Problem 38 From .3 .5 ,
n n
n
y A B = + derive a difference equation by eliminating
arbitrary constants.
Solution:
( )
( )
( )
1 1
1
1
2
.3 .5 1
.3 .5
3 3 5. .5 2
9 3 25 5 3
n n
n
n n
n
n n
n
n n
n
y A B
y A B
y A B
y A B
+ +
+
+
+
= + ÷
= +
= + ÷
= + ÷
Eliminating arbitrary A and B from (1) , (2) and (3).
20
| | | | | |
1
2
1 2 1 2
1 2 1 2
1 2
2 1
2 1
1 1
3 5 0
9 25
75 45 1 25 5 1 9 3 0
30 25 5 9 3 0
30 16 2 0
2 16 30 0
8 15 0.
n
n
n
n n n n n
n n n n n
n n n
n n n
n n n
y
y
y
y y y y y
y y y y y
y y y
or y y y
or y y y
+
+
+ + + +
+ + + +
+ +
+ +
+ +
(
(
=
(
(
¸ ¸
÷ ÷ ÷ + ÷ =
÷ + + ÷ =
÷ + =
÷ + =
÷ + =
Problem 39 Derive a difference equation from thefollowing ( ) 3
n
n
y A Bn = + .
Solution:
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
1
2
3
3 3 (1)
3 3 3 1 3 2
9 3 9 2 3 3
n
n n
n n
n
n n
n
n n
n
y A B
y A Bn
y A B n
y A B n
+
+
= +
= +
= + + ÷
= + + ÷
Eliminating arbitrary A and B from (1) , (2) and (3).
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) | |
| | | |
1
2
1 2 1 2
1 1 2 2
1 2
2 1
2 1
1
3 3 1 0
9 9 2
27 2 27 1 9 2 3 1 9 3 0
27 54 27 27 9 18 3 3
9 3 0
3 18 27 0
6 9 0.
n
n
n
n n n n n
n n n n n
n n
n n n
n n n
y n
y n
y n
y n n y n n y n y y
y n n ny y ny y
ny ny
or y y y
or y y y
+
+
+ + + +
+ + + +
+ +
+ +
+ +
(
(
+ =
(
(
+
¸ ¸
+ ÷ + ÷ + ÷ + + ÷ = ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
+ ÷ ÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷
+ ÷ =
÷ + =
÷ + =
Problem 40 Solve the difference equation using Z-transform

2 0 1
4 0, 0, 2.
n n
y y y y
+
÷ = = =
Solution:
2
4 0
n n
y y
+
÷ =
Taking Ztransform on both sides
21
| | | |
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2 1
0 1
2 1
2
2
2
4 0
4 0
0 2 4 0
4 2
2
4
1
2 4 2 2
1 2 2
1
2,1 4
4
1
2,1 4
4
1 1 1 1
2 4 2 4 2
1 1 1 1
2 2 2 2
1 1
2 2 2 2
n n
Z y z y
z Y z y y z Y z
z Y z z Y z
z Y z z
z
Y z
z
Y z
A B
z z z z
A z B z
z B B
z A A
Y z
z z z
Y z
z z z
z z
Y z
z z
+
÷
÷
÷ =
( ÷ ÷ ÷ =
¸ ¸
( ÷ ÷ ÷ =
¸ ¸
÷ =
=
÷
= = +
÷ + ÷
= ÷ + +
= = ¬ =
÷
= ÷ = ÷ ¬ =
= ÷ +
+ ÷
= ÷ +
+ ÷
= ÷ +
+ ÷
Taking inverse Z-transform, we get
( ) ( )
( )
1
1
1 1 1 1
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2 .
n n
n n
n
n
n
y
÷
÷
= ÷ ÷ + = ÷ +
÷
= ÷ +
Problem 41 Solve
2 1
2
n n
y y n
+ +
+ = with
0 1
, 0 y y = = using Z-transform.
Solution:
2 1
2
n n
y y n
+ +
+ =
taking z-transform on both sides
22
| | | | ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )( ) ( ) ( )( ) ( )
2 1
2 1
0 1 0 2
2
2
2
2
2 2
2
2
2 2
2
2
1
0 0 2 0
1
2
1
1 1
2 1 2 1
2 1
1
1 2 1 1 1 2 2
1
1, 1 3
3
1
2, 1 18
18
n n
Z y Z y Z n
z
z Y z y y z z Y z y
z
z
z Y z z Y z
z
z
z z Y z
z
Y z
z
z z z z z z
A B C D
z z z
z
A z z Bz z Cz z z Dz z
z D D
z B B
z
+ +
÷
+ =
( ÷ ÷ + ÷ = (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
÷
÷ ÷ + ÷ = ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
÷
+ =
÷
= =
+ ÷ + ÷
= + + +
+ ÷
÷
= + ÷ + ÷ + ÷ + + +
= = ¬ =
= ÷ = ÷ ¬ = ÷
=
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
3
2
2
1
0, 1 2
2
1 1 9 1
, 0
2 18 18
8 4
18 9
11 1 1 4 1 1 1
2 18 2 9 1 3
1
1 1 4 1
2 18 2 9 1 3
1
1 1 4 1
2 1 1 .
2 18 9 3
n n n
n
A A
z A B C C A B
Y z
z z z z
z
z z z
Y z
z z
z
y n n 
= ¬ =
÷ ÷ +
= + + ¬ = ÷ ÷ = + =
÷ ÷
= = ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ +
+ ÷
÷
= ÷ ÷ +
+ ÷
÷
= ÷ ÷ ÷ +
Problem 42 Solve ( ) ( ) ( ) 3 3 1 2 0, y n y n y n + ÷ + + = giventhat
( ) ( ) ( ) 0 4, 1 0, 2 8 y y y = = = Using Z-transform
Solution:
( ) ( ) ( ) 3 3 1 2 0 y n y n y n + ÷ + + = . Taking z-transform on both sides
23
| | ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
3 1
3 1 2
0 1 2 0
3 2
3
n n n
Z y Z y Z y
z y z y y z y z z y z y
+ +
÷ ÷
÷ +
( ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
3 2
3 3
3
2 2
2 3
2 0
4 0 8 3 4
2 0
3 2 8 4 12
4 4
4 4 4 4
3 2
1 2
Y z
z Y z z z Y z
Y z
Y z z z z z z
z z
Y z
z z
z z z
z z
÷
+ =
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
+ =
( ÷ + = + ÷
¸ ¸
= ÷
÷ ÷
÷ =
÷ +
÷ +
(The other factor of
3
3 2 z z ÷ + is ( )( )
2
2 2 1 z z z z + ÷ = + ÷
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
2
3
2
2 2
2
2
2
3 2 1 2 )
4 4
1 2
1 2 1
4 4 1 2 2 1
1, 0 3 0
2 12 9 12/9 4/3
, 4 4 4/3 8/3
8 1 4 1
0
3 1 3 2
8 1 4 1
3 1 3 2
8 4
2 .
3 3
n
n
z z z z
Y z z A B C
z z z
z z z
z A z z B z C z
z B B
z c c
z A C A
Y z
z z z
Y z
z z
y
÷ + = ÷ +
÷
= = + +
÷ +
÷ + ÷
÷ = ÷ + + + + ÷
= = ¬ =
= ÷ = ¬ = =
= + ¬ = ÷ =
= + + +
÷ +
= + +
÷ +
= + ÷
Problem 43 Solve ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 2 4 1 4 0, 0 1, 1 0 y n y n y n y y + ÷ + + = = = using
Z- transform.
Solution:
( ) ( ) ( ) 2 4 1 4 0 y n y n y n + ÷ + + = . Taking z-transform on both sides
| | ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2 1
2 1
0 1 0
4 4 0
4 4 0
n n n
Z y Z y Z y
z Y z y y z z Y z y Y z
+ +
÷
÷ + =
( ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ + = (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
1 4 1 4 0 z Y z z Y z Y z ÷ ÷ ÷ + =
24
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
2 2
2
3
2 2 2
2
2
4 4 4
4
4 4
4 4
4 4 2
1 2
4 2
2, 2 2
, 1 1
1 2
2
2
2
2
2
2 2 2 1 .
n n n
n
z z Y z z z
z
Y z
z z
Y z z z A B
z z z z
z z
z A z B
z B B
z A A
Y z
z z
z
z
Y z
z
z
y n n
( ÷ + = ÷
¸ ¸
÷
=
÷ +
÷ ÷
÷ = = +
÷ + ÷
÷ ÷
÷ = ÷ +
= ÷ = ¬ = ÷
= ¬ =
= ÷
÷
÷
= ÷
÷
÷
= ÷ = ÷
Problem 44 Solve ( ) ( )
2 1
5 6 5 , 0 0, 1 0
n
n n n
y y y y y
+ +
÷ + = = = using Z-transform.
Solution:
2 1
5 6 5
n
n n n
y y y
+ +
÷ + = .Taking Z-transform on both sides
| | ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2 1
2 1
0 1 0
5 6 5
5 6
5
n
n n n
Z y Z y Z y Z
z
z Y z y y z z Y z y Y z
z
+ +
÷
÷ + =
( ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ + = (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
÷
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 1
0 0 5 0 6
5
z
z Y z z z Y z Y z
z
÷
÷ ÷ × ÷ ÷ + =
÷
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2
2
5 6
5
1 1
5 2 3 5 5 6
5 2 3
z
z z Y z
z
Y z
z z z z z z z
A B C
z z z
( ÷ + =
¸ ¸
÷
= =
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ +
+ +
÷ ÷ ÷
( )( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( ) 1 2 3 5 3 5 2
1
5, 1 6
6
3, 1 2 1/ 2
2, 1 3 1/3
A z z B z z C z z
z A
z C C
z B B
= ÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷
= = ¬ =
= = ÷ ¬ = ÷
= = ¬ =
25
( )
( )
1 1 1 1 1 1
6 5 3 2 2 3
1 1 1
6 5 3 2 2 3
1 1 1
5 2 3.
6 3 2
n n n
n
Y z
z z z z
z z z
Y z
z z z
y
= + ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
= + ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
= + ÷
Problem 45 Solve
2 1
5 6 2
n
n n n
u u u
+ +
÷ ÷ = using Z-transform.
Solution:
2 1
5 6 2
n
n n n
y u u
+ +
÷ ÷ = .Taking z-transform on both sides
| | ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2 1
2 1
0 1 0
5 6 2
5 6
2
n
n n n
Z u Z u Z u Z
z
z U z u u z z U z u U z
z
+ +
÷
÷ ÷ =
( ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
÷
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
0 1 0 0 1
5 6 5 5
2 2
z z
z z U z u z u z zu z z u zu
z z
÷ ÷ = + + ÷ = + ÷ +
÷ ÷
( )
( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )( )( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )( )( )
2
0 1
0 1
5
2 1 6 2 6 1 6
1 5 1
1
2 1 6 1 6 1 6
1
2 1 6 2 1 6
z z z z
U z u u
z z z z z z z
U z
z
u u
z z z z z z z z
A B C
Now
z z z z z z
÷
= + +
÷ + ÷ + ÷ + ÷
÷
= = + ÷
÷ + ÷ + ÷ + ÷
= + +
÷ + ÷ ÷ + ÷
( ) ( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) 1 1 6 2 6 2 1
1
1, 1 21
21
6, 1 28 1/ 28
2, 1 12 1/12
A z z B z z C z z
z B B
z C C
z A A
= + ÷ + ÷ ÷ + ÷ +
= ÷ = ¬ =
= = ÷ ¬ = ÷
= = ÷ ¬ = ÷
( )( )( )
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
2 1 6 12 2 21 1 28 6 z z z z z z
= ÷ + +
÷ + ÷ ÷ + ÷
( )( )
5
1 6 1 6
z A B
Now
z z z z
÷
= +
+ ÷ ÷ +
( ) ( ) 5 6 1
1
6, 1 7
7
1, 6 7 6/ 7
z A z B z
z B B
z A A
÷ = ÷ + +
= = ¬ =
= ÷ ÷ = ÷ ¬ =
26
( )( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
5 6 1 1 1
1 6 7 1 7 6
1
1 6 1 6
1 6 1
z
and
z z z z
A B
z z z z
A z B z
÷
= +
+ ÷ + ÷
= +
+ ÷ + ÷
= ÷ + +
( )( )
6, 1 7 1/ 7
1, 1 7 1/ 7
1 1 1 1 1
1 6 7 1 7 6
z B B
z B B
z z z z
= = ¬ =
= ÷ = ÷ ¬ = ÷
= ÷
+ ÷ + ÷
From (1)
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
0
1
1 2
1 0 1
2 0 1
1 1 1
2 1 6
12 21 28
6 1
1 6
7 7
1 1
1 6
7 7
1
1 6 2
12
6 1 1
7 7 21
1 1 1
.
7 7 28
n
n n
n
n
n
n
n
n n
n
u
u
u
C C where
C u u
C u u
= ÷ + ÷ +
(
+ ÷ +
(
¸ ¸
(
+ ÷ ÷
(
¸ ¸
= ÷ + ÷
= + +
= ÷ +
*******