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Reading: Chapter 1

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**What is Automata Theory?
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**Study of abstract computing devices, or “machines” Automaton = an abstract computing device
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Note: A “device” need not even be a physical hardware! Find out what different models of machines can do and cannot do The theory of computation

**A fundamental question in computer science:
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Computability vs vs. Complexity

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(A pioneer of automata theory) Alan Turing (1912-1954) Father of Modern Computer Science English mathematician Studied abstract machines called Turing machines even before computers existed Heard of the Turing test? 3 .

Theory y of Computation: p A Historical Perspective 1930s • Alan Turing studies Turing machines • Decidability • Halting problem 1940-1950s • “Finite automata” machines studied • Noam Chomsky proposes the “Chomsky Hierarchy” for formal languages 1969 1970Cook introduces “intractable” problems problems or “NP-Hard” p Modern computer science: compilers. computational & complexity theory evolve 4 .

1959 Image source: Nowak et al. Chomsky. 2002 5 .nothing more. Information and Control. vol 417.Languages & Grammars Or “words” Languages: “A language is a collection of sentences of finite length all constructed f from a finite fi it alphabet l h b t of f symbols” Grammars: “A grammar can be regarded as a device that enumerates the sentences of a language” . nothing less N. Vol 2. Nature.

The Chomsky Hierachy • A containment t i t hierarchy hi h of f classes l of ff formal ll languages Regular g (DFA) Contextfree (PDA) ContextC t t sensitive (LBA) Recursivelyenumerable (TM) 6 .

The Central Concepts of Automata Theory 7 .

1} All lower case letters: ∑ = { {a.. .c.g. 0-9} DNA molecule letters: ∑ = {a.t} … 8 . } Alphanumeric: ∑ = {a-z.z} .b.Alphabet An alphabet is a finite.. non-empty set of symbols We use the symbol ∑ (sigma) to denote an alphabet Examples: Binary: ∑ = {0.c. A-Z. .

x = 010100 x = 01 0 1 00 |x| = 6 |x| = ? xy = concatentation of two strings x and y 9 .g.Strings A string or word is a finite sequence of symbols chosen from ∑ Empty string is (or “epsilon”) Length L th of f a string t i w..) characters in the string g E. |” is i equal to the number of (non. denoted d t db by “|w|”.

Powers of an alphabet Let ∑ be an alphabet. ∑k = the th set t of f all ll strings ti of f length l th k ∑* = ∑0 U ∑1 U ∑2 U … ∑+ = ∑1 U ∑2 U ∑3 U … 10 .

1010.…} 01 10 0011 1100 0101 1010 1001 } Definition: Ø denotes the Empty language Let L = {}. Is L=Ø? NO 11 .…} 2. only if L ∑* this is because ∑* is the set of all strings (of all possible g including g 0) ) over the g given alphabet p ∑ length Examples: 1.0011. Let L be the language of all strings consisting of n 0’s followed by n 1’s: L = {.10.000111. Let L be the language of all strings of with equal number of 0’s and 1’s: L = {.0011.Languages L is a said to be a language over alphabet ∑.1001.01.01.0101.1100.

The Membership Problem Given a string w ∑*and a language L over ∑. Example: Let w = 100011 Q) Is w the language of strings with equal number of 0s and 1s? 12 . decide whether or not w L.

g.Finite Automata Some Applications Software for designing and checking the behavior of f digital di it l circuits i it Lexical analyzer of a typical compiler Software So a e for o sca scanning g large a ge bod bodies es o of text e (e (e.. communication/network protocol) 13 . g. web pages) for pattern finding Software for verifying systems of all types that have a finite number of states (e (e. g stock market transaction..g.

Finite Automata : Examples action On/Off switch state Modeling recognition of the word “then” Start state Transition Intermediate state Final state 14 .

unix style to capture city names such as “Palo Palo Alto CA”: CA : [A-Z][a-z]*([ ][A-Z][a-z]*)*[ ][A-Z][A-Z] Start with a letter A string of other letters (p (possibly y empty) Should end w/ 2-letter state code Other space delimited words (part of city name) 15 .g.Structural expressions Grammars Regular expressions E..

Formal Proofs 16 .

.Deductive Proofs From the given statement(s) to a conclusion statement (what we want to prove) Logical progression by direct implications Example for parsing a statement: “If y≥4. then 2y≥y2.” given conclusion (there are other ways of writing this). 17 .

t prove that th t 2x≥x2 Proof: 1) Given: x = a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 2) Given: a≥1. c2≥1. d2≥1 (by 2) 4) x≥4 (by 1 & 3) 5) 2x ≥ x2 (by 4 and Claim 1) “implies” or “follows” 18 .Example: Deductive proof Let Claim 1: If y≥4. c≥1. Let x be any number which is obtained by adding the squares of 4 positive integers. d≥1 3) a2≥1. Given x and Gi d assuming i that th t Claim Cl i 1 is i true. then 2y≥y2. b2≥1. b≥1.

. “IF A THEN B” can also be written as “A=>B” *I wasn’t able to locate the symbol for these notation in powerpoint.g. 19 . Sorry! Please follow the standard notation for these quantifiers.Quantifiers “For all” or “For every” Universal proofs Notation*=? Used in existential proofs Notation*=? “There exists” Implication is denoted by => > E.

Proving techniques By contradiction Start with the statement contradictory to the given statement E. To prove (A => B). inductive step If A then B ≡ If ~B then ~A By contrapositive statement 20 .g. inductive hypothesis.. we start with: (A and ~B) … and then show that could never happen What if you want to prove that “(A and B => C or D)”? By induction (3 steps) Basis.

Proving techniques… By counter-example Show an example that disproves the claim Note: There is no such thing called a “proof p by y example”! p So when asked to prove a claim. an example that satisfied that claim is not a proof 21 .

iv. v. ii. iii. C follows 22 . “If H then C”: H implies p C H => C C if H H only if C Whenever H holds.Different ways of saying the same thing i.

One for the “if part” & another for the “only if part” 23 “If If and only if” if is abbreviated as “iff” iff Example: p Proofs for iff have two parts . Then floor of x = ceiling of x if and only if x is an integer.e.“If-and-Only-If” statements “A if and only if B” (A <==> B) (if part) if B then A ( <= ) (only if part) A only if B ( => ) (same as “if A then B”) i. “A iff B” Theorem: Let x be a real number..

languages Membership problem Proofs: Deductive. contradiction. induction. strings/words/sentences. counterexample If and only if Read chapter 1 for more examples and exercises Gradiance homework 1 24 .Summary Automata theory & a historical perspective Chomsky hierarchy Finite automata Alphabets. contrapositive.

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