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THE STONE ANGEL This page is an Independent Study Project done by the students of my Grade 12 English class.

As our class searched the Web for information on Margaret Laurence we were somewhat surprised to find that there was very little to help students with their research. We hope that this page will help students with their appreciation and study of Margaret Laurence and her works. There is a considerable amount of information on this page, so please be patient while it loads. The material on this page is not meant to be original and is presented "as is". (The marks for the various sections ranged from the low 60's to the 90's) Pride and Journey: Michelle Douma and Stephen Weiler Definition of Pride: Pride n. 1. Inordinate self-esteem; high opinion of one's own importance or worth; conceit. 2. arrogance; haughtiness. 3. honorable self-respect; personal dignity. 4. smug pleasure taken in the success of oneself or another. 5. a person or thing in which one takes such pleasure. Introduction: Margaret Laurence's The Stone Angel is one of the most acclaimed Canadian novels of all time. In this novel, the most prevailing theme is that of pride; this is seen predominantly through the protagonist, Hagar, but also through other characters, such as Jason Currie. As John Moss states, "What gives Margaret Laurence's vision the resonant dimensions of universal truth is the…interlacing of the destructive and constructive effects of (Hagar's) recalcitrant pride…Pride is a double-edged sword." Indeed, her great pride helps her to cope with the many difficulties she faces throughout her life. This pride, however, also "separates inclination and response" (J. Moss), resulting in several strained relationships which Hagar was unable to mend. John Moss believes that "Hagar's pride repeatedly imprisoned her within the confines of thwarted affections and misdirected emotion." More specifically, her pride caused such things as an unhappy marriage with Brampton Shipley and a severance of all ties with her father, Jason, and her brother, Matt. Her pride serves her best in her dying days, when "she will not submit to frailty and deferential concern. She rages 'against the dying of the light' with the same wrong-headed spleen that she had always displayed…in the counterpoint present her… pride is heroic" (J. Moss). Analysis of the Theme of Pride via a Short Summation of Pride-Related Occurrences:

The first reference to pride is in the second sentence of the novel: Hagar describes the Stone Angel as "my mother's angel that my father bought in pride to mark her bones and proclaim his dynasty…" (3). Hagar's father was a very proud man, a trait that was passed on to his daughter, and he takes great pride in this "terribly

expensive" statue, which "had been brought from Italy" … "and was pure white marble" (3).

Hagar recollects exhibiting her pride as early as age 6 when she says "There was I, strutting the board sidewalk like a pint-sized peacock, resplendent, haughty, hoity-toity, Jason Currie's black-haired daughter" (6). Jason Currie was a "self-made man" who "had pulled himself up by his bootstraps" (7). Hagar was very proud of her father's success, seeing as how "he had begun without money" (14). Hagar's father, because he worked so hard, took great pleasure in his store. She says, "Father took such pride in the store - you'd have thought it was the only one on earth. It was the first in Manawaka, so I guess he had due cause. He would lean across the counter, spreading his hands, and smile so wonderfully you'd feel he welcomed the world" (9). Mr. Currie had excessive self-esteem, as seen when the Reverend Dougall MacCulloch was calling out the names of the people who had contributed to help build the new church. Jason Curried leaned over and arrogantly said to his daughter "I and Luke McVitie must've given the most, as he called our names the first" (16). The Currie's held very high opinions of themselves; this is shown when Hagar refers to her father, saying, "Matt and Dan and I always knew he could never have brought himself to marry his housekeeper" (17). The pride she felt in her youth is present also when Hagar is grown up. She is frustrated at both her lack of coordination and her arthritis, which causes her to fall (31). Her reaction is as follows: "I perceive the tears, my own they must be although they have sprung so unbidden I feel they are like the incontinent wetness of the infirm. Trickling, they taunt down my face. They are no tears of mine, in front of her. I dismiss them, blaspheme against them - let them be gone. But I have not spoken and they are still there" (31). Later, Hagar descends the stairs on her own - and smugly thinks "I hold the banister tightly, and of course I'm all right, perfectly all right, as I always am when I haven't got an audience" (33). When the minister from Doris' parish visits Hagar, her personal dignity is definitely at risk. In her thoughts, she describes the incident. "I sit uncomfortably. I am bloated, full, weighted down, and I fear I may pass wind. Nevertheless, for the minister's call I have at least put on my gray flowered dress…and the flowers, sprinkled liberally, almost overcome the gray" (40) Early in the second chapter, there are several instances in which Hagar' pride prevents her from responding to her inclinations. The first occurs just before Hagar leaves for college: she wanted to tell her brother Matt that "he should have been the one to go" to college, but she is unable to do so and "Later, in the train," she cried (42). Further on, she is unable to attempt to reconcile after a dispute

with her father concerning whether or not she would pursue a career as a teacher. This is how she remembers the incident: "I jerked my hand away as though I had accidentally set it on a hot stove. He didn't say a word. He turned and went outside… I felt I must pursue him, say it was a passing thing and not meant. But I didn't" (44, 45).

Hagar feels a great loss of pride when she reads the advertisement for the Silverthreads nursing home and realizes what her son and daughter-in-law have been planning and why Doris had invited the minister over. (53, 54) Afterwards, Doris realizes what happened and tries to pacify Hagar; however, Hagar "will not be appeased" (56). Hagar is, once again, at a loss when she realizes that she's been daydreaming while Doris has been talking to her. Hagar thinks "How long have I been standing here with lowered head, twiddling with the silken stuff that covers me? Now I am mortified, apologetic…" (57). Her pride gets the best of her during an argument with Doris concerning the nursing home. Hagar turns and walks away, "wishing to be haughty, but hideously hitting the edge of the dining-room table…" (58). The combination of Jason Currie's pride, which caused him to feel Bram was unworthy of his daughter, and Hagar's pride, which kept her from acting upon her inclinations, caused the severance of their relationship after she got married against his wishes. When Hagar' first son was born, he did not go to see him because "Perhaps he didn't feel as though Marvin were really his grandson" (62). Ironically, Hagar felt that Marvin was not really her son; however, her reasons were dissimilar to his. After the death of her father, Hagar is upset that he did not leave her any money in the will; he gave the money to the preservation of the family plot and to the town. In response, the town made the Currie Memorial Park, which Hagar forever despises because of her arrogance. She remembers this park in her thoughts: "… nearly circular beds of petunias proclaimed my father's immortality in mauve and pink frilled petals. Even now, I detest petunias" (64). Marvin and Doris wish to go out for a movie one evening and plan to have a neighbour come over to care for Hagar. They are worried about leaving her alone because of her various health conditions. The proud old lady, however, is quite offended, saying "You think I need a sitter, like a child" (67). The evening is called off and an argument ensues. Because of her upbringing, Hagar was always proud of the way she and her relatives dressed. After her marriage, however, she encountered some difficulties. She remembers "Marvin, the day he started school, wearing a sailor suit and a face blank as water. He hated that navy-blue suit … for most of the other boys wore overalls. I soon gave up trying to dress him decently and let him wear

overalls, too … Bram's daughters used to give me the overalls their boys had grown out of. How it galled me …" (69)

Hagar's pride toward her husband resulted only from his looks, for "Whatever anyone said of him, no one could deny he was a good looking man … I could have been proud, going to town or church with him, if only he'd never opened his mouth" (69, 70). Marvin and Doris humble Hagar as they make her aware that they are no longer able to care for her; she needs a nurse to lift her and there are several other complications that they are unable to deal with. As they try to convince her of how nice Silverthreads is, she reacts with hostility, saying, "Full of petunias, I suppose" (73-75). Hagar believes that everyone is trying to destroy what little dignity she has left. Hagar's pride takes another thrashing because she needs Doris' help to get undressed. Her thoughts are: "How it irks me to have to take her hand, allow her to pull my dress over my head, undo my corsets and strip them off me, and have her see my blue-veined swollen flesh…" (77). Throughout her marriage with Brampton Shipley, Hagar prides herself upon keeping her "pride intact, like some maidenhead" (81). Hagar, in her later years, took great pleasure in spiting Doris. She recollects one such time: "Before we came, Doris maintained that on a warm day like this, I'd perspire and spoil my lilac silk, but I wore it despite her" (90). Although she was unable to shed tears after the deaths of her close family members, Hagar is, ironically, moved to tears one day on a bus. "A teenage girl… rises and gives me her seat. How very kind of her. I can scarcely nod my thanks, fearing she'll see my unseemly tears. And once again it seems an oddity, that I should have remained un weeping over my dead men and now possess two deep salt springs in my face over such a triviality as this. There's no explaining it" (92). As Hagar, Marvin, and Doris are touring the Silverthreads nursing home - against Hagar's will - she says "I never cared for barracks" in reply to Doris' inquiry as to whether Hagar liked the dining hall. Hagar is, however, ashamed that she said so, because the place is very nice and her rude comment was quite unnecessary. She thinks "I used to pride myself on my manners. How have I descended to this snarl? (98) Hagar took great pride in her second son, John. She had never felt that Marvin was truly her son, because she had not wanted a child at the time; with John, however, she reacted quite differently. This is how she remembers his birth: "It was an easy birth … I took to him at once, and was surprised. But there was no resisting him. He looked so alert, his eyes wide and open. I had to laugh. Such a little whiffet to be so spirited. He had black hair, a regular sheaf of it. Black as my own, I thought, forgetting for the moment that Bram was black-haired too" (122).

being sick and near death.. and I could never bring myself to say a word. Proud as Napoleon or Lucifer. having her see you like that" (198).. Instead. she is unable to maintain her dignity. as she thinks "Perhaps she'll glide away. but when Brampton Shipley passed away "it was John who cried. While at Shadow Point. He says "Funny you put me in mind of someone . does not remember Hagar when he sees her. I think we both looked blindly ahead at the lighted kitchen. Once. not I" (184).. … That's the indignity of it" (191). Perhaps the anger gives me strength . (142) Hagar." Even though her life has gone downhill since she married him. like bewildered moths" (132). Oatley." Hagar remembers that: "I didn't look at John. or perhaps she had not loved him." Hagar's self-esteem is greatly hurt. recalls that special pride that youths feel. she has always been able to retain her pride.once again keeps her from expressing herself properly. After hearing that both Telford and Lottie Simmons had been at the dance • • • • • • • • . she did. My bowel's knot. in the middle of the night. We have no son called David. Oatley's house with him. that boy. I stand and survey the wasteland I've conquered.. not wanting to be bothered" (147). saying "I wouldn't take eggs onto a train … They'd think we were hicks. Mrs. Arlene Simmons drove him home from a dance. Yeh. While living with and working for Mr. her. She states that "he could charm the birds off the trees when he wanted to.." Hagar "never told John … He kept on spinning his spider-webs. Just as she had done at the death of both her brothers and her father.• Hagar is greatly humbled when she and John go to Lottie Drieser's house to deliver eggs and Lottie daughter calls Hagar "The egg woman. needing a young girls help to get to Shadow Point. I grow enraged . Hagar falls and becomes "stuck … like an overturned ladybug…I hurt all over. Hagar remained stone-faced at the death of Bram. Although John was pleased that Arlene seemed to care for him . Maybe . for "The woman I reminded him of was his fat and cow-like first wife" (173).. but the worst is that I'm helpless." But when she calls the Connors to ask them to send John home. 157). When John is getting ready to leave for Manawaka. … wanting only to touch his brown impatient face but not daring to…" (167). and I can tell you I wasn't very proud of you. Hagar is proud of how quickly John makes new friends.Hagar was very upset and she said "Yes. she rejects his suggestion to boil some eggs to eat on the train.Clara. "I walked to the wrought-iron gate of Mr. Connor replies "You must be mad. When Hagar is planning to leave Bram. when John had too much to drink and got in a fight. I tried to show him I believed in him" (156. Hagar's pride . nor he at me. Perhaps she was too proud. Even in victory. with that haughtiness only the young can muster. Bram.

"The night my son died I was transformed to stone and never wept at all" (243). it's surely now. so reasonably. you really couldn't help it .couldn't stop to save our souls'" (252). Hagar remembers: "She preened a little. you've certainly succeeded" (199). about not bringing her here. and glowed. Hagar found that she was not able to cry. There's no one else like me in this world" (250)." (211) Just a couple hours before John's death. Lees. soon remembers the lengthy conversation they'd had the night before and is able to forgive Mr. I feel lightened and eased. almost amused at my timidity. saying "In a place where everyone knows everyone else … you have to avoid not only evil but the appearance of evil" (238). I know. Hagar .I know. I'm about to say the words . and my voice wasn't your fault. But these are not the words that come. Let yourself.I'm sorry about your boy. hardly knowing what I'm doing. however. Hagar finally realizes her self-worth. He can't in all conscience refuse what I've said…" (247). queen-maker. Will everything stop when I do? Stupid old baggage. I've always had a temper… . A person speaks in haste. … 'I didn't really mean it.once again . When thinking of the time that Lottie and Hagar are discussing the relationship between Arlene and John. yet somehow restored" (253). I wouldn't cry in front of strangers. Hagar tries to explain to him how to keep his dignity. to stand straight then. I reach out and touch his wrist. who do you think you are? Hagar.' The first I've spoken today. "I reach out. 'Born in us . Hagar remembers that "I shoved her arm away. Mistaking Murray F. After Murray breaks his promise not to tell Marvin and Doris where Hagar is.' Having spoken so. Hagar says "If you wanted to make it completely impossible for me ever to hold up my head again in this town. 'I didn't mean to speak crossly.does not cry. Hagar forgets her usual arrogance and finally speaks the words that she never got to say before John died. meddle . "Impulsively. Arlene. He look surprised and shaken. It's the best thing. I straightened my spine and that was the hardest thing I've ever had to do in my entire life. When she got home. She feels she must not only bear the pain alone. When a nurse finds Hagar trying to get to the bathroom • • • • • • ." In response.and had seen John. In a startlingly real moment of clarity. whatever it might cost me" (242). mother of peacocks. and lightly place my fingers against his wrist … If there's a time to speak. I . Hagar is still the proud woman she's always been. "…He is waiting for me to pardon him. Sick with a serious disease and ordered to stay in bed. "Hard to imagine a world and I not in it. • Lottie always took great pride in her only child. Hagar.' I've spoken so calmly. After John dies. but that she cannot allow herself to be comforted by others. the elderly lady's usual haughtiness returns. Lees for John. Rapunzel's dam.meddle. A matron had put her arm around her and said "Cry. 'Can't stop .

I know it very well. anger." She then realizes that this false pride is not going to help her in any way. just as I choose. not one of her choice but one of destiny. and they spread out from me and shackled all I touched. Hagar is too proud to ask for God's help. I hold it in my own hands.frightened. I hate being helped…I've always done things for myself" (276). There. Hagar cannot believe that this is happening to her. sums up how her pride has influenced her life by saying "'Pride was my wilderness. for I carried my chains within me. I'm so frightened-' …I think it's the first time in my life I've ever said such a thing" (303).no. While lying in bed. Dead by your own hands or by mine? Nothing can take away those years" (292). I'll not countenance anyone else's holding it for me … I wrest from her the glass. Lord. full of water to be had for the taking. I'm furious at my pride and pretense…'It hurts…At night. and the demon that led me there was fear. She begins to pray. for I'll not beg" (307). When Hagar is first faced with the truth that she is getting old and not going to be around much longer. I know this . When she faces the reality of the implications of growing old she is faced with a's my nature.Bless me or not. spending most of her time reflecting upon her life. bargaining. her first reaction is one of denial. eh?" she lies. "Suddenly. never anything else. Death is a subject that everyone fears because they associate death with their end and not a new beginning. Hagar. who reacts by saying "Oh. though. and unto the end. my two. There. All I can think is . the nurse tries to help Hagar. give it to me. The novel demonstrates each of Hagar's steps along the difficult journey of death which is frightening and intimidating but also inevitable. saying.on her own. my dead. This is a key passage in understanding Hagar's character at the end because this passage fully reveals how Hagar sees her life. • When the doctor comes around and asks Hagar "how are we today…Not too bad. Hagar reveals her feelings to Marvin with unprecedented honesty: "'I'm . it hurts so much…'" (277). every individual is faced with the horrible fact of death. depression and finally acceptance. by Margaret Laurence. very close to death. for mercy's sake let me hold it myself!' I only defeat myself by not accepting her. Marvin. Hagar's fierce pride is shown for the final time when a nurse tries to help her drink some water. I was alone. "I guess not. In The Stone Angel. Throughout her life. But I can't help it . Hagar says "'Here. Hagar is no different. Oh. And then -" (308) • • • • Theme of the Journey Towards Death At one time in life. Oh. or spill it. and never free. just as You please. I want no part of that. Through her journey Hagar goes through the five different stages leading up towards death: denial. In her mind she more or less associates death as a horrible nightmare of . I'll drink from this glass. thinking "Our Father .

and how filled with reproach" (Laurence... even if I strained to speak? I am past ninety and this figure seems somehow arbitrary and impossible.... I won't be able to rise from my chair.let them be gone.. 191). How is it my mouth speaks by itself. 37).which she will eventually wake up and everything will be a dream and life will return back to normal. but the worst is that I'm helpless.. undo my corsets and strip them off me. 263). my own they must be although they have sprung so unbidden I feel they are like the incontinent wetness of the infirm. like a kind of insurance policy falling due. Hagar's greatest difficulty is that her memory is failing her and this infuriates her more than anything else but it also allows her to create an illusion that everything will be fine. 68)... everybody but herself: "That Doctor Tappen .I never thought much of him" (Laurence. but that was not what I meant to say at all. she bargains with destiny and places the fault on others.Perhaps the anger gives me strength. They sound muted and velvety. Hagar feels incompetent and useless which infuriates and frustrates her at the same time. 38). Hagar is angry at her body that she can no longer do simple tasks for herself but that she is dependent on others: "I heard the footsteps on the carpeted stair. and have her see my blue-veined swollen flesh... how laden with self-pity my voice sounds. terribly. My bowels knot. Even though Hagar attempts to bargain against the inevitable there is always a constant reminder: "... blaspheme against them .I become flustered" (Laurence.I hurt all over. It frustrates Hagar that she can no longer do what she is accustomed to doing rather she often has to seek the aid of others: "How it irks me to have to take her hand.I'm stuck here like an overturned ladybug. Hagar's denial can be seen when she describes herself: "Because I cannot remember doing it nor yet recall definitely not doing it.. Since Hagar does not accept the belief in God. as though it were a smotherer. too late. some half-hidden hurt?" (Laurence." (Laurence. they taunt down my face. 77). But I have spoken and they are still there" (Laurence.... Hagar makes herself believe that this cannot be happening: "Then. When Hagar finally gets through her stage of denial that she has live in she becomes angry with herself and the world around her. I dismiss them." (Laurence." (Laurence. Who would understand. 72).When the intruder opens the door. Trickling.That's the indignity of it" (Laurence. She questions everybody's credibility to maintain her illusion that is now hanging by a flimsy thread... Hagar goes through a short period of bargaining where she wonders what if. Hagar cannot control her mind either and her illusion is slowly shattering: "Oh. 31).. I grow enraged.. allow her to pull my dress over my head. Proud as Napoleon or Lucifer. 30). Hagar rejects everything that would shatter her illusion that she has created: "Doris believes that age increases natural piety. the words flowing from somewhere. I stand and survey the wasteland I've conquered.. I perceive the tears. I couldn't explain. Hagar gets angry also when she cannot control her emotions: "Now I perceive. .

"Silverthreads. 308). "I've reached the bathroom and gained the shiny steel grail.. Hagar begins to give herself to others because she cannot stand leaving them behind: "Send her this.oh. I can think of only two acts that might be so... 139). Hagar reaches the end or her journey and accepts her fate instead of trying to change it." but the limbs are already touched with lethargy.. proper to whom? When did I ever speak the heart's truth?" (Laurence. Hagar also realizes that she cannot even control her future because she has no money: "Marvin looks after my money. no control over her body. Hagar finally succeeds in accepting reality and leaving the world peacefully under her own terms: "I wrest from her the glass. 284-285). towards the end of the novel. He was the only one who ever called me by my name" (Laurence. 279). when the mind cries out to the limbs. .simply to rejoice.. Her fate is already pre-determined for her and she cannot do a thing about it... Hagar is still scared but she realizes that she cannot battle or change God's plan: "The light is on beyond that open door. all were forced to a standstill by some brake of proper appearances . Finally... It wouldn't hurt. 292). 307).The other was a lie" (Laurence. The reader never finds out if she does it for others or simply for her own satisfaction. always have wanted that . Hagar also confronts her past and accepts the fact that she cannot change what happened but only overcome it: "I must always. 95). "flail against the thing. Hagar begins to regret what she has done in the past: "I'm sorry no that I told Father." (Laurence. I had forgotten..I am barely aware of the words that issue form my mouth. will you? It was my mother's sapphire. someone will speak. she becomes depressed and distant. bound and lost" (Laurence. Hagar is depressed because she has no self-control. full of water to be had for the taking. I am overcome with fear. One was a joke. I'd like Tina to have it" (Laurence. the feeling one has when the ether mask goes on. I hold it in my hands. both recent.And now I wonder if I've done it for her or for myself" (Laurence. 301). Hagar. Every good joy I might have held. 276). If I reach it..When Hagar realizes she can't control or stop the process of old age and death. just say a word. I haven't a nickel" (Laurence. How is it I never could? I know. destiny or her future.. Even though Hagar accepts her journey towards death she is determined to do it alone. Doris.. I lie here and try to recall something truly free that I've done in ninety years. The account's in his name now. But it made me wild-. I know. Hagar is depressed about the idea about going to a nursing home so she runs away but she soon learns that she cannot escape her problems by running away because they will always be there when she returns.. Will the voice be the one I have been listening for? What keeps him? He could surely say something.And then -" (Laurence. Towards the end.

"D. can relate to Hagar's struggle through her journey.J. sympathizing with her. feeling her pain and keeping a part of her with them. Many people die everyday with a sense of defeat. The strength of their youth disappears leaving them weak. Thomas had never recovered since having tongue cancer in 1932. They reach a point in their lives were they feel it is useless to fight against a force that is destined to claim them. in doing so. In writing this poem. rage against the dying of the light" demonstrates perfectly the attitude Dylan Thomas felt his father should have had against his death. Hagar Shipley is a woman fighting against her own death. By running away. Hagar. Analysis: "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner" By Samuel Taylor Coleridge The Ancient Mariner is at a wedding and starts to tell a story to the Wedding Guest. It was a sign of life. the reader obtains the message that Hagar has reached her independence when she holds the glass of water." (FitzGibbons 295). Hagar is making one last effort to reclaim her life and. Dylan Thomas did not wish to see his dad surrender to his death. It started to snow and the ship appeared to be in an ice land where no living thing was found.The novel is an unforgettable tale about a proud and courageous woman. In the final scene. Her son Marvin and his wife Doris wish to put Hagar in a nursing home because they feel she is too old to take care of herself. The spectacle of his decline distressed Dylan greatly and inspired this poem. The ice split and the boat . mourn her or worry about her journey. who is determined to leave the world dependent on no one. Thomas' pride and fire had almost all drained out of him. he was becoming the husk of his former self. Losing his eyesight Mr. Marvin is a representation of the death attempting to take hold of Hagar. As a result she can leave the world peacefully knowing that in the end she succeeded in freeing herself of any help. with the help of the author. The reader. Allusion in The Stone Angel Analysis: "Do Not Go Gentle Into That Goodnight" By Dylan Thomas This poem is about fighting against death. even though in the process she has to shatter her illusion and accept the harsh facts about life and reality. Hagar accomplishes her goal. takes matters into her own hands and flees to a house in Shadow Point. He did the crossword puzzles of which both he and Dylan were so fond of and awaited the end. The Stone Angel and Dylan Thomas In the novel "The Stone Angel". "Rage. Hagar. Hagar does not want anyone to feel pity for her. In fighting Marvin. Hagar is fighting against the death she feels will claim her if she is placed in a nursing home. is refusing to "go gentle into that good night". feeling differently. Those who accept death too early die spiritually before they die physically. The Mariner was in a ship sailing towards the south pole. All of a sudden the ship was driven by a storm. Hagar bravely survived her last moments with her heart and the reward of satisfaction. Hagar is standing up for her right to be able to live her own life the way she feels. Out of the fog an Albatross (a sea bird) came and was received with great joy and hospitality by the ship mates. Dylan set out to encourage others to fight against death and to live their lives to the fullest. They grieve a loss that is yet to come.

Sarah McClean . He awoke and everything was calm again. As the ship sailed on he realized the beauty and the happiness within the creatures of the great calm and blessed them in his heart. Lees. While sleeping the Mariner was awakened by the rain and the sound of the wind. The Mariner justified the murder by saying it was not good luck and that the bird was the one who brought the fog. the Wedding Guest and Murray F. 1965 Character Study of Hagar Roxanne Pardiac. The Mariner was now cast into a trance and the power pushed the boat to the north at a fast speed. He continues his story and tells the Wedding Guest that he despised the creatures of the calm because he was surrounded by death. The Albatross began to avenge. Constantine. but to his dismay he realized that it couldn't be because it was sailing in a straight line (it wasn't tacking).sailed off. The deaths of both birds brought about memories from both the Ancient Mariner and Hagar which they shared with other people. He then heard two voices talking about done. And penance more will do". After telling his tale to the Wedding Guest. The Wedding Guest thinks that the Mariner is a spirit but the old man reassures him that he is alive. Through their own personal recollections. The Ancient Mariner died a wiser man. It approached and the image was now a skeleton of a ship with two people on it: a SpecterWoman and a Deathmate. the Ancient Mariner and Hagar both achieved a better understanding of their lives and in turn were able to die with a sense of contentment and relief. The Ancient Mariner saw a sign afar. The fog cleared and the men agreed with the Mariner therefore making them accomplices to the crime. The Life of Dylan Thomas. The boat sailed into the Pacific Ocean and all of a sudden the breeze dropped and everything grew silent and still. There was his native country. its spirit had followed them. Night time came and one ship mate after another died and their souls lifted from their bodies. The act of murder was an impulsive act because the Mariner felt threatened by the Albatross their actions. These memories help them to realize the mistakes they made. The ship mates were angry that the Mariner killed the bird because they thought it was good luck. An angelic saint took over the dead bodies and the ship mates began to help the Mariner pull the ropes and guide the boat towards the south. The curse lived in the eyes of the dead men. the Ancient Mariner realized that the murder of the Albatross was a mistake and lived a life of penance. The blood rushed to his head and the Mariner fell to the floor. The curse was finally done and he then saw a light house. To teach by his own example: to love and reverence to all things that God made. As it neared he thought it was a ship. The bird followed them day and night until the Ancient Mariner killed it. By: Melanie Gagne and Krista Burley Works Cited FitzGibbons. Boston: Little Brown & Co.. The spell began to break. The angelic spirits left the dead bodies and a boat appeared. The ship mates put all the blame on the Mariner and for a punishment they hung the dead bird around the Mariner's neck. The little boat approached the ship with wonder and all of a sudden the ship sank. The agony within him made him tell the story to the Wedding Guest. The Mariner was saved by the Pilot's boat. The Stone Angel and Samuel Taylor Coleridge The main theme of Samuel Taylor Coleridge's poem is to learn from your mistakes.

when Marvin asked how she was feeling. Unable to communicate with a member of her own family shows another weakness. he never knew that. 304). Her reason was. and her world of appearances." ( p. making her realize it's acceptable for her to show her gratitude. Hagar is an old women who has never lost her spirit and free will. her disappointment in Marvin. I was so enraged " ( p. 25 ). " I can't bear to feel indebted. Hagar is still being faced with obstacles which she must fight to overcome. of course. Even as a young child Hagar believed that showing emotion was a sign of weakness. all were forced to a standstill by some break of proper appearances. " So I merely sit on the bed and look out the window until the dark comes and the trees have gone and the sea itself has been swallowed by the night. She finally releases Marvin from her prejudice. in my man or any child of mine or even the plain light of morning. In an attempt to ignore her failing health. "Later in the train. You've been good to me. I can be as grateful as the next person. after everything she'd been through. I know this. is a character who possesses incredible depth. proper to whom? When did I ever did I speak the hearts truth? " (p. 9 ) after her dad smacked her hand. solely to serve her world of appearances. Shameful.What possessed me? I think it's the first time in my life I've ever said such a thing. 187 ) even though she was surrounded by people who were willing to help her with her problems. while doing her job brings Hagar her medication. thinking of him. "Every good joy I might have held. as long as it's not forced on me" ( p. of walking the earth.. the nurse. Influenced by her father's lack of communication. uplifted by the spectacle..I know it very well. always. the audience is capable of relating to her. I'll drink from this glass or spill it just as I choose " (p. I'm so frightened.. A better son than John " (p. One obstacle occurred in the hospital. but she said. "I only defeat myself by not accepting her (Doris). even on her deathbed.frightened.308). Hagar never realized that her whole life had been consumed with senseless suppressions of the truth.oh. Marvin. "You've not been cranky. which she exhibited throughout the novel. Hagar finds herself faced with obstacles to conquer. She wanted to tell him she was fine. I'm not a bit like her" ( p. The tragic hero through his struggle and the recognition of his own shortcomings reveal man's essential or potential nobility. " I can't. it's my nature. 42 ). She strongly believes. Never losing her spirit or freewill.160 ) She does not want to deal with her problems.. Hagar's solution to a difficult situation is to ignore it or hide from her problems instead of dealing with them in a mature and open fashion. Hagar Shipley can be considered a tragic hero because through her struggles she managed to retain her spirit and free will. Still. Saying this reveals that in the last days of her life she comes to terms with her true emotions. she runs away from Marvin and Doris.( p. Marvin. . Since Hagar is a character who is not perfect. Hagar finally understands what it means to be truly human. One of those people. no one else is likely to". Overcoming her fear of self. her inability to show fear prevented her from portraying her deceased mother. Her disappointment in Marvin is conquered when she is lying in her deathbed. 258 ). if a person doesn't look after herself in this world. 292).The main character in the novel The Stone Angel. " . She once said " I wouldn't let him see me cry. but. She is finally able to depend on someone other than herself. Yet somehow it is a relief to speak it " (p. She finds an escape through daydreaming. But I can't help it.expression. and I'd been the last to tell him" ( p. a stubborn old woman's ways never change. 303-304). "I'm.. and we are ennobled. by Margaret Laurence. When asked to hold her dying brother. I cried.

she was not perfect. But sometimes through to hot rush of disrespectful wind that shook the scrub oak and the coarse couchgrass encroaching upon the dutifully cared for habitations of the dead. wild and civilized. too heavy for their light stems. controlled way of life and the material way of life. These quotes reveal that Hagar fears people breaking down the walls which she built . 120). Always retaining her spirit and freewill. " Pry and pry-what does he want of me? I'm tired out I can't fence with him. 5). she was just not capable of doing that. Suppressing her feelings became instinctive. 292 ). 88). always have wanted that. in some far crevice of my heart. These two types of flowers are associated with the educated. but. " I would have wished it. "Nothing is ever changed at a single stroke. Hagar came across as a strong person who could not allow people to cross the barrier she built around herself. the pompous blossoms hanging leadenly. the scent of the cowslips would rise momentarily. IMAGERY Flower Imagery Margaret Laurence uses flower imagery in her novel The Stone Angel to represent Hagar's way of life. How long have I known? Or have I always known. was something she sometimes wanted to do. dark crimson and wallpaper pink. and with such a bitterness as I have never felt before. although a person sometimes wishes it could otherwise" (p. "Some people will tell you that the old live in the past-that's nonsense" (p. some cave too deeply buried. infested with upstart ants that sauntered through the plush petals as though to the manner born . bowed down with the weight of themselves and the weight of the rain. I know. Revealing emotion to others. The values instilled upon her when she was a child were those of appearing strong and independent. . these wild and gaudy flowers. This knowing comes upon me so shatteringly. torn out by loving relatives determined to keep the plots clear and . Throughout her life. a woman with great independence and dignity. Through her reminiscing the reader is able to understand Hagar's mentality.yet the audience was capable of relating to her. In summer the cemetery was rich and thick as syrup with the funeral-parlor perfume of the planted peonies. I know that full well. How is it I never could? I know. living in a world of appearances was an intrinsic routine she endured everyday. and although they were held back at the cemetery's edge. too concealed?" ( p. she never realized what she had become until she was on her deathbed. even to her own father. Hagar's life story is proof that a life of strength and stubbornness was not a life that was fulfilling or satisfying." (p. she would have to be dared. The tragedy being that an individual often only realizes his/ her mistakes when it is already too late. The audience is capable of relating to what Hagar has said because the feelings she has expressed in this quotation are feelings many individuals experience. .The audience is capable of relating to Hagar before and after she has overcome her obstacles. "Gainsay who dare" was the family's motto. There is two types of flowers. For Hagar Shipley. They were though-rooted. for someone like Hagar to show emotion. I must have always.simply to rejoice. living in a world of appearances rather than serving her most inner desires was Hagar's way of life.

The sunflowers had risen beside the barn as always. She was able to go to college where she learned how to be more cultivated and civilized and how to act like a lady. His manners are rude and unexpected. Hagar realizes that she herself is he embarrassing one. 33). of course. she is content and in love.clearly civilized. waiting for the boy's feet. fed by the melting snow in the spring. when the prairie bluffs were walked though only by Cree with enigmatic faces and greasy hair. When Hagar marries Bram Shipley. My marigolds were a dead loss by this time. dust-tinged smell of things that grew and had grown always. and the heavy heads hung over. for a second or two a person walking there could catch the faint. Hagar becomes determined to change the way her husband behaves. "I would not expect her to know that the lilies of the valley. This only embarrasses her. In her old age. 50) After the wedding. yet she fails in the end having to depend on her own son. (p. before the portly peonies and the angels with rigid wings. They have the smell of a funeralparlor and speak of death and emptiness. She did not let anything about herself go free. the segments empty as unfilled honey-combs. so white and almost too strongly sweet. and the frogs had come back to the sloughs and sang like choruses of angels with sore throats. Later on in the novel. Hagar realizes that her life was bleak. dry sheep foot and thistle. Nothing seems to be natural about her. almost like Hagar's aging life." (cp. a different spring from this one.their tall stalks were hollow and brown. having humiliated people like her son. And i rode into black-topped buggy beside the man who was no my mate. Doris. an the mars marigolds were opening like shavings of sun on the brown river where the tadpoles danced and the bloodsuckers lay slimy and low. John or her daughter-in-law. Her flowers deteriorate just the same as Hagar grows old. The poplar bluffs had budded with sticky leaves. she criticizes everything that seems to be wild or out of control. small unexpected dabs of orange among the choking weeds. (cp. but they'd had no other water this year . She wanted to be well known as an educated. but now only a few wizened ones remained. were the flowers we used to weave into the wreaths for the dead" (p. independent woman who needed no help from anyone. for the petals had fallen and the centers had dried before the seeds could form. Marivn. 169) . I'd planted them behind the house to use as cutting flowers and they'd kept on seeding themselves. and his wife. musky. It was spring that day. 4-5) Hagar was the lucky one in her family. The references dealing with cultivated flowers are grim.

The Shirley house was square and frame." At Shadow point where Hagar puts june bugs in her own hair is a way of escaping. to her husband. Yet seeing it. a prim domestic hat sprouting cultivated flowers. two-storied. the furniture shoddy and secondhand. until they married very young and gained a permanent employment. before Hagar dies. the kitchen reeking and stale. so she can produce heir under Abraham's name. it may be that i may obtain children by her. Hagar Shipley. she gave her servant. transform me. her mistress was despised in her eyes". Then with considerable care I arrange the jades and copper pieces in my hair. Hagar is recognized as a biblical imagery because of her name. By reason Sarah was unable to provide offspring for Abraham. She faked her whole life being strong and civilized when she should have been alive and spontaneous. "I take off my hat . nurture. she realizes that her life was empty with all the wrong decisions. or the daughters and spinster aunts of the poor. Hagar Shirley became a house keeper in her younger years. 2-4) Symbolically." or possibly an outcast when she was married to Br am. does not accept things easily.At the end of the novel.. I glance into my purse mirror. And Sarah said unto Abraham. And Abraham hearkened unto the voice of Sarah. Hagar has always felt that she was to take care. The effect is pleasing. Behold now." (cp. Since Sarah could not conceive. for no one had scoured properly there since Clara died. And he went in unto Hagar. It signifies living. They liven up my gray. Hagar. (Genesis 16. serve others. forgetting that Abram's own daughters had hired out whenever they could be spared. 50-51) . Biblical Imagery In the novel The Stone Angel. Hagar saw herself as the "chatelaine. the wife of Abraham. and she conceived. "Hagar" is introduced and recognized in the Old Testament as the Egyptian hand-maiden of Sarah. the Lord that restrained me from bearing: I pray thee. I wasn't troubled in the slightest. it became her natural positron. like life. anyway. half-breeds from the river valley of the Achaean. still thinking of myself as a chatelaine. I wonder who I imagined would do the work? I thought of Po lacks and Galician's from the mountains.. Margaret Laurence introduces a character who seems to evolve her life around biblical imagery. a ninety year-old woman. go in unto my's hardly suitable for here.

the Old Testament Hagar fled from Abraham and Isaac. Later on. But no. she fled home to seek revenge on Marvin and Doris. and never free. (p 304) There are similarities between Hagar of the Old Testament and Margaret Laurence's. Hagar experiences an epiphany. Like the pharaoh's daughter.. Hagar had hoped that John might be a faithful son as the example given. B.Hagar is feeling like a prisoner in her own habitat. wrestling with the angel and besting it.-A. She leaves from her father's wings so she can pursue a better lifestyle for herself. The name Hagar is explained to mean "to flee". as the novel progresses. but finally realizes on how honorable Marvin was to her. being childlike and ran away to create a scare. John had a character of lying and deceiving himself. This indicates that Hagar has thirst and smallest imagery of some kind of spiritual thirst. 308). For example. Also noted. Hagar realized on what she was missing in her life.C. This stubborn woman learned to accept things as they are and cannot change. she never adored him. celebrating the manifesting of Christ's divinity. Marvin. 292). C. except thou bless me". that she is not "free" in spirit. her son and daughter-in-law. John. Now it seems to me he is truly Jacob. and secondly. His feet slipped and he hit his forehead on a marble. 179) Also Hagar had a son. The imagery that Hagar is enslaved like the prisoners in the early era's. like Jacob from the Old Testament. and bargaining. and can only release myself by releasing him. ear and swore. taking her two sons. And I see I am thus strangely cast and perhaps have been so from the beginning. John was Hagar's favorite son. Hagar had a chance to repent before passing away which lets her rest in peace. as Mr. As another character. "I was alone. Hagar Shirley shows the same imagery. or spill it. Hagar also was seen and explained as "a creature of wilderness". one of Hagar's sons. wringing a blessing from it with his might. He sweated and grunted angrily. from her husband Bram. she left the security of her father and went to explore the wilderness. she became a slave of her own emotions which is struggling within her. never anything else. Magaret Laurence's Hagar's flights where when she fled from the Shipley place. just as i choose" (p. Stone Angel Imagery ."I will not let thee go. I wish he would have looked like Jacob then. and they spread out from me and shackled all I touched" (pp. Troy sang hymns when he visited Hagar in the hospital. This opens the doors of acceptance from Hagar to Marvin. that she understood some kind of peace between herself. (cp. for I carried my chains within me. "I'll drink from this glass. gripping with all his strength.

(cp. At a very young age. The stone angel is also a symbol of Hagar's pride as she inherited it from her father. awkwardly. Curie to be a "meek woman" and a "feeble ghost". The statue was bought in Italy and brought to the Manawaka cemetery "at a terrible expense . In an attempt at freedom. whereas she describes herself to be "stubborn" and "practical". Hagar thought she'd be able to change him and coax him out of his wild ways. Bram was not a rich man by any means. . she had a hard time trying to find something soothing to say or do because she always had a stone wall built up between them. It was this pride that kept her from speaking up and fighting for her brother when Mr. and as a result she turns out to be just as hard and unyielding as the stone angel itself. She knew Matt deserved to go more than her. "I'm sorry about it Bram. forever and a day" (p. always spoke in slang. in pride to mark her bones and proclaim his [Mr. all at once I walked over to him without pausing to ponder whether I should or not. Upon hearing about their plans to wed. the woman Dan was said to resemble so much and when from whom he'd inherited a frailly I could not help but detest. she lies to her boss as to her real relationship with Bram. her pride prevents her from comforting her dying brother: But all i could think of was that meek woman I'd never seen. Hagar's marriage to Bram was a complete embarrassment to her and her family: "When i'd listen to Bram spinning his cobwebs. or what to say. Hagar married Bram Shipley soon after she came back from school. which is to hon our Hagar's mother who had died giving birth to was beyond me. but she never stuck up for either him or herself. as he fancied.The statue of the stone angel is symbolic of the Curie family pride. or maybe just to spite her father. Seeing Abram's hunched shoulders. and the look on his face. and the blindness and ignorance that comes from constantly refusing to see things from another point of view other than your own. his "dynasty". Then. she just accepted the fact that she'd have to live with it or lie about it to save face. I know you were fond of him (p. The Stone angel is symbolic of the Curie family pride because it does not seem to serve it's purpose. then it would turn my stomach most of all. however mush a part of me wanted to sympathize. 25) When Abram's horse died. Currie sent her away to college to become "more civilized". Currie's] dynasty. and caused a scene on a regular basis. When applies for a job to get away from Mananawka and her husband. . 87). . Hagar's pride prevents her from expressing her emotions or relating to other people. To play at being her . She never reveals her real feelings at the risk of being thought of as "soft" and as a result she misses out on a lot of potentially great relationships. he drank heavily. Hagar describes Mrs. Currie bought the angel "in pride" rather than in grief for someone he considered his possession. Mr. not what he said but that he made himself a laughingstock" (p. . From day one. Hagar's inability to relate and share her emotions. but when he proved her wrong. Hagar's father disowns her. . 3). 114).

and at one point the Premier of Manitoba. that her pride had been holding her back. one of Canada's greatest authors. Verna's father. Margaret Weymss' great-grandfather was the Minister of Agriculture. with only his change in his pocket. training to be a cabinetmaker. two weeks after the birth of his granddaughter Margaret. was a bright aristocratic man dying tragically. was born to proud parents Robert and Verna Wemyss. in addition to being made of hard marble. The death of Margaret's mother had a profound effect on the once bright and bubbly . I never spoke aloud. It also prevents her from seeing that Marvin was the son she'd been looking for. I never let him know. At the young age of four. in an attempt to unite with a cousin who sold clothing there. i prided myself on keeping my pride intact. John met his future wife. Margaret Weymss. It prevents her from having a friendship with Lottie. 81) The stone angel. made his way towards Portage la Prairie Manitoba. . Not only because it is made of stone. Margaret Laurence. While working in the clothing store. he never knew. It isn't until it's too late that she realizes she has more in common with Lottie than either of them had ever imagined. like some maidenhood. Born in 1853 in Middletown Ontario. towards to the newly founded town of Neepawa. Neepawa's first lawyer. John Simpson. came from a proud family. John Weymss. Four years after marrying Jane the Simpson family decided to move north. Margaret's mother Verna Simpson died. Margaret Laurence's grandfather. is "doubly blind". Biography By: Cecilia. John attended school. John Weymss.Hagar comes to pride herself on her self-restraint and aloofness. July 18th 1926. and that sometimes the problems of others were of more importance than her own. (p. Margaret Laurence establishes this though Hagar's refusal to admit to her husband that she enjoys making love with him: It was not so very long after we wed. when first i felt my blood and vitals rise to meet his. This is also symbolic of Hagar because she is blind when it comes to the feelings of others. Margaret's Laurence's grandmother. In the 1870's John. whom she was named after. Jane Bailey. came from England to Neepawa in 1883. This was only the beginning of the many tragic deaths that Margaret's family endured in her first twenty years of life. was a self-made man. Ben and Anita The Early Years: The Beginnings of a Writer Sunday. at 7:30pm at the Neepawa General Hospital. . and i made certain the trembling was all inner . but because the artist neglected to add the eyeballs to his masterpiece.

by creating imaginary worlds. After Verna's death. The town of my childhood could be called bizarre. by her writing. her high school rival Mildred Musgrove got honors in Math and Science. It was Verna who first nicknamed her daughter Margaret. Also. especially her town Neepawa. another tragedy shook the Weymss household. Teaming together Mildred and Margaret joined the school newspaper. horrible and beautiful. Margaret grew increasingly fond of her upbringing in the Prairies. Laurence has turned a town in Manitoba into a new human experience. But never merely flat or uninteresting. It was around this time that Peggy began to write. While there. A place of jubilation and of mourning. despairs like multitudinous pits of isolated hells. she published poetry and many stories in the school newspaper. "Neepawa is somewhat sleepy. Back then English professors obviously recognized Margaret as a student with much potential. inhabited by the unknown dead. The pinnacle of Margaret's college life came in her second year. somewhat seedy town 'on the road to Winnipeg'… A strange place it was. when she was accepted to the exclusive "English Club". In was. Margaret was always competing for top marks in her class. contracted Polio. Due to her good grades and extra curricular activities. A year after moving in. Away from her home. becoming "mother" to Peggy. A place of shadow-spookiness. "Peggy". Peggy's father Robert died after catching pneumonia. Margaret found that writing was the only way she could control external events. Margaret's last family death in her early years was in 1936 when Peggy's grandmother Jane. While she got perfect marks in English and Arts. her older sister. in an attempt to escape the horrible nightmare she was living. Laurence. Vox. Never dull" . where Margaret eventually became editor. Margaret won the Governor-Generals award in 1944 and got a scholarship to the United College in Winnipeg. THE SPOTLIGHT The writing of Margaret Laurence has inspired all Canadian readers. and the land in which it grew could be called harsh in violence of its seasonal changes. splendors and revelations.girl. such as life and death. Her writing is outstanding work and has attracted many young readers in this modern society. Margaret Simpson married Robert Weymss.M. a name by which Margaret was addressed as for almost 40 years. Her second work published in the Winnipeg Free Press was "The Case of the Blond Butcher" only a few months after the first. In high school. The fictional town name Manawaka first appeared in this story. agonizingly repressive or cruel at times. She . that place where the world began. She was one of Canada's best writers and all around the world people applauded her work. Often times when submitting a piece to be published she would use the name Steve Lancaster because of the sexism that existed in that time. Margaret Simpson. To be offered membership to the English Club was an incredible feat for Margaret because second-year students rarely were asked to join. quickly moved in with Peggy and her father. A place of incredible happenings. a small prairie town. in fact. It was at United College that Margaret really became involved in writing. In 1935. At the age of thirteen Margaret Laurence's first story "Pillars of a Nation" was published in the newspaper TheWinnipeg Free Press.

In 1966. she and her husband separated and she moved to England with her children. to a flat in Hempstead. Margaret Laurence lived in Vancouver and wrote more African stories. she seemed to enjoy her life by writing these remarkable novels. The latter was published in England under the same title. the simultaneous publication in New York of three books by Knopf ( The Tomorrow-Tamer. Later. Margaret Laurence had become not just an established and accomplished writer. she moved to Elm Cottage. died. in the novel The Stone Angel. Hagar Shipley. 1964). Travel played a major role in Laurence's life. from 1950 to 1952. their gorgeous daughter was Jocelyn born. Then she began her first novel. While Margaret Laurence lived in Africa she started to write A Tree For Poverty. in 1957. Buckinghamshire. all her important accomplishments started almost at the beginning of 1947. Additionally. All of her dedication made her one of the best novelists and her work has been outstanding. Margaret Simpson Wemyss. By the 1970's. in 1964. and New York. She spent most of her life time traveling which gave her literary vision to write these unforgettable novels. Later. they lived in Ghana. The best fictional character that brought the reader closer to Margaret Laurence was the character. Hagar is the most unforgettable female character in all Canadian fiction. Then McClelland and Stewart. These journeys helped her to find meaning in human experience. Later Jack graduated from the University of Manitoba. A Jest of God was published in Toronto. It helped Margaret Laurence by giving her vision in her writing. but in New York as New Wind in a Dry Land (Knopf. when Ghana achieved its independence. and The Stone Angel) brought wide international recognition. "The Drummer of All the World. 1956). Indeed. yet one to whom younger Canadian writers were turning with admiration and respect." published in Queen's Quarterly (Winter.has even helped us to learn about the life she has lived by writing fictional novels. Their son. The work of Jack Laurence took the couple to the British Protectorate of Somaliland. David. Perhaps more than any other writer of her time. . This Side Jordan and her first African story. London. 1949. was born there in 1955. she worked as a reporter for The Winnipeg Citizen and she married Jack Laurence (September 1947). In 1952. much of the third decade of her life was in Africa where her husband worked as an engineer from 1950 to 1957. from 1952 to 1957. New Wind in a Dry Land. Somali Poetry and Prose which was published in Nairobi. After Margaret's arrival her stepmother. in 1954. From 1947 to 1949. the Laurence's returned to Canada. Then. returned veteran and civil engineering student. In 1963. and the Laurence's went to England. Then. published The TomorrowTamer and The Prophet's Camel Bell. Toronto. Later This Side Jordan was published in 1960.

the equality of women. in 1967. essay and fund raising campaigns. MARGARET LAURENCE: THE AFTER WORD . letters. At the same time she served an academic year at University of Toronto as Writer-in-Residence. an hour long documentary Film Board of Canada. Her hands would shake badly. and A Christmas Birthday Story (1980). As for her accomplishments. Through these novels. Even though she was recognized as a novelist. Margaret showed how the apparition of power by women could be conducted according to principles of self-interest. Few who attended Lakefield or Toronto. The Olden days Coat (1979. she had a chronic shyness at public events. Six Darn Cows (1979). peace. Her kindness. she would find it difficult to control the quaver in her voice. University of Winnipeg.despite her success. Her warmth and kindness were obvious with her public. environment protection have been main focus of the last years of her life. and premiered in Winnipeg on May 7. Margaret Laurence became the first woman and youngest person to be Honorary Fellow of United College. !987. generosity and good heart are legendary. Massey College. her seven year separation came to an end. Stacey (The Fire-Dwellers) and Rachel (A Jest of God). in 1971 she was made a companion of the order of Canada and many other honors were bestowed upon her. revised in 1982). social justice. recreating the world in which her heroines Hagar (The Stone Angel). grew up in. she brought her readers to Manawaka. and she was much beloved because she reflected and expressed the hopes and fears of Canadians for all of society."(King. knew that Margaret Laurence had chosen to her own life in the face of terminal cancer on January 5. Even though Margaret Laurence was a celebrity in Canada. In 1969.COMING TO AN END Throughout the writing career of Margaret Laurence. she also wrote several children's books: Jason Quest (1970). "Margaret Laurence-first lady of Manawaka". 1979. Margaret Laurence supported novice artists and writers by aiding them financially through the Three Guineas Foundation and spiritually through encouraging words. Through lectures. Furthermore. Then Margaret Laurence received the Governor General's Award for "A Jest of God" (1967) and for "The Diviners" (1975). later.350). "She was not merely nervous.

L. Kertzer). the sometimes reclusive.the Long Journey Home Canadian Cataloguing in Publication Data.J. and it is the largest and the first of its kind.techplus. ECW Press."One of the most Convincing and the most touching portraits of an unregenerate sinner"(Time). which is generally read and studied in isolation from earlier writing"(Morley). B. 1983. James.. Margaret Laurence and Her Works.. Margaret Laurence. through her own efforts and the commentary of The Life of Margaret Laurence. The angel is Hagar's mother's tombstone."(King) " Margaret Laurence has become. Perigoe.htm Chapter Summaries by Adrian. The World of The Novel: The Stone Angel. Prentice-Hall Canada Inc.M. "She was one of the Canada's best loved writers. 1991. Ont.. The tombstone reads "Rest in peace. Toronto. Hagar's father had the large marble statue imported and it cost him a great deal of money. It stands tall in the cemetery overlooking the entire town. one of the most important and most Canadian of novelists"(J. Alfred A. and Copping. Ontario King. Ben. Knopf Publishing. and Adam Chapter One Summary and Questions The novel starts by describing "The Stone Angel". Bibliography Kertzer.M. sometimes gregarious woman. http://www. "Laurence has turned the Manitoba town of her youth into a metaphor of universal human experience"(Morley). "Her African work is much less known than her Canadian fiction. From . UDA 1997 Morley Patricia. Biography-Margaret Laurence.

Doris is fat. although she thinks he does not care much. Marvin and Doris bring up the idea of selling the house. trips over her bedroom rug on her way downstairs to have a cup of tea. Nevertheless. and her son wants to sell it. All the old Hagar can do is sit and relive her memories. Hagar. Troy. If the homework was complete before the hour time span was up. Doherty always made his sons do. The Wachakwa river always froze over very well and was perfect for skating on. she would not so Matt did it himself. She just thinks that they live each worthless day. but she doesn't believe so. Regina Weese. Troy. The only enjoyment that she has is complaining and smoking her cigarettes. She must also be careful not to speak aloud to herself in fear of what her son and daughter-in-law will think. they drop the whole idea so not to aggravate Hagar any more. Doris and Marvin both make an extremely big deal about her falling over. The next day Dan came down with pneumonia. the priest at church. he skated right into one of the holes where they cut a block of ice. When Hagar found out that she was going to the Young Ladies Academy she did not . Hagar's brother. It was also perfect for cutting blocks of ice out as Mr. Chapter Two Summary and Questions Chapter two begins with Hagar meeting with Mr. At times. and Hagar does not like her at all. surcease. Troy. and the next night he died. Hagar starts telling him her life story. Some say the old live in the past. Matt came and pulled him out and then. The whole idea of a ninety year old clutching a cigarette between arthritic fingers is absurd. When the time came Auntie Doll would poke her head in from the kitchen and remind their father of the children's bedtime. This chapter ends with Doris suggesting that Hagar meet with Mr.toil. One day when Dan. While on his death bed Dan wanted his mother so Matt got out her shawl and tried to convince Hagar to comfort him. This really disturbs Hagar because it is her house. with the help of Hagar. 1886. They point out that Marvin is getting too old to continue picking her up every time she falls. While having a cup of tea. Hagar seems to think that Marvin's wife. Her son Marvin seems to think it disgusting that a woman of ninety smokes. rejoining the present day. Every night for an hour. After the subject of selling the house causes a great deal of aggravation. Hagar and her two brothers would have to sit at the table and do their homework. walked Dan all the way across town to their house. whenever Hagar would get a star for her work. While meeting with Mr. their father would set up sums and would help the children to do them. was showing off for the girls. She begins her story with her going to the young ladies' academy in Toronto. because he owned the Manawaka Icehouse." She died from some obscure maidenly disease while giving birth to Hagar. her father would reward her with candies from the store. Hagar was very clever at school and pleased her father because of it.

think that she should be the one going to college. died. which Hagar was terrified of but never let Bram know. Bram bought a strong gray stallion that he called soldier. Throughout Hagar's life everyone has called her several things. while waiting Hagar notices two pictures in the doctor's office. who was fourteen years younger than he. She thought that Matt should be the one getting the College education. Hagar remembers that when she first went to the Shipley house. from Henry Pearl and a few . Troy Mr. After recollecting this portion of her life to Mr. At the dance Hagar met Bram Shimpley. a cut-glass decanter with a silver top. Troy's departure Hagar notices a circled add in the paper but she cannot make it out. He was a great dancer. as did everyone else. he invested in buying horses. but they have never really called her Hagar. Doris notices that Hagar has read the paper but avoids talking about the subject altogether. She makes her way to the kitchen table to read the add. After a bit of small talk Hagar states that there is no way she will go to the nursing home. Hagar was permitted to go to a dance only because it was a fund-raiser to build a new hospital. Nevertheless. "Only the Best Will Do for MOTHER." Bram never really cared for the picture. Troy noticed that a great deal of time had passed and he must be on his way so he left. No one came to their wedding except Auntie Doll. As heavy as he was he was light on his feet. Bram was the only one that ever called her Hagar not mother or daughter or even wife just simply Hagar. It reads. one time under the supervision of Auntie Doll. "The Horse Fair. Throughout the time that she lived in that house she had succeeded to put up a couple of pictures. Bram was previously married but his wife. Hagar's father did not let her go to many dances. Hagar wanted to marry Bram but her father refused but none-the-less she married him. Auntie Doll said that Matt had given her mother's shawl to give to Hagar as a present but at the last minute he changed his mind and took it back. Doris causes Hagar to drop the subject saying that she is getting worked up so Hagar goes and sits where all her things are around her. One year when Bram made some money. One picture Hagar particularly liked was one entitled. She did not want to say anything because she wanted to go. her husband's house. he would send Matt instead of her. there were no pictures. but was afraid that if she mentioned anything to her father. Chapter Three Summary and Questions Chapter three begins with Hagar and Doris waiting in the doctor's office. He much preferred real horses. After the wedding Bram took Hagar to his home where Bram gave Hagar her wedding present. Following Mr." the add goes on to describe a nursing home. After their dance Lottie told Hagar that Bram was not the person she should be seen with she explained to her that he had been seen with half breed girls. because wheat was doing well. Hagar let Bram believe that the smell was what bothered her.

While she is in the X-ray room. Before she leaves Hagar notices that there are also men at this home after seeing a log cabin with the shadow of a man standing within. Suddenly they pass through a set of iron gates with SILVERTHREADS written across the top. mainly because he was not a very good business man. They sat and talked about family and looked at some pictures. Chapter Four Summary and Questions As the chapter begins.mares. He had caught his leg in a barbed wire fence and the cold killed him. Then after the old lady that was talking to her left another came and was a little friendlier toward Hagar. Thorlakson gets the best of things. Doris runs outside to get Hagar and they get back into the car to go home. Bram loved the horse so much that although it was minus forty outside he took the storm lantern and went out to search for the horse. While sitting on the veranda. In the spring they had colts but when it came to selling them Bram never got a good price for them. While taking the tour Hagar is very uncooperative but at the end of the tour Hagar agrees to sit on the veranda and have a cup of tea. After eating supper Marvin and Doris take Hagar for a ride without telling her where they are going. Hagar suddenly realizes that she is going to the old age home. She remembers how cross she was with him when he said that if it were a boy it would be someone to leave the place to. she lapses into another flashback. They also talk about where Hagar is going to go if she does not go to the home and after a quick word about that Hagar leaves in a hurry. Marvin and Doris assure her that they are only visiting to look around. The next spring they found Soldier's body. She remembered how Bram drove down the main area of the town and said hello to people on the way to the hospital. A little while later the mare that was in the stall had returned but Soldier was still missing. As she waits for the procedure to commence. Hagar really does not want to go to the home and causes a big fuss in the car. After. He thought he would only be gone a few minutes but he forgot all about it. she is forced to drink Barium. the elderly Hagar complains to herself about the barrage of X-rays she's had to undergo. Hagar remembers when she gave birth to Marvin. which Hagar dislikes thoroughly. they were nowhere to be found. When Bram went to check on the horses. Thorlakson did not come down for supper and how Mrs. One cold winter day Bram left the gate to the horse's stall unlatched. Suddenly out of nowhere an old lady came up to Hagar and starts complaining about how Mrs. She recalls her earlier life at the Shipley . Bram returned a while later but he did not find the horse. she is finally called in for the X-rays and proceeds without the accompaniment of Doris.

C. Hagar then remembers her son John. and his relatively easy birth. whom she recalls as being a hard worker. and tells Hagar that she can stay at home if she wants. Hagar wakes up and goes for a walk with Doris. Mr. she remembered the time when Marvin joined the army at the age of seventeen to fight in the First World War. Although the X-rays reveal nothing "organically" wrong with Hagar. As time passed. "relieving hisself" on the steps of Hagar's father's store. that she will be going to the nursing in one week. He was caught by the R. In addition. the meeting ends in a stalemate. Questions for Chapter Four Multiple Choice 1. Troy. Meanwhile.P. she remembers her husband Bram. making her feel miserable. In the present. and how much Bram disliked him. and draws an evil stare from the girl. in no uncertain terms. whom the kids made jokes about. but none too bright. She makes a comment about it. At the end of the Also.) Hagar is forced to drink what substance during her X-ray? a) beryllium . John suffered embarrassment over Bram. Doris thinks that Hagar would be better off in a nursing home. Ultimately. Doris schedules a meeting between Hagar and the clergyman.M. during which she sees a girl with black nail polish. She recalls how much she loved John. Hagar is told by Marvin. Hagar also recalls how she earned some money for herself from the egg money Bram took in. and the effort she put forth to keep the house spotless. To settle the issue. Hagar's relationship with John became strained. while Marvin disagrees.

b) boron c) chlorophyll d) barium 2.) What was John caught doing by Hagar at the railroad tracks? Essay Question 1. How did it differ from Marvin's relationship with Bram. Use support from the entire novel for . 2.) Write a five paragraph position essay either supporting or debating Hagar's view concerning God and the afterlife in general.) At one point. John was friends with the _______________ boys.) Briefly describe John's relationship with Bram. 2.) What was John's horse's name? a) Bartholomew b) Bramble c) Pibroch d) Durham Fill in the Blanks 1.) Mr. 3. 3. Short Answer Questions 1.) Hagar bought a _______________ to play music. What is it? a) heaven b) God c) God's infinite mercy d) Saint John's Revelation 3. Troy asks Hagar if she believes in something.) One music piece Hagar couldn't buy was Beethoven's _______________ Symphony.) Explain how Hagar was able to pay for the music accessories she purchased.

she recalls the day she and John left Bram and Manawaka behind them. and that he had acquired many friends. She happens across a convenience store. and buys some food items. Oatley's house. she recalls her plan to sneak away to Shadow Point. When Hagar falls asleep in the middle of her conspiracy. She then establishes the building as her new "home. he made real friends. finds her way to the bank. She served as a maid / cook for Mr. Chapter Five Summary and Questions As chapter five begins. Hagar then hitches a ride to the "old fish-cannery road." She descends the steps to the Point. Hagar is plotting her "escape" by using her old-age pension check to get her to Shadow Point. Hagar discovered that John was lying about having any friends. and eventually manages to travel to her destination. John confesses to Hagar that he traded his plaid pin for a jackknife. When the elderly Hagar awakens. She furtively obtains the check from the den desk. and once there she finds an abandoned building. Nevertheless. Oatley.your argument. as well as girl . and Hagar's stay at Mr. she encouraged John. When John entered high school. While on the train." The scene then switches to the past. He led Hagar to believe that he was doing well in school. telling him that he would take after his grandfather and be successful. Oatley's. John also stayed with his mother at Mr. However.

The chapter ends with the elderly Hagar lying on an old bed in the abandoned house.) While descending the steps. .) Who employed Hagar? a) Mr.friends. Reilly b) David Connor c) Mr.) What place did Hagar plan on going to? a) Winnipeg b) Manawaka c) Point Black d) Shadow Point 2. trying to pray but finding it no more useful now than it was before. Oakley d) none of the above Fill in the Blanks 1. Questions for Chapter Five Multiple Choice 1.) What did John trade for a jackknife? a) money b) clothing c) plaid pin d) none of the above 3. Hagar recalls the poem featuring Meg _______________.

) How does Hagar think Doris will act if she returned? 3. thinking that it was Marvin and Doris who left her. John replies to the contrary. Connor? Essay Question 1. and reveals that he and Marvin have been communicating with Bram through letters. John hitched a ride on a train back to the Shipley place.) John didn't make real friends until he started attending _______________.2. Oatley's? 2. She is cold and sore. and realizes that it is raining outside.) Write a five paragraph character analysis of John. She . 3. Hagar then enters into another flashback in which she recalls John trying to earn enough money to attend college. and not the other way around. the one important thing she forgot was _______________. Hagar then becomes confused. John wrote to Hagar telling her that Bram was dying.) What did Hagar discover when she called Mrs. Chapter Six Summary and Questions As chapter six begins. Two years later. When Hagar cries that Bram might be dead. She worries momentarily that the rain would mask the footsteps of a possible intruder.) What did John lie to Hagar about while they were living at Mr. he decides to return to the Shipley place to work there. and fears moving lest she fall with no one nearby to help her. Eventually. Short Answer Questions 1. Hagar awakens in the abandoned building.) Of all the preparations Hagar made. Make sure to make reference to specific events that occur within chapter five.

the grave stone reading Currie on one side. Bram died. and Shipley on the other. both in the way he talks and the way he acts. With a great deal of effort. Hagar had him buried in the Currie plot. John managed to place the angel upright. she found Manawaka stricken by drought. Questions for Chapter Six Multiple Choice 1. When she arrived. not Hagar.) Who was it that actually wrote letters to Bram? a) John b) Marvin c) Hagar . It becomes apparent that John has become a great deal like his father. and Bram an invalid. John looked after Bram. When they arrive. while Hagar didn't do much to aid him.immediately traveled to the Shipley place. A short time later. John a shadow of his former self. In the end. it was John who cried for Bram. and cleaned off the lipstick someone had applied to the statue. they notice that the stone angel has been toppled over. Hagar and John later travel to the cemetery to see if the Currie plot has been cared for.) Which Psalm does Hagar make reference to in this chapter? a) 12 b) 23 c) 35 d) 90 2.

) What is John's opinion of Arlene Simmons? Essay Question 1. Chapter Seven Summaries and Questions Awaking one morning. and Bram's previous behavior. She takes a stroll in the forest and sits in her quiet place and notices her surroundings and reviewed the incident with the children on the beach. Hagar noting their playing decides to warn the girl to stop being so bossy to the boy. informed Mr. When Bram died. the children are frightened and run away.) Write a one paragraph comparison essay concerning John's behavior in this chapter. when she speaks up. Oatley 3.) Charlie Bean died by _______________ to death.) What disaster occurred at Manawaka? a) plague b) tornado c) drought d) explosion Fill in the Blanks 1. Oatley of the death and decided to stay in Manawaka for a few more weeks.) Explain the role Charlie Bean played in John's youth.d) Mr. Short Answer Questions 1.) John said that Bram's handwriting is like _______________ on snow.) Describe how John acts in this chapter.) The stone angel was smeared with _______________. Hagar. 3. 3. 2. She then decides to eat but the food is unappealing to her. . Hagar strolls down to the beach to get some water. 2. On the beach there are two children playing house around six .

Hagar decided she could not return to the old house again. Arlene argued that Hagar did not know John the way she did. unaware of the relationship between Arlene and John until she brought him home on one occasion when John got drunk and got into a fight (Hagar was convinced that this was a mocking gesture towards her). finding out that Arlene was responsible for the cleaning. and decides to clean up the attic. trying to convince him that Arlene family was nothing special.Upon her return. Hagar discussed the situation with John that night. She comes across a wooden box which belonged to Clara. the thought of John and Arlene making love in her home fumed Hagar. Questions for Chapter Seven Multiple Choice . One day Hagar was eves dropping on the conversation of John and Arlene and their plans to marry when Hagar leaves for the coast. Bram's first wife. John did not bring Arlene to the house for some time after this. Hagar. She would move to the canary building. Hagar decides to deliver the box to Bram's daughter Jess. Hagar returned to Manawaka and noticed how clean the house was. After discussing this with Lottie. She retired for the night. Arlene expressed to John about bearing his children. they agreed Arlene should leave Manawaka for a while. Arlene had lost her job as a teacher and spent the year with John. At the beginning of summer. John made it clear it was none of her concern. A month passed and finally Hagar objected to her visiting John. Being annoyed by the intimacy between them. the stairs were too much for her. When she arrived she noticed that John's car is parked there and she listens in on their conversation. Hagar becomes board. Hagar walks in finally and gives the box to Jess and takes John home with her. Arlene was in love with John at this point and wanted to marry him. Hagar hated the idea because John was a drunk and neither of them had two nickels.

3. 4. She used the boxes as table and chair and was quite content.)When cleaning her attic Hagar found 1. Short Answer 1. A Large room cluttered with boxes. fishing nets and an old boat. . 4. 1. The Simmons family was nothing to ________________________________. Chapter Eight Summaries and Questions The cannery building seems to be a place of remembrance and oddities. did not care the boy was too bossy the girl was too bossy they were pests annoying her 2. 2. 3.)What was Hagar's reaction to the children on the beach? 1. 3. 2. nothing but junk a wooden box a steamer trunk a diary 3)What was Hagar's reaction to the idea of the marriage of John and Arlene 1.) Describe Hagar's Emotions when she hears John and Arlene making love.) What relevance does the children playing on the beach have to do with Hagar? 2. 2. she was happy she hated the idea she thought it would never work Arlene is dreaming and John is drunk Fill in the Blanks 1. 4. The wooden box belonged to _______.1.

leaving Hagar ten thousand dollars in his will. Hagar recalled that John had mentioned Arlene was moving east for a year. She felt a "transformation to stone". his mother who drove him to evangelical religion. She sent everything of value in her home to Marvin and sold the home. The following year he died. At that point Murray Ferney Lees an insurance salesman barged in and lit a candle. Arlene was in the truck with him. Felt that the death of their child was punishment for his sin. After John's funeral. Murray had gotten his wife pregnant before they were married and he being an active member envagelical Advocates. and would be angry over it until she died. john had been in an accident. A sea gull flew into the house.Suddenly she fell to the floor. In hospital. Henry Pearl came to the door. She returned to Mr. John got drunk at a dance and took a bet that he could drive across the railroad trestle bridge. An unscheduled freight train hit John's truck. Hagar and Murray settled down to sleep. she could not remember what she had done that day and the pain in her chest kept bothering her. but insisted that John's death was senseless. Hagar shared her experience of loosing a child. she could not cry. She tried to talk to Lottie but she was to ill. he was in the hospital. when she got home. Murray could not decide who's fault it was: his grandfather for being a "bible puncher". And then he died. Hagar found comforting the presence of Telford. Hagar never brought back to the Shipley home again. John looked at her realizing she could not help him. Oatley. With this she bought a home. Before she could speak or move. the two shared a bottle of wine were Murray shared his life story with Hagar. John cried out for his mother's help. his wife or his own. That night. she would not go back to the cemetery. Hagar awoke vomiting and Murray settled her down so that she could sleep again. Questions for Chapter Eight Multiple Choice 1. she was killed on impact. Murray sought to comfort her. Again they both settled down to sleep. Hagar knew the plan of Arlene and John it was to 1. Hagar refused to cry in front of stingers. She could only think of all the things Hagar never set right. Hagar remembered the old saying about a sea gull flying onto the house meant death. John suspected that Hagar knew of the plan for john to get Arlene pregnant before she left. run off together .

She could hardly believe she had gotten drunk with a perfect stranger and then spent the night beside him. In hospital. Hagar warmed to the interest on Mrs. Doris informed her that Tina was getting… . Hagar awoke stiff and sore. Hagar then apologized for the other night. she was happy to see him. When the doctor visited the next day. move in together 4. Hagar lay in public ward because he was unable t attain any other accommodations. Hagar's nagging an accident with a freight train committing suicide drinking too much Chapter Nine Summaries and Summaries In the mourning. Jardine came back from the bathroom. Mrs. thinking how ridiculous Doris' hat looked with fake flowers in it. The woman in the bed next to her was Elva Jardine. Dobereiner's words in German were in part a prayer of death. In the car. she knew that Doris was not well. Marvin assured her that he would find a semiprivate room. Murray had left but covered her with his jacket too keep warm. Jardine 1. Hagar felt ashamed. Reilly prayed a great deal. She felt like a "museum exhibit". Mrs. 3. the doctor readily agreed. she did not know why. Hagar felt her old contempt for Doris. Murray had brought Marvin and Doris.) John died as a result of 1. she settled into a "haze lethargy". Hagar refused the help of Doris. break up for good 2. Then Marvin and Doris came to visit. Hagar learned that Mrs. When Marvin visited. 4. When Mrs. It had been discovered that Hagar was seriously ill. The nurse on duty gave Hagar her pills. She also felt recently bereaved.2. she wept. she rattled on incessantly. get Arlene pregnant before she left 3. As per usual. Hagar was relived to see Marvin even though she despised her own weakness in rejoicing at being captured. Touched by the nurses sympathy. 2. Jardine revealed that her and her husband lived only twenty five miles from Manawaka. Hagar asked for a hypo when she needed it. it seem though all she could do was complain about the accommodations. there was no doubt that Hagar was going to the old people's home. Hagar got rid of her attention by being rude and the aid of more soothing pills.

A Nurse led her back to her room and insisted on restraining her. The visit caused Hagar to cry. As the pain increased she asked Doris for a glass of water in her usual tone and insisted on holding it herself. Doris came by to pick up Mr. Hagar half asleep. He pointed to the stone bearing the names Currie and Shipley . Troy and Hagar expressed thanks to Doris and Mr. Sandra then wondered if would happen if Hagar died in the night. Yet it had not really been a lie "for it was spoken at least and at last with what may perhaps be a kind of love. Sandra was recovering from her operation and Hagar was drifting in and out of drugged sleep. In the night. and another was a lie. Hagar was later visited by her grand son Steven who reminded her of the jaw breakers she would give him. bringing water. And then she died. or pulling the curtains to when Hagar wanted to sleep. At the cemetery. She realized she was nothing more than a grand mother who gave money and candy. When she left Hagar tried to remember something "truly free" she had done in her ninety years. Troy assumed he failed but Hagar could not assure him that she enjoyed her visit. She would come over to the bed. When Marvin had visited . to which she requested he sing a hymn. There were only two things that came to mind. When Sandra awoke. The nurse quietly informed the nurse of Hagar's condition. Hagar was visited by Mr. Troy. Sandra was upset at Hagar for lying to her and asked the nurse to be moved. One was a joke .Chapter Ten Summaries and Questions Worried at the cost. she was to have an appendectomy. In the days that followed Hagar was confused of Sandra's concern for her. she was feeling pain . Hagar apologized and went back to bed. he took her hand and Hagar thought of asking for his pardon but she knew that is not what he wanted at that moment. When Hagar woke. The next day went by slowly. the angel was still standing. Sandra announced she could go home in a few days. Troy but Doris did not believe her. Mr. Hagar reassured the girl that everything would be fine. A young care taker not knowing who they were was enthusiastic about the cemetery. Hagar confessed she was frightened. Hagar lay in a semi-private room. the bed next to her was occupied by a sixteen year old girl named Sandra Wong. Hagar lay in her "cocoon". they were the earliest pioneering families in the district. The Shipley placed had vanished and replaced with a new house and a new barn. . left her bed. Hagar recalled her last trip to Manawaka with Marvin and Doris. confident that if she reached it Bram would call her name. She was making for a light. Marvin apologized for the harsh word he said to her.

Clara 2. b 2. c 2. b 3. b 2. b Fill in the Blanks 1. pin pills 2. write home about Answers for Chapter Eight Multiple Choice 1. a Fill in the Blanks 1. c Fill in the Blanks 1. lawyer Answers for Chapter Ten Multiple Choice 1.Answers for Chapter Seven Multiple Choice 1. rude. b Fill in the Blanks 1. truly free . senseless 2.) a 1. vomited Answers for Chapter Nine Multiple Choice 1.

or a series of events are structured according to the people and the action in other stories. by Abram and Sarah. In fact. or to other literary works for dramatic purposes. Hagar Shipley's character is very similar to the Egyptian Hagar from the book of Genesis. Hagar Shipley is bound by . Marvin. . by law. Aside from sharing the same name. classical. purposely or coincidentally parallels the Biblical story of Hagar. Hagar's freedom is limited by the conflicting influences . or historical. Allusions help the reader or spectator better understand. A prototypical character in a novel is usually referred to as an archetype. The Currie virtue keeps Hagar from expressing any outward form of D. Bram. and the Biblical characters they parallel. the events. to what extent does The Stone Angel resemble the book of Genesis? Although both stories are very similar. How do the two Hagars resemble each other? Both women hold relatively similar social her own life. and. through visualization. Shakespearean plays are perfect examples. pardon Biblical Archetypes The Biblical Archetypes in The Stone Angel: A Comparison Between the Bible and The Stone Angel Often times great novels and plays allude to religion. Abram's wife. please keep in mind the difference between the time periods of the two stories. in addition to her own pride (Blewett 36). quite often. As earlier stated. The most important archetypal reference.2. The Biblical Hagar is an Egyptian bondwoman bought as a servant for Sarah. Hagar Shipley is an archetype of the Biblical Hagar. like Hagar is. and represents are indicative of the things the Biblical Hagar does. they are also very different. to what extent does Hagar Shipley resemble the Egyptian Hagar. When Sarah does not or cannot give Abram a child.internal versus external . Upon examination of the similarities. people can no longer be bound as slaves in western culture but are. The Stone Angel. whether the stories be religious. therefore. says. These similarities and these differences become apparent upon examination of Hagar. many of the events and people in The Stone Angel are similar to the events and people from the book of Genesis. a chronicle of Hagar Shipley's life. is bound to Sarah. Hagar Shipley is a modernized version of the Biblical Hagar. Hagar is expected to do so.the Currie code of values. however. for many of the things she does. This ownership extends as far as Abram having possession of Hagar's body. becomes a prototype of the character or event alluded to. John. the characters. to mythology. she bears him a son named Ishmael. or dictated. thus. Dutifully. which. The character or the event. the Shipley freedom. in that. the Egyptian bondwoman. and represents. and the Manawakan elitist attitude. In some cases. Her freedom and spirit are restricted. Blewett points out . from the book of Genesis. is Hagar herself. bound by personal or social restraints. mythological. In the same fashion that the law binds the Biblical Hagar to Abram and Sarah. says. Hagar. a character or an event in a novel.

a pride which. her youngest son whom she loves dearly. Hagar marries Bram. Hagar. Hagar leaves Manawaka again only to return to her wilderness of pride. Hagar realizes that "Pride was (her) wilderness. Many scenes depict Bram and Hagar as nothing more than bedmates.ultimately. Hagar. In addition. like her archetype.primarily about their work and social life. because it is the exact opposite to the Currie conformity. she is alone. lives in Manawaka with his father. cannot tolerate further degradation. influences the decisions both women make with the little freedom they have. she bears a son. Hagar. more accurately. and the demon that lead (her) there was fear. Hagar realizes that the Shipley freedom or. Hagar. John. and never free. impelled to help him and her son. a poor farmer and social outcast. for (she) carried her chains within (her). Hagar and Bram barely see eye to eye on many issues . but nothing else. Her marriage. Hagar. to Abram and Sarah. shares a bed with Abram. where she too finds God. Both women return home on account of their sons. Hagar never longs for Bram during the day. however. are drawn back home. including her marriage to Brampton Shipley. filled with pride. seems to be more out of spite than anything else. Almost immediately after their return. both Laurence's Hagar and the Biblical Hagar have comparable relationships. however. Both characters. she is rude to Sarah. In the meantime. Having gone from one extreme to the other. at night. including her father. Their relationship is purely physical. Secondly. Hagar. returns to the Shipley farm. found her God . both Hagar's have to conform to the laws of their respective cultures and time periods. laziness is not what she wants or needs. Hagar Shipley is drawn back to Manawaka for different reasons . plays the role of "the dutiful wife. Hagar is reluctant to share with Bram. In The Stone Angel. for the most part. never anything else. excludes herself from social activities in order to avoid being ridiculed by the upper class Manawakans. even then. Similarly. already an outcast for marrying Brampton. Both Hagars are also bound by pride. The archetypal Hagar physically wanders in the wilderness where she finds God and becomes reassured that her son will have a great nation of descendants. As a result. As Bram becomes ill. tired of being persecuted on account of Bram. The Biblical Hagar returns to Abram only after an angel appears to her and foretells that Ishmael will bring great posterity. leaves Manawaka to reestablish and restart her life in Ontario. Bram." She engages in sexual activity with Bram even though she does not want to. and. both women leave again and set off to wander in the wilderness. The Biblical Hagar's pride grows when she bears Abram a son. Initially attracted to the Shipley casualness and freedom. like her Biblical version. in bed. Both . Marvin. having been a part of the Manawakan elite. (She) was alone. and they spread out from (her) and shackled all that (she) touched" (Laurence 292).duty and family. however. Hagar flees to the desert because she. As a result.freedom and peace of mind. Hagar's relationship with John parallels the Biblical Hagar's relationship with Ishmael. limits or ruins the majority of her relationships. The few times that Hagar does miss Bram. from the book of Genesis. After being reprimanded for her insolence. In addition to having similar life experiences. Hagar and Bram are not connected spiritually. In order to elude additional persecution. Hagar Shipley's relationship with Bram is also physical. more than anything else. by law. is bound to their unwritten codes of conduct and values the same way that the Biblical Hagar is bound. In fact. Hagar Shipley. whom she never really loves or cares for.

Hagar does not pretend to even like Clara. Unlike Hagar's relationship with John. Hagar jests at Clara's obesity. and receives Bram's blessing before his death. Hagar is Abram's second wife. Hagar's sons. John. It is only in dying that Hagar realizes. Hagar. Hagar ignores him and yells at him when he attempts to be helpful. a blind man. uncleanliness. I will not let thee go. prayed to God. even though they were close when Marvin was a child. "Now it seems to me he (Marvin) is truly Jacob. Jacob is blessed by Isaac and flees into the wilderness . although she does not know her. plans to bestow his final blessings upon Esau. In addition to the similarities between the two Hagars. as John struggles to lift the stone angel tombstone for Hagar. In Hagar's eyes. gripping with all his strength. having always been inclined to love John more. He is the son that loves and cares for her more than anything else. In The Stone Angel. Isaac. two daughters whom Hagar ridicules the way the Biblical Hagar mocks Isaac. John and Marvin. As such. takes Marvin's place. and bargaining. who has been previously married. Lees posing as her dead son. She says.upon his mother's instruction . "I wish he could have looked like Jacob then. John flees from his family and into his own wilderness. In addition. she has a poor relationship with Marvin. Bram. Hagar. wrestling with the angel and besting it" (Laurence 179). Manawaka. except thou bless me. initially Sarah's servant. is dead. Bram's. Although Isaac is not her biological son. prayed to God. in essence. instructs Jacob to take Esau's place and to receive his brother's blessings. John is her Jacob. In Manawaka John tends to his dying father. Hagar is still impudent to her. Clara. however. Hagar. asking for Him to save her son from starvation in the desert. Hagar and Marvin's relationship is similar to the Biblical Hagar's relationship with Sarah's son. Isaac. Hagar is rude with Sarah and her son. having overheard Isaac's intentions. thus. Having never really loved Marvin as her own son. and simple-mindedness. the protagonist in The Stone Angel. Hagar states. through Marvin's kindness. Isaac is also her son. More important. along with Ishmael. parallel Jacob and Esau. John dies before Hagar receives a chance to bestow her blessings upon him. for she does not honour her memory. Although her reconciliation with John came through Murray F. in this comparison is the relationship each boy shares with Hagar. Rebekah. Abram's first wife is Sarah.women love their sons dearly and are willing to do just about anything for them. Both Laurence's Hagar and the Biblical Hagar are second wives. Hagar. Bram's first wife. Hagar marries Bram. And I see I am . The similarities in the two Hagars and in their relationships become more apparent by comparing their relationships with their husband's first wives. Hagar protects and favours John the same way that Rebekah favours Jacob.out of fear of Esau. In the Bible. his eldest son. that Marvin is her Jacob. wants John to be her Jacob and to want and to receive her blessing. Bram and Clara have two daughters. Both Hagars love one son with all their hearts while they ignore or ridicule the other. The Biblical Hagar. also known as Agar. in order to reconcile with John. Although Clara. Rather than mourning Bram's loss. after she is made Abram's second wife. Marvin never receives Bram's blessing. direct descendants of Abram and Sarah. does not respect and honour Sarah whatsoever. or found God. Similarly. ridicules Isaac in the same unloving fashion that Hagar Shipley ignores Marvin. Isaac. Hagar still makes peace with him.

her daughter-in-law’s frustration. fear. in your own view. the blessings that John had. The depth of the similarity between The Stone Angel and the Bible depends completely upon the reader and the objective he/she takes in attempting to compare or contrast the two stories. It also led to the death of her son John. What I am saying is that the reader can choose to acknowledge or ignore the similarities depending upon personal opinion . The first sigh of Hagar’s excessive pride was shown when her father scolded her for telling a customer that there were bugs in the barrel of raisins. before writing anything. prologue). Margaret Laurence’s The Stone Angel: Summary & Analysis In Margaret Laurence’s The Stone Angel. or anger. undeservingly taken. Hagar’s overwhelming pride was the reason she could not show love nor affection to those around her. He will not let Hagar go "gentle into that good night"(Thomas. Hagar. brother and husband. The archetype only makes her stronger. and Jacob each bear great similarity to their Biblical characters.10) and that “she took after him” (p. and they spread out from me and shackled all I touched. any student comparing or contrasting the Biblical archetypes in The Stone Angel should consider and examine several aspects before delving into their work. I was so enraged” (p. In summation. John. joy. if at all? Are the two stories similar enough that their resemblance is. Hagar’s pride and stubbornness were the causes of her failed relationships and lack of love in her life. in no way. her other brother Matt asked her to put on her mother’s shawl and pretend to be her to . Marvin finally receives Hagar's blessings. ask yourself to what extent. 292). When her brother Dan was dying. for I carried my chains within me. She does not need any archetypal reference for the reader to feel her pain. She inherited her pride from her father and from an early age she always refused to show emotion because she was too proud to let anyone see her weaknesses.this is greatness of the novel. Bram. With or without any Biblical reference. She continued to build a wall around herself to hide her emotions.” (Laurence. As a tip. accidental? These questions will help strengthen your arguments. does Hagar and all other characters match their archetypes. Her father made aware that she had “backbone” (p. for so long. Her excessive pride destroyed her relationships with her father. and her own death. Her stubbornness caused her marriage to dissolve. She refused to cry before and after the punishment: “I wouldn’t let him see me cry. and perhaps have been so from the beginning and can only release myself by releasing him" (Laurence 304). “Pride was my wilderness and the demon that led me there was fear… [I was] never free. the main character Hagar Shipley refused to compromise which shaped the outcome of her life as well as the lives of those around her. Hagar remains a great character.9).10). Marvin to be unhappy. Her pride interfered with many relationships in her life.thus strangely cast.

And then-” (p. In the end Hagar’s stubbornness killed her. There.247). But I can’t help it. Let yourself.49). I wouldn’t say a word” (p.comfort… go on now for pity’s sake” (p. Hagar’s stubbornness was another cause of her and her family’s unhappiness. thank. She never let him know how she felt about him: “… I never let him knew. Hagar’s stubbornness got in the way of her and her family’s happiness and destroyed her and the lives of those she cared about. Due to her stubbornness Hagar didn’t find true love.31). . Hagar’s stubbornness and refusal to compromise caused frustration for Doris and Marvin. The nurse at the hospital tried to help her drink the water but Hagar felt that she could do it on her own.48) she refused to compromise. Her stubbornness denied happiness for her marriage. I straightened my spine… I wouldn’t cry in front of strangers. To play at being her. husband and her son John.308).it was beyond me” (p. When Hagar saw Arlene’s dead body the matron told her to. due to her excessive pride and stubbornness shaped the outcome of her life and those around her. When Doris and Marvin suggested putting Hagar in an old age home.242). certain I could hold it for her better… I hold it in my hands. “I only defeat myself for not accepting her. “as common as dirt” (p. Even when Marvin tried helping she would just decline and reply. “I can manage quite well. Marvin and Doris.I know this very well. The her father again explained that. leave me be–” (p.33). Matt resented the fact that Hagar refused to do a favour for Dan and therefore Matt and Hagar’s relationship was ruined. As Hagar got older she required more care. husband and son. She apologised too late: “I didn’t mean it. I never spoke aloud… I prided myself on keeping my pride intact” (p. “I won’t go there… The two of you can move out. Hagar’s Shipley’s refusal to compromise. She realised too late that her pride got in the way of her son’s happiness and after her son’s death she was unable to show any emotions. However she was to proud to let anyone see her cry.81). her and her father stopped speaking and her marriage with Bram ended with their separation. Hagar refused: ‘…however much a part of me wanted to sympathise. One night John brought Arlene home to stay but Hagar was to proud to let her stay and refused. It’s the best thing” (p. Her pride destroyed her relationships with her father. Hagar’s pride also destroyed her relationship with her son John. Hagar’s daughter-in-law. Hagar was to proud to pretend to be her weak mother even for her dying brother. whatever it cost me” (p. about not bring her here… You could come here in the evenings. she was wrong. she refused. It also led to the cause of her own death.’s my nature… I’d think her daft. When her father and Lottie said that he was. but Hagar was unwilling to ley anyone help her out: “Leave me.06) attitude prevented her from showing emotion and tenderness towards her husband. Doris was always trying to help. They were later killed in a car accident and Hagar then realised that if she had compromised then maybe they would have been alive. “there’s not a decent girl in this town would wed without her family’s concent…It’s not done” (p. “Cry. In conclusion. Hagar’s pride and her lack of emotions ruined her relationships with her father. I know this. and push her hands away. Even though Hagar got married to Bram she didn’t really feel any love for him.242). brother. “I shoved her [matron's] arms away. “It’ll be done by me” (p. After her marriage with Bram. There.57). Then with her stubborn way she replied.49). Go ahead and move right now” (p. Her “hoity-toity” (p.25).

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