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CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM

ABBREVIATIONS
APMDP ASCI BOD BOT BPL BSUP CAA CD&MA COD CPHEEO CSP CT CTF DMA DMHO DPR ELSR FGD FY GIS GoAP GoI HHs HSC IEC ILCS JnNURM MAUD MEPMA MSL MSW NRW NUSP ODF O&M PHED PSP RVM RWA SI SLB SJSRY SSA SSHE STP Andhra Pradesh Municipal Development Project Administrative Staff College of India Biological Oxygen Demand Buy-Own-Operate Below Poverty Line Basic Services to the Urban Poor Constitution Amendment Act Commissioner and Director of Municipal Administration Chemical Oxygen Demand Central Public Health and Environmental Engineering Organization City Sanitation Plan Community Toilets City sanitation Task Force Directorate of Municipal Administration District Medical Health Officer Detailed Project Report Elevated Service Reservoir Focus Group Discussions Financial Year Geographic Information System Government of Andhra Pradesh Government of India Households House Service Connections Information, Education, Communication Integrated Low Cost Sanitation Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission Municipal Administration and Urban Development Mission for Elimination of Poverty in Municipal Areas Mean Sea Level Municipal Solid Waste Non Revenue Water National Urban Sanitation Policy Open Defecation Operations and Maintenance Public Health and Engineering Department Public Stand Posts Rajiv Vidya Mission Residents Welfare Association Sanitary Inspector Service Level Benchmarking Swarna Jayanti Shehri Rojgar Yojana Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan School Sanitation and Hygiene Education Sewage Treatment Plant

ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA, HYDERABAD

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CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM SWM ULB UGD WC Solid Waste Management Urban Local Body Under Ground Drainage Water Closet

Units of Measure lpcd litres per capita per day m metre MLD Million Litres per Day MT Metric Tonnes sq.m square Metre TPD Tonnes Per Day

ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA, HYDERABAD

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HYDERABAD 4|P a g e . The report has two major sections – A. etc. ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. The aim is to highlight the existing conditions regarding access and coverage of sanitary facilities. repeated discussions with various stakeholders. and other such projects which have been taken up for the improvement of access and coverage of sanitary facilities. as well as the status of the CSP for the particular city. and understand the behavioral aspects of various sections of the society. sample surveys. sewerage. solid waste management. storm water drainage and water supply) and also to provide guidance towards the solutions of the said issues.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This document presents City Sanitation Plan (CSP) of Ramagundam Municipality. The Sanitation Strategies. and the objectives behind it. mitigate the existing issues. There have been presented in Chapter 6. the ILCS projects. This is followed by the step-by-step methodology of the CSP process. The CSP process in Ramagundam endeavors to identify the various areas that are affected by various issues with different sectors of sanitation. The latter section thereafter provides strategies and solutions to bridge the identified gaps. identify the gaps and striking issues. has been explained at length. to develop robust analysis and produce outputs. The former section deals with depicting the city and its present status with regards to sanitation. so that Ramagundam may well overcome the various plaguing issues and thereby a healthy sanitized environment prevails for the citizens. It gives detailed insight into the NUSP and the sanitation ranking of cities. The chapter also presents a review of the policies & programmes that are prevalent and followed in the state to improve the sanitation conditions in the urban areas. Government of Andhra Pradesh (MA&UD). Acquiring and assimilation of varied secondary information also formed an important part of the process. This section is covered from Chapter 1 to Chapter 5. The process of collection of baseline information – both primary and secondary. The Situational Analysis B. The data collection included both primary and secondary sources and detail analysis of them. and provide ways and means to aid the sustenance of the existing and proposed strategies and projects. the MSW 2000 rules. The Situational Analysis Chapter 1 gives an introduction to the CSP process. This has been made possible through an extensive participatory approach including field visits. (viz. A. its background. The plan preparation process was carried out using methodology requiring wide range of data in various areas and population groups. Ramagundam is one of the 6 cities whose CSPs have been prepared by ASCI in partnership with Municipal Administration and Urban Development Department. The analysis in turn has paved the way for the preparation of the proposal for various strategies to alleviate the sanitary conditions of the place.

Thereafter. Chapter 3 forms the central focus of Section A – i. The Sanitation Strategies The strategies are presented in Chapter 6. It contains four sectors – Sewerage and sanitation. Chapter 5 presents the evaluation of the sanitation condition of Ramagundam Municipality on the basis of the indicators and the scoring methodology used by MoUD for the sanitation ranking of cities. the slums and squatter settlements are discussed in brief. the urban governance. Within each sector. the performance of each of the sectors is evaluated through Service Level Benchmarking (SLB) indicators. HYDERABAD 5|P a g e . with regards to both adequate qualified personnel and adequate financial sources. Storm water system. It provides the vision for the CSP and its goals. to find out if the ULB along with the associated organizations is able to cater to the sanitation needs of the society. Chapter 4 aims to evaluate the institutional capacity and the financial structure. and projections are also made for the future years. The Situational Analysis. Aspects such as location. B. the problem areas are clearly demarcated. Solid waste Management and the Water supply system of the city. landuse and housing profiles. to implement effectively the various proposals. economic.e. and the basic guiding principles on which the strategies are based. The aim of the chapter is to present a clear picture of the existing systems of sanitation in the city. the gaps and issues in access and coverage are identified. and options and mechanisms for effectively financing the strategies and proposals along with proper phasing ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. regional linkages. strategies have been provided to improve coverage and access to sanitation facilities.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM Chapter 2 deals with the City Profile where the various aspects of the city are discussed in order to get a fair idea about the city itself. demography.

disposal and associated hygienerelated practices. Often sanitation is considered to be synonymous to solid waste management. drainage. This is the main aim and purpose behind the preparation of City Sanitation Plans. Environment. Extensive and rigorous discussions with the APMDP and the ULB officials gave a well formed shape to the effort. their help and co-operation is very much solicited for the success of the CSP. especially in the ULBs. With increasing urbanization sanitation is becoming a severe problem in all cities in our country.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS “Water is Life and Sanitation is Dignity. as also the management of drinking water supply. Hence. generation of industrial and other specialized / hazardous wastes. sanitation ideally can be defined as safe management of human excreta. Srinivasa Chary Vedala Dean & Director Centre for Energy. solid waste management. including its safe confinement treatment. Hence there arises a need for integrated solutions to take account of the various elements of environmental sanitation. To set right this flawed concept. Administrative Staff College of India (ASCI) ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. We take an opportunity to express our sincere gratitude to all the people who have helped and supported us throughout the process which made the completion of the report possible. The City Sanitation Plan for the city of Ramgundam looks forward to develop effective strategies for safe disposal of solid and liquid waste generating throughout the city by suggesting environment friendly low cost technical options for the same. Prof. fecal management and disposal. HYDERABAD 6|P a g e .” The above quote well impresses upon one the fact that sanitation is the most important aspect for a healthy and dignified living.Urban Governance & Infrastructure Development (CEEUG&ID).

Srinivasa Chary Vedala. Centre for Energy. Urban Governance & Infrastructure Development Mrs. Dean and Director. Assistant Professor Ms. Environment. Senior Research Associate ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. Senior Research Associate Ms. Vasavi Narla. HYDERABAD 7|P a g e . Prof.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM ASCI TEAM MEMBERS The team which has put forth dedicated efforts towards the completion of this CSP report consists of the following people. Sneha Mala Kesiraju. Krithika Sridharan.

.............................................................. 1.. 1....................................... 21 Preparation of draft CSP ........... 8 LIST OF TABLES ................CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM CONTENTS Table of Contents ABBREVIATIONS. 21 Preparation of implementation road map.......................... 20 Communication gap and needs assessment .......... 34 1...............................................................................................4.......................................... 1............................1...................... 20 Development of strategy.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 20 Developing a situation analysis report ...........4........................4.......................................11.. 15 Chapter ......4....................................................................4............................................... 6 ASCI TEAM MEMBERS .10........................................... City Sanitation Planning Process In Ramagundam ................................................ State Urban/Sanitation Policies................................................................3.................................................... 16 1.................................................................2......................................................................................................2............................................................................4............................................4................................................. 20 Condition assessment . 1........... 1............................................4......... 16 Objectives of Town-wide Sanitation Plan.......3............7. 1....................................................... 1........ 34 Integrated Low Cost Sanitation (ILCS) ...... 14 LIST OF MAPS .............................1... 1.... 1.................................. 16 Introduction .....................................1.....4................................................................ 16 Context .... 1....7....................................................................................................4........................................ 29 Process Self Assessment .....................................6.......................... 7 CONTENTS ........................... 11 LIST OF FIGURES...................7................................. 1..........................................4.............. 34 ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA......... 18 Stakeholder analysis and City Sanitation Task Force (CSTF) constitution........................................2.... HYDERABAD 8|P a g e ..... 19 Primary data collection and sampling .........................5......................................6................................................9............... 19 Review/study of the current practices .................................................................................................................... 1.......... 1........................ 32 Andhra Pradesh Urban Reforms and Municipal Services Project (APURMSP) .......1 ......... 20 Formulation of vision ............................... 20 Ward profiling as per City Sanitation Ranking parameters ....................... 1.............................................................................12......................6................................................ 18 Preparatory work (Profiling of ULB and preparing city report) ......................4.. 14 LIST OF INFORMATION BOXES ......................................8............................................................................. 4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .............................................................. 1..................................................4...... 29 Content Self Assessment .......................... 1...............................4....................................................................................................................................13...................... Preamble ....... 2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .................. 1............................. 1... 17 Scope Of The CSP ................................................5........................................ 22 Verification Of MoUD Checklist .....................................4.. 1..............6................ 18 Collection of secondary data ..................................................... 1.............................................................................................................................................7............................................................................. 21 1................................................. 1..............1.2........................................................

......... 37 ..................................................................................................4.......................... 84 Primary collection .........................................................1............................................1........................................................................................1...................................................... 37 Topography and Geo Hydrology .................... 67 Public Toilets ............. 3.....8........................... 69 Wastewater Treatment In Ramagundam ..............................1.................................. 59 Environmental Sanitation ............................... 3...............................7............................................3............................................................ 3.............................................. 89 introduction.............. 3................... 44 Slums And Squatter Settlements ........................................................ 82 Introduction ................................................................... 84 Transportation..................................1...........5..... 1.........1 ............... 39 Profile of Ramagundam...............................6.......................................................... ........................................................................2............................................................ 2..3......7......... 78 Septage Management ................................................................................ 59 Household Sanitation .5........... 3......... 61 School Sanitation .......................................................8........................................................................................................9....7......................................................................... 38 Economy .....1.................................8 Chapter-3 ...........................2. Urban Governance ........................................7... 90 ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA.......................................1....1............................ 34 1...................................................................................1.........................................................3......2.......2..........................................1 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT .................................. 3......................................................................................... 2................................ 59 3........ 80 Building Bye-Laws .........1...An Assessment ........1.................2... Urban Health Centers ...........................................................................................1....... 37 Weather .................................................................................................................................................................................................6....... 3................................................................. 37 Location & Linkages ...................2 .4............................................................................. 84 3.....................................................................1............................................................................................................................................... 39 Population projections ......... 3......................................... 35 Chapter-2 ...............1..........6.................................................2................................................................................................................................. 78 Service Level Benchmarking Indicators ...................... 3................................................................................5..........................CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM 1.................................................................................. 3............................. 37 Ramagundam ......................................5.........................................1..... 88 Disposal System ...... 59 Sanitation In Slums .............................. 72 Waste Water Projections .................................................................................................................................................. 2................ 89 Bio-Medical/ Hazardous waste disposal practices .................. 3..................................6.... 35 Plastics .........................................7..................................... 2.................................... Introduction ................................................2 2......................................................................4...........2................1.................................................. 42 Functions Of The Urban Local Body .......................................................................................4................................ Integrated Novel Development in Rural Areas and Model Municipal Areas (INDIRAMMA) ........................ HYDERABAD 9|P a g e .....2....................................... 2. 59 3.................. 51 ...1... Clean and Green Program ........................ 3................................................................................... 38 Demography................................................................ 42 2.............................................A Brief Profile ................................... SEWERAGE AND SANITATION...................... 89 Waste Processing ..2....................................................................................

..... 94 Distribution ................ 99 Drainage conditions in slum areas – an assessment ..... 96 Water requirement projections ............................3..................... 3....................................................3................................1................... 94 Source ........... 97 River & Water Bodies Water Quality .2............................................... 103 Financial Analysis and Planning ............ 3..................................................................................................................................1....................................................................... 105 UGD system.............................................................................................................3............................................................ Slaughter Houses ...........................5..................................................................................................................................................2.............................................................................................................................. 98 Introduction ........................ 105 Ramgundam Communications Needs Assessment . Revenue Account ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 105 Solid Waste Management ................................................................................................................................................................................. 106 Door to door collection ...................................................................................................................... 3.........................................................................................................................................................................................................7........................... 105 Water Scarcity ...........................................................................5 ....2............................5. 107 ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA................................................................................. 106 Water-logging .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 103 4...................................... 103 4............................................. 3...............3..... 4...................................................3............ 96 Water Supply Coverage in RMC .......1................................. 3................. 99 3..................................................................1...........................................................3...................................................................................................................................... 3............ 94 3......................................................................................... 103 Income and Expenditure Details for the last 5 years:................................................................................................................................................................ 105 Sanitation Workers ...................... 3................................................................. 97 Service Leven Benchmarking Indicators ................................................................................4...........6....................... 91 Solid waste projections ..6........................ 103 Revenue Income:.............................2........................................4 3.................... 106 Water Pipes ........... 4....................5................................... 100 Service Level Benchmarking Indicators .................................4.......... 102 Chapter-4 ......................................1................................................................................................. 105 5.................. 3.. 106 5..........................................................................................3........................................................................................................ 92 WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM..........5............... Sanitation ranking of Ramagundam ... 3........................... ............ 103 Revenue Expenditure.................2..................................................................................1................. HYDERABAD 10 | P a g e ........................................ 106 Grievance Resolution system .............................................2............................................................ 105 Open Defecation ....3..........................................................4......... 106 5..........3......................2..................................................................................................................................................... STORM WATER DRAINAGE ....................CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM 3........................................1....... 3.. Identification of stress zones .2...............5........................................ 106 Water allocation ................................ Problem Analysis ...................... Gap Analysis ....... 99 Water logging areas .........................................................................................................1.... 101 Introduction .............3................................................................................. 99 Health Of Sanitation Workers........ Chapter.

................................................. 164 Launching Reward scheme: ...................................................4............................... Legal and Administrative Framework and Programmes 179 Annexure 4: HOUSEHOLD DETAILS OF PSU TOWNSHIPS .3............................ 6......................... INTRODUCTION ..............4................................. 6.........5.......................................... 114 Various occurrence of issues versus consequences in Ramagundam ...............3...........................WIDE SANITATION PLANNING ................................ 160 Role of Different Institutions ..........................4.......................... 111 Principles ........................................................................................... 160 Public Private Partnerships and NGos ...................................................................3.................................. 29 ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA..........3.............. hygiene promotion and community participation.................................................................................................................................................................2................ 6........................................................ 25 Table 4: Surveys and sample numbers ...............................................................................................................................4...... SUBSECTOR STRATEGIES (OUT –PUT RELATED) .................. 171 Annexure 2: Good practices ..................2... 26 Table 5: CSP Content self-assessment........................................1................................3.........................................1................ 150 MONITORING AND EVALUATION ....... 111 Vision Statement ... 6............................ 6.................................... 111 City Sanitation Plan – The strategy and approach .....................................................3.............................................................. 111 VISION AND CITY................... 134 Improvement of Integrated Solid Waste Management ................................................... 6....... 6.......................................4................................... 6................................................5........... 193 LIST OF TABLES Table 1: Stakeholders for CSP Ramagundam ....................... 167 Incentives and Disincentives by MC/NPS...........................5.........................2....................... 6...............................................................................................5...................................................4............................. 6............ 118 EXCRETA DISPOSAL AND WASTE WATER MANAGEMENT .... HYDERABAD 11 | P a g e ........2................................................................................ 157 Institutional Arrangement and Responsibility.........................4.......... 182 Annexure 5: MOUD CHECKLIST ... 6.........................................3..... 23 Table 2: Research Units with the tasks identified ....................................................................................... 189 Glossary ........................2..........4...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6....................................................... 6..... 168 6...........................CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM Chapter – 6 ..................... 111 6..... 112 Assumptions........... 163 Monitoring and Review ............................. 24 Table 3: Research techniques with the tasks identified ............2............. 150 Financing Mechanisms .... 176 Annexure 3: Reviewed Policies..................................... 6... 6..2.................... 171 Annexure1: Technology Option in Urban Sanitation ........... 6........................................ 116 OPEN DEFECATION FREE STATUS ...................1..................................................................................................3....2...... 6.............. 147 Awareness raising.................................. 164 Annexure...............................2.......... 6.... 118 ENABLING AND SUSTAINING STRATEGIES ........................................5.............................1......1............................ Norms and Units Costs .....................................

................................................. 92 Table 41: Details ofWater Supply in Ramagundam................................... 41 Table 11: Population projections by different methods.................................................. 92 Table 40: Projection of solid waste generation for future ...................... 51 Table 18: Infrastructure details in slum areas............................................ 33 Table 9: Ramagundam – A Brief Profile .............................................................. 49 Table 17: Slum details......... 45 Table 14:Staff Details................................................... 57 Table 20: Shortage of slum HHs not having toilets................................................. 87 Table 37: Details of vehicles used for solid waste transportation ...................................... Ramagundam......................................................... 59 Table 22: Open defecation areas......................... 85 Table 34: Details of D2D collection by RMC ....................... 77 Table 31: Waste Water Projections............................................................................ RMC ................................................................ 69 Table 28: Details of drainage system in RMC .................. 62 Table 23: Sanitation profile ........................................ RMC................................. 87 Table 36: Details of waste generation in RMC .......................................................................................................... 42 Table 12: Land Ownership of RMC area ............................... Hospital....................................................................Institutions Responsible for Urban Service Delivery.......... 80 Table 33: Details of SWM Zones in RMC area . Ramagundam ..................................................................... Ramagundam Municipality ............................ 77 Table 30: Targets and achievements ........................................................................................................................ May 2010.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Ramagundam ............................ Ramagundam ............. 48 Table 15: Staff details of MEPMA ......................................... 54 Table 19: Summary of status of services in slum areas.......................................................................................................................CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM Table 6: Guide for self-assessment of CSP CONTENT ...................................................... RMC....................... 44 Table 13: RMC area ................................................................................................................................ 49 Table 16: Details of CBOs......................................................................................... 90 Table 39: Solid Waste Management – Service Level Benchmarks ......................... HYDERABAD 12 | P a g e ........................................... their seating capacities and their status ...................................................................................................... 88 Table 38: Details disposal of waste from Govt................................................t................................ 65 Table 26: Environmental Infrastructure Requirements ...... RMC . 65 Table 25: Summary of construction of ILCS units in Phase II and III in Ramagundam .......................... RMC ................................................................................................. 72 Table 29: Details of waste water treatment facilities in the townships under the PSUs ................................................................................................................. 58 Table 21: Distribution of households in RMC w..................... 95 ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA.................................................................................................................................... availability of toilets within premises ... 67 Table 27: List of Public Toilets........... 86 Table 35: Details of primary solid waste collection in Ramagundam ................................................................r...................... 39 Table 10: Demographic details of PSU townships................................................................................................. 63 Table 24: Implementation of ILCS Stage-III.......................................... 32 Table 7: CSP Process Self-Assessment ............................................ 32 Table 8: Guide for self-assessment of CSP Process ................ 78 Table 32: Sewerage and Sanitation – Service Level Benchmarks......................................................................

....................................................... 121 Table 57: Showing Operation and maintenance of the toilets – Community toilet ................................................. Ramagundam Municipality...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 139 Table 66: Cost estimations for O&M of STP on PPP ................. O&M Costs And User Charges For Public/ Community Sanitary Conveniences ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 104 Table 51: Receipts and Expenditure for the Years 2007-08 to 2009-10 (Rs...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 153 Table 75: showing Phase wise distribution of works ....................................................................................................................... Ramagundam........................................................... 103 Table 50: Expenditure Details............................. HYDERABAD 13 | P a g e ................... .............................................................. 130 Table 62:Management Strategies ......... 99 Table 48: Storm Water Drainage – Service Level Benchmarks..................................................... 140 Table 67: Parameters for Selection for Grey Water Treatment Options ................ 127 Table 61: Addressing access to various categories of uses ............................... 101 Table 49: Income Details2005-2010....................................................................................................................................................... 108 Table 53: Goals for City-wide Sanitation Planning.................................................. 99 Table 47: Details of water logging areas .............................................................. 145 Table 71 Land Requirement..................................................................... RMC (amount in Rs Lakhs) ............................................................... 113 Table 55: Norms .......................................................................................... 155 ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA.................................................................................. 122 Table 59: Indicative investment requirements........................................... 142 Table 69: Cost of Construction of the Wastewater Treatment system .............................................................. 114 Table 56: Indicative figures in Household Sanitation Arrangements over CSP Implementation Period ............................ 147 Table 73: IEC and Advocacy Plan for Environmental Sanitation ........... 124 Table 60: Toilet requirement as per Norms .................................................. 95 Table 43: Water supply requirements for the future ........................................................................................................................ 104 Table 52: Sanitation Ranking for Ramagundam Municipality .................................................................CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM Table 42: Details of the Water Supply System..................... 97 Table 44: Water quality of Godavari River at Ramagundam ....................................................................... RMC ............ in Lakhs)......................................................... 151 Table 74: Methods and implementation of awareness activities ........................ 135 Table 65: Costs for waste water treatment ................................ 135 Table 64: Waste water treatment options for RMC........................................................... 111 Table 54: Components of City Wide Sanitation Strategies ............................................................................................ 145 Table 70: Cost of Operation and Maintenance ........................................................... 122 Table 58: Estimation of Proposed Pay and Use complex (Each unit) ..................................................................................... 98 Table 46: Details of storm water drainage system in Ramagundam ......... RMC ................................................................ 141 Table 68: Degree of Treatment Needed for Land Application ....... 146 Table 72: ISWM Action Plan .......................... 131 Table 63: Intended benefits for the six technology systems................. 97 Table 45: Water supply – Service Level Benchmarks...........................

......................................................... 168 Table 78: Financial requirements ................................................................................................................................................................. Andhra Pradesh showing the water level fluctuation ...... 170 Table 80:Recommended sizes of septic tanks ............................................................................................................................. Ramagundam...... HYDERABAD 14 | P a g e ................................. 84 Map 7: The location of solid waste dumpsite................................................................................................................................................................................... 94 Figure 7: RMC Water supply scheme.................................... legal and administrative framework and programmes ................................................................ 189 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: Essential Components of CSP ...................................... 26 Figure 3: Organizational Structure........ 96 Figure 8: Income & Expenditure details from 2005-2010.......................... 172 Table 81:Reviewed policies......................................r................. 165 Table 77: Broad Investment costs .............................................................. 138 Figure 11: Proposed Institutional set-up for Sanitation ..................................... Ramagundam ....................................................................................................................................... 182 Table 84: CSP Content self-assessment ......... 19 Figure 2: Process of Data Assimilation ....................................................... 61 Figure 5: Percentage distribution of households according to source of water supply............................................................................. Ramagundam ....................................... 169 Table 79: Description of the Component ............................................................................. Ramagundam ...................................................................t. the outfall points and the areas without UGD network ............................. 91 ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA...... 45 Figure 3: Percentage distribution of household’s w................................................... Ramagundam ..................... Ramagundam ....................... 43 Map 3: Map showing the location of open defecation areas.................................................................................................. duration of supply per day ....................................................................... type of outlets from toilets.................. 94 Figure 6: Percentage distribution of households having HSC w.......................................... 38 Map 2: Map showing the PSU areas.. RMC ................... the administrative and the ward boundaries ........................................................................ 179 Table 82:Functions of ULB under 12th Finance Commission ............................................................................................. 76 Map 6: The SWM zones. 163 LIST OF MAPS Map 1: Map of Karimnagar District............................................... 117 Figure 10: Connecting to UGC –a typical layout ...................... RMC...............t....CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM Table 76: Comparison of Standards (issued by CPCB) with effluent values ............... 104 Figure 9: Components of CSP strategies ......................r................................................... 180 Table 83:Household details of PSU townships ............. 90 Map 8: Map showing the location of slaughter houses...................................................................... 71 Map 5: Map showing the location of STPs.................................................................................................................... 64 Map 4: Map showing the location of public toilets...........................................................................................

.............. RAMAGUNDAM ................................................................................................................................................................. 177 ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA..................... HYDERABAD 15 | P a g e .................... SCHOOL.............................................................................. 1998.... 62 BOX 6: INTEGRATED LOW COST SANITATION SCHEME (ILCSS) ..... RAMAGUNDAM................................................................ 79 BOX 11: SEWERAGE AND SANITATION – KEY OBSERVATIONS .. 93 BOX 15: WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM – KEY POINTS....................................................................................................................... 81 BOX 12: AP GOVT.................................................................................. 102 LIST OF INFORMATION BOXES BOX 1: NATIONAL URBAN SANITATION POLICY (NUSP) ............ 157 BOX 20:INDICATORS TO MEASURE 100% SANITATION MILESTONES ACHIEVEMENT ............................................................. 126 BOX 18: SCHOOL COMMITTEES .................................. RAMAGUNDAM ...... INDIRANAGAR SLUM AREA......................................... Ramagundam ................... 164 BOX 21:THE CONDOMINIAL SEWERAGE SYSTEM IN BRAZIL ..THE ANDHRA PRADESH SCHOOL EDUCATION (COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION) ACT............................................................................................................................................... DEVELOPMENT CONTROL RULES 2008 – CLAUSES RELEVANT TO BUILDING AND SANITATION ............................ 67 BOX 9: GUIDELINES OF TOTAL SANITATION CAMPAIGN(TSC) FOR SCHOOL SANITATION .............................................................................................................. Ramagundam ............................................................. 100 Map 10: Map showing the identified stress zones...................................................... AMBEDKARNAGAR.................................................................................................. 82 BOX 13: FUNCTIONS OF ULBS AS PER MSW RULES 2000 ............... 98 BOX 16:ASSUMPTIONS FOR CITY SANITATION PLAN .. 66 BOX 8: CASE STUDY : GOVT....................................CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM Map 9: Map showing the natural drainage network and the water logging areas...... 17 BOX 2: CASE STUDY PSU TOWNSHIP: APGENCO DETAILS ........ 53 BOX 4: DEFINITIONS OF HOUSEHOLD SANITATION ARRANGEMENTS ACCORDING TO CENSUS 2001 ........................................................................... 50 BOX 3: DEFINITIONS OF NOTIFIED AND NON-NOTIFIED SLUMS............................................... 89 BOX 14: SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT – KEY OBSERVATIONS ..................................................... 68 BOX 10: SEPTIC TANK MAINTENANCE NORMS ............... 114 BOX 17: FINANCE OPTIONS MODELS FOR COMMUNITY LATRINES ............................................................................................................................... 60 BOX 5: POOR SANITARY CONDITIONS...... 65 BOX 7: SINGLE PIT LATRINES.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 128 BOX 19: PROPOSED SCHEME FOR MECHANICAL AID FOR CLEANING OF SEWERS AND SEPTIC TANKS (SMACSS) .................

altered mindsets. Integrated town-wide sanitation. community and individual action. markets and other public spaces. construction and maintenance of sanitation infrastructure. C. HYDERABAD 16 | P a g e . clinical and other hazardous wastes. including solid wastes.1.1 Introduction 1. and in recognition of its importance to national and state development. institutional roles and responsibilities. providing adequate and properly maintained individual. (c) Cleansing of thoroughfares. Awareness generation and behavior change. economic and physical well-being of all sections of the population. healthy and livable cities and towns. (b) Storm water drainage.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM Chapter . O&M issues. PREAMBLE The National Urban Sanitation Policy (NUSP) 1007 envisages “All Indian cities and towns become totally sanitized. the Integrated Town-Wide Sanitation Plan for Ramagundam is prepared to provide town-wide systematic approach and framework to achieve the goals contemplated under NUSP. The principal components of town-wide approach include: (a) Collection and sanitary disposal of wastes. and re-oriented institutions that work collaboratively to achieve and sustain health and environmental benefits. community and public sanitation facilities. Proper operation &maintenance of all sanitary installations. collective behavior change and health and hygiene practices. totally sanitized. regulation and legislation. Against this background. ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. liquid wastes. Sanitary and safe disposal. B. especially for the poor. safe and pleasant physical environment in RMC to promote social. D.2.” The policy aims to ensure sustained public health and environmental outcomes for all cities by making them free of open defecation. Specific goals include: A. ensuring safe and sanitary disposal of waste. The overall goal of National Policy is to transform Urban India into community-driven. excreta. healthy and livable with a special focus on hygienic and affordable sanitation facilities for the urban poor and women. 1. OBJECTIVES OF TOWN-WIDE SANITATION PLAN The City Sanitation Plan (CSP) aims at developing and maintaining a clean. It encompasses plan of action for achieving universal sanitation in the town of RMC through demand generation and awareness building. Open defecation free cities. public education. sustainable technology selection. and E. industrial wastes. provision of services.

(g) Horizon Plan for a 25 year time-frame with annual actions set out (although all results may not be achieved within this time-frame). healthy and livable. Proper Operations and maintenance (O&M) of all sanitary installations The policy envisages the preparation of State Sanitation Strategies within the overall National Policy framework. healthy and livable cities and towns.3% and sewerage is 18% only (CPHEEO 2000) which is below the national average (22%).89 %.5% defecate in open which is quite high comparing to national average (18%). AWARENESS GENERATION AND BEHAVIOUR CHANGE B. BOX 1: NATIONAL URBAN SANITATION POLICY (NUSP) The Vision of the NUSP is: All Indian cities and towns become totally sanitized. In turn. Source: NUSP. impacting women. OPEN DEFECATION FREE CITIES C. To transform Urban India into community-driven. the share of urban population to total population in Andhra Pradesh (AP) is 27.3. Condition of the poor living in about 5500 slums (24. Public toilets’ in almost all urban areas are not enough with highly skewed ratio of persons/ seats and often. ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. CONTEXT According to census 2001. Sanitary and safe disposal: 100% of human excreta and liquid wastes must be disposed of safely 3. In urban AP access to toilets is 64. children and the elderly. totally sanitized. slum communities don’t have tenure rights and are ‘not allowed’ or do not invest on proper sanitary facilities even if they have motivation and capacity. (h) Collaborate with and consult all city stakeholders to prepare a comprehensive plan. HYDERABAD 17 | P a g e . Andhra Pradesh Urban Services for the Poor (APUSP) poverty survey indicated that about 24. 2008. Re-orienting Institutions and Mainstreaming Sanitation 2. 1. INTEGRATED CITY-WIDE SANITATION 1. (e) Enforcement of sanitary regulations and . cities are expected to prepare their city-wide sanitation plans that need to be prepared in a consultative and participatory manner. and ensure and sustain good public health and environmental outcomes for all their citizens with a special focus on hygienic and affordable sanitation facilities for the urban poor and women.93% population) is even worse.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM (d) Environmental sanitation education measures to secure behaviour change so as to use and maintain their facilities appropriately. and using an incremental approach to addressing the issue of sanitation in a comprehensive city-wide manner. (f) Monitoring the environmental standards. the policy sets out the following goals: A.08% as against the national average of 27.

This will also guide further investigation through field visits and primary data collection. Provision of appropriate sanitation facilities is linked to policy. GoAP felt the need to review sanitation situation. sociocultural. It is in this context. HYDERABAD 18 | P a g e . IHSDP.1.5 MLD. health indicators and current projects. At this juncture MA& UD. seriously effecting public health and environment. Water Boards. The cities selected for the aforesaid purpose are as follows:       Chirala Kadapa Karimnagar Nalgonda Pulivendula RAMAGUNDAM Most of these towns also embarked on implementing Under Ground Drainage (UGD) system with huge capital investments while accessing projects under different schemes including World Bank supported Andhra Pradesh Municipal Development (APMDP). etc. Municipal Administration and Urban Development Department. There is whopping gap of 1183. which have sewage facility only 62 MLD gets treated out of 1245.4. technical and financial problems.2.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM As per CPHEEO 2005 study. in coordination with other line departments to ensure a well collaborated approach engaging all stakeholders including governmental and nongovernmental service providers.5 MLD getting discharged without treatment in to water bodies’ etc. SCOPE OF THE CSP CSP tried detailing out how the city plan to deliver the sanitary outcomes defined in NUSP and state strategy. PREPARATORY WORK (PROFILING OF ULB AND PREPARING CITY REPORT) As a preparatory work. The scope of CSPs broadly encompassed following major tasks: 1. problems and opportunities to improve sanitation in these cities/ towns particularly and in the state and also learn lessons for AP Urban Sanitation Strategy. sanitation situation.4. Government of Andhra Pradesh (MA&UD) in partnership with Administrative Staff college of India (ASCI) has been providing training and technical support to select few towns/cities across the state for developing CSPs. or any other parastatal agencies).4. institutional. Thus. 1. ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. 1. out of 46 cities in AP. a preliminary profiling of ULBs will be undertaken using SLB indicators and City Ratings to highlight the open defecation free (ODF) status. This will mandate and guide State and all ULBs to plan for delivering sanitary outcomes. COLLECTION OF SECONDARY DATA Secondary data collection and review of available data from various sources as per demands of CSP (the officials of City Municipal Corporations. Environmental sanitation is one of the basic needs of people's daily life and has become vital requirement for protection and improvement of urban people's health and living conditions.

STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS AND CITY SANITATION TASK FORCE (CSTF) CONSTITUTION As per the requirement of CSP. schools. transacts walks. 1. Random stratified sampling in typical cases (slums.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM 1. Constitution of CSTF was facilitated by drawing members from these groups in consensus with ULBs who will be constantly supporting the CSP preparation by analyzing the strengths and competencies required to overcome the current situation and for better sanitation facilities. case studies. industries.4. Figure 1: Essential Components of CSP ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. academics. etc. consultants. solid waste arrangements.to validate and supplement the secondary data(obtained in step 4. consultations. journals. etc. Refer Annexure 4 and 4.4. HYDERABAD 19 | P a g e .) evenly distributed all over the town to cover all representative types of situations. local councillors.3. health and educational Institutions etc. NGOs. surface drains.1) The data will be collected as per formats/templates and questionnaires after brief orientation to the stakeholders. FGDs.4. industry owners. PRIMARY DATA COLLECTION AND SAMPLING Data collection to a limited extent through rapid field surveys.a for more information on CSTF and the workshop. wards commercial places. representatives of private sector. major role is to be played by the members of institutions. public latrines. individuals. organizations.

Brainstorming with key stakeholders and focus groups c.4. etc. DEVELOPING A SITUATION ANALYSIS REPORT The situation analysis. local conditions. CONDITION ASSESSMENT Choices of toilet in the city and their effectiveness along with pictures on super structure. wastewater disposal. proper upkeep and maintenance of the sanitation infrastructure. below ground.5. user charges. The report will also include an analysis of the ULB legal framework and byelaws. sanitation and solid waste management at state and city level. COMMUNICATION GAP AND NEEDS ASSESSMENT IEC needs assessment will be carried out and broad communication strategy will be developed in consultation with the ULB officials and other stakeholders. industries. data analysis and report review b. and assessment of the present sanitation situation. 1. willingness to pay.4. financial analysis of the ULB.6.9. Also regional and state urban strategies to know the dynamics of urbanisation pattern will be looked in to.7. This involves following. waste water effluents. 1.8. 1. public sanitary conveniences.4.10. water bodies’ contamination) in critical points in drains.4.g. REVIEW/STUDY OF THE CURRENT PRACTICES This includes a review of sector strategies in water.. public spaces and new areas. 1. access to sanitation (individual. clear institutional roles and responsibilities and improvements in health and environment as per the “City Sanitation Rating”. 1. HYDERABAD 20 | P a g e . data on key public and environmental health. community and public). a.4. DPRs prepared on these sectors will be studied in detail and analysed.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM 1. treatment and disposal of solid and liquid wastes. prepared by taking into consideration the ground realities. ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. FORMULATION OF VISION This involves understanding the major aspirations with respect to urban development in the State through consultations and building an overarching vision that may be appropriate to the articulations. WARD PROFILING AS PER CITY SANITATION RANKING PARAMETERS City as a number of spatial units will look at indicators pertaining to the practice of open defecation. solid waste management and water supply. collection. ground water after a reconnaissance survey which would also assist in gauging the situation where the information is not adequate. design models and materials used for different uses like residential. Secondary information. It will include inputs from all the above activities with the details of existing household sanitation arrangements. Understanding visions of concerned sectors and other constituents e. Field tests facilitation (soil percolation. cities and development agencies and concerned authorities.4.

major weaknesses. Completion of information analysis.12. the institutional responsibility as well as broad timelines for implementation will be indicated in the CSP. potential opportunities as well as likely threats would also be analysed to move towards the identification of the action areas/intervention areas that form the strategy development.13. Consultations with key stakeholders/ focus groups concerning f. starters for sewerage layouts and estimation of requirement in terms of capacities. proto . PREPARATION OF IMPLEMENTATION ROAD MAP This involves identifying and documenting interventions for the improvement of sanitation.4. DEVELOPMENT OF STRATEGY This involves understanding the major issues of the sector. the key strengths. and review of current policies and priorities e. HYDERABAD 21 | P a g e . 1.type design recommendation for all typical situations. PREPARATION OF DRAFT CSP Finalization of CSP along with recommendations based on the situation and solutions for making city open defecation free and totally sanitized. ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. Detailed discussion with departments/ agencies/ cities/ authorities 1. even with quick estimates. quantity and finances.4.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM 1. waste disposal mechanisms. This involves: d. public toilet and community toilets models and operational models. The cost estimates of such interventions (only ball park figures). major priorities laid down and an assessment of how the current arrangements are working with respect to urban development in the city.11.4. Also.

CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM 1. New Facilities .Technical •Social marketing approaches •IEC training activities(ULB's. ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. CITY SANITATION PLANNING PROCESS IN RAMAGUNDAM Methodology.5. NGO's. Medium & Long Term Goals/Measures To Achieve City Sanitation •Final Stakeholder Workshop Step 3 Sensitization/Orientation Step 4 Constituting Teams Step 5 Initiating IEC activites Step 6 Situation Analysis and Mapping current status Step 7 Problem Analysis Step 8 Developing And Consolidating CSP Step 9 Formulation Of Action Plans Step 10 Finalization Of CSP Step.2. Step. Ngo’s etc •Oranizing •Sensitization/Orientation •Workshop •City sanitation task Force •Core Team . Constraints and Limitations The process detailed below has been completed for planning city wide sanitation and wastewater management improvements offers since June 2010 and broad step-by-step approach followed: Step 1 Preparatory Works Step2 Stakeholder Analysis •Profiling Of City •Stakeholders Analysis •Ulb’s. Preparatory works As a preparatory work. DUDA. volunteers. HYDERABAD 22 | P a g e . Behavior Change •Short.1. Stakeholder Analysis Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) are in the frontline of implementation and have a key role in ensuring sanitation by demand responsive approach. health institution etc) •Mapping current status •Identify Gaps •Identifying stress zones •Assessment Of Options •Planning For Solutions •Selecting Options. health indicators and ODF status from secondary data sources. a preliminary profiling of ULB was done using SLB indicators and City Sanitation Ratings to understand the sanitation situation. Water Boards.

ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. PSUs Step-3.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM Table 1: Stakeholders for CSP Ramagundam Program/CSP implementing agencies/committees Civil society Households/citizens Elected representatives Private sector Ramagundam Municipal Corporation – officials and staff City-level sanitation committee City sanitation cell Civil society organizations Non-Governmental Organizations Disaggregated by economic status and current sanitation practices Councillors. community participation and mobilization to accord sanitation priority at all levels from policy to operationalization of technical . institutional and financial issues to be addressed in CSP and to explain the process of CSP preparations. local member of Legislative Assembly Industries and their associations. HYDERABAD 23 | P a g e . awareness generation for behavior change and practices. Sensitisation / Orientation Workshop After the stakeholder analysis a town level orientation workshop involving identified stakeholders has been organized in May 2010 and June 2010 to highlight the need to engage with issues relating to access and arrangement especially in slums.

neighborhood committees and NGOs. Finances Cost Recovery– Policy–Tariffs– Collections– Budget Transfers. masons). City Sanitation Task Force (CSTF) CSTF needs to be constituted to mobilize Stakeholders to elevate the consciousness about sanitation in the ULB. For this purpose ULBs may utilize suitable player for inter-personal IEC and training from the existing system like. HYDERABAD 24 | P a g e . Study of current programmes (SJSRY. Step 5 Initiating IEC activities The objective of well driven IEC has to be demand-driven with social marketing approaches to increase demand for toilets and ensure hygiene behaviors. Spatial Units Household Sanitation Slums Public Sanitary Conveniences School Sanitation Institutional Sanitation Map spatially Any town specific areas. Constituting: City Sanitation Task Force a. Organization & Competence ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. implementation. local conditions. health institutions.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM Step 4. National Service Scheme (NSC) Volunteers. Situational Analysis The situation analysis. Staffing. PPPs. the private sector (retailers. CSTF will be custodian of CSP and it is its duty to make the town 100% sanitized. Plans. prepared by taking into consideration the ground realities. ILCS. schools. plumbers. management. contractors. Step 6. etc) Institutional Institutional Arrangement – Policies. suppliers. ward development committees. and assessment of the present sanitation situation has been undertaken and broad framework is indicated below: Table 2: Research Units with the tasks identified Sectors Service levels and benchmarks for:  Sewerage and sanitation  Solid Waste Management  Water Supply  Storm Water and Drainage Health Situation – Statistics and Anecdotal Comment Environmental Situation – Local and Downstream and Groundwater. Angan Wadi workers. promote no subsidies for household toilets in future and encourage diversity in technology and design.

(Testing of quality of water and waste water) Public latrines in wards and slums Surface drains and Solid Waste Management 1. 4 Existing institutional arrangements in managing and mitigating social and environmental issues.  Observation surveys Individual interviews with 5 sample industries. 3 Communication Need Assessment (CAN): Perception on sanitation. acts.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM Table 3: Research techniques with the tasks identified Number 1 Tasks Social and environmental issues Research Tools                       Literature review Baseline survey Case studies Consultations/FGDs Literature review Survey FGDs Case studies Discussions Stakeholder consultations Literature review Secondary information review Case studies Analysis of Rapid survey data FGDs Stakeholder Consultations Literature review Stakeholder Consultations FGDs Survey data analysis Observation and questionnaire surveys Observation surveys 2 Policies. 5 sample institutions from actual samples collected in different places in the city ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. operational procedures to address. mitigate and manage the social and environmental issues.Sample survey of industries. public institutions (health & education) 5. mitigate adverse/negative impacts. its maintenance and investment (Analysis of data). 6. HYDERABAD 25 | P a g e .

Methodology: A total of 170 samples were taken across the different parts of the city to validate the information. industrial areas. The survey took spatially from all parts of the city. The distribution of the samples is given in the table as follows. 1 2 3 4 5 Type of surveys Slum surveys + Households School surveys Health institutions Public toilets Slaughter houses Sample nos. FGDs . Technical Analysis. but the main focus was given to the following areas. water bodies). Laxmipura 31 ward – periphery area 4. Impact . Transect Walks along with schedules of interviews (Slums. Survey Formats. Areas covered are as follows: 1. 18th ward – Tirumala Nagar slum Area 2. a) Sample survey results for the basic services Purpose: The objective of conducting the sample field survey was to assess the services at the customer level / field level and validate the information given by the officials. Sitha Nagar Table 4: Surveys and sample numbers Sl. No. HYDERABAD 26 | P a g e . Indicators. 170 25 5 6 2 ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. Stakeholder Consultations at city level etc.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM Process followed for data assimilation: Figure 2: Process of Data Assimilation Tools Used: Data Templates. 33rd ward – Indiranagar 3.

waste disposal measures  ODF: public toilets. user charges.  RWA office bearers. mobile vans.  Heads of Commercial establishments and shopkeepers. Field assessment of communications needs was carried out. Public Toilets. LIG and slum dwellers. waste segregation at source and at collection point. garbage picking facilities. Opinion leaders to be targeted as a high influence group both for FGDs and implementation of communications strategies. Identifying stakeholder groups and available channels of communication b. individual latrines. Interviews. Topic Guides were prepared for each stakeholder group.  UGS: awareness. Community elders. UGS. HYDERABAD 27 | P a g e . Data Collection. Issues on these parameters as explored in primary data will create a basis for topics to be raised in FDGs. Probes used to assess CNA:  What is Municipalities understanding of the need for communication in city sanitation?  What are the key challenges in making cities clean and how communication is being used for each of these? With reference to Toilets. a.  Key officials-Commissioners. middle class and Slum dweller could be sufficient. including public places such as bus stands  Slum residents  Residents from neighbourhoods  School teachers. MIG. open defecation etc ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. disposal of human waste. sanitation inspectors. toilet maintenance.  Safai-karamcharies union office bearers. employees  School children Parameters: three key parameters  Environmental Sanitation SWM: market waste. Transect Walks with stakeholder groups were planned c.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM b) Communication Needs Assessment The key idea is to carry out a communication needs assessment within the existing infrastructure as well as the strategy to go with expansion of infrastructure and behaviour of people towards usage.  Councillors. Following steps were identified before visiting the field. solid waste management. In smaller towns a division into higher income group. Resident includes all those living within city can be classified as HIG. establishments and ULB officials.  City media: newspapers reporters. Shop keepers and commercial establishments constitute a separate group especially for generation of market waste. Focus Group Discussions. maintenance and hygiene practces etc. domestic waste.  NGOs. Stakeholders: Residents. medical/health officers. d.

News Paper Advts. including industrial and municipal sewerage. conventional and low cost. HYDERABAD 28 | P a g e .CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM     Channels of communications are being employed by the ULB? Auto Rickshaws with Mike. (viii) wastewater as a resource. treatment and disposal . Extension of existing sewerage and sewage treatment (as a last priority). Problem Analysis and Assessment of Options Followed by situational analysis problem and challenges have been identified in coverage. Street Plays. Check if there is any documentation of the impact of IEC’s? If yes. CSP has been formulated to articulate Sanitation Goals. public toilets. and evaluation. financial . (iii) sustainability. Institutional capacity building for sustainability and environmental monitoring v. financial and institutional solutions and will consider (i) unit cost per beneficiary. (v) government policy including land use zoning. Purpose of options analysis is to identify plausible technical. Rehabilitation of existing facilities. community-based NGO-supported programs etc. specific quantifications both in terms of technical. on-site sanitation options. Project priorities for sanitation need to consider: i. Step 8. (ii) maximizing both human and environmental benefits. what is the system of incorporating this feedback? What is the complaint redressal system with respect to sanitation grievances? Are there any sanitation squads on the field? Step 7. sanitation in slums. Serving the Unserved Schools iii. (vi) piloting new approaches. ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. Serving the Unserved Urban Poor ii. Improvement of existing sanitation (septic tank sludge and effluent treatment). centralized and decentralized sewerage. Grant elements for demonstration pilot projects for eco-sanitation (private vi. operation and maintenance.social and cultural aspects and capacity concerns. (ix) lessons learned from the past and (x) political commitment. Serving the Unserved Public Areas iv. viii. ix. (vii) beneficiary participation. monitoring. (iv) a long term plan. Developing and finalization of CSP Having completed above steps. Also reviewed comprehensive range of sanitation and wastewater management options. separate programs for schools. capacities and financials based on stakeholder consultations and the analysis of choices made depending on costs of capital investments. developers) vii. sewage treatment . separate and combined and effluent disposal options.institutional . access.

and presentation as one of the model CSPs prepared for implementation under the NUSP. Current population and socio-economic categories. Solid waste collection. else “No”) i. The Checklist is in two parts: CONTENT and PROCESS. it is required to fill in YES or NO in the relevant column. Institutional arrangements and finances for capital creation and O&M management of environmental services (water. transport and safe disposal vi. Access to household level sanitation arrangements in general residential and slum areas ii. Treatment and safe disposal of human excreta v. In the city selfassessment. The indicators in the Checklist are drawn to measure whether the key dimensions of sanitation are addressed in the contents. The results should indicate the gaps in contents and process that need to be remedied – and thereby ensure that CSP is ready for submission.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM 1. 1. and projections by different categories YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES Population projection done Projections not done for PARTIALLY ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. VERIFICATION OF MOUD CHECKLIST The MoUD has prepared a common checklist for the preparation of CSPs by various organizations for cities in various parts of India. An attempt has been made by the ASCI team to prepare the CSP under the guidelines of the MoUD checklist.1. quality and coverage viii. Drinking water quantity.6. CONTENT SELF ASSESSMENT Table 5: CSP Content self-assessment No. This Checklist will help cities assess the quality of the draft version of the CSP. This is a self-assessment and needs to be done in-house by the ULB. Community and Public Toilets – location and status iii. HYDERABAD 29 | P a g e . and to provide remarks in the column. sanitation.6. solid waste. Drainage and flooding vii. Safe collection and conveyance of human excreta (on-site and sewerage) – infrastructure and management (including status of de-sludging services) iv. and ensure that the process followed in the preparation of the CSP was consultative and has full ownership of the city stakeholders. I 1) Item Yes/No Remarks/Status Baseline Data Collection & Situational Analysis in terms of identification of short term or mid – term or long term measures Has the city carried out a baseline data collection (secondary and primary) and Situation Analysis of different aspects of sanitation viz: (Score overall “Yes” if at least nine indicators below score “Yes”. drainage) ix.

Planning and financing b. fullcycle) for sanitation? Do the proposed sanitation interventions (rehabilitation. O&M Management d. Creation of physical infrastructure c. water and sewage pumping stations.e. Training and Capacity Building e.) xii. implementation. Maps and physical features of settlements (wards. HYDERABAD 30 | P a g e . retrofitting or new investments) consider the whole city? (not just a part thereof) Urban Poor and Unreached Has the draft CSP identified the locations or settlements of the urban poor and other unreached population segments with have no or limited access to sanitation? Does the draft CSP identify actions for assisting unreached/poor households with individual. Regulation III 5) IV 6) City-wide Sanitation Campaign Does the draft CSP contain a plan for the launch of a 100% Sanitation Campaign in the city? Technology Options and City-wide design Has draft CSP detailed and evaluated different technology options (on or off-site as well for collection. transport and safe disposal – i. drainage. and efficient disposal from these facilities? Has the draft CSP identified or proposed sources of financing the CSP YES YES PARTIALLY Water supply system maps not available NO YES YES 2) II 3) YES 4) YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES 7) YES V 8) YES 9) YES 10) YES ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. sewerage. else “No”) a. Communications g. monitoring and regulation? Has the draft CSP proposed specific actions to resolve institutional gaps and overlaps for the following: (Score overall “Yes” if at least five indicators below score “Yes”. etc. treatment plants. etc. Arrangements and practices of commercial. Data on health-related indicators of sanitation and water supply xiii. Other important and locally relevant details (specify) Has the draft CSP identified specific data gaps and developed a plan for detailed data collection? Institutional Roles and Issues Has the city identified an institutional home/s for sanitation planning.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM socio-economic categories x. roads. slums. community or public sanitation facilities (in that order). Monitoring of Outcomes f. public and other institutions in respect of sanitation and solid wastes xi.) and key city infrastructure (water.

e. provisions in development regulations or building bye-laws to promote sanitation including safe disposal) Does the draft CSP have a plan for improving septage management? Whether the draft CSP includes an Implementation Plan and Timeline? Whether the draft CSP has a disaster preparedness component? Whether the draft CSP identifies Short term/Medium Term/Long Term Measures to achieve identified outcomes? Does this draft CSP leads to improvement of service levels with respect of SLB related to MSW/Storm Water Drainage/Solid Waste Management? Outline of expected improvements on rating as per NUSP? VI 11) YES 12) PARTIALLY The costs of various options have been considered. prohibiting hazardous discharge of untreated sewage.? Has the draft CSP considered options for partnering with private sector.g.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM (schemes.e. for implementation or O&M management of sanitation facilities? Expedient and Other Actions Has the draft CSP identified the steps for implementing improved enforcement of existing laws and provisions? (e. scrutiny about sanitation arrangements before issue of building permits) Have gaps and overlaps in existing regulations identified for resolution? (e. Cost Benefit Analysis done) Whether O&M implications of each of the investment options evaluated i. etc.g. even if investment numbers are indicative or work-in-process)? Were the different sanitation options (hardware plus software) evaluated on the basis of financial viability? (i. but a full length cost benefit analysis not carried out 13) YES 14) YES VII 15) YES 16) YES 17) 18) 19) 20) YES YES YES YES 21 YES 22) YES ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. implications on tariff increases and willingness to pay for services. personnel number and capacities etc. loans. NGOs etc. grants. HYDERABAD 31 | P a g e .) for extending access to sanitation and related behavior change communication activities? Financing and O&M management Does the draft CSP consider an appropriate timeframe and spatial and demographic dimensions to remain relevant (at least for the 12th Five Year Plan period.

etc. private sector involved in planning. representatives of different community groups. highlighted for resolution in the CSP? Are there are any current or pending/ proposed projects (under various schemes) that are in conflict with the recommendations and decisions in the CSP? Have these been highlighted for resolution? Communications Has the CSP process formally recognized the importance of communicating with stakeholders.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM Table 6: Guide for self-assessment of CSP CONTENT Minimum required score Please ensure that the draft CSP scores:  At least one “yes” in each of the 6 sections in the table And  An overall minimum score of 21 “yes” in the total of 27 indicators. drainage). management or regulation of environmental services (water. consulted? Whether sufficient consultations have been held with urban poor groups in the city? Indicate the number.2. solid waste. sanitation. Ownership of the Draft CSP Has the draft CSP gone through an appropriate process of "appraisal" or "agreement" at the ULB and the City Sanitation Task Force? Is the draft CSP aligned to other plans of the city (CDP.) and differences if any. State Government. Acquired score A total of 12 “yes” out of 11 indicators scored 1. implementation. Development Plan. and drawn up as a Communications Plan? Have the basic steps of the communication plan started being implemented? YES Yes/No Remarks 2) YES 3) NO YES – 8 FDGs 4) II 5) NO CSTF not yet formed 6) YES 7) NO No conflicts III 8) YES 9) NO Implementation not yet commenced ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. Master-plan. NGOs.6. and key wastegenerating segments have been consulted in the process of preparation of the draft CSP? Number of Area Sabhas/Mohallas/RWA’s etc. right from the beginning of the process. PROCESS SELF ASSESSMENT Table 7: CSP Process Self-Assessment No I 1) Item Stakeholder Participation A multi-stakeholder City Sanitation Task Force has been formed and has met at least sufficient consultations have been held? All agencies working in the City (ULB. HYDERABAD 32 | P a g e .

HYDERABAD 33 | P a g e . a nd  At least one “yes” in sections iii and iv in the table. a detailed assessment has been done on the basis of the MoUD checklist. Few of the indicators have been covered partially. Acquired score A total of 3 “yes” in sections i and ii A total of 1 “yes” in sections iii and iv As presented in the table above. ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. the score is 6 YES. On the whole. the CSP has scored 21 YES out of 22 indicators and for the Process Self Assessment. as clearly mentioned above.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM 10) Level of awareness in the city about CSP (Indicate Yes/No)? Links with Related Exercises If the city is participating in the Service Level Benchmarking (SLB) exercise. in Content Self Assessment. have the relevant indicators been measured and uniformity ensured between that and the CSP? ????? NOT CLEAR IV 11) YES Table 8: Guide for self-assessment of CSP Process Minimum Required Score Please ensure that the draft CSP scores:  At least two “yes” in sections i and ii.

3. road facilities for transport. The main objective of the project is to improve the living conditions of the urban population. street lighting and solid waste management. widows and the disabled.7.2. on Government of India’s Urban Reform I ncentive Fund (URIF). individual sanitary latrines. and  Project Management. STATE URBAN/SANITATION POLICIES 1. The primary aim of this programme is to provide in every village pucca houses. with an objective to eliminate dry latrines and manual scavenging. in part. The project includes the following components:  Legal and Institutional Reform.1. water supply. This is planned to be achieved in a period of three years. drains.  Enhance the capacity of State.  Municipal Capacity Enhancement.7. pensions to eligible old age persons. primary education to all. The Development Objectives of the project are:  Improve urban governance through the implementation of an agreed reform agenda at State and local levels based. ANDHRA PRADESH URBAN REFORMS AND MUNICIPAL SERVICES PROJECT (APURMSP) The Municipal Administration & Urban Development department is implementing "Andhra Pradesh Urban reforms and Municipal services Project" in all the Municipalities and Corporations of Andhra Pradesh. and community groups to manage urban affairs through a demand driven capacity enhancement program. HYDERABAD 34 | P a g e . The project will finance the infrastructure facilities like roads. drainage. The scheme was implemented in all 113 Urban Local Bodies with HUDCO financial assistance. and  Support the rehabilitation and creation of sustainable urban services with economic and social benefits at community and citywide levels. 1. subsequently extended the programme covering all the Urban Local Bodies in a phased programme.  Urban Infrastructure Investment. special nutrition to adolescent ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. power supply to every household. drinking water supply.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM 1.7. Initially during the year 1992 the Integrated Low Cost Sanitation Scheme was taken up in 34 municipalities. weavers.7. 1. local. INTEGRATED NOVEL DEVELOPMENT IN RURAL AREAS AND MODEL MUNICIPAL AREAS (INDIRAMMA) Andhra Pradesh Government has taken a decision to take up development of model villages and towns with an intention to saturate certain identified basic needs of the people and the village/town Infrastructure In an integrated and focused manner. 32% Government of India subsidy and 5% of contribution of beneficiary. INTEGRATED LOW COST SANITATION (ILCS) The programme envisages construction of new sanitary latrines in households not having latrines by adopting the low-cost leach pit system. especially the urban poor through sustainable development. The scheme is being implemented with 63% Hudco loan.

PLASTICS With a view to discouraging indiscriminate use of plastic carry-bags and containers in the urban areas in particular.24. Cleaning of all the municipal parks including removal of weeds and bushes. Identification of low-lying areas and action for draining out of water from theses areas.4. community lands.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM girls/pregnant and lactating women and better health facilities in all the villages over a period of three years in a saturation mode. and at public places in the State. institutional premises.No885. the Government issued a notification through GO Ms. to implement the Clean and Green Program in all the Urban Local Bodies in the State. Plantation of trees by procuring suitable species of saplings in every household. which decided the following:  The Environment Protection Training and Research Institute (EPTRI) is the nodal agency to coordinate all legal. mobilising additional manpower wherever required Special drive for garbage removal with suitable deployment of civic staff and private persons wherever necessary. Construction of individual sanitary latrines etc. Cleaning of burial grounds. Motivating school / college students by conducting rallies etc. No. A State-Level Committee has been formed to take necessary actions on Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) and the first meeting was held on 25th April 2003. 35 | P a g e  ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA.     1.30. Provision of soak pits and platforms near public bore wells.XX) Department. in accordance with the ‘Phasing Out Plastic Carry-Bags – Recycled Plastic Manufacture and Usage Rules 1999. water works. dt 20th March 1002 of EFS&T.Meeru structures. Every third Saturday in a month has been declared as Clean and Green Day. economic and physical aspects of the MSW Management system through a three-year action plan. Finance and Planning (Plg. parks. public offices. compounds of industries. The activities taken up by the ULBs under Clean and Green Program as follows:          Motivating people. CLEAN AND GREEN PROGRAM The Government has issued instructions vide G.1998. Construction of Neeru.7. This shall improve the living standards of the people significantly. EPTRI has to prepare a proposal in consideration with the action plan of Andhra Pradesh Industrial Technical Consultancy Limited (APITCO) and all on-going projects. technical. HYDERABAD . road margins.Rt. dt. Deseeding and cleaning of water bodies along with proper chlorination and beautification. Mobilising cleaning operations of market places and slaughterhouses. 1. college buildings. schools buildings. particularly women groups and private industrial / business groups to make contribution to the Clean and Green Program Special drive for desiltation of drains. filed bunds and canal bunds etc.11.5. under Environment (Protection) Act 1986.7.O.

GoAP] ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA.  The APPCB and the Director of Municipal Administration (DMA) would make initial contributions to a rolling fund with the EPTRI to meet the costs of running the monitoring cell and paying for initial studies.  EPTRI can chalk out activities among the agencies involved to commence the site selection processes or where sites are already located their environmental assessment. DPRs etc. HYDERABAD 36 | P a g e .CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM and in consultation with experts of the committee and other agencies with past experience. [Source: Municipal Administration & Urban Development Department.

Ms. and development of parks to control air and sound pollution. subsequently Ramagundam Notified Area Committee was declared as II Grade Municipality by the Government in its G.P. plantation. LOCATION & LINKAGES Ramagundam is located at 18037’N latitude and 79017’E longitude along the banks of the Godavari river. (NTPC) respectively.e. The economic pattern of the town shows that the primary activity in the town is coal mining & power generation. INTRODUCTION Ramagundam is situated at a distance of about 64 Kms.05. SCCL have taken up several interventions like greenery. Janagama. toilet facilities. Rajiv Highway and also the State Highway. street lighting and roads are grossly insufficient. The nearest airport is at Hyderabad. M. Malkapur. there are many slums and can be observed inadequate infrastructure.1.A Brief Profile 2. 1965 w.O. It is located on main railway line . August being the peak. The monsoon season is between June to October. sewerage system. on the Bank of the River Godavari.2010. North – East of Karimnagar. coal mines & energy generation being taken up by the Singareni Collieries Company Ltd.218 MA.2. water and soil pollutions.1995.. RMC constituted comprising the Revenue Villages of Ramagundam. away. It has good linkages to the nearby towns and cities through the South Central Railway. 2.e. No. No. Medipalli. Maredupaka. HYDERABAD 37 | P a g e . Laxmipur (Hamlet of Elkalapalli). Hence there are issues relating to air.O. 96. Allur and Jallipalli. It is connected to major parts of the state through a well connected road. The industries like NTPC. Ramagundam was declared as Notified Committee under A.33. WEATHER March to May are the hottest months at Ramagundam.No. Medipalli. 2.O.01. Malkapur.A.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM Chapter-2 Ramagundam .01.1982 vide G. about 250 km. ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA.3.Kazipet to Balharsha of South Central Railway. The annual mean maximum temperature and the mean minimum temperature are 39 and 15 degrees respectively. Municipalities Act. The mineral wealth of the town reveals that the ULB has Coal minerals. receiving a rainfall of about 230mm. Ms.02. comprising the revenue villages of Ramagundam. Dt:19. Jangoan. Allur and Jallapelli. Dt: 25. It was upgraded 1st grade in 2001 and Special grade in 2003 and became Municipal Corporation vide G. with temperatures rising to about 45 Degrees. Provision of civic amenities i. Since it is predominately industrial town .1982.f. Laxmipur (Hamlet of Elkalapalli) Maredupaka. The town is an industrial town. drainage. (SCCL) and National Thermal Power Corporation Ltd. 19. Dt:08. Ms.

the land predominantly contains alluvial soil.. Ramagundam being on the banks of the Godavari river. The district is mainly dependant on ground water for its irrigation and domestic needs. The depth of water in the region is about 5 m bgl. Karimnagar District.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM 2. The fluctuation of the water level between the pre-and the post monsoon season is more than 4 m. TOPOGRAPHY AND GEO HYDROLOGY Ramagundam has an average elevation of 179 meters (590 feet). 99% of the drinking water needs are met from ground water sources. July 2007] The ground water in the district is in general suitable for both domestic and irrigation purpose.75% of the irrigated area is through ground water and to cater to this need 225816 ground water extraction structures exist. The river “Godavari” forms the northern boundary of the city with a few canals flowing through the city into the river. Now. Andhra Pradesh showing the water level fluctuation [Source: Ground Water Information. 64. The city consists of many industries and their townships as follows:   Ramagundam has A Navaratna National Thermal Power Corporation with 2600 MW 7 units running successfully and another 500 MW progress. The electrical conductivity ranges from 877 to 2010 micro Siemens/cm at 250C. The filter point wells of depth 10 to 20 m bgl constructed in these aquifers sustain continuous pumping. HYDERABAD 38 | P a g e . the city is driven by public sector industries.5. 2. Alluvium comprising sand. Map 1: Map of Karimnagar District. Andhra Pradesh.4. silt and clay occurs along the banks of the river Godavari down to a maximum depth of 20 m below ground level (bgl) near Mahadevpur. A total of 487 villages are affected by high fluoride problem and 20 villages are having brackish water problem in the district. The largest Coalmining industry Singareni Collieries Company Ltd. with abrupt hillocks scattered at a few places. has got 11 Underground Mines and 4 Open Cast Projects in Ramagundam. The land is undulating. The general slope of the land is from the south-west towards the river in the north eastern boundary of the city. ECONOMY The economic pattern of the town shows that the primary activity in the town is coal mining & power generation . Alluvial aquifers are developed through filter point well of 10 to 20 depth. ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA.

CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM   The AP Genco plant with 63 MW is successfully running the project and further extension proposals are stated to pending with the Government. The Fertilizer Corporation of India, Ramagundam unit will also be reopened shortly (Madras, Nagarjuna) and other Fertilizer Companies are negotiating with the Government to take over the above plant. The BPL Company 600 MW power plant generation company works are also under progress. The Singareni Company also proposed two MW power plant. Coal Washarie plants, premier explosive plants, BEML plant, IOC, HPCL Depots, Indian Oil Corporation, Golf Oil Corporation, Drica explosive companies are running successfully.

  

2.6. DEMOGRAPHY
RMC is spread over in the area of 93.86 Sq.km. In 1991, it became a Class I city (Population of over 1, 00,000) and has a of population of 2, 36, 600 as per 2001 census and includes the population of SCCL, NTPC and APGENCO townships. In 2001 the density was 8311 persons per sq km. It had male population of 120687 and Female population of 115913. Literacy among Male is 78.31% and female is 60.40% with overall rate at 69.54%. SC population was 46422(17%) and ST population 3493(1%). The trend of population growth rate in Ramagundam between 1971-1981 was about 37.25%. The growth in the next decade had a phenomenal growth of 158.98%. Again , between 1991 and 2001, the growth was mere 10.36% as some of the industries were closed. The population for the year 2011 has been projected to be 3,00,000, making the growth rate 26.7%. The average annual growth rate of the State of Andhra Pradesh is 13.86 % (as per 2001 census).

2.6.1. PROFILE OF RAMAGUNDAM
Table 9: Ramagundam – A Brief Profile

S.No 2. 3.

Indicator Area (in Sq. Km.) Population As per 2011 census (Projected) As per 2001 census Total Households PSU

Whole ULB 93.87 3,00,000 2,36,600 13482HHs 36 (50 delimitation notification) 92 47 42 3

Slums 1,68,960 1,33,253

5.

No. of Municipal Wards

29

6.

No. of Slums Notified Non-notified Slum Pockets

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CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM Slum Population and HHS 7. Community Organizations TLFs SLFs SHGs 9. No. of Hospitals No. of UHCs No. of ICDS 10. No. of Schools No. of High Schools No. of Upper primary schools No. of Primary Schools 11. Roads Length of CC Roads (in Km.) Length of BT Roads (in Km.) Length of WBM Roads (in Km.) Length of Gravel/ Murum Roads (in Km.) Katchcha Roads (in Km.) 16. Sanitation Length of sewerage (In Km.) No. of HHs with sewer connections No. of ILCS toilets 17. Others No. of Burial Grounds No. of Vegetable Markets No. of Community Halls 18. Municipal Finances Yearly income including grants (Rs. In Lakhs) Yearly expenditure (Rs. In Lakhs) Net surplus 2009-10 [Source: RMC] 1,497.77 1,195.41 (+)302.36 5 3 11 4 79.00 21066 5303 41.10 10954 2758 150.00 48.07 36.00 33.60 71.70 78.00 24.9 8.72 13.80 28.70 8 10 35 5 7 29 1 6 2 133 2414 16905 (2010)

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CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM
Table 10: Demographic details of PSU townships, Ramagundam

Ele.Ward SCCL/NTPC/FCI/ Slum AP Genco Households (Qtrs) 1 220 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 1186 290 382 473 942 429 399 151 703 1346 1219 1110 1130 1105 1300 1122 709 2006 106 334 180 243 0 0 1013 626 444 450 287 57 29 1307 0 0 973 558 1361 2287 1126 1607 1263 1681 884 15

Private Houses 1030 833 0 1566 2022 665 20 757

Total

Remarks

1250 1013 1550 1566 2022 2651 1204 2562 2737 1413 1664 1292 1681 No PSU township No PSU township No PSU township No PSU township No PSU township No PSU township

330 1579 1832 543 337

1548 1594 1832 1397 1683 1648

62 41

1571 1171 1395 1682 1595 1651 2006 No PSU township No PSU township No PSU township

234 352

340 1538

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135 437.474 Including PSU township areas. URBAN GOVERNANCE Ramagundam was declared as Notified Committee under A. Table 11: Population projections by different methods Population in 2001 2005 2009 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030  By Geometric Increase method By Incremental Increase method By Arithmetical Increase method 316. Ramagungam] 2.178 938. 1965 w.722 1.560 408.835 319.692 454.985 378.872 261.351 471. Malkapur. 2.01. comprising the revenue villages of Ramagundam. Dt:19.1982 vide G. Ms. Municipalities Act.130 293. 19.e. POPULATION PROJECTIONS The demographic profile of Ramagundam and the trend of population growth between 19712001 are given in the table below. Medipalli.901 361. subsequently Ramagundam Notified Area Committee was declared as II Grade Municipality by the Government in its G. No.260 283.O. It was upgraded 1st grade in 2001 and Special grade in 2003 and became Municipal Corporation vide G. M.647 326.270 396.33.6. Ms. Allur and Jallipalli.7.410 348.509 287.063 260.920 289.218 MA.786.097 1.2010.05.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM 29 30 31 32 33 34 Total 2471 13482 27146 277 253 2071 805 347 1351 825 641 737 2022 21 16499 2418 2981 641 1014 2275 2492 57127 Out of 34 wards12 have PSU townships No PSU township No PSU township No PSU township [Source: PSU Officials.1982.242 422.f. ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. Laxmipur (Hamlet of Elkalapalli).753 433.A.1995.O. No.2. Ms. Maredupaka.938. HYDERABAD 42 | P a g e . 96. Dt:25.02.. Jangoan.No. Dt:08.01.P.O.710 2035 2.491 653.349.

) within their respective townships. whereas the remaining land is under several Public Sector Undertaking (PSUs). the whole RMC area as owned by the various stakeholders is presented in the table as follows. The District Collector appointed as Special Officer since July. ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. The area of land and the percentage w.154. About 33% of the land area is under the RMC. The RMC area is managed by multiple stakeholders. 2004. etc. Ms.r.O. 1998 then second on June.04. A number of institutions are involved in the governance of RMC and the surrounding peri-urban areas and villages.2010 and made 50 wards forwhich delimitations of the wards not available. HYDERABAD 43 | P a g e . sewerage. They are marked by high level of service levels in comparison to rest of the city. The PSUs oversee the urban services (water supply. data base are maintained ward wise.t. For water supply Connections. 2nd onwards after dissolved the period of 2nd Council. solid waste management. The first Municipal Council Elections was held on July. storm water drainage. The RMC is in charge of the services in the remaining areas.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM The city administration divided into 34 wards and 8 zones for administrative convenience. the administrative and the ward boundaries Now the Government issued G. Some of them were established through Acts of legislature and others are part of state government’s framework. Map 2: Map showing the PSU areas. Dt: 01. No.

ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA.I) A.km) 30.E.C) Fertilizer Corporation of India Ltd. after a review of functions of urban local bodies.01 4. 7. transferred five more functions to the urban local bodies through government orders. 3. lanes. The functional domain was expanded in 2883 as per the 21 th Schedule of the 74th Constitution Amendment Act. Registration of Births and Deaths.86 45.C) National Thermal Power Corporation (N. Maintenance of Libraries. education of local inhabitants and issues incidental to Municipal Administration. the Government. Recreation Centres and Parks.S. HYDERABAD 44 | P a g e .86 Area (%) 32. 9. 6. 11.48 2. protection of the environment and promotion of ecological aspects Urban Poverty Alleviation Safeguarding the interest of weaker sections including the handicapped and mentally retarded Promotion of Cultural and Aesthetic aspects 2. Important functions of the Municipalities are as follows: 1. Maintenance of Elementary Schools.10 100 The functional domain of local bodies in the state is derived from respective legislations. bridges . culverts and causeways.C. Maintenance and Improvement in Slum Areas. Control of Epidemics and Endemics.8.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM Table 12: Land Ownership of RMC area Sl. “obligatory functions” and “discretionary functions”. Cleaning of Streets.(F. 5. Maintenance of Public roads. Drains and Scavenging. namely. Maintenance of Hospitals and Dispensaries. 10. The Municipal Acts list the functions under two categories. Housing.P. 4.T.(SC. No.91 93.15 4. They are:      Planning for economic and social development Urban forestry. Supply of protected drinking water.26 14. Maintenance of Play Grounds. streets.48 13.P. In 2003. FUNCTIONS OF THE URBAN LOCAL BODY Basic functions of the ULBs are to provide civic amenities such as health. 8. the Corporations and Municipalities Acts provide for a majority of the functions listed in the 12th Schedule (ref Annexure 1) of the constitution.84 42. Construction and maintenance of storm water and sewerage water drains.B Area (sq. In Andhra Pradesh. 2. 1 2 3 4 5 Total Stakeholders RMC Singareni Collieries Company Ltd.77 3.

A.E.P.s Comp.ORGANIZATION CHART Commissioner General Administration Engineering Town Planning Poverty Alleviation Sanitation Manager M. Operators (O. Revenue Inspector Dy.O. Under Ground Drainages and Storm Water Drainages etc. of works.s M.bulk & distribution Storm water drainage system Sewerage Sanitation (liquid waste) Solid waste management Roads Community / Public toilets Slum upgradation Primary education Primary health Town planning Section Engineering Section Sanitation Section Sanitation Section Sanitation Section Sanitation Section Engineering Section Sanitation Section Poverty Alleviation Section Education Section Sanitation Section Town Planning Section As part of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).s S.2 Nos Water Supply Sec. Record Asst. RAMAGUNDAM MUNICIPAL CORPORATION . 14.P.I.S. S.E.L. HYDERABAD 45 | P a g e . T. (SCCL) and NTPC have been involved in extending resources to take up several basic civic amenities to the people in the Corporation like Roads. P. Clerk Bill Collectors Estt. During the last 3 years.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM 13.30 lakhs for 32 no. The RMC is headed by the Commissioner with five sections under him.S.S. PH Workers O. 85. Clerks .-2 C.H.P.F.O.E. Clerk S. Labour M.s D. RMC ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA.A. (Electrical) Contract Engg.S.-1 T.E.G. & B. Maintenance of slaughter houses and markets.P. The Sections and the services provided by them are as follows.) Figure 3: Organizational Structure.-1 T. the Singareni Collieries Company Ltd. Revenue Sec. Sanitary Inspector Acct. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Service Water Supply.Institutions Responsible for Urban Service Delivery Sl. Table 13: RMC area .E. the SCCL has sanctioned and provided Rs. Clerk T.P. Maintenance of Street Lighting.F.L.E. Asst.-2 A.) Work Inspector (Contract) Work Inspectors (O.O.S.O.E. T.R.

Road widening programmes 4.P. Scheme in respect of all lands within the Municipality and in its vicinity. Preparation of plans and estimates for civil works 2. As many of the municipalities do not have required technical expertise the work of preparation of development plans is being taken up by Director of Town and Country Planning at the state level. Removal of encroachments Under Section 8 of Andhra Pradesh Town Planning Act. Roads and Junctions improvement 5.T. So there is a statutory obligation on the part of the municipality to prepare a development plan. Leasing and monitoring the leases of the properties. HYDERABAD 46 | P a g e . Collection and monitoring of the taxes The main functions of the secretarial section are: The main function of the secretarial section is to provide secretarial support to the deliberative wing of the ULB and assist in the conduct of meeting. 2. Implementation of master plans 3. Election relate matter such as conduct of parliamentary and other elections 3. 5. Construction and maintenance of roads 3. Execution of civil works 5.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM ADMINISTRATION The main functions of the general administration are: 1. Maintenance of water supply TOWN PLANNING SECTION 1. Construction of buildings 4. formulation of building rules. Public spaces. and collection of the rents The main functions of the revenue section are: 1. every Municipal Council within four years of its constitution shall prepare. Management of all immoveable properties of the ULB. ENGINEERING SECTION The main functions of the engineering section are: 1. maintain the minutes of the meeting. Construction and maintenance of drains 6. Regularization and demolition of unauthorized constructions 7. Vacant land tax. publish and submit for sanction of the Government G. ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. Monitoring of the court cases 4. Assessment and levy of various taxes such as property tax. Personnel management 2. Issuance of permission for buildings and layouts 6. master plan rules and zonal regulation 2. communicate the decisions of the governing body to the executive wing.

it need to formulate the strategy. vehicle sheds. Management of treasury The main functions of the Audit Section is  Conducting a pre-audit of all the receipts and payments. Maintenance of the payroll. payments will be released HEALTH SECTION Sanitation is one of the key functions of the ULB and the Health Section of ULB is responsible for all sanitation work in the limits of the ULB.. Processing of the bills and payment vouchers. Prevention of food adulteration 10. Based on the verification and approval of the audit section. 6. 7. diesel bunks. maintenance of the vehicles. Prevention of epidemics 9. sewerage drains. cleaning of drains. allocation of the vehicles for garbage transportation and disposal of garbage at the dumping ground. Cleaning of the streets and supervision of sanitation Lifting of garbage and dumping of the same in dumping yard Spraying disinfecting materials under anti malaria schemes Maintenance of vehicles.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM URBAN POVERTY ALLEVIATION SECTION The main function of the UPA section is to implement the developmental schemes of the Government. 5. 2. Management of dispensaries of Indian Medicine System and allopathic system. are some of the key processes which help in maintaining the sanitary conditions of the ULBs. etc. ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. Depending on the objectives of the scheme. preventive measures for control of diseases and epidemics. and work shops Registration of births and deaths Regulation of dangerous and offensive trades Maintenance and management of slaughter houses and certification of animals for slaughter 8. Maintenance of the books of account. etc. HYDERABAD 47 | P a g e . identify the beneficiaries and administer the scheme. It is not specifying or silent about managing and disposing the liquid waste. general provident fund. The key processes of Sanitation-Solid Waste Management function involve allocation of employees for sweeping and garbage removal. 4. dogs and carrying out anti-malarial operations. Maintenance and upkeep of urban infrastructure such as roads. controlling of pigs. 3. ACCOUNTS AND AUDIT SECTION The main functions of the Accounts Section are  Preparation of the budgets. The main functions of the public health / sanitation are: 1. maintenance of the public toilets. Monitoring of the revenue generation. solid waste management.

P. Executive Engineer T.E. T. Asst Typist / Data Operators Junior Asst. Designation No of posts for which revised sanction was given and continued by implementation Committee Sanctioned Filled up 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 6 Vacant Total Remarks 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Commissioner Municipal Engineer (EE) Dy. 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 6 1 1 - 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 3 1 6 1 No. No. HYDERABAD 48 | P a g e . Bill Collectors Hand Pump Mechanic Drivers Town Planning Tracers Office Sub-Ordinates Public Health Workers Total 1 7 1 3 1 6 90 129 1 7 1 2 6 74 109 0 1 1 16 20 1 7 1 3 1 6 90 132 [Source: RMC] To execute various Government Schemes the following Community Development Staff has been working under IKP.O. PA to MLA On deputation Under Suspension On deputation Long Leave 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Record Asst. M.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM Following Table gives a status of list of staff working in RMC: Table 14:Staff Details.P & B. Manager Accountant T.O Sanitary Inspector Sr.P.S. Urban (MEPMA) ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. RMC Sl.A. on deputation and 1 No.

6. 10. Account No. The Corporation. the budget of Mayor-in. 4. preparation of budget. 03. In the process of preparing budget. Asst-cum-Data Entry Operator Nos 01 06 01 [Source: MEPMA] Community Based Organization: To strengthen the empowerment of women the formation of Self Help Groups (SHGs). and operation and maintenance are taken by the executive wing of government. Simultaneously. 2. of SLFs No. The Commissioner then prepares a budget and lays it before the Mayor-in-Council for further review. The decisions related to planning. of TLFs TLF OBs. RMC 1. 1.389 1250 108 389 01 [Source: RMC] Decision Making Process The decision making process in Municipal Corporation can be divided into two stages. 8. Also the Ward Committees are not participating actively at present. Staff Details Poverty Resource Person Community Organizers Jr. Mohalla Samitis have yet to be formed in the city. after discussion on the budget. Town Development Committee 2. In democratic system. of PWDs identified in town No. RMC had proactive leaders in the recent past and involved the staff. and other policy decisions. of SLFs registered No. of SHGs No. Town Planning Committee ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. 5. 11.Council is considered to be final. execution.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM Table 15: Staff details of MEPMA Sl. No. In case no consensus is reached by 31st March. the process of making strategic decisions like. 02. 01. may refer the budget back to Mayor-in-Council for further considerations or adopt the budget estimates or submit any revised budget estimates to Mayor-in-Council by 15th February. designing. prioritisation of services. of SHGs covered under SLFs No. the officers at Zonal office also send proposals for various works in respective departments in their zones. 9. 3. Slum Level Federations (SLFs) as follows: Table 16: Details of CBOs. HYDERABAD 49 | P a g e . of women covered under SHGs No. each of the Ward Committee is expected to send proposals for specific projects for their respective zones by the end of October. these decisions are made by the elected wing of the government. Councilors and other important persons of the town in the following committees. No. of PWDs covered under SHGs TVS formed – OBs with account No. of SHGs of PWDs No. 2410 132 1566 Nil 26. the Mayor-in-Council submits the same to the Corporation by 15th January. No. After making necessary modifications and additions in the budget. Firstly. 7.

Waste water generated: 720 KL/day 2. with low coordination between them. Quality of water: Potable (Slow sand filtration & chlorination) 5. Water supply system: 1. ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. Floating population: 100 Nos/day 4. major investments often undertaken by parastatals. Population: 3000 Nos ( 750HHs) 2. It is a soft ware driven initiative with a computer aided communication centre. Emphasis is mostly on creation of infrastructure with low priority for O&M.   BOX 2: CASE STUDY PSU TOWNSHIP: APGENCO DETAILS I. Quantity of supply: 2400 KL/day 3. Sanitation Committee 4. Family Planning Committee 7. SMS (Short Messaging Services) technologies are adopted for communication across functionaries and citizens duly taking the citizen charter of ULBs into consideration. Committee for Horticulture Development Online Grievance Redressal Tracking System (OGRTS) A concept of Call Center introduced recently to change people perception about ULB functioning and help its people in addressing problems timely. 1 Lakh/anum (towards liquid chlorination) II. Expenditure incurred: Rs. Electrical Committee 5. The OGRTS is a web based application to support call center. Complaints are registered multimode: email.  ULBs do not often have primary responsibilities. Regulation is often poor. . At present. especially of household onsite sanitation. No Accountability thus no responsibility. Committee for Poverty Reduction 9. Library Development Committee 8. A comparatively new system introduced in the ULB and with the help of this sector wise complaints and area wise can be summarised and its proper application can be powerful to address problems in holistic manner and will help in decision making. internet and by post. HYDERABAD 50 | P a g e . the waste water is let into the earthen sedimentation tanks from there to local water bodies and this water is utilized for agriculture and remaining water is let in to river godavari. Underground drainage system: 1. Committee for 100% Literacy 10. Waste water treatment: Nil. Sports and Cultural Committee 6. Key issues:  Urban sanitation is not with one section and not given due recognition and plagued with fragmented institutional responsibilities as multiple institutions responsible for different activities.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM 3. telephone (08728 – 248777).

67 lakhs and 2. SLUMS AND SQUATTER SETTLEMENTS Total population of RMC is as per2001 census is 2.9113.493 and Women population 1.43 Lakhs. Segregation: No segregation is being taken up 2.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM 3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 W.9. 4. Waste water quality: No system is available. Table 17: Slum details. No. are notified and 45 no. All the 92 slums are located in non hazardous areas.I Janagam .32 lakhs where as slum population is projected as 1. 4. RMC Sl.36.15. Dumping places: Low lying areas near railway station 3. Solid waste management: 1. The high population of slums is observed in Ashoknagar (ward 14). Outfall points: 3 Nos (1 No for each colony) III. STs 3. 1 1 1 3 3 4 5 5 8 8 8 8 10 11 11 Slum Name Rahamathnagar Bharathnagar Mallialpally (v) Ramagundam (v) Pamulapadu (V) Medipalli (V) Narisngapoor & Jangalapalli Malkapoor & Ramaiahpalli Janagam . It is projected that the total population of RMC by 2011 is 3. Waste generation: 3000 Cum/annum 2. Length of roads: 19.5 Km 6.II Tharakaramanagar (CSP Colony) Ganga Nagar Vidyanagar Leninnagar Vinobha Nagar N/ NN N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N House Holds 240 550 861 234 264 261 756 239 206 206 292 326 261 415 95 Population Female Male 402 546 771 1046 716 971 409 554 504 683 500 678 1351 1832 398 366 366 386 607 503 964 154 539 496 496 524 822 682 1306 209 SHGs Total 948 1817 1687 963 1187 1178 3183 937 862 862 910 1429 1185 2270 363 11 12 14 46 11 28 17 21 18 19 61 29 16 22 28 SLFs 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 3 2 2 1 1 ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA.18. No.5 KM 7. are non-notified. The Map shows the ward wise location of slums in the RMC. Collection & treatment of solid waste: Manual collection and at present no treatment.600 out of which 1. 11. Expenditure incurred: Rs. of slums out of which 47 no. Length of storm water drains: 4.422.5 Lakhs/annum (towards maintenance of existing sewage system) 5. Hanuman Nagar (ward 3) and Seetha Nagar (ward 11). There are 92 no.913 as per Census. 2414 SHGs and 133 SLFs are working in these slums.500 is population in slums which is about 50% of the total population. The SC population in Corporation is 46.0 Lakhs and 2031 is 4. 2. HYDERABAD 51 | P a g e . There are total 26147 households in slums with a population of 1.

Nagar . Opp.T.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 11 11 12 12 12 13 13 13 14 15 16 18 18 19 20 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 26 26 27 30 31 31 32 32 33 33 1 2 2 4 4 4 6 7 9 11 15 15 Ramnagar . Ramagundam Ambedkar Nagar & Mubaraknagar Hanuman Nagar.I L.II Ashoknagar Kasthuribanagar Addaguntapalli Thirumalanagar L.B. Ram Temple Bheemunipatnam Kakatiya Nagar Subhash Nagar & Momeen Nagar Saptagiri Colony PH Colony Gandhi Nagar Surya Nagar Ganesh Nagar Swathantra chowk N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N NN NN NN NN NN NN NN NN NN NN NN NN 291 317 252 152 207 269 254 272 610 406 256 317 689 297 294 657 326 319 282 257 261 163 156 663 280 196 289 254 200 278 183 122 170 292 190 341 196 248 168 305 322 363 243 374 549 591 485 363 357 512 488 517 1963 1169 492 592 1048 559 551 1019 606 592 534 493 500 391 413 1360 503 394 544 487 400 364 378 273 351 364 383 630 370 353 313 500 436 715 356 734 744 802 657 493 485 693 662 702 2662 1584 666 802 1420 758 747 1382 821 803 724 668 677 531 559 1844 682 534 738 660 543 493 512 369 477 493 520 853 501 478 425 679 591 970 483 994 1293 1393 1142 856 842 1205 1150 1219 4625 2753 1158 1394 2468 1317 1298 2401 1427 1395 1258 1161 1177 922 972 3204 1185 928 1282 1147 943 857 890 642 828 857 903 1483 871 831 738 1179 1027 1685 839 1728 25 7 12 10 14 11 14 10 39 10 22 30 46 23 21 32 34 25 78 12 74 14 153 14 21 29 32 20 13 20 30 15 8 45 81 47 16 24 43 41 112 10 14 33 1 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 3 1 3 2 2 2 1 3 1 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 0 1 0 1 2 3 0 3 0 1 4 3 5 1 1 2 ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA.II Vijayanagar Kakathiyanagar & MM Labour Colony Chandrashekarnagar Parshuramnagar Jawaharnagar Vittalnagar .V Vittalnagar . Colony.I Ramnagar . Nagar .III Ramnagar .VI Veerlapalli Rajiv Nagar (ST Colony (Alluru)) Laxmipoor Elkalapally gate Chaithanyapuri Colony Sanjaygandhi Nagar Indiranagar & Shanthi Nagar Kazipelli S.IV Rammandhir Area Bhagathnagar Vittalnagar .B.IV Vittalnagar .III Tilaknagar Vittalnagar . HYDERABAD 52 | P a g e .II Ramnagar .I Vittalnagar .

HYDERABAD 53 | P a g e .CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 16 17 20 21 21 23 28 Maruthi Nagar Shivaji Nagar Indira Nagar Santhosh Nagar Bharath Nagar 5 Incline Area New Maredupaka S. Colony 29 Tarakarama Nagar 30 Indira Nagar 30 Alluru (V) 33 Mathangi Colony 33 Chandra Babu Naidu Colony 1 Vidhyuth Nagar 2 O' Point.C. Ramagundam 3 Ayodhya Nagar 3 Bheemaiah Colony 3 Housing Board Colony 3 Odia Camp (Oddera Colony) 3 Hanuman Nagar 4 Annapoona Colony 4 Ambedkar Colony 4 PK Ramaiah Colony (Camp) 6 Narra Shallapally 10 Ambedkar Nagar 11 Seetha Nagar 11 Mallikarjuna Nagar 12 Sanjay Nagar 20 Dwaraka Nagar 20 NTR Nagar 23 Andhra Colony & Sikku Wada 30 Hanuman Nagar 32 Rajiv Nagar 33 KCR Colony & Pragathi Colony TOTAL HHs with individual toilets NN NN NN NN NN NN NN NN NN NN NN NN I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 370 335 291 196 219 137 282 209 209 279 304 301 191 197 153 192 174 200 763 114 96 656 245 117 551 199 165 176 130 86 137 124 111 26096/26147 5303 (20%) 726 457 670 421 369 392 371 397 394 414 405 450 379 416 408 400 417 424 1818 227 200 1351 415 340 1709 411 415 396 386 141 417 396 365 50286 984 620 909 571 501 531 502 539 533 561 550 610 513 563 552 542 566 574 2465 307 271 1832 563 462 2316 557 563 537 523 191 565 537 496 68171 1710 1077 1579 992 870 923 873 936 927 975 955 1060 892 979 960 942 983 998 4283 534 471 3183 978 802 4025 968 978 933 909 332 982 933 861 118457 59 80 10 4 23 15 14 8 9 10 8 61 10 6 11 4 15 8 8 84 4 6 36 30 22 24 10 20 22 6 21 13 16 2414 2 2 3 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 3 0 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 0 2 0 2 133 [Source: MEPMA] BOX 3: DEFINITIONS OF NOTIFIED AND NON-NOTIFIED SLUMS Notified Slums: The definition of notified slum area as provided in Andhra Pradesh slum ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA.

IV Rammandhir Area Partially Connected Partially Connected Partial fully fully fully fully patially not Not Not Partially Connected fully Partially Connected Partially Connected Municipal Staff Municipal Staff Municipal Staff Municipal Staff partial ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA.III Ramnagar . Detailed slum wise list of population. squalid or otherwise there may be notification in AP gazette declare such area to be slum area. Act no XXXIII of 1956.25 wards. In AP the percentage of slum population is 36. RMC Sl. Non-notified Slums: The slum areas recognized by local Govt.II Ramnagar . The major concentration of the slums is observed in ward 9 .I Ramnagar . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 W. The slums of Ramagundam are all located on government owned or PSU lands mainly on SCCL & A. No. which form the core of the RMC area. 1 1 1 3 3 4 5 5 8 8 8 8 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 Slum Name N/ NN N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N Populati on 948 1817 1687 963 1187 1178 3183 937 862 862 910 1429 1185 2270 363 1293 1393 1142 856 842 Water Supply Not Connected Not Connected Not not Partially not Not Fully Fully Fully Partially Partially Fully Partially Fully Partially Fully Fully Partially Fully Storm water drainage Partially Partially Connected Partiall partially partally fully Fully fully fully fully fully fully fully fully fully Partially Partially Partially Partially fully Sewerage Rahamathnagar Bharathnagar Mallialpally (v) Ramagundam (v) Pamulapadu (V) Medipalli (V) Narisngapoor & Jangalapalli Malkapoor & Ramaiahpalli Janagam .CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM improvement (A Acquisition of Land) act 1956.P Genco. safety or convenience of its neighbourhood by reason of the area being low lying. in which the Government are satisfied that any area is or may be source of danger to the public health. insanitary. no. of households and other summary of attributes related with slums are presented in the following table.8%. HYDERABAD 54 | P a g e . Table 18: Infrastructure details in slum areas.s but not notified by the state government as above are Non notified slum areas. No.II Tharakaramanagar (CSP Colony) Ganga Nagar Vidyanagar Leninnagar Vinobha Nagar Ramnagar .I Janagam .

Colony.VI Veerlapalli Rajiv Nagar (ST Colony (Alluru)) Laxmipoor Elkalapally gate Chaithanyapuri Colony Sanjaygandhi Nagar Indiranagar & Shanthi Nagar Kazipelli S.B.II Vijayanagar Kakathiyanagar & MM Labour Colony Chandrashekarnag ar Parshuramnagar Jawaharnagar Vittalnagar . Ramagundam Ambedkar Nagar & Mubaraknagar Hanuman Nagar.V Vittalnagar .B. Nagar .IV Vittalnagar .II Ashoknagar Kasthuribanagar Addaguntapalli Thirumalanagar L.I Vittalnagar .T. Nagar . Ram Temple Bheemunipatnam Kakatiya Nagar N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N NN NN NN NN NN 1205 1150 1219 4625 2753 1158 1394 2468 1317 1298 2401 1427 1395 1258 1161 1177 922 972 3204 1185 828 1282 1147 943 857 890 642 928 857 903 1483 871 Partially Fully Fully Fully Fully Fully Fully Fully Fully Fully Fully Fully Fully Fully Fully Fully Fully Fully Fully not not not Partially Fully Fully Fully Fully Partially not Not not not partially fully fully fully fully fully fully fully fully fully fully fully fully fully fully fully fully fully fully partial not not partially not partially fully fully partially fully Fully fully fully Partially Connected Partially Connected Partially Connected Partially Connected Partially Connected fully fully fully fully fully fully fully fully fully fully fully fully fully fully not Partially Connected not patially Partially Connected Partially Connected fully fully Partially Connected fully fully fully fully ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. HYDERABAD 55 | P a g e .I L. Opp.III Tilaknagar Vittalnagar .CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 13 13 13 14 15 16 18 18 19 20 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 26 26 27 30 31 31 32 32 33 33 1 2 2 4 4 Bhagathnagar Vittalnagar .

CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 4 6 7 9 11 15 15 16 17 20 21 21 23 28 29 30 30 33 33 1 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 Subhash Nagar & Momeen Nagar Saptagiri Colony PH Colony Gandhi Nagar Surya Nagar Ganesh Nagar Swathantra chowk Maruthi Nagar Shivaji Nagar Indira Nagar Santhosh Nagar Bharath Nagar 5 Incline Area New Maredupaka S. HYDERABAD 56 | P a g e . Ramagundam Ayodhya Nagar Bheemaiah Colony Housing Board Colony Odia Camp (Oddera Colony) Hanuman Nagar Annapoona Colony Ambedkar Colony PK Ramaiah Colony (Camp) NN NN NN NN NN NN NN NN NN NN NN NN NN NN NN NN NN NN NN I I I I I I I I I I 831 738 768 1027 1685 2150 1728 1710 1077 1579 870 752 923 873 936 927 975 955 1060 892 979 960 942 983 998 4283 534 1471 3183 Not Connected Partially Partially Partially not not connected Partially partially partially not Partially Connected Partially Connected Partially Connected not 248 Fully Fully Fully Fully Fully Fully Fully Fully Partially Fully Fully Fully Not Connected Not not not Partially Fully Fully Fully Partially Partially 831 fully fully fully fully partially Partially Partially Partially partally fully fully fully not Not not not Partially fully fully fully partially Partially fully fully fully fully Partially Connected Partially Connected Partially Connected Partially Connected Partially Connected fully fully fully not Not not not Partially Connected fully fully fully Partially Connected Partially Connected ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. Colony Tarakarama Nagar Indira Nagar Alluru (V) Mathangi Colony Chandra Babu Naidu Colony Vidhyuth Nagar O' Point.C.

CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 6 10 11 11 12 20 20 23 30 32 33 Narra Shallapally Ambedkar Nagar Seetha Nagar Mallikarjuna Nagar Sanjay Nagar Dwaraka Nagar NTR Nagar Andhra Colony & Sikku Wada Hanuman Nagar Rajiv Nagar KCR Colony & Pragathi Colony I I I I I I I I I I I 978 857 2966 968 978 933 909 332 982 933 861 119113 Partially no Fully Fully Partially Fully Fully Partially Partially Partially Not Fully fully fully fully partially fully fully Partially Partially partially Not fully fully fully fully Partially Connected fully fully Partially Connected Partially Connected Partially Connected Not [Source: MEPMA] Summary of status of services in various slums is as follows: Table 19: Summary of status of services in slum areas. The urban poor women are organized with Community Based Organizations (CBOs) like Self Help Groups (SHG). The Urban Poverty Alleviation programmes in Corporation have been given great emphasis. RMC Tot al Slu ms Slum HHs Slum Popul ation Details of Infrastructure services Connectivity to Water Supply Connectivity to Storm Water Drainage Not Connected Connectivity to Sewerage Sysem Approach Road Not Connected Fully 92 26147 11911 3 50 21 21 54 2 8 10 41 39 12 [Source: MEPMA] Some field observations in slums of Ramagundam can be summarized as the follows:     There is a lack of awareness about health and hygiene among the slum dwellers Waste (both solid and liquid) are discharged directly into the storm water drainage system Unplanned unorganized dumping of solid waste both by the slum dwellers as well as municipal workers. HYDERABAD Not Connected Motorable Pucca Motorable katcha Nonmotorable Pucca Nonmotorable kaccha 42 31 11 8 57 | P a g e Partial Partial Partial Fully Fully . Slum Level Federations (SLF) ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. Some of the slum areas have extremely poor housing conditions with houses made of temporary materials.

633 2626049 2874331 1454313 Avg HH size in slums 5.02 5.576 2.847 [Source: ASCI] ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA.397 5.02 5. Looking at the nature of activity (primary ctivity) of the ULB expected population growth mainly will be slum population and accordingly projections done as indicated below.719 2.54. The disabled being vulnerable are also organized in to SHGs and Town Vikalangula Samakya to address the needs of vulnerable.71.05.23.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM and Town Level Federations (TLF).62.260 5.02 5.117 5.02 Slum HHs HHs having no toilets in 2001 14540 14540 14540 14540 GAP  2001 2012 2014 2035 32.857 5.89.704 17. Table 20: Shortage of slum HHs not having toilets Year Slum Population 1.72. The CBOs of the poor have been provided access to credit by giving about 20 crores under Bank linkage program with subsidized interest under Pavala Vaddi Scheme. HYDERABAD 58 | P a g e .

at public places.r. S. In 2004 a detailed survey was conducted and the summary of sanitation status was as follows: Table 21: Distribution of households in RMC w. storm water drains and water supply.15 9554 26.t.o. which improved the Solid Waste Management scenario. availability of toilets within premises Ward No. About 27% do not have toilets.1. SEWERAGE AND SANITATION INTRODUCTION Sustainable urban sanitation presents one of the most significant service delivery challenges related to poverty alleviation and sustainable development of the towns. HYDERABAD 59 | P a g e . The Sanitation & Solid Waste Management in Corporation has been improved with remarkable change during last 3 years with the assistance of 12th Finance Commission (TFC) grants released by the Govt. HOUSEHOLD SANITATION According to Census 2001. No. This chapter essentially deals with issues pertaining to the core objective of the town sanitation plan and also covers sanitary installations at different levels of households. Concentration on open defecation levels in slums along with corresponding sectors like solid waste management.45 Sewer with septic tank 8363 23.1. The processing facility of Solid Waste Management and connected infrastructure requirement of processing as well as disposal facility has been taken up with TFC funding. Environmental sanitation holds a primordial position in assessing and documenting nature of a town/town in its status regarding sanitation.1.74 Sewer w. 3. The mechanization of transport. loading & unloading of urban solid waste has been taken up with TFC funding. about 41% of the households have water closets within their premises.32 Own septic tank 6306 17.58 Open Defecati ons I. an essential component of sanitation is dealt at vast. in institutions and schools. Total In % 35861 * 25 11759 32.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM Chapter-3 Environmental Sanitation . 7% have pit latrines and 25% have latrines of other types. This also demarcates service level benchmarking and factors leading to health hazards.64 *Exclusive of PSU Households (13482quarters) ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA.An Assessment 3. septic tank 6988 19. of Houses Dry Latrin es Flush out Latrines connected to Direct ly to drain 2417 6.S.L.79 2205 6.

All of them either connected by Septic tank or UGD with well maintained STP in case of NTPC. and all latrines other than the pit and the water closet types of latrine.54% HHs in slums and 81. It shows high percentage of OD in the slum areas (16. Such latrines that may be connected to a septic tank or an underground sewerage system will also be recorded as water closet latrines. Note: the definitions adopted for baseline sanitation survey follow the above definitions. those that are cleaned manually).53%) where as in the Non-slum areas it was observed to be 10. HYDERABAD 60 | P a g e . This number is almost constant and discussion with officials concluded that there will not be increase in population in these areas. Recently a detailed survey in slums under Rajiw Awas Yojana (RAY) was taken up. Pit latrine: The latrines attached to the pit that is dug into the ground for the reception of night soil are reckoned as pit latrines. But when it is coming to good information base there is no consistency and all survey findings give different figures. The faecal matter from these types of latrines is removed without the need for scavenging or manual handling of excreta. Other latrine: This category includes service latrines (i.53% HHs. About 13500 households reside in the different township areas under the management of the PSUs. The above table shows the sanitation profile of RMC area. etc. For the CSP purpose this data and findings majorly used but some correlations and assumptions had to be made while assessing the situation for the whole RMC area. BOX 4: DEFINITIONS OF HOUSEHOLD SANITATION ARRANGEMENTS ACCORDING TO CENSUS 2001 Water closet latrine (WC): The sanitary water flush latrines are those latrines that have water closets fitted with flushing cistern.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM Subsequent improvements in sanitation situation showed considerable improvements in access to toilets and as per property tax records only 9% of properties do not have toilets in 2010. latrines serviced by animals such as pigs.e. The majority of HHs 71.88% HHs in overall RMC have toilets connected to septic tanks. ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA.

r. Some houses have apertures on the floor of certain rooms with outlets to the canals for use at night. 2010] Slum houses having apertures within premises with direct outlet to drains. ASCI. Such areas include Ambedkarnagar. ASCI. 2010] ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. 2010] Slum houses having toilet outlets directly into drains [Source: Primary Survey. Several slum pockets have main drainage canals running through them. Majority of the toilets in the slum areas are connected to either septic tanks (individual or community) or pits.t.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM 3. Ramagundam Septic tank Community 11% 14% 10% Drain No Access 65% Figure 4: Percentage distribution of household’s w. etc. Sikh colony. Major concentration of slums in wards 9 . Ramagundam [Source: Primary Survey. In other slum areas. HYDERABAD 61 | P a g e . thus adding to the problem of open defecation which is quite common in RMC.2.1. Houses in some of the slum areas are made of temporary materials. SANITATION IN SLUMS The slums of Ramagundam are all located on government owned or PSU lands mainly on SCCL. In such areas. There are no community toilets in Ramagundam. These apertures are used as urinals during night time [Source: Primary Survey. . Following pictures depict the various sanitation choices in slums: Poor housing conditions in slums.25. the waste from the households is discharged directly into the drains even though the area may have pits or septic tanks. type of outlets from toilets. most of the houses in the slums are pucca houses. ASCI.

Ramagundam Field investigations revealed that Open defecation is found to be very common in the following areas: Table 22: Open defecation areas. This further leads to pig nuisance in the area. There is no provision for the regular cleaning of drains in the area.Ramaiya Colony. Ramagundam Unplanned solid waste dumping leading to nuisance from pigs. 1 3 4 5 Areas S. Ramagundam Sl. Village Ramagundam Kakathiyanagar. which overflow into the courtyards and the streets.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM BOX 5: POOR SANITARY CONDITIONS. Mallialpally.Colony. Housing Board colony. Ambedkar Nagar. Krusher Nagar New Poradpalli. the slum dwellers take the responsibility onto themselves. has about 120 households. Majority of the houses have no toilets. Ramagundam [Source: Primary Survey. GVK Colony. The waste water from the houses – the kitchens and the bathrooms drain into the kutcha drains. Ambedkar Nagar. HYDERABAD 62 | P a g e . 1 2 3 4 Ward No. 2010] There are no pucca drains in the area. Jangalpalli ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. The general housing conditions in the area are quite poor. No. a slum area in ward no. P. Such factors together with dumping of solid waste create unclean environs in the area. AMBEDKARNAGAR. Overflowing kutcha drains.K. Poor housing conditions. and instances of open defecations in this area are quite high.T. ASCI. 10 in RMC area. Momin Nagar. Ambedkar Nagar. all the dwellings being kutcha houses. The railway tracks being in the vicinity become the prime area for open defecation. RAMAGUNDAM Ambedkar Nagar.

t.54% HHs with own dry latrine 741 2.r. Ramaiahpalli Janagaon Thirumal Nagar Veerlapalli New Maredpalli Lakshmipuram Chaitanya Colony.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 6 8 18 27 28 31 32 33 Shalapally.5 3% Total HHs Slum HHs Percentage w. Puri Colony.44% HHs with communit y septic tank HHs with commun ity dry latrine 56 0.33% 26096 100% [Source: Details from RAY survey data] The following OD areas have been depicted in the map. It has been observed that the open defecation is prevalent in both slum and Non-slum areas as there is no facility for community toilets in Ramagundam. Chandrababu Colony.84% HHs with shared septic tank and flush latrine 1595 6.11% HHs with shared dry latrine 375 1. RMC] Table 23: Sanitation profile HHs HHs with own septic tank 18669 71. ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. HYDERABAD 63 | P a g e . Sanjeev Nagar Indiranagar. OD is also observed in some pockets of the PSU areas where some illegal settlements have come up. Kazipalli [Source: Discussions with Sanitary Supervisors.21% HHs pro ne to OD 4315 16. KCR Colony. Slum HHs 346 1.

CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM Map 3: Map showing the location of open defecation areas. Under stage-II work is completed while 1948 units have been constructed under stage-III. RMC had been sanctioned 3353 units in stage-II and further 3100 units in stage-III entrusting the work on nomination basis to the contractors. HYDERABAD 64 | P a g e . Ramagundam INTEGRATED LOW COST SANITATION SCHEME (ILCS) IN SLUM AREAS – A STATUS APPRAISAL For Ramagundam. Each contractor has to construct a minimum 200 low cost units. CDMA constitutes a District level Committee headed by the Collector of the concerned district for implementing the ILCS scheme. The contractor is selected through open tenders. ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. The role of APUFIDC is only to release fund to the CDMA for programmes of urban infrastructure. The state has a Financial Institution for funding the scheme in the urban areas known as Andhra Pradesh Urban Finance & Infrastructure Development Corporation (APUFIDC). The construction work of the ILCS units is contracted out to private contractors and NGOs take care of the mobilization and implementation. District Level committee is authorized to select the contractor for construction of ILCS units. the Commissioner and Directorate of Municipal Administration (CDMA) act as the nodal agency whereas the RMC acts as the implementing agency for implementing ILCS programme. On the whole state ILCS programme is implemented in three phases.

55 Funds Unitilized (Rs. None were constructed for schools Table 25: Summary of construction of ILCS units in Phase II and III in Ramagundam Sl.55 Total no.81 61. Details Stage .  To remove the dehumanizing practice of manual scavenging. of units) ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. 32% Government of India subsidy and 5% of contribution of beneficiary. HYDERABAD 65 | P a g e . in Lakhs) 65. The scheme was implemented in all 113 ULBs with HUDCO financial assistance. of ILCS units (Original Targets) 3100 Cost (Rs. In lakhs) GOI subsidy (Rs. in Lakhs) Funds Released (Rs.83 50. In lakhs) 155. in Lakhs) 65.78 3100 1 Project Cost (Rs.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM BOX 6: INTEGRATED LOW COST SANITATION SCHEME (ILCSS) Integrated Low Cost Sanitation Scheme (ILCSS) is a demand driven programme aiming to cover all households which have dry latrines as well as those having no sanitation facilities including slum and squatter colonies are given special focus. No.62 97.03 7.  To motivate people of latrine less areas. to come forward and build toilets. Below Plinth Above Plinth Government of India subsidy HUDCO Loan Beneficiary Contribution 45% 50% 5% 95% 5% Objectives of ILCS:  To stop proliferation of dry toilets and open defecation. Ramagundam.* All the ILCS units were constructed for individual households. The scheme is being implemented with 63% HUDCO loan. May 2010 No. of ILCS units constructed * 920 1948 Note:. Initially during the year 1992 the Integrated Low Cost Sanitation Scheme was taken up in 34 municipalities.  To provide better sanitation facilities to the people of all municipalities in the state. In lakhs) Beneficiary contribution (Rs. subsequently extended the programme covering all the Urban Local Bodies in a phased programme.76 (2353 + 1000 = ) 3353 2 Target (no.03 6. In lakhs) HUDCO loan (Rs.62 67.II 5 users 10 users 2353 units 1000 units Stage – III (5 users) 135.  To inculcate healthy practice of maintaining sanitation Table 24: Implementation of ILCS Stage-III.

The distinct feature in Ramagundam was that Contractor had to submit a bond stating that the beneficiary is satisfied with the construction of the latrine and the quality of material used. with 202 households. 20 in RMC area.) Loan (Rs. The other households are also quite sceptic about using the toilets because of the fear of the pits getting filled. Ramagundam. of units completed Unit cost (Rs. Systematic list of households along with photograph of the beneficiaries is maintained by the Municipality. In lakhs) Balance amount (Rs. Indira Nagar. The super structure is pucca structure with 3’’ width wall and 1. Ramagundam The additional initiatives taken by state under phase III was to include super structure in the scheme. Some of the pits located beside the drains get inundated due to the inflow of water from the drains. The payment is released to the contractor afterwards.84 -2. Hence. ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA.4’’ concrete roof and a door made of metal sheet. In 1995. Even now about 60-70 households are using the same toilets.75 10 users 4510 2250 1992 263 1948 4370 2185 1935 250 65. In lakhs) (2702 + 652 = ) 3353 5 users 3740 1870 1652 218 118.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM 3 4 No. Toilets connected to single pits.55 NIL [Source: Municipal Council. there are quite a number of households in the area opting for open defecation.55 65. 2007] BOX 7: SINGLE PIT LATRINES. Indira Nagar. about 150 households were provided with single pit toilets. INDIRANAGAR SLUM AREA. In lakhs) Amount spent (Rs.) Beneficiary contribution (Rs. HYDERABAD 66 | P a g e .) Subsidy (Rs. RAMAGUNDAM Indira Nagar is a slum area in ward no.09 120.) 5 6 7 Total amount released (Rs. Ramagundam Unused toilets.

Table 26: Environmental Infrastructure Requirements Sl. leading to further spreading of diseases among the students and the local people as well.14 164. The children fall ill frequently. of individual toilets Kilo Meters Kilo Meters No. of Lights Kilo Meters 23.00 59.80 3768 85. RAMAGUNDAM The course of primary surveys by the ASCI team members led to the visit to a small govt. SCHOOL. 1. school in the Seethanagar area. 3.18 1419. The immediate surroundings of the school premises were in a pitiable condition with the school located within an open piece of land used for illegal and unorganized dumping of solid waste by the tricycle pullers as well as the local people in the area.3. ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA.12 2367 41. 7.00 61.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM This section covers the existing environmental and social infrastructure and also the requirements for the same in all slums of the ULB including Perspective plan for 5 years. Sector Unit Existing Required Estimated Cost for 2010-11 (Rs. 6.00 2956.00 5303 88. in Lakhs) 94. This causes the school building and the surrounding area to be flooded during rainy season. All of them being locals. The dumping of waste ash/ coal by the Singareni Collieries Company Ltd. 4. during break times or whenever needed. There was no facility for toilets for students or the teachers.80 97.3 47.10 13. 2. go to their homes for the same. A request has been put forth very recently for the construction of toilets – one for each gender. The toilets are to be constructed with the two-pit system under the Rajiv Vidya Mission.40 53.12 165.1. The single room is infested by flies and other pests due to the proximity to the unclean environment. HYDERABAD 67 | P a g e . at the boundaries of the piece of land has turned the land into a low lying area. 5.00 82.60 514. SCHOOL SANITATION INFORMATION REGARDING SCHOOLS SANITATION TO BE INCORPORATED AFTER OBTAINING THE SURVEY SHEETS BOX 8: CASE STUDY : GOVT.80 85.96 427. There were two teachers taking care of a total roll count of 36 students of 5 classes.2 Solid Waste Percentage of door to door Management collection Total [Source: RMC] 3. about twice a month for 1-2 days each time. No. The school building had a single room with windows opening out into the surrounding dumpsite.66 Water Supply Sanitation Drainage Roads Street Lighting Sewerage Kilo Meters No.

Upper Primary. Construction should be in multiples of units depending on the strength of the school. on whether schools have staggered breaks. States are given the flexibility to define their norms within this range depending on existing State norms and the other factors mentioned above. school in dirty and unhealthy environs. Secondary and Higher Secondary and Anganwadis should be constructed. space available in the school premises. the rest being the State share.000 is given as Central share. It is evident that the number of toilet units to be built should be linked to the number of students to be catered to by each unit. Ramagundam BOX 9: GUIDELINES OF TOTAL SANITATION CAMPAIGN(TSC) FOR SCHOOL SANITATION Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) guidelines at present stipulate that toilets in all types of Govt.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM A Govt. School-wise requirement of toilet units should be worked out based on these factors. The Dept. 20.000 of which 70% i. Hence. of Drinking Water Supply is supporting the construction of toilets and urinals in schools under TSC. Primary. Seethanagar.” ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA.e. Each unit consists of one toilet and three or four urinals. the following clarification is issued: “One Urinal space may be provided for every 10 to 30 boys or girls separately and one toilet seat may be provided for every 80 to 120 boys or girls separately. 14. Rs. expected growth in the enrolment and other regional conditions. The guidelines say that separate toilets for girls and boys should be provided in co-educational schools which are to be treated as two separate units and each unit is entitled to Central assistance.e. schools i. HYDERABAD 68 | P a g e . One school toilet unit should consist of one lavatory and three to four urinals. The unit cost of each school toilet units is Rs. on whether students are allowed to go to urinals during classes.

one can find lot of floating population.4. their seating capacities and their status Sl. But it is found that as many as six blocks are closed due to poor maintenance.1. Table 27: List of Public Toilets. PUBLIC TOILETS Ramagundam being an industrial town. Field investigations and discussions with ULB people indicated about 25. No Area 1 2 Opp Traffic Police Station Bus Stand 2 Seating Capacity Male 3 are in used and 1 is in unused condition 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 2 2 5 54 23 Female 2 4 Urinals 4 5 Remarks Functioning Construction in Progress 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Chowrastha Near Old Ashok Theatre CSP 5inc Line Vittal Nagar NTPC Market Ramagundam Village Sinc Line GodavariKhani Market I GodavariKhani Market II Indhira Nagar Total Total Functioning Seats 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 2 2 5 54 24 3 3 3 18 Functioning Functioning Closed Closed Maintenance is poor Closed Closed Closed Functioning Functioning Closed ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA.000 people per day visit Ramagundam and there are quite a few public convenience systems and the list is given in the table below.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM 3. The number of existing seats is grossly inadequate and on top of this about 50% seats are not in use. HYDERABAD 69 | P a g e .

In fact these complexes are seminal in pay and use concept and contributes to a large extent in keeping cities clean as well reducing the risk of outbreak of sanitation-related diseases. working in the field of community health promotion. The Sulabh International takes responsibility of construction. hospitals. operation and ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. The number of seats allotted separately to men and women is not known. etc. slums. has under its purview about 10 public toilet complexes under the contract with Sulabh. markets. each complex having 10 seats each. The complexes are located at public places like bus stands. HYDERABAD 70 | P a g e . Information of public toilets under the other PSUs is also required) Sulabh Public Toilet Complexes. (This is the information for SCCL-RG-II. Ramagundam SULABH MODEL Sulabh Public Toilet Complexes are the initiative of Sulabh International. Information about RG-I is not available.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM Note: The SCCL Ltd.

500 /. The operation and maintenance is also done by Sulabh. the seating capacity and their status are presented in the table as follows Map 4: Map showing the location of public toilets. The local governments pay for construction (or acquisition of land). 1/These charges can be increased automatically by 20% every year due to escalation in expenditures. The RMC has made the contract with Sulabh on BOT (Build-Operate-Transfer) basis with a lease period of 30 years.governmental organisation. The public toilets. All the toilets are connected to septic tanks and soak pit. The contract is allotted to Sulabh with a licence fee of Rs. This is a unique example of partnership between local authorities and non. Ramagundam ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. baths and urinals for the general public. Sulabh has also obtained the advertisement rights for adjoining areas. The maintenance of the rest is of poor quality. Of the 13 public toilet complexes under the RMC. only 4 are in use at present. The system has proved to be an important solution for the local bodies in keeping the towns clean and improving the environment.annually. HYDERABAD 71 | P a g e . It is the responsibility of Sulabh International to prepare drawings. get loans if needed from HUDCO etc. Municipality will bear the responsibility of electricity and water charges for the entire period. Sulabh constructs the system and guarantees the maintenance for at least 30 years from user charge.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM maintenance of the complexes and plays the catalyst role between the official agencies and the users of complexes. to construct toilets. Contracts have been drawn with The Sulabh International by the RMC and the PSU organizations separately for public toilet complexes comprising of latrines. Sulabh is entitled to collect user charges as follows:  WC Rs 2/ Bath Rs 3/ Urinal Rs.

UGD system covers about 30 % of the town area with a network of and is still under construction. The remaining 13. Total Population Sewerage pipelines Total length of UGD (m) No. of septic tanks connected to UGD 2 3 1 0 0 4 2 2 3 2 2 2 3 2 3 2 0 0 0 2 2 2 No. especially slum pockets where UGD system is not present now.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM 3. of users Open drainage Total length of open drains (m) 2360 2115 3160 4250 3975 2785 1882 3490 3120 2990 2565 2882 2635 3195 1730 1585 1976 2112 1780 2245 1930 2340 No.1.74% of the population is not served. No. HYDERABAD . Two Sewerage Treatment Plants (STPS) are not functional since two years.58% of the population has toilets draining into open drains. WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN RAMAGUNDAM Ramagundam has an Under Ground Drainage/ sewerage (UGD/S) system covering certain parts of the city. 45. It serves 99435 people of 244381 people (40. Other major drainage channels which also serve as storm water drainage channels for the city. The details of the drainage system in Ramagundam is as follows: Table 28: Details of drainage system in RMC Sl.68% of population). In other areas the sewage/sullage from the residential/ commercial units finds its way out onto street drains leading to natural nallahs /drainage channels which ultimately join the river Godavari. There are many areas in the city. of users Population not served drainage 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 6171 5064 4588 7226 6348 14557 9124 8954 7298 7893 5286 6442 6850 7873 7184 7452 7034 5772 6288 5362 6957 6015 1135 1230 1895 3140 2315 6165 1634 1815 2965 3912 2365 3310 2150 1557 6941 6886 2600 3951 2045 2566 2121 1116 1851 1519 2753 0 0 8734 5474 5372 4379 5920 3965 4832 4110 6298 5747 5962 0 0 0 4826 6261 5414 3120 2045 835 4726 4148 4023 2250 2282 2419 1673 522 1111 1740 1575 1437 1490 7034 5772 6288 386 516 442 1200 1500 1000 2500 2200 1800 1400 1300 500 300 800 500 1000 0 0 0 0 0 0 150 180 160 72 | P a g e ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. Ward No.5.

i.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 5561 7869 6067 5639 1908 6642 6125 12341 8479 6340 10264 11408 244381** 54306 1416 1167 1816 1700 1120 488 300 2365 565 1247 3850 0 79848 79.. These features enable design of the sewer lines based on tractive force criteria rather than the minimum velocity criteria (as in the case of conventional sewerage). Another advantage of this system is that it enables decentralised treatment of sewage in the form of either a low cost community septic tank followed by a wetland or ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. Variation occurs in rolling terrain where need for intermediate pumping may arise. All these modifications result in almost 50% reduction in capital cost compared to conventional sewerage. small homesteads with lack of space. With mild slopes.e. allowing cover of 400 mm or less. al. As the sewer lines are installed below sidewalks/footpaths or inside private properties. the requirement of deep manholes is eliminated and instead shallow and less expensive cleanouts or access chambers are provided. Further. Further. and minimising or altogether eliminating the need for lifting of sewage. upgradeable and extendable. etc. HYDERABAD 73 | P a g e . et. These considerations enable use of smaller diameter pipes (minimum 100 mm) at mild slopes. experience in Brazil has shown that simplified sewerage is cheaper than onsite sanitation in areas with population density higher than 175 persons/ha. 2001). however generally one or two lifts may be all that would be required. It is applicable in all situations but especially suitable for areas characterized by gently sloping topography.85 KM 0 0 0 2 0 1 2 3 0 2 4 0 53 0 0 0 3383 0 1993 1838 3702 0 2536 2566 0 99435 22097 2215 2190 2555 3960 1656 1350 800 3160 2120 2350 3165 0 82623 18361 5511 7069 5867 1456 1408 2649 2788 3639 7479 2604 3698 11408 111410 24758 50 800 200 800 500 2000 1500 5000 1000 1200 4000 0 33540 7453 TOTAL Total as HHs* [Source: RMC] *Average HH size 4. excavation is shallow. They are characterized by few basic features. Simplified sewerage system has been found to be reliable. impervious soil and shallow bedrock..5 ** Excluding PSU township SMALL BORE SEWERAGE SYSTEM: An unconventional sewerage system which has been experimented in Ramagundam recognized as simplified sewerage. high water table. provision of a solid interceptor tank at individual property connections and small diameter sewers laid at shallow depths. heavy vehicle loads are not expected and as a result the need for providing a minimum depth of soil cover is also reduced. The sewer gradient is designed based on initial design flow and the diameter is designed based on the final design flow (Mara. high and low density population with reasonable water supply. shallow sewerage or interceptor sewerage. with shallow pipes.

5/USD in 2003) wherein each family contributed Rs. For instance while interceptor tanks are essential. An interesting aspect under the whole programme has been provision of cement concrete pavements along with the simplified sewerage systems which together have led to significant improvement in the quality of life of the beneficiary communities. manual inspection.2 USD) for the conventional sewerage system. with invert between 150-200 mm below ground (Photographs 1&2). The average cost of construction is found to be Rs. Though the municipality plans to collect overflows from community septic tanks. This is found to be one third of the going estimate of Rs.2). removal of blockages through rodding machines or flushing equipment. further cost reduction is possible on users’ end by sharing of the interceptor tank by a group of houses before connecting to the network. settled sewage also requires lesser degree of treatment. in subsequent years Ramagundam Municipality has by now provided total sanitation coverage in 13 middle and low income colonies. The municipality is responsible for repairs and maintenance aspects while the community extends necessary support in terms of timely reporting of any blockages and sharing of minor costs. The users also need to ensure that no large objects are disposed into the toilets and the tanks are emptied when full.75 million (~USD 15. UK (DFID) supported project ‘Andhra Pradesh Urban Services for the Poor’ at Ramagundam. 1000/(~ USD 21) towards community contribution and the balance was paid by the municipality. One of the essential and desirable aspects of developing a simplified sewerage project is the need for community participation in its planning. the system can be characterized as ‘shallow sewerage’ or a variant of ‘simplified’ sewer system. The latest available edition of the Manual on Sewerage and Sewage Treatment of the Central Public Health and Environmental Engineering Organisation (CPHEEO). In this regard. a small beginning has been made during last 5 years under the Department for International Development. In 2003/ 04 the project cost was Rs.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM somewhat higher order treatment option according to the applicable discharge standards. However. It has resulted in significant behaviour change with preference towards fixed point defecation among the beneficiaries and improvement in environmental sanitation within the community. Each house connection includes a raised chamber at the front of a property. 47.790. it is to be recognised that on account of individual interceptor tanks. The sewers are of 150 mm diameter and are laid rather shallow. the municipality identified a resettlement colony of 300 lower middle income families for a pilot project wherein each family agreed to construct an individual household latrine at its own cost and contribute towards 40% cost of sewer network. To start with. 3000/per person (~63. 2884) however as yet they have not been adopted by consulting organisations. Ministry of Urban Development introduces ‘small bore’ and ‘shallow sewerage’ as appropriate technology options (CPHEEO. and divert them to one of the two existing sewage treatment plants (which are based on waste stabilisation pond technology) ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. HYDERABAD 74 | P a g e . Although there are no individual interception tanks on any of the properties. The combined sewage from 300 houses is discharged into a common large septic tank which subsequently overflows into a storm water drain. 0. the pipes are not laid perfectly and the treatment is not complete. @ Rs. Drawing from this successful initiative. 1100/per person (~USD 23. as needed. and desludging of interceptor/septic tanks once every 5 years or so. repairs of sewer lines and connection chambers. construction and O&M. municipal engineers and urban local bodies. Maintenance requirements of such a system comprise occasional flushing of sewer lines.

before the overflows could be fully intercepted and the treatment plants could be commissioned satisfactorily. It has been handed over to the RMC for operation and maintenance. but the construction work has not started because of land ownership between the authorities of two villages and the Singareni Collieries. one STP of 14 MLD capacity is constructed and commissioned at Malkapur. There are pockets even in the PSU areas that are not having connections to the UGD. mainly resource constraints. Presently. However it has yet to overcome several challenges. The wastewater is directly discharged into the Godavari river through different canals. it is not under operation for reasons not explained. A third STP of 14 MLD capacity has been sanctioned at Sundilla Village. and hence has not started operation. 2009] ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. At present. polluting the water used for cultivation in the nearby areas. HYDERABAD 75 | P a g e . Ramagundam Sewage and sullage being discharged directly into nallahs without treatment The following map shows the locations of the STPs and their respective outfall points it also shows the areas that are not covered under UGD system in the RMC. but the Public Health Department (PHD) has not handed it over to the RMC. A shallow chamber for house connection Simplified sewerage in a resettlement colony Defunct STP. The second STP of 4MLD capacity at Ramagundam has been constructed.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM which were constructed under a separate centrally sponsored programme. Godavarikhani under National River Conservation Programme). Most of the sewage drains into Ooracheruvu. [Source: Checklist for monitoring of performance of Sewage Treatment Plants by Central Pollution Control Board.

The details of treatment facilities in the townships are as follows. the outfall points and the areas without UGD network Some PSUs have set up STPs for their respective townships. They also have single or community septic tanks. ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM Map 5: Map showing the location of STPs. HYDERABAD 76 | P a g e .

P. The targets and achievements as follows: Table 30: Targets and achievements Investment Target S. 1 Organization Singareni Collieries Company Ltd.00 Cores. Karimnagar has been sanctioned Under Ground Drainage Scheme to Ramagundam town duly sharing the NTPC. of septic tanks of total capacity XXX MLD Unit RG-II: 1 STP of capacity 2 MLD XXX nos. 2.40 The SCCL is pleading silent for release of balance amount of Rs.) RG-I: 7097 RG-II: 4000 Waste water generated RG-I: 16729 KL/day RG-II: 5455 KL/day STP details Unit RG-I: XXX nos.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM Table 29: Details of waste water treatment facilities in the townships under the PSUs Sl.2. No.00 14.T.C. The District Collector.60 1. HYDERABAD 77 | P a g e .20 Crores balance funds and out of which they have given consent for execution of Rs 82.P.Co. The works are completed. with an estimated cost of Rs.00 3.00 1.00 2. 3. Further the NTPC authorities are requested to release balance funds of Rs. SCCL.00 5.P (APGENCO) 750 720 KL/day No waste water treatment facility As per the instructions of the Hon’ble Chief Minster of Andhra Pradesh. In regards to NTPC had provisionally agreed for release of Rs. In Crores) Achievement 3.00 Crores.00 Lakhs works. APGENCO etc.. Households (nos.E. ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA.00 2.00 3.40 crores.00 9. of septic tanks of total capacity XXX MLD STP of waste stabilisation pond rechnology 2 3 N.40 Nil Nil 4.60 Balance 2. Ltd NTPC AP Geneco Ramagundam Municipal Corporation Total 5. 14.C A.00 (Rs.S.

HYDERABAD 78 | P a g e .6 % households connected to septic tanks constructed by house owners individually or shared/communal septic tanks. the waste water that may be generated in the future years has been projected as follows. the RMC is able to supply water at the rate of 53 lpcd.6. Private operators do it for the individual households on request made.17 34.8/1000000 Where. In Ramagundam there is no attempt to collect and dispose all sludge which is high in septic nature.for 3000 lt of volume. Field investigations revealed that 86.72 45.7.71 28. SEPTAGE MANAGEMENT Septage Management refers to all sludge collected and transported from septic tank systems by vacuum trucks for treatment and then disposal in a safe manner. and charge Rs 1500/. For individual properties.40 27.1. Majority of residents clear septic tanks by calling private operators from Karimnagar and there is no monitoring or regulation by RMC on disposal of sludge. ULB neither has regulatory provision to clean septic tanks periodically or own any Suction pumps in these residential societies.29 31. Q = Wastewater flow in mld Py = Population in design year HHSew = Households connected to sewerage system as % of total households W = average daily per capita water supply R = Sewage return factor = 0.95 39. Table 31: Waste Water Projections Year Avg per capita Waste Water in MLD 2005 2009 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 2045 Note: 122 122 122 122 122 122 122 122 122 122 Wastewater Treatment 25.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM 3. In many areas of the towns especially in some slums even community septic tanks for 200 -300 households exist. WASTE WATER PROJECTIONS At present. Private operators dump the sludge in some low lying areas of ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA.61 48.1.49 Q= py*Hhsew*W*R*0. Based on the present capacity of per capita water supply and the future population projections.06 36. Also it was observed that Manholes are overflowing as these Septic Tanks have to be cleared and maintained by RMC.83 42.80 (or 80 percent of water supply) 3. In one of the slum where community septic tank exists even bath room water is discharged in to these Septic Tanks which will greatly damager the effectiveness of Septic Tank.

CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM the city outside the city limits. In case of twin pit latrines, the sludge is well stabilized and can be disposed off safely or can be used as manure. But in case of Septic tanks the accumulated sludge is highly septic in nature and should be periodically removed and disposed off with proper treatment. The hygienic risk is highest for septic tank due to the risk of direct contact during emptying. The discharge of this waste in the ponds will also indirectly affect the community members where water from hand pumps will also get contaminated. Two household on-site systems, biogas system and septic tank, the main risk is the sludge, which is difficult to handle. Professionally equipped workers are necessary to conduct the emptying of biodigester and the septic tank. The typical layout should is as follows but in reality the septic tanks in the city do not adhere to norms. The concerned PSUs outsource the task of sludge disposal to private organizations on a tender basis. One PSU told that they dispose the sludge it in coal quarries without any treatment. BOX 10: SEPTIC TANK MAINTENANCE NORMS Service agents and councils are not fully aware of the maintenance recommendations. Annual servicing should include assessment of the sludge and scum levels, and checking of the outlet and inlet square junctions for blockages. Septic tanks ideally should be desludged at a minimum of every three years and other criteria given below are not followed in septic tank maintenance.     The scum layer is within 100 mm of the bottom of the inlet square junction, or the sludge layer is within 200 mm of the bottom of the outlet square junction. the sludge occupies the basic allowance (1550 L) of the septic tank, or The total depth of sludge and scum is equal to one-third of the depth of the tank. De-sludging procedure should ensure that 400 - 500 mm of liquid is retained in the tank, and that the tank is immediately refilled with water to the outlet level to prevent the tank from being lifted by soil hydrostatic pressure.

Periodical IEC programme can only address these issues. Considering the volume of the sludge disposed in an unhygienic manner pose great health hazards to people of Ramagundam and UGD which is under implementation should be able to provide solution to much of the problem.

RMC has provided about 3353 ILCS latrines - mostly outside thickly populated area where sewerage system is not economical. Also encouraged Community Sewer System with 40% public participation and covered over 4000 families under 18 schemes. As part of it surveyed entire town in 2004 to identify existing system of latrines in the town by engaging unemployed graduates. Notices have been served to all those who are directly leaving the sewage to open drain to immediately construct their own septic tank. RMC addressed bottlenecks in implementation of ILCS and tackled space problem in Slums. There was a huge demand of ILCS units in Ramagundam. At inception of ILCS, as per Municipal survey report 21041 households are devoid of proper toilet facilities. Even no
ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA, HYDERABAD 79 | P a g e

CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM community toilets are available within 200 meters. As Ramagundam is an industrial town, each year there was an addition to the population. The migratory population works in the power generation units, in local mines or cement factories. RMC has initiated a programme with DFID India to construct community septic tanks in the slums, as the slum houses did not have enough space for constructing the twin pit units. Pipes from each household opened into a community septic tank through an inlet pipe and the processed sewage water let out through an outlet vent. In densely populated slums, similar initiatives can be replicated provided the septic tanks are regularly cleaned and maintained. There should be proper regulation on not to discharge soapy water to septic tanks. Present Status of these Community Septic Tanks is mentioned in subsequent paragraphs under Septage Management. With this RMC had made good efforts in the past to make town in to 100% sanitised. But due to failure of running STP properly and ILCS toilets failure to some extent slipped its status. SLB indicators as indicated below reinforces the status.

3.1.8. SERVICE LEVEL BENCHMARKING INDICATORS
Table 32: Sewerage and Sanitation – Service Level Benchmarks, Ramagundam Municipality

Sl. No 1 2 3

Indicators Coverage of toilets Coverage of sewage network services Collection efficiency of the sewage networks Adequacy of sewage treatment capacity Quality of sewage treatment Extent of reuse and recycling of sewage Efficiency in redressal of customer complaints Extent of cost recovery in sewage management Efficiency in collection of sewage charges

Benchmarks 100% 100% 100%

Status 84.4% 0% 0%

Reliability D -

4 5 6 7

100% 100% 20% 80%

0% 0% 0% 0%

-

8

100%

0%

-

9

90%

0%

-

[Source – A.P gazette notification( as a part of fulfilling 13th finance commission)] .

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CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM BOX 11: SEWERAGE AND SANITATION – KEY OBSERVATIONS OPEN DEFECATION  Open defecation widely practiced, especially in the slum areas. These areas include Subhas Nagar, Seethanagar, etc.  OD is common in pocket having immigrant population from U.P, Bihar, Punjab, etc.  The common people also feel that construction of toilets cannot be afforded by them as they are daily wage labourers TOILET ACCESS  Absolute lack of sanitation facilities- laborers and those who occupy land of PSUs, alongside railways and canals are obvious examples of people who have very limited legal rights and often have no access to sanitation.  Improvements have been brought about in toilet access ILCS programs.  There are no community toilets in Ramagundam.  Only 4 out of 13 public toilets are functional – which is quite inadequate for a floating population of 25,000 people.  Toilets are majorly connected to septic tanks, or UGD systems. But the UGD system is not functioning properly, with many leaks, breakages. Many toilets are also connected directly to drains. WASTE WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM  The common pattern is for WCs to discharge to open drains, usually but not always via a septic tank. In many areas, people have gone one step further and have worked together to provide sewers which discharge waste water to the nearest collector drain or natural watercourse.  UGD system exists in certain parts of RMC area. But the construction of the system is not being done in a well planned manner, but totally ad-hoc.  Facilities provided but not operated properly - The STPs constructed under National River Water Conservation Programme (NRCP) are also defunct. This indicates a well thought approach is required in creating assets before transferring to ULB for O&M. This has to be refurbished on priority basis.  The PSUs have adequate and well maintained treatment facilities for the respective areas. NTPC has well planned waste water treatment facilities for their township. However SCCL has their own community STPs but sludge is disposed without any treatment. The remaining PSUs also have individual or community septic tanks and sludge is disposed without treatment in low lying and quarry areas.

SANITATION WORKERS  There are upto 400 sanitation workers, 70 are employees of the Municipality. None of them have any protective gear. There are several open drains where the workers can be see working with bare hands unclogging the flow. Same workers double as garbage pickers visiting door to door. There is a need for more rickshaws and trucks to clear garbage.

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W-Cs. Development control Rules 2008 –Orders dated 23 -8 -2008 vide GO MS NO 569) clause relevant to buildings and sanitation “The work of the building services like sanitation. 1965 and Section 17 of Andhra Pradesh Town Planning Act. design and supervision of qualified and competent technical personnel. and non residential buildings. the requirement of parts of the building like size and area requirements of habitable rooms. fire safety equirements. UNAUTHORISED CONSTRUCTIONS Unauthorized Construction is major impediments of the towns for the planned development and provision of optimum services and they should be promptly dealt with. Rule 11:Minimum size of habitable rooms.bathrooms and water closet . BUILDING BYE-LAWS In the Municipal Towns of Andhra Pradesh the “Building Rules” have been framed under section 230 of Andhra Pradesh Municipalities Act.other areas . Rule 12(2):An open space equivalent to one fourth of height of the building should be left as open space adjacent to the Windows & ventilators to ensure required natural light and Ventilation. Section 211 of Andhra Pradesh Municipal Act.9.1.corridors and stair case widths service ducts etc. Such buildings shall be undertaken by owners by engaging registered Architects/ licensed builders/developers and licensed structural engineer and who shall be responsible for supervision and specification compliance of such buildings. If not. 210 of Andhra Pradesh Municipal Act. 1965 and under section 17 and 18 of Andhra Pradesh Town Planning Act. bathrooms.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM 3. lifts. 1965. Irrespective of height provisions.. Every person who intends to make construction of structures should obtain prior approval under section 209. HYDERABAD 82 | P a g e . bath rooms and W-Cs Rule 12:Lighting and Ventilation to be provided in the Buildings. kitchen . they will create impact and encourage others to resort to unauthorised construction to exploit maximum benefits without contributing such as payment of the fees etc. The following are some of the important rules related and affect sanitation which should be kept in mind during the scrutiny of building applications and to take action on the building which are made against the rules. 1920 in case where Town Planning Schemes are applicable. The building Rules are intended for regulating the constructions. Rule 10:Minimum height to be provided for habitable rooms. electric installations and other utility services shall be executed under the planning. BOX 12: AP GOVT. DEVELOPMENT CONTROL RULES 2008 – CLAUSES RELEVANT TO BUILDING AND SANITATION As per the building bye laws(Municipal Administration and Urban Development department _ Andhra Pradesh Municipalities Development Department – AP govt. shall conform to National Building Code of India 2005. plumbing. ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. 1920 prohibit commencement of any building without the prior permission of the Municipal Commissioner. reconstructions and additions or alterations to buildings in old built-up areas only. and jeopardize the prescribed land uses.

In case the deviations do not violate rules the same may be regularized on levying compounding fee. 1965 if such deviations are against the rules. if any. should be mentioned in the report. which is usually one year.O. ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA.e.228 of Andhra Pradesh Municipal Act. and violation of rules and regulations. HYDERABAD 83 | P a g e .CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM If any person fails to obtain prior building permission or commences the construction after the lapse of statutory period. should be taken and a rough sketch should be prepared highlighting unauthorised construction They also have to explain them about importance and necessity of rules and they should be asked to stop the work. ACTION TO BE TAKEN ON UNAUTHORISED CONSTRUCTION As soon as unauthorised construction is detected. A penalty of twenty five percent of property tax shall be levied on unauthorized constructions and deviations to sanctioned plan till such unauthorized constructions are regularized or demolished as per sub-section 3 of section 220 of GHMC Act as amended by Act No. Any deviations made from the approved plans are also considered as unauthorised construction and action should be taken under section 217 of Andhra Pradesh Municipal Act. The report along with Provisional Order (P. If the owner does not stop the construction and does not obtain building permission.O) notice should be got approved by Municipal Commissioner or by the official to whom the powers are delegated and the notice should be served to the owner duly obtaining acknowledgment. The details of the construction being made and the name and address of the owner should be promptly noted and the measurements of the site and construction. 9 of 2008 w. 1965 and under section 19 of Andhra Pradesh Town Planning Act. If the construction is in violation of Rules and Regulations the violated portion of the construction should be removed duly obtaining the demolition orders from the Municipal Commissioner. it is considered as unauthorised construction and action against such construction is required to be taken under section 211. If the owner fails to comply with this notice also. the Town Planning staff member should bring into the knowledge of the owners about the Act and Rule provisions under which they have to take permission for the construction. 1920 in case of areas covered by Town Planning Scheme. should be confirmed and Confirmation Orders (CO) notice should be served to the owner.f 15-12-2007. if there are not violation in the construction from the rules and regulations. An unauthorised construction report should be prepared in the prescribed proforma mentioning the details of construction. prosecution should be filed in appropriate court. stage of construction proposed use of construction. as per rules the P.

There are 8 zones in the RMC area.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM 3.2. 3. Central and Private sectors.2. As the town as many no. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT INTRODUCTION The Urban Solid Waste Management is being dealt by the Corporation duly implementing the provisions of Rules 2000. HYDERABAD 84 | P a g e . of slums. there is inadequate infrastructure in provision of civic amenities i. Corporation has introduced Scientific processing and disposal facilities like composting of waste to energy of PPP mode. toilet facilities. Ramagundam ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. drainage. Map 6: The SWM zones. The details of the zones are as follows. The Corporation is mobilizing all its resources and initiating measures to dove-tail funding resources available at State. PRIMARY COLLECTION The primary collection of solid waste is done by the municipality and the PSUs for their respective areas. street lighting and roads.1. sewerage system.e.

The coverage of DTD collection of solid waste in the RMC area is 25% and ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. In the PSU townships.23.5.door waste collection is done by the RMC authorities for 12300 households (32% of the total number of households) within their purview.14. Door –to .12.19 22.26 27.11.2.21. the authorities take care to clean the entire length of roads within the respective areas.28.13.34 9.18.10.6.30 20.3 4. About 79% of the lengths of roads within the RMC area are swept by RMC sweeping staff. HYDERABAD 85 | P a g e .32.15 16. The total solid waste generated is 115 TPD and that collected is 107 TPD.25 8.24.17.33 Two-compartment tricycles for primary solid waste collection Waste dumped along the roadside Illegal and unplanned dumping of solid waste within communities by tricycle pullers The PSUs have door-to-door collection for garbage collection for all the establishments within their townships. The primary collection service is through Street sweeping and door – to door waste collection Street sweeping is focused in the 32 wards demarcated as the Litter Free Zones.31.7.29. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Constituent wards 1.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM Table 33: Details of SWM Zones in RMC area Zone No.

duly collecting the house hold waste daily in two bucket system using tricycles. No. The primary collection of solid waste as done under the RMC authorities is inefficient to a large extent. But in absence of policies of waste segregation at the source. There are 40 such containers at different parts of the RMC area. Even the local people dump the residual waste of the day in such areas even after having the waste collected by the tricycle pullers. effective use of two-bucket tricycles has not commenced till date. HYDERABAD 86 | P a g e . of units 12300 24 68 4 12396 TOTAL ESTABLISHMENTS COVERED ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. This is because of the carelessness and the ignorance of the tricycle pullers and the local people. The ULB is maintaining Litter Free Zones in 32 wards. Table 34: Details of D2D collection by RMC Sl. The PSUs on the other hand manage their DTD collection of waste efficiently in their respective township areas. 1 2 3 4 Particulars Households Hotels and restaurants Commercial Establishments Any other establishments No. Quite a number of such tricycle pullers dump the collected waste in open areas amidst the communities. DTD collection and segregation has a major scope of improvement in the RMC area.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM also inefficient to a large extent. The un-segregated wastes collected from house-to house collection and street sweeping are deposited in mechanized container bins. placed by RMC in different localities. The PSU authorities ensure the door-to-door collection of solid waste for all households within the concerned township areas with tricycles. The details of waste collection in the RMC area are presented in the table as follows. Details of door to door collection by the RMC authorities is as follows. But the segregation of waste at source or during collection has not been brought under practice till date.

of Zones/Ward s No.65 (.90 Total amount of solid waste collected (TPD) 107 1 2 RMC SCCL RG-I 8/32 RG-II 6425 100 21.3kg/person /day) 9.18 ?? (60 cu. Name of Organizatio n No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Particulars Households Street sweeping Hotels and restaurants Markets Commercial establishments Other sources (horticulture waste etc.3kg/person /day) 2. Table 36: Details of waste generation in RMC Sl.63 (.m/day) 3 4 NTPC APSEP (APGENCO) 750 100 [Source: Discussions with RMC and PSU officials] Data required for the highlighted cells Details of waste as generated by RMC are as follows. of househol ds covered 12300 7097 % of househol ds covered 32 100 Total amount of solid waste generated (TPD) 115 10. No.) MT/month 2670 30 90 600 30 30 3450 TOTAL WASTE GENERATED [Source: RMC] ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA.No.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM Table 35: Details of primary solid waste collection in Ramagundam Sl. HYDERABAD 87 | P a g e .

Most of the refuse vehicles with RMC are tractors. TRANSPORTATION The accumulated wastes in container bins are transported to the different disposal sites as demarcated by the different authorities. : 1 No : 1 No : 101 Nos under repair : 12 Nos. Details of waste collected by the tractor trailers and the wheeler auto tippers are as follows: Table 37: Details of vehicles used for solid waste transportation Particulars Number of tractor trailers used for solid waste transportation Capacity of each tractor trailer Total number of trips made by all tractor trailers daily to disposal site Total quantity of waste collected by tractor trailer Number of wheeler auto tippers used for solid waste transportation Capacity of each wheeler auto tipper Total number of trips made by all wheeler auto tippers daily to disposal site Total quantity of waste collected by wheeler auto tippers [Source: ASCI SLB Data] Units Number MT Number MT/month Number MT Number MT/month Value 14 3 28 2520 12 1 36 36 ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. HYDERABAD 88 | P a g e .CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM 3.2. The following are the vehicles as used by the RMC for solid waste transportation. Tractor Garbage Containers Dumper Placer JCB Tricycles Auto Trolleys : 15Tractors+2Hired : 40 Nos.2.

The installed capacity of the composting plant is 120 MT/Month.5. Very often. DISPOSAL SYSTEM The solid waste as collected by the tractors is dumped at a dumpsite which is located near S T Colony about 0. WASTE PROCESSING Only Aerobic system was adopted at Gouthaminagar IDA Compost yard. from the Ramagundam Railway Station. The UHCs have about 2-3 beds each and their focus is on immunization. There is no treatment facility present till date. Till date no attempt has been taken towards improvement of this site. The crude dumping and burning of waste generates dust. mother and child care.  Up gradation of the existing dump sites and disposal of inert wastes in sanitary landfills. Gynecology. etc. Moreover. lack of suitable staff.  It has been observed that there is a lack of proper and full fledged MSWM services in RMC primarily due to reasons including. Primary segregation: In the Govt.3. Pellatisation etc. The solid waste collected in the PSU townships is dumped at remote low-lying areas within their respective lands.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM BOX 13: FUNCTIONS OF ULBS AS PER MSW RULES 2000 As per the MSW Rules 2000. 3. Only crude dumping of solid waste is done. fragile links with other concerned agencies. Yellow for incinerable waste which when converted into ash is used in bricks. a wide spectrum of functions is to be undertaken by the ULB and major functions include:  Prohibiting littering of street  Organizing house to house waste collection  Conducting awareness programmes to disseminate information to public  Providing adequate community storage facilities  Use of colour code bins and promotion of waste segregation  Transport of wastes in covered vehicles  Processing of wastes by adopting an appropriate combination of composting. etc.2. Area Hospital has 100 beds and offers treatment to patients in the fields of ENT. anaerobic digestion. BIO-MEDICAL/ HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL PRACTICES There is one Govt. and other allied problems.4.2. funding for operations and maintenance relating to provision of MSWM services and Sanitation is not earmarked and properly budgeted for. the waste is collected by a private organization called “Venkataramana incinerators” and the waste is segregated and kept in proper coded containers (green for bio-degradable waste. Area Hospital. The Govt. HYDERABAD 89 | P a g e . institutional problems within the ULB and PSUs . smoke and foul odour posing threat to the surrounding environment and public health.2. 3. financial constraints of ULBs. Area Hospital and five urban health centers (UHCs) in RMC. Blue for plastic waste is used for recycling and Plastic Proof container ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA.  Mostly.5 km. a chance of leachate generation and subsequent contamination of ground water is also not ruled out. expenses towards MSWM are met from the general budget and allocation from Property taxes. 3.

Ramagundam Name No. Ramagundam Collection and Disposal: For the collection and disposal of waste. The organization collects the bio-medical waste at regular intervals which is incinerated at the plant. of beds Quality of incinerable waste(Yellow) in Kgs (Monthly) 109 Plastic waste (Blue) in Kgs (Monthly) 6 Plastic proof container(PPC) waste. the Govt.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM waste (PPC) containing sharp objects like needles etc is dumped in constructed concrete pits for landfilling. cut needles and bio-degradable waste respectively. Hospital. The bio-degradable waste is collected and disposed by the RMC. HYDERABAD 90 | P a g e . sharps in Kgs (Monthly) 9 Govt Hospital 100 [Source – Statement showing received biomedical waste by M/s Venkataramana Incinerators ] Map 7: The location of solid waste dumpsite. URBAN HEALTH CENTERS Primary segregation: The UHCs have been provided with separate containers for plastic waste. Area Hospital has made an arrangement with an organization M/s Venkataramana Incinerators at Karimnagar. ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. Table 38: Details disposal of waste from Govt.

RMC also collects such hazardous waste from some institutions mixed with the bio-degradable waste.  Ramagundam Village  NTPC colony  Godavarikhani area  8 Incline Colony The total waste generated per day from the slaughter houses is about 1 Ton.6. On occasions where RMC collects bio-medical and hazardous wastes as well (such as needles. HYDERABAD 91 | P a g e . slaughter houses at Ramagundam are located at four locations – but these are not authorized. and the plastic waste once in few months.M). Hence they will be closed down and an authorized slaughter house will commence operation in the Malkapur Area. A veterinary doctor is present in all such locations for proper inspection.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM Collection and Disposal: The bio-degradable waste is collected by RMC. some UHCs resort to burning of waste within their premises. etc). The waste collected by RMC is dumped at the dumpsite at Gauthaminagar. But because of lack of regularity in the collection by the DM&HO.30 A.2. 3.M to 10. SLAUGHTER HOUSES At present. Map 8: Map showing the location of slaughter houses. Waste is collected from all the areas by the RMC authorities on a daily basis. Ramagundam ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA.00 A. this waste is dumped in a low-lying area within the dumping yard and is covered by topsoil. The unauthorized slaughter houses are located at the following areas. The District Medical and Health Office (DM&HO) is supposed to collect the hazardous waste such as the cut needles. Slaughtering of animals is allowed in these areas only within a stipulated time in a day (6.

58 Projection of solid waste generated (TPD) 150. Each circle comprises four to ten electoral wards and is headed by a Sanitary Inspector.26 202.58 0. The solid waste generations for the future years have been calculated as follows. the future generation trends will be governed by population changes and will be mainly from domestic sources.7.72 253.56 236. For operational purposes. SOLID WASTE PROJECTIONS To assess the magnitude of the problem to be tackled in future estimations of waste generation has been done based on population projections done for Ramagundam taking considering CPHEEO norms (average per capita waste generation is 350gms).87 271. Table 40: Projection of solid waste generation for future Year Avg per capita (kg) 0.10 185.95 164. transportation.41 219.18 2005 2009 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 2045 [Source: ASCI] ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Indicators Household level coverage of Solid Waste Management services Efficiency of collection of municipal solid waste Extent of segregation of municipal solid waste Extent of municipal solid waste recovered/recycled Extent of scientific disposal of municipal solid waste Extent of cost recovery in solid waste management services Efficiency in redressal of customer complaints Efficiency in collection of user charges Benchmarks 100% 100% 100% 80% 100% 100% 80% 90% Status 25% 90.58 0.7% 0% 0% 75% 0% Reliability D D D C - [Source – A.67 168.2.03 288. the entire area is divided into eight Health Circles. 3.58 0.58 0. The Engineering section is responsible for procurement and maintenance of equipment and vehicles.4% 0% 4.58 0. Since growth is expected to be moderate.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM Table 39: Solid Waste Management – Service Level Benchmarks Sl. street sweeping.58 0. and disposal of solid waste.58 0.P gazette notification( as a part of fulfilling 13th finance commission)] The Health section represented by a Health Officer and is responsible for all activities of collection. HYDERABAD 92 | P a g e .58 0.58 0.

Designs. and one has been proposed to come up very soon. HYDERABAD 93 | P a g e . Final disposal is done through crude dumping in open dumping yards and Scientific landfill not present for dumping of waste. with low coordination between them. These dumps are a hazard to health as they are not cleaned regularly. Systems are in place for the collection and treatment of bio-medical waste in the Govt.               ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA.PSUs have complete and efficient waste collection. major investments. planning and designing in ULB Lack of awareness creation mechanism and no SWM related user charges . Lack of an appropriate institutional arrangement for MSWM. However . Extensive open drains network in Ramagundam is posing great O &M problem. transportation and disposal system in their respective areas Both residents and sanitation workers have been observed to throw garbage in along roadsides. or open areas. Absence of waste storage system at Source (households. Urban sanitation is not with one section and not given due recognition and plagued with fragmented institutional responsibilities. drains. Hence piles of garbage can be seen on the roadside especially in slum areas.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM BOX 14: SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT – KEY OBSERVATIONS  Inefficient D2D collection system. Labor shortage is threatening to cripple the system as those involved in cleaning the drains are being sent to collect garbage as well . Multiple institutions responsible for different activities.often leading to inefficient garbage collection. Hospital and the Urban Health Centres. resulting in littering of waste . The waste from the slaughter houses is properly and regularly collected and disposed at the dumping site. Emphasis is mostly on creation of infrastructure with low priority for O&M. Absence of waste processing facility and waste collected is disposed directly into landfills. commercial establishments etc) Low coverage – lack of adequate primary collection (door-to-door) system (25%) Lack of proper street sweeping and cleaning on regular basis especially ion drains and slums due to redundant/Out-dated vehicles for MSW transportation Design and location of MSW storage depots inappropriate. Waste to energy palnt is in proposal. There are several illegal slaughter houses in RMC areas which are soon to be stopped. often undertaken by parastatals and O&M passed on to ULB without any capacity building. No Accountability thus no responsibility.

Medipalli (vill). Ward No. 34 is maintained by NTPC and 15 wards are maintained by SCCL. APSEP to 600 households.t.r. Ramagundam. Bheemunipatnam.3.3. duration of supply per day ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. Primary surveys in Ramagundam Municipality shows that 20% of the households have house supply connections (HSC). 40% depend upon tankers. Kakatiya Nagar. At present the daily supply is 10. SOURCE Water is supplied to the population from the Godavari river through infiltration wells. Allur and PK Ramaiah Colony. Annapurna Colony. PSUs take care of water supply in their townships. WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM INTRODUCTION The major source of water supply for the city of Ramagundam is River Godavari. The surveys also show that 87% of the households get water supply only for about 30 mins to an hour per day.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM 3. HYDERABAD 94 | P a g e . The remaining 13% get water for about 2-3 hours in a day. Maredupaka.1. whereas the remaining 40% of the households depend on their own resources for water. The RMC is able to supply water to 16 wards to 10585 households out of the 52055 households in the entire RMC area at the rate of about 53. Colony.69 lpcd only. The water supply for the RMC area is taken care of by the Engineering Department. and NTPC to XXXX households. There are 574 Hand pumps and Six Power Bores are working in the town. Figure 5: Percentage distribution of households according to source of water supply Figure 6: Percentage distribution of households having HSC w. The un-served areas are supplying water through water tankers daily. S. The PSUs supply water to their respective townships. 3.00 MLD for 16 wards remaining 2 wards maintained by AP GENCO.C. Ten water tankers are engaging to supply water in un served areas. S.. Seetha Nagar.T. Water is supplied to people in both RMC and township areas from the river. The SCCL is responsible for the water supply to 13522 households.

of hand bores No.24 1 2 3 4 TOTAL RMC SCCL NTPC APSEP RG-I RG-II 16 15 1 2 34 10585 7097 6425 600 DATA REQUIRED FOR THE HIGHLIGHTED CELLS Table 42: Details of the Water Supply System Data No.5 2. Private-34. of tankers(capacities also) Municipal Corporation-15. Maternity Hospital.06 MLD (Qty Supplied by Municipal corporation only to 16 wards) MLD DATA REQUIRED FOR THE HIGHLIGHTED CELLS ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA.09 0. of households % of households Total amount of water supplied (MLD) 14.68 0. of wards No. HYDERABAD 95 | P a g e . No.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM Table 41: Details ofWater Supply in Ramagundam Sl. of Bore wells No. 96 km 10528 Nil Total water Supplied in 10. of Power Bores No.) Not working /disconnected 3 104 - Length of Distribution Network (km) Number of Service Connections Domestic HSC (House service connections) Commercial Connections Number of PSPs (Public Stand Posts) No. at Ashok Nagar. of Storage Reservoirs Total 6 744 592 5 Working 3 640 592 5 (2400 KL capacity ELSR at Sharada Nagar and 1200 KL capacity ELSRs 4 Nos. Old Municipal Office and Sanjay Gandhi Nagar. Organization No.

Figure 7: RMC Water supply scheme 3. The scheme is designed to supply a quantity of 21. The existing distribution is about 68 Kms. Bheemunipatnam. HYDERABAD 96 | P a g e . The unserved areas are provided with water supply through water tankers daily. Pump sets are installed at intake well to pump water to 1000 KL capacity sump at Sharada Nager water tank through 800 mm dia PSC pumping main for 3.70 Kms.K. DISTRIBUTION The surface water is drawn from the infiltration wells and gallery from the bed of the river. Kakatiya Nagar.T. The 135 H. Seetha Nagar. Old Mpl. Annapurna Colony. V. Maredupaka. HDPE.3. Ten tankers are engaged for the purpose for areas such as S. From there the clear water after chlorination is pumped to the 2400 KL capacity Sharada Nagar water tank through 35 HP pump sets and other 4 ELSRs of each 1200 KL capacity situated at Gandhi Nagar. Medipalli.Ramaiah Colony. There is no system in place to regularly monitor the pressure of water and record them. WATER SUPPLY COVERAGE IN RMC The total numbers of connections as provided by RMC authorities are 10585 (about 20% of the households in total RMC area).2. RCC and PSC lines are there. In Ramagundam water is supplied for average 2-3 days. but present daily water supply to the town is 10.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM 3.3. pipes varying from 110 m to 700m dia of PVC. The RMC and the PSU authorities together serve about 24067 households.T. Colony. Allur and P. This is validated and can be easily cross checked from valve opening records.P. ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. Water is distributed to the 10528 HSC by the gravity from the existing ELSRs. Maternity Hospital and Sanjay Gandhi Nagar water tank through 150 HP pump sets installed near clear water sump at Sharada Nagar water tank. S.3.C. it is even observed that the continuity went for even 4 days in some parts of the city. Records are maintained at valves for its operation.00 MLD. The water is collected in to intake well cum pump house situated on the bank of river Godavari. Office.00 MLD.

404 5.537 6.31.08 3.897 3.3.3. 1 2 Location Upstream Ramagundam Ph 8. and Rajahmundry.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM 3. RIVER & WATER BODIES WATER QUALITY GODAVARI RIVER QUALITY Godavari River flows along the northern boundary of the city.5.80.26 7.746 4. HYDERABAD 97 | P a g e .24. Table 43: Water supply requirements for the future YEAR Avg per capita (lpcd) Population Water Supply requirements (MLD) 2005 2009 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 2045 [Source: ASCI] 122 122 122 135 135 135 135 135 135 135 3. Under NRCP (National River Conservation Plan) of GAP-II (Ganga Action Plan-II) 4 towns were identified in Andhra Pradesh along the Godavari river.214 7. Table 44: Water quality of Godavari River at Ramagundam Sl. the water requirements for the projected population for the future years has been calculated as follows.7 [Source: Andhra Pradesh Pollution Control Board Annual Report 2007-2008] ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA.12 47.4. Bhadrachalam.758 3.17.26.11 51.324 31.08 67. The other three are – Mancherial.69 lpcd. the RMC supplies water at the rate of 53.02.11 55.014 8. Assuming the same rate of per capita water supply.62.68.75 34.10 59.142 10.5 COD 27 10.09 63.20. one of them being Ramagundam.590 12.36 43.47.98 DO 4. The monitoring locations are :  Ramagundam U/S and  Ramagundam D/S near FCI intake well The following table gives the water quality of the water in the Godavari River as tested from the two aforesaid monitoring station. No. WATER REQUIREMENT PROJECTIONS At present.64 35.8 8.3 2.5 BOD 2.

   ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. No Indicators Benchmarks Status Reliabi lity B D D D B 1 2 3 4 5 6 Coverage of Water Supply Connections Per capita quantum of water supplied Extent of metering of water connections Extent of non-revenue water Continuity of Water Supply Efficiency in redressal of customer complaints Quality of Water Supplied Cost recover in water supply services Efficiency in collection of water supply related charges 100% 135 lpcd 100% 20% 24X7 80% 22. RMC Sl. BOX 15: WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM – KEY POINTS  Ramagundam had a 24X7 scheme running for a few months. But the project was stopped due to several reasons.3.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM 3.8% 82. It was introduced as a pilot project that served 800 houses. The coverage is only about 23 % and the per capita supply is only 53.8% 38. HYDERABAD 98 | P a g e .P gazette notification( as a part of fulfilling 13th finance commission)] Note: RMC is responsible agency for provision of water supply in the area however the PSUs/townships have their own facility/arrangement for supply of drinking water to its township residents.3 lpcd 0% 49% 0.6. The PSUs have a well established and efficient d system for supply of treated water in their respective areas.69 lpcd.5hrs X 7 70% 7 8 9 100% 100% 90% 91% 65. The households get water only from about 30mins to 3 hours per day.9% C D D [Source – A. SERVICE LEVEN BENCHMARKING INDICATORS Table 45: Water supply – Service Level Benchmarks.

HYDERABAD 99 | P a g e . etc among the locals. DRAINAGE CONDITIONS IN SLUM AREAS – AN ASSESSMENT The slum areas in Ramagundam suffer from lack of proper drainage of water.1. This. WATER LOGGING AREAS There are only a few areas where water gets logged during the monsoons. Table 46: Details of storm water drainage system in Ramagundam Length of pucca drains(Km) Length of kutcha Drains (Km) Length of storm water drains(Km) Total Length of open drains(Km) Total Length of Road Network [Source: RMC Status Report. along with accumulated solid waste leads to breeding of harmful pests which further leads to spread of diseases like diahorrea. Ramagundam ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. the slum pockets also suffer from ill-effects from stagnation of wastewater from the kitchens or toilets or even waste water draining down from other neighbouring areas accumulating within communities and creating unhealthy environs. No. STORM WATER DRAINAGE INTRODUCTION There is no provision for separate storm water drainage in the city. May 2010.4.2.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM 3. 2 3 8 Area Old Bazaar area Pamulapeta Janagaon 3.5. dysentery. 1 2 3 Ward No.5. May 2010) 3. Other than water logging during the monsoons. Wastewater stagnation in slum areas. RAY report] 32 76 108 (considering the length of kutcha and pucca drains as storm water drain length) 108 67 km (According to RMC Status Report. The areas are: Table 47: Details of water logging areas Sl. The storm water goes along with the sullage in the open drains.

once again. This exposes them to contact with unhygienic wastes – thereby making them vulnerable to various diseases. Hence. to cleaning without any sufficient protection. but because of unexplained reasons.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM Map 9: The natural drainage network and the water logging areas. Ramagundam 3.3. HEALTH OF SANITATION WORKERS The RMC has workers assigned for cleaning of roads and drains. They have been provided with protective gears and equipments.5. the workers development allergies from the rubber gloves and other equipments. they have resorted. ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. HYDERABAD 100 | P a g e .

No 1 2 Indicators Coverage of storm water drainage network Incidence of water logging Benchmark 100% 0 Status 67% 12 Reliability - [Source – A.5.4.P gazette notification( as a part of fulfilling 13th finance commission)] ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. SERVICE LEVEL BENCHMARKING INDICATORS Table 48: Storm Water Drainage – Service Level Benchmarks.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM Sanitary workers without protective equipments 3. HYDERABAD 101 | P a g e . Ramagundam Municipality Sl.

HYDERABAD 102 | P a g e .CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM 3. the overlapping of the maps clearly pointed out the stress zones in the city. where due to the concentration of multiple issues. Ramagundam ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA.5. Map 10: Map showing the identified stress zones. focused strategies need to be proposed. The maps that were overlapped are as the following:    Map showing the location of slum areas Map showing the location of open defecation areas Map showing areas prone to water logging Two stress zones have been identified as depicted in the following map –in wards 3 and 8. IDENTIFICATION OF STRESS ZONES The problem areas have been identified in the previous sections and the corresponding maps. Thereafter.

Table 49: Income Details2005-2010. HYDERABAD .1. No.2. To improve service delivery further financial position of RMC assessed in this chapter. operations and maintenance and debt servicing. however these were several gaps for extending service delivery to cover all habitations in general and slums in particular. REVENUE INCOME: The revenue sources of Ramagundam Municipality can be broadly categorized as own sources that mean all the taxes and non-taxes. 4. Operations and Maintenance of the Water supply. REVENUE EXPENDITURE Revenue expenditure of Ramagundam Municipality has been analysed based on expenditure heads which are broadly classified under the following departments/sections of Ramagundam Municipality – Salaries of different departments including pensions. Revenue income comprises internal resources such as tax items and non-tax items. non taxes.48 220. The RMC has taken up several works/ activities were under different funding like HUDCO/APUSP /UIDSSMT/Municipal General Funds for the last few years.00 181. RMC (amount in Rs Lakhs) Sl. The income details for the fianances include the receipts from taxes. The items of both receipts and expenditure are classified under revenue and capital accounts as per their sources and uses.71 57. 4.56 46.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM Chapter-4 Financial Analysis and Planning The Chapter details the municipal finances of the Ramagundam Municipality and it involves the details of receipts and expenditure over the last 4years. planned and non planned grants.1.84 263.3. Revenue expenditure comprises of expenditure incurred on salaries.1. Public Works. operation and maintenance cost. Revenue expenditure is further classified into establishment. 2. REVENUE ACCOUNT The Revenue account mainly comprises of two components one is revenue income and revenue expenditure. Public Health.1. Taxes Non-taxes Item 2005-06 294.1. INCOME AND EXPENDITURE DETAILS FOR THE LAST 5 YEARS: This chapter details the municipal finances of the RMC involved in the provisions of services and outline the receipts and expenditures over the last 5 years..66 324. 4. External resources are in the form of shared taxes/ transfers and revenue grants from the state and central governments. 1.09 87.08 2009-10 469.39 122. 4.61 274. and debt servicing.00 2007-08 454.26 2008-09 360.52 2006-07 283. Electricity Charges for water supply and street lighting.49 41. 3.01 103 | P a g e Assigned revenue ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA.

09 87.08 2008-09 307. operation and maintenance of services and capital works. HYDERABAD 104 | P a g e .92 161. 3.75 1776.26 1240. No.00 1240.01 327.18 333.43 260.97 945. 1.96 71. 5.43 71.05 Table 51: Receipts and Expenditure for the Years 2007-08 to 2009-10 (Rs.31 1439.01 399.48 876.00 1240.64 224.00 817.97 210.6 86.95 205.60 425.6 943.84 161. 2.31 2007-08 327.49 41.09 1514.01 194.17 Years 2008-09 360.57 494.05 219.00 181.8 1095.29 945.31 1811.87 309.83 609.26 693. 4.78 1811.93 125.52 307.17 194. RMC Sl.96 333.40 224.02 1689.75 125.05 Income Details Expenditure details Figure 8: Income & Expenditure details from 2005-2010.73 2032. 4. 3. 3. 1.48 220.57 2009-10 210.40 1701.86 251.27 0.26 2006-07 119.04 427.03 208. 2. 4.95 195.91 308.18 260.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM 4.08 571.75 425.07 205.84 The following graph shows the income and expenditure from for the RMC from 2005-2010 2000 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 1771.04 261.31 943.64 261.77 2386.81 0.63 The expenditure receipts include the establishments cost. in Lakhs) Sl.48 942. No. Item Establishment Maintenance of services Capital works Others Grand total 2005-06 99.29 945.66 324.75 0 1440.08 942. RMC [Source: RMC] ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA.31 693.77 251. Non-plan grants Plan grants Grand total 224.07 2009-10 469.49 363.09 327. Table 50: Expenditure Details.48 876.40 427.39 263.40 0 1095. 2.93 86.56 46. 1.80 817.00 399.57 876.73 846. Particulars 2007-08 Taxes Non-Taxes Assigned Revenues Grants (Plan) Others TOTAL Establishment Capital Expenditure O&M Expenditure Others TOTAL Total Surplus 40% Allocation to UPA funds Expenditure of UPA Funds 454. 5.

as they are constantly worried about their safety. HYDERABAD 105 | P a g e . The second factor is leakages. they reason. They would not like to pay anything to use toilet. when it is raining it becomes hard to go out. Townships such as those of NTPC. 5. Situation is particularly acute in regions far flung from main city.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM Chapter. This seems ironic considering that it is situated on the south bank of Godavari.even Rs. Visit to Subhash Nagar provides some interesting insights. which account for this. which has an allocation in the reservoir. PROBLEM ANALYSIS WATER SCARCITY Ramagundam town is plagued by severe water scarcity in the summer months. Municipal Corporation administers rest of the town. upto 60%. Women are further inconvenienced. UGD SYSTEM Many areas such as Seetanagar slum have underground sewerage system.5 Ramgundam Communications Needs Assessment Ramagundam has several industrial townships along with the other areas administered by Municipal Corporation. This locality is inhabited by People describe their difficulties with defecating in open. While respective companies maintain townships. They step into the drain with bare feet and pick filth with bare hands. Thus a lot of supplied water goes waste. Ramagundam does not have an allocation in the Elampally project. Firstly. There are two factors. In fact looking just at them it is tough to imagine that Ramgundam figures in lowly three hundreds in sanitation rankings. does not suffer water scarcity. Most slum areas are extremely price sensitive and slightest hint of payments is a turn off. This means when the flow is low in the summer months water stocked in the reservoir cannot be diverted to city. The prospect of a Sulabh Shauchalay doesn’t excite them either. Sanitation workers can be seen cleaning them up without any protective gear. In the first place respondents wanted municipality to build individual toilets free of cost. People have to let this water out before filling as it is unfit for consumption. Here it must be mentioned that NTPC Township. SANITATION WORKERS Open drains run through the city. Underground drainage connection ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. they would like to have a Sulabh complex built as it could be used during rains. APGENCO and FCI mirror a different reality from that of most of the town. The septic tank has been overflowing for past several months and needs to be cleaned. Many complained that they fall ill regularly. However. Daily wagers cannot afford to get a toilet built. 10 is a big amount. Here the pipes flush out mud for the first half an hour of the supply hours.1. water lost to leakages is phenomenally high. in Ramagundam. Due to shortage of workers same workers are being employed for drain cleaning and solid waste collection. Singereni Collieries (3 townships). OPEN DEFECATION Open defecation is observed in many slums. The township areas are well planned and neatly maintained.

Residents complain that the stink in unbearable. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT Piles of garbage can be found on the streets of Ramagundam. It was introduced as a pilot project that served 800 houses. Many now argue that it is impossible to reduce leakages without completely revamping/relaying the supply lines. without most of the water would still go waste. GAP ANALYSIS WATER ALLOCATION RMC is trying to secure an allocation in the Elampally reservoir. 5. With leakages in UGD. They claim some citizens are not paying rickshaw pullers regularly and throwing the domestic garbage on streets. Citizens can either call or complain online. Municipal authorities blame the citizens for garbage in non-designated spots. Garbage heaps are found in open areas not necessarily dumps. They are also acting as mosquito breeding points. Automated SMS messages are sent to citizens and the concerned officer regarding the timeframe of ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. Another related problem crops up when either the residents or the sanitation workers throw garbage in a not designated area. Citizens complain that rikshaw pullers are unloading in non designated spot. DOOR TO DOOR COLLECTION The system for door to door collection exists but is plagued by several problems. However. sewage mixes into them making up a serious health hazard for residents. It was told that there is a good chance of this coming through in near future. The water allocation is seen as measure that could relieve Ramagundam of its woes. leak with sewerage flowing parallel to roads. much depends on controlling leakages. Labor shortage is threatening to cripple the system as those involved in cleaning the drains are being sent to collect garbage as well. HYDERABAD 106 | P a g e .CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM too. These dumps are a hazard to health as they are not cleaned regularly. new water pipes were laid in this area to minimize leaks. GRIEVANCE RESOLUTION SYSTEM Grievance redressal system is operational in RMC.2. especially in the Seetha Nagar due to improper drainage system. As is the case with any 24X7 system. This puts strain on the labor and the result is often inefficient garbage collection. WATER PIPES Ramagundam had a 24X7 scheme running for sometime. in this area. Citizens complain that the lack of engineering expertise is leading to bad connections and several points of leakage. WATER-LOGGING Field investigations reveled that several low lying areas witness water-logging of up to 4 feet during rainy season. They pick garbage from each home but do not go all the way to dump in the designated spots. Several such piles of garbage can be seen on the roadside especially in slum areas. Situation is particularly true of slums. During a special drive Municipality collected these dues during property tax collection. Garbage collection points don’t seem to be cleaned for months.

blue means ‘recovering. community and public). Four color codes have been assigned to the cities based on the points they obtained in the rating. A total of 19 indicators have been detailed. black means 'need considerable improvement'. GOI) . in a short term and in long term. This means performance of Ramagundam in regard to safe sanitation is abysmal on various indicators. of which nine are outputrelated (six are direct indicators identified under service level bench marking by GoUD. ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. Output Indicators: 50/100 ( 9 main output indicators and out of which 6 are SLB indicators) – Behavioural aspects and provision to safe collection.’ green means ‘healthy and clean. Intestinal group of diseases claim about 5 million lives and about 50 million people suffer every year. Outcome Related: 20/100 (3 main outcome-indicators) – – – Indicators include: quality of drinking water & water in water-bodies. or totally sanitized. Findings of a survey commissioned by the Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD) that rate Indian cities on safe sanitation practices of 423 Class-I cities (with a population of more than 100. treatment and disposal of solid and liquid wastes.3. The goal of Ramagudam is to strive for 100 percent access to sanitation facilities in next two years and 100 percent safe disposal of all town generated waste in long term. process and outcome indicators to assess the existing sanitation conditions in the town. The system is refered as OGRTS and detailed out before in Chapter 2 5. and livable cities and towns. Sanitation parameters such as access to community toilets. collection. seven are process-related and three are outcome-related. proper upkeep and maintenance of the sanitation infrastructure. Process Related: 30/100 ( 7 main process-indicators – Indicators pertain to systems and procedures exist and practiced by city agencies to ensure sustained sanitation. reduction in sanitation-related and water-borne diseases over a time period. red means the cities need 'immediate remedial action'. Diseases by faeco-orally transmitted enteric pathogens . SANITATION RANKING OF RAMAGUNDAM The Ministry of Urban Development has identified a set of output. treatment and disposal without harming city’s environment. access to sanitation (individual.000 ). Annex 1).10% of total burden of disease in India. Ramagundam has been ranked at 330 out of 423 Class I cities. safe management of human excreta and solid waste collection and treatment. As per national Rankings. HYDERABAD 107 | P a g e . The list of indicators pertain to the practice of open defecation. Once the problem is solved by the official SMS is sent again to the citizen informing him of the resolution. If the official is unable to resolve the problem it is scaled up to a higher official.15 marks out of 100 and in Red category. healthy.’ community-driven Nirmal Shahars. clear institutional roles and responsibilities and improvements in health and environment (cf.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM grievance redressal. A complete profiling of Ramagundam against 19 parameters has been done indicating present status and identifying few targets which can be achieved immediately. scoring 27.

Proportion of total black waste water generation that is treated safely and disposed off 6 0 ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. Access and use of toilets by floating and institutional population 4 1 1.two year (Ref management options on Access.a. No. Short Term Goal .ii.iv.a. The constructions are going on part by part. Ref: management options Short to long term MIS. Indicators Total Marks Marks awarded Remarks OUTPUT RELATED INDICATORS No Open Defecation Access and use of toilets by urban poor and other unserved households by individual and community sanitation facilities 4 0 Field assessment also validated on OD status and agrees with Ranking markings.iii. only four in use (26 seats) for 25 000 floating population. but defunct. Proportion of total human excreta generation that is safely collected 6 0 1. do 1.long Term Inadequate: out of 13 Public toilet complexes.No protection to sanitary workers.5 1. 1. No open defecation visible 4 0.a.) 1 st year – reduce OD to 50% of present situation 2nd Year – eliminate OD Medium .i. punitive measures and incentives through IEC. Short to Medium – UGD is uner construction but there is no plan prepared for the same.a.b. Manual Scavenging eliminated in the city 4 4 1.c. Sustaining efforts throughout CSP process and even after that Over estimated . The STPs are also present. Community Septic tanks with tertiary treatment for specific areas.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM Table 52: Sanitation Ranking for Ramagundam Municipality Sl. STPs have to be made functional at the earliest. 1.a. HYDERABAD 108 | P a g e . 1. UGD has to be constructed along with other waste treatment options.

PROCESS RELATED INDICATORS Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) Systems in place to track incidences of Open Defecation (OD) All sewerage systems working properly and no ex-filtration All septage / sludge cleaned and safely transported and disposed after treatment.00 2. 5 3. 3 1 1. from on-site systems Storm-water drainage 4 0 Short Term Adhering all 2.80 2012 : 2014 100% 2014 onwards Short to medium 25%-60% D2D collection improvement by 2012 60 – 100% 2012 onwards Sustenance of system – 2012 onwards Long Term 1. 5 0 Long Term 50 8. Proportion of total solid waste generation that is treated and safely disposed of City wastes cause no adverse impacts on surrounding areas outside city limits OUTPUT RELATED INDICATORS TOTAL 4 0 1.f. Proportion of treated wastewater that is recycled and re-used Proportion of total stormwater and drainage that is efficiently and safely managed Proportion of total solid waste generation that is regularly collected 1. 4 1.i.h.75 Medium to long term 2.20% 2012 -2014 20% and more 2014 onwards.5 1.a.c. Instances of manual scavenging still existent. Short to Long Term Frame work plan for 109 | P a g e 2. Short – to long 40 – 60% : 2012 60. Disposal of sludge not proper.10% 2012 10. HYDERABAD . Proportion of total grey wastewater generation that treated and safely disposed of 3 0 Medium – to long term Nil now 30-40% .g. 4 1 ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM 1.2012 40-100% 2010 onwards Next year – 1 mark 3 0 Medium – to long term 1.e. 2.d.b. 5 5 Over estimated.d.

e.15 0 1 Short to Long Term No records for water bodies 20 100 4. 3 0 Short Term Frame rules 30 15. 2000) Documented Operational system and clear institutional responsibility assigned for each of the above Sanctions for deviance on part of polluters and institutions clearly laid out and followed PROCESS RELATED INDICATORS TOTAL 3. 3. Quality of drinking water in city Water quality in water bodies in and around city– Reduction in (sanitationattributable and) waterborne disease incidence amongst city population OUTCOME RELATED INDICATORS TOTAL GRAND TOTAL 5 2. 3.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM systems functioning and maintained 2.a.15 ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. HYDERABAD 110 | P a g e .25 maintenance Medium to long term 2. 3.c. Solid waste management (collection and treatment) efficient (MSW Rules.g.f.15 27. 4 3 Short term 2.b.00 OUTCOME RELATED INDICATORS 7 7 6 3.

and privacy for all citizens” This covers – collection. VISION AND CITY.wide strategies are important as they priorities investment needs and can directly fund to where they are most needed. human dignity. pollution and safeguard dignity. VISION STATEMENT “Ramagundam to be environmentally safe and totally sanitized city so as to ensure good public health standards. safe management of human excreta. In keeping with the above. community level toilets and disposal systems) through behavior change and good management 111 | P a g e Medium term (2014 – 2016 ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. 6. The goals as proposed have been presented as follows.1.2.  Credible Information and updation (MIS)  City-wide education and awareness campaign  Start decentralized technology options on Pilot basis  100% Door to door collection of MSW  Sanitary and safe disposal of human excreta and liquid waste (continuing process)  Regulation of septic tanks and septage management  Systems in place for good O & M (individual. transportation. and Long Term Period (2016 onwards). Table 53: Goals for City-wide Sanitation Planning.WIDE SANITATION PLANNING 6. HYDERABAD . sanitation vision and following cross cutting strategies are addressed in CSP of Ramagundam. treatment and disposal to prevent disease.2. In this section brief outline of Vision statement and specific strategies are dealt. treatment and disposal and associated hygienic related practices. Medium Term Period (2014-2016). Hence City . Ramagundam Period Immediate (2012 – 2013 Goals  Elimination of open defecation  Universal access to safe sanitation  Households and Community level  Upgradation of unsanitary to sanitary toilets  School and institutional sanitation  Floating population and other Public areas  Revamping existing non functional STPs. INTRODUCTION From the situational analysis it is evident that urban sanitation is not only lacking investment it is also lack of systematic plan for environmental sanitation2. NUSP (2008) mandates ULBs for universal access. Keeping these visions in mind. including its safe confinement.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM Chapter – 6 City Sanitation Plan – The strategy and approach 6.1. goals have been proposed to be achieved in the Immediate of Short Term Period (2012-2013).

2. Environmental integrity and health benefits Sanitation services. which have unacceptable impacts on the environment. Focus on sound finances and maintenance Invest in approaches that help end open defecation and unsafe sanitation and help to develop the tools and technology that will allow the urban poor access to sustainable nonpiped sanitation system. regular upkeep and maintenance. Coordination is necessary between different departments. environment and health are all interlinked and process of improvements which should be accompanied by promotional activities as well as health and hygiene education. Improve sanitation by institutionalizing rewards for good performance and sanctions against harmful actions and IEC programs to improve sanitation.e. communities and households will be encouraged to priorities by contributing to a significant portion of the costs involved in providing and running a sanitation system. increased accountability and service delivery by ULBs and their partners. proper usage. Integrated institutional engagement Sanitation cannot be maintained without proper water supply. Choice and maintenance of facilities have to be well thought of in advance to make service affordable and sustainable. Aim is to develop scalable business models and technologies capable of moving millions of people from unsustainable to sustainable sanitation services across the sanitation value chain.2. The users should pay against use to maintain sustainability.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM Long term (2016 onwards)      Litter free areas Scientific MSW treatment and disposal Water recycle and reuse Monitoring and evaluation Environmental and financial sustainability. Sanitation. should not be considered to be adequate. Then 112 | P a g e    ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. Accordingly the strategies have been developed on the basis of following principles:  Right to sanitation and mobilization of community for demand creation All citizens should have access to safe sanitation services. 6. HYDERABAD . institutional reorientation. sludge treatment and disposal or reuse of waste. PRINCIPLES CSP not only emphasis on the physical infrastructure but also focus on behaviour change outcomes . Environmentally acceptable solutions to local problems that do not cause deterioration of the wider environment must be considered in all development activities. all tiers of Government and other stakeholders with clear roles and responsibilities. solid waste management and development is not possible in isolation. such as latrine design. Hence. Household sanitation is first and foremost the responsibility of a household. but bearing the associated responsibility as well. Right investments in development of new tools and technologies. pit emptying. polluters should pay for the cost of cleaning up the impact of their pollution on the environment. sanitation will be promoted based on demand i. Similarly.

Invest sgnificantly in technologies and methods for increasing sustainable access to clean water and hygiene in addition to funding for sanitation. 3. attitudes and procedures with in which planning takes place. Strategic planning likely to be constrained by the lack of a supportive context – the policies. cover entire population by toilets. IEC and Rehabilitation projects) A. 6. To meet the national standards for safe disposal of liquid and solid waste. Institutional Strengthening and Capacity building for Sanitation Management in achieving better service standards. Financial Management of the Sanitation Sector and resource mobilization. For safe disposal of treatment options as the town does not waste water storm have contiguous development. Table 54: Components of City Wide Sanitation Strategies Components of City Wide Sanitation Strategies Proposals ( Capital. rules. 3. To provide safe access access to all (including poor and slum to HH sanitation and dwellers as well as visiting population). 5. Sub-Sector strategy (Output -related ) 1. Enabling and Sustaining Strategies (Process –related) Issues to be addressed in preparing the implementation plan. O&M. Awareness raising and hygiene promotion and community participation.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM to build on these results to support the implementation of successful sanitation approaches at even larger scale and continued innovation to develop more effective and sustainable solutions for the future  Policy and advocacy Proactively advocate for change and innovation in the sanitation sector to encourage changes in policy and funding priorities necessary to accelerate access to sustainable sanitation. Integrated Solid Waste Management. 4. Private sector and NGO Participation in ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. water and solid waste. Excreta Disposal and Waste Water Management by adopting decentralized 2. While the focus is on sanitation. B. Open defecation free status by ensuring 1. 7. 2. will also continue to provide limited funding to promising clean water and hygiene solutions. HYDERABAD 113 | P a g e . The following components of sanitation strategies are examined in CSP as per parameters of sanitation rating systems.

This would enable to estimate infrastructure gaps and investment requirements for future. Treatment and Disposal No of septic tanks cleared per vehicle per day 3 tanks per day per vehicle Frequency of septage clearance from septic Once in 2 years tank Septage volume removed per tank No of operational days per annum Area per drying bed(average) Dimensions of drying bed Thickness of liquid sludge layer in drying bed Septage Sludge Drying Cycle 2 cu. Table 55: Norms A 1 2 B Household sanitation infrastructure Latrine connected to septic tank Grit and grease trap 1 per household 1 per household Public and Community Sanitary Conveniences Public Toilet 1 Users per Latrine Seat 60 users/ seat Community Toilet 1 C 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 9 Users per Latrine Seat Septage Clearance. In order to maintain desired sanitation levels and achieve improved health and environmental indicators certain standard of service have to be maintained. BOX 16:ASSUMPTIONS FOR CITY SANITATION PLAN 1. They are assessed in Ramagundam as per MoUD framework and certain other norms and standards followed as indicated in the table below for estimation of deficiency in sanitation. HYDERABAD .m 300 days 225 m 15m x 15 m 0.2. ASSUMPTIONS. NORMS AND UNITS COSTS Formulation of CSP is based on few assumptions and certain available norms as detailed below. 6. Floating population: 25000 in 2010 and it is expected to grow to 50000 in 2036 (From discussions with Officials).3.20 m 10 days 114 | P a g e 20 . The basis for the maintenance of service levels is Standardized Service Level Benchmarks.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM Sanitation development. C. Monitoring Evaluation and Strategy for Monitoring and evaluation Implementation plan to propose monitoring systems.35 users/ seat (3-5 households) Sludge Drying Beds ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA.

(75 Persons) @ 45 Ipcd to 1 for 10 HHs.40% to 50% For every 25 Kms of sweeping road length. HYDERABAD 115 | P a g e .m area. Posts 1 for 15 HHs. for two time cleaning everyday. 3 loaders / vehicle. (50 Persons) 1 Tap for 75 Persons. 4 loaders / vehicle.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM 10 D 1 2 3 E 1 2 F 1 2 3 4 Sludge volume per bed Wastewater Conveyance Street Collector Sewers Branch Sewers Trunk Sewers Waste Water Treatment and Disposal Reuse for irrigation/ garden/ parks Disposal into river Solid Waste Management Road Length per Sweeper Sweepers per 1000 population Garbage Collection Points Norms for Road sweeping 400 –600 m 3 1 for 15 HHs.20% B Type – Sweeping twice in a week .50 m / household 0. A Type – Daily sweeping .40m /household 45 cum 5 6 7 One Tractor trailer One Tipper Truck Water Supply 8 Markets/Slaughter house [Source: Hoshangabad CSP] ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA.75 m / household 0. For every 40 Kms of sweeping road length. 1 worker / 400 sq.30% to 40% C Type – Sweeping once in a week . (75 Persons. Tertiary secondary 1.

VARIOUS OCCURRENCE OF ISSUES VERSUS CONSEQUENCES IN RAMAGUNDAM Some of the prominent issues faced by Ramagundam to maintain sanitation are put in a matrix to show their low to high occurrence versus low to high consequences so as to prioritize solutions in CSP. defecation campaigns VERY HIGH HIGH Lack of Scientific Inadequate school Non functional  Toilet effluents into process of sanitation STPs open drains disposal of MSW Inadequate 45.2.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM 6.58% population 0% water supply  Inadequate D2D solid waste collection Only 32% HHs covered Recycling of water Regulation Toilets for floating population CONSEQUENCES MEDIU M Coverage of storm water drainage network 9. Absence of public No septage Rampant open awareness Management.2% LOW OCCURRENCE MEDIUM HIGH VERY HIGH ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA.4. HYDERABAD LOW 116 | P a g e .

The Sub-Sector Strategies are followed by guidelines for the Enabling and Sustaining the aforesaid strategies through IEC. This is followed by suggestions for proper and adequate Monitoring and Evaluation of the existing and the proposed systems. proper suitable financing mechanisms. and guidelines for improvement of Institutional Arrangements and Responsibilities. HYDERABAD 117 | P a g e .CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM The following sections present the strategies for the various related sub-sectors related to sanitation for Ramagundam Municipal Corporation area. Figure 9: Components of CSP strategies ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA.

ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. recycling and reusing the by products as far as possible. Broad strategies identified will try to lay down road map for achieving total sanitation and hence detailed out.3. If at all this is not possible service provision needs to be delinked from tenureship of land. Also in this section along with strategies. The following are the indicators of 100% sanitation:  Primary Indicators as mandated by National Urban Sanitation Policy  Every citizen has access to a toilet & the city is Open Defecation Free  All the sewage generated is collected. The goal of the exercise is to achieve 100% sanitation in the city. However for holistic sanitation in a city it is important that the following indicators are also addressed. governments. In addition water and waste water management must be carried out in an environmentally sustainable manner. It is recommended to include the following indicators also into the CSP. treated and disposed off safely  All water bodies and drainages are preserved and kept clean  All the storm water drains are kept clean. To achieve OD free status socially inclusiveness approaches that can be promoted are:  Promoting access to households with safe sanitation facilities (including proper disposal arrangements). Slum residents are migrant labourers. By clarifying and establishing rights of those living on the land has another benefit of creating a tax base that brings revenue to ULB. In Ramgundam this can be done easily with the help of PSUs support. as stated in condition assessment of sanitation Open Defecation is rampant in Ramagundam slums. treated and disposed off safely Secondary indicators are optional and are not mandated by the NUSP. SUBSECTOR STRATEGIES (OUT –PUT RELATED) This CSP aims guiding through next steps in achieving the goal of city wide sanitation for Ramagundam.3.  All the solid waste generated is collected. accountability for provision of services remains unclear. Without documentation. This has to be addressed in immediate term with concerted efforts to make OD free. Secondly like many places Ramagundam lacks proper documentation regarding the land ownership. HYDERABAD 118 | P a g e . affordability and behaviour of old people and children. This is particularly prevalent in communities of informal housing where families may have lived for generations but have no official title to the land.1. 6. Every aspect of the process and infrastructure provision must integrate community participation and must be inclusive. infrastructure gaps estimated as per practiced norms mentioned in previous section. These people have problems like land availability. OPEN DEFECATION FREE STATUS In previous section. threatening the security of individuals. and the future development of the city. Also both management and technical options and financial requirement to bridge the gap have been assessed. OD free status needs to be achieved by ensuring access to all including poor and slum dwellers as well as visiting population .CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM 6.

community organizers to work together to jointly deliver community toilet blocks. School sanitation D.g. Slum sanitation B.  Sewerage for individual household latrines (IHHL)  Delinking tenureship for slum residents to build toilets. through bye-laws Municipal fund creation for neighbourhood projects. political support and technical trainings Norms for sanitation provisions in buildings (including non-residential) and spaces where public congregate. tenure or economic constraints in gaining access to individual facilities. SLUM SANITATION PROVISION Creating demand responsive participatory approach to provision of community blocks wherever individual toilets are not possible will be important aspect in creating access. There need be high technical standards. A.Public Conveyance blocks Increased access of the poor to water for hygiene Build capacities. This can be done by giving incentives for private contractors. series of options need to be worked in slums as follows:  Provision of new community toilets. Household sanitation C. • • • • • • • • The main areas that need to be focused upon for achieving 100% OD free status in Ramagundam are as follows: A. ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. Considering the situation at Ramagundam.  Management arrangements to be worked. Partnerships can be led either by contractor or NGO with each other. Triggering social action by intensive IEC to prevent OD Promotion of no cost/ low costs technologies of right kind Adequate availability and 100 % upkeep and management of Public Sanitation facilities in all busy areas and floating population affected areas Promoting partnerships to construct community and public toilets . for groups of households who have issues of space. Provision of sanitation in other areas for achieving citywide sanitation Strategies for making each of these focus areas OD free has been presented in detail in the following sections. high quality service levels and provisions for children. or CBO employs the staff like caretaker to operate and manage the toilet block or CBO contracts a caretaker (individual or family) to manage and operate the toilet block on its behalf. CBO members operate and manage toilet block on their own.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM  Demand driven approach for access and promoting community-planned and managed toilets wherever necessary. HYDERABAD 119 | P a g e . NGOs. E.

1 The current standard for public toilets is one seat for 40 users on a 24 hours rotation basis. Here the municipality will act as facilitator to identify land for construction of toilet. 120 | P a g e ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. HYDERABAD .CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM In this regard estimation in the Table 59 has been done for number of toilets and urinals needed under various categories to make the city fully sanitized. Reduce other type of toilets to 2. floating population. Halve the pollution of surface waters by human excreta by 2013. Models for providing shared toilets. religious activities etc. approve design and provide finances and sign an MOA with local residents who are going to use it for O &M which is going to be the responsibility of Community. Such facilities can be managed through community groups. Household Sanitation arrangements At the household level year wise sanitation installation requirements are indicated in Table 56 Important milestones for Ramagundam: 1.5%in 2012 4. B. railway stations etc. Commission proposed UGD in some parts as planned and increased UGD coverage to 75% by 2015 and 85% next year. 3. No more open defecation by Year: 2012/13 (achieve OD free status by constructing community toilets for HHS who don’t have access). 2. population at public place like bus stands. including charging user fees is indicated below. NGOs. The planning for public toilets has taken consideration the following user groups: slum population. public toilets1 and urinals as needed and operations and maintenance of the infrastructure. CBOs and private operators on a self sustaining basis. Community toilets separately for ladies and gents need to be constructed in slum areas as per the norms where poor cannot afford an individual toilet financially. population that comes into cities for special occasions like fairs. population during weekly markets.

In 2016. 85% will be covered with sewer system.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM Table 56: Indicative figures in Household Sanitation Arrangements over CSP Implementation Period Sanitation Arrangement 2001 census data 2001* Total HHs PSU HHs* 26% 52577 13482 2001 census data in % Baseline Survey Pre-CSP Year CSP Implementation Period 2010 57077 13482 43595 22096 2011 65722 13482 52240 22096 2012 67037 13482 53555 22096 2013 68351 13482 54869 22096 2014 69666 13482 56184 22096 2015 70980 13482 57498 22096 2016 72294 13482 58812 22096 RMC population 74% 39095 0utside PSUs WC Connected to Sewer led to STPs and STPs (small bore sewer system started in 2004)* In % of total population UGD (Commission UGD in few areas by 2015) In % of total population WC Connected to Septic Tank In % of total population Pit Latrine In % of population Others In % of population total 21557 41% 3680 7% 13144 total 25% 14196 39% 34% 33% 32% 32% 31% 28392 40% 31% 36147 50% 50198 69% 0 0% 0 0% 0 23402 41% 3995 7% 3995 7% 3924 41% 4601 7% 4601 7% 4702 26946 27485 41% 4693 7% 1676 3% 2142 28024 41% 4785 7% 0 0% 0 28563 41% 4877 7% 0 0% 0 48884 69% 0 0% 0 0% 0 Households with no toilets (practicing open defecation) In % of total population Total Households Assumptions: 27% 52578 7% 57413 7% 62946 3% 58093 0% 54905 0% 55536 0% 99373 0% 108443 RMC will observe Arithemetic Progression projection of population as PSU areas are almost stagnant. In 2015 it is expected that Sewer system both small bore and UGD will be commissioned and become functional. ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. In Ramgundam only 9% do not have toilets as per e-suvidha data. PT assemment data showed that about 9% HHS outside PSU HHs do not have toilets About 99.435 population connected to UGD as per RMC. For SCCL it should be considered to take up DEWATS system and reuse water . All the population increase will be located outside PSUs. HYDERABAD 121 | P a g e . That means about 22092 HHS .

The toilets for ladies and gents should be constructed separately as per the norms. Sweeper Charges Civic maintenance (water and electricity) UGD user charges per year Deposit for future repairs etc Remuneration to Community organizer 5000 50x 5 = 250 1500 800 360 380 5000 – 3000 = 2000 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Table 58: Estimation of Proposed Pay and Use complex (Each unit) S. No.30/month for five seat toilet.600/= 720 x 30 days ) Revenue by Ad per month Total revenue Cleaning articles Rs 50 x 12 toilets Sweepers 2 nos Civic maintenance and other contingencies Caretaker UGD user charges Total Expenditure Estimated Private Operator Income ( one wall) 500 22100 600 4000 1000 4000 360 9960 12140 ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. of users for maximum extent -Morning & 3 hours + 3 hours Evening.  For Household toilets user training and CBO’s training is must  User change 30/. of Seats Estimated Cost in Rs 12 Nos No.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM Community and Public toilets Community toilets are viable for the people residing in slum areas where there is a problem of land availability and affordability for construction of toilets is difficult.100 HHs x 30 =3000 collection @ Rs. HYDERABAD 122 | P a g e . One seat can accommodate Total capacity 60 persons per day 12 nos X 60 persons /day Revenue per month (720 persons * 1 per person Rs. Two walls of the complex shall be 1000x2 =2000 be used for advertisement from the departments (Social welfare. Assuming Month. Table 57: Showing Operation and maintenance of the toilets – Community toilet Sl. 21. No 1 2 3 4 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Component No.per month per family may be collected. 1 2 O&M In Rs One seat toilet can cater for 20 HHs . Education etc) Total Revenues Expenditure – cleaning material per seat.

Scale-up from concept to whole-city scale: Need to move from the concept stage and pilot scale to the whole-city scale. In Bangalore. and 3) Identification of and access to finance. because the facility is a long distance from the home. Children may likewise require specific toilet designs. Design of toilets needs to take into account the specific needs of women and children. it needs to be seen that they should meet the needs of women and children for their successful operation and sustainability. If public toilets are used. it is clearly important to resolve land availability issues early. and in some communities women. leading to security issues after dark. they should be well-lit and in safe high-visibility locations. In some communities. and will typically prefer a much shorter distance (probably about 30 m) In a location with safe after-dark access: this is critical for women’s security In a location that is acceptable to people living nearby Reachable by small truck. It is essential to provide for sanitary towel disposal. 2) Design and costing of communal and/or public toilet models. and/or because children.lengths of tubing fitted through the toilet wall. ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. A three key stages approach to follows: 1) Sanitation zoning. HYDERABAD 123 | P a g e . It is well known that public toilets often fail to meet the needs of women and children. leading to a bin in which towels are collected for disposal (which can be by burning or by a contracted collection service). WSUP-supported communal toilets have sanitary towel disposal chutes . Land availability for communal/public toilet construction of course varies from one location to another. not only to meet women’s needs but also to prevent blockage of toilets.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM Making communal/public toilets work: Design and sensitivity to specific needs then finding land While making communal/public toilets. A suitable plot of land should be:      Close to the area of demand: users should not have to walk more than 200 m at very most. may have less spending money than men. to allow septic tank emptying Within reach of a sustainable water supply If land is in short supply. Problems may arise because people living adjacent to an available plot may not want a sanitation facility constructed next to their property. septic tanks or sewers. then other models can be considered. privacy may be a more important concern for women than for men. as may disable and elderly users. involving identification of districts in which communal or public toilets are an appropriate solution. For these reasons monthly-fee communal toilets may often be a more appropriate solution than pay-per-use public toilets. In view of issues of this type.

98000 Rs. ii. HYDERABAD 124 | P a g e . 122000 per month Rs. 26000 Cumulative Rs. O&M Costs And User Charges For Public/ Community Sanitary Conveniences Unit A. per use 2011 (Pre 2012 CSP) 57 seats Additional existing 65 seats 20000 21000 2013 2014 2015 2016 Additional 60 seats 25000 Additional 60 Additional 60 Additional seats seats 60 seats 22000 23000 24000 ii. i. 13 lakhs 12 lakhs 12 lakhs 12 lakhs 12 lakhs iii iv Annual O&M of public Rs sanitary conveniences (400/month per seat) UGD charges capital Rs costs (one time) UGD user charges Rs 30 month per seat) 91200 Rs. Community Sanitary Conveniences Households Served Seats to be constructed No of HH Number 0 0 2149 36 ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. 74000 per Rs. Public Sanitary Conveniences Floating population Persons served (including persons served by existing PSCs) Capital cost towards Rs 20000 per construction of public seat sanitary conveniences Indicative user charge minimum Rs.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM Indicative infrastructure requirements in making city sanitised while following climbing sanitation ladder approach: Table 59: Indicative investment requirements. 50000 per month per month per month month 247000 1950 month 228000 228000 228000 228000 v vi per Cumulative Cumulative Cumulative Cumulative 3750 per 5550 per 7350 per 9150 per month month month month 3272 19 3272 0 3272 0 3272 0 B. i.

(inclusive of water and electricity connection) [Source: ASCI] ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA.  UGD one time connection cost Rs 3800 per HH.  Indicative user charges for community toilet per HH is Rs 30 per month. Later it is assumed that few people will switch over to individual toilets and those additional seats will cater to increase in slum population.  Land will be provided by government.8 lakhs 0 0 0 v 0 Rs 14326. HYDERABAD 125 | P a g e . Or Rs 1 day. respective departments who have huge visitors or ULB.  Indicative user charges for public toilet Rs 1 per day use.  Capital cost for construction of toilet is Rs 20000 per seat.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM iii Construction of community sanitary conveniences Annual O&M of community sanitary conveniences Rs 20000 per seat 0 7.67 7600 0 0 0 Assumptions:  Existing floating population is 25000.16 Lakhs 3.  To eliminate OD all community toilets will be added in first two years. About 1000 will be added every year.

The amount was deposited in a joint bank account.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM BOX 17: FINANCE OPTIONS MODELS FOR COMMUNITY LATRINES 1. To express its “demand” each family in the target slum area was asked to pay contribution Rs. MOU specifies that CBO will operate and maintain the toilet block. To overcome such constraints. double the amount of 2002. Learning from mistakes is an accepted part of the approach17. 2. a small town in East Java. shared by GOI.14 billion (US$ 646. In each slum a CBO was formed and registered as a trust or a society (under the Bombay Public trust Act. the traditional taboos have become a constraint for construction of IHL.100 per adult (maximum of Rs 500 per family) as a membership fee. Village Community Empowerment Institutions (LPMSKs) take care of mobilization. The responsibility of maintaining the toilet block is then handed over to the CBO. the integrated Community Latrines Complex (ICLC) becomes a substitute. HYDERABAD 126 | P a g e . However. of which three are poor. After the reforms in TSC programme. Slum Sanitation programme of Mumbai: A key feature was the involvement of slum communities in project implementation right from the planning stage. It has twenty neighbourhoods. This approach directly provides subsidy to communities rather than individuals. From 2005 on. including an obligatory 13% for low cost housing. the scarcity of space. State Government and the community in the ratio of 60:20:20. After construction of the toilet block the CBO typically certifies it’s satisfactory completion and signs a MOU with the municipal Corporation. CSRS 2002). contractors and CBOs.000) in 2004. Women participate in the mandated community assemblies in which these projects are planned. The mobilization process facilitated collaborations between NGOs. use of funds for hardware is restricted to 60%. is special for its community development fund. The neighbourhoods themselves contribute 13-22% of the project funds in kind or cash. Since 2003 project selection criteria include the number of poor beneficiaries. The budget of the town was Rp. The maintenance cost of the community sanitary complexes has to be met by the Panchayats/voluntary organisations/charitable trusts/Self Help Groups and not the committee set up by local government. 3. The prescribed unit cost is up to Rs 2 lakh. ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. Under its community block grant programme the city disburses 2% of its income directly to the neighbourhoods for small projects. priority was given for setting up sanitary complexes in a place acceptable for both men and women. Though many households are inclined positively to have IHL. the community contribution can be made by the local governance from its budget (GOI. 6. Municipal fund for neighbourhood projects (Indonesia) Blitar. Most local grants go to improvement of infrastructure. The purpose of the fund is to increase public participation and self-management and allow local officials and communities to exercise their autonomy.

school latrines and water points become dirty and run down as detailed in the situational analysis report. a.  Improves the health of children and results in a lower dropout rate. sanitation and hygiene education are very important for the following main reasons:  Promotes health and hygiene behavior at an early stage of childhood. SCHOOL SANITATION PROVISION In Ramagundam like any other city. especially among girl children. parents and hence the community. hence.  Children are the change agents. The children should be encouraged to help to maintain their own school environment and facilities. HYDERABAD 127 | P a g e . Toile of ts students exist ing Urinals required as per norms WCs required as per norms Investm ent Require d for Urinals Investm Total ent Require d for Urinals Primary Secondar y High A good cleaning and maintenance system requires funds. and a clear division of roles and responsibilities among the actors involved. it ensures generational change in the adoption of the health and hygiene behaviour.  Huge network of schools offers a ready-made infrastructure to influence the students. As a result. with or without a rewarding mechanism. School health clubs (or similar groups with other names) can be very useful for: ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. people and equipment. The following models are recommended for school sanitation. A number of organizational options for maintenance suggested: through a cleaning committee. Health Clubs School health and hygiene clubs are usually involved in helping children for maintenance tasks. spare parts. or by individual students.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM C. teachers. they are not used and create a health hazard. Table 60: Toilet requirement as per Norms (information not available) Category Total no. by classes on a rotation basis. School water supply. of scho ols Total no.

monitoring. 1998 was passed and School Committees (at present 72. A parent shall cease to be a member of the committee when he has no child enrolled in the school. These Committees may usually consist of students. school councils. The School Committee consists of five members of whom four should be parents (from different socio-economic backgrounds) of the children enrolled in the school and the Headmaster as the Member Convener. monitoring SSHE programme. and parents with following roles :  Take a lead in coordinating and preparing action plan of SSHE programme.  Involve other actors in mobilizing local resources and support special activities like fund raising. PTAs. and maintenance. reaching out into the community. Organize school activities in planning. allocate and supervise funds. ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. teachers. maintenance and repair. Water o Health providers o Researchers b. o students) o NGOs and CBOs o Women’s groups o Youth organizations o Governments – including Ministries of Education. HYDERABAD 128 | P a g e .919) constituted in every government and government aided school in the state. BOX 18: SCHOOL COMMITTEES . construction. School committee Often school committees are found very effective and can be established in schools to plan and implement school sanitation programmes. teachers. teaching. Prepare an annual action plan for the School health club. Different actors should be engaged and all work together to promote and implement gender-responsive sanitation. 1998 In pursuance of community participation. Conduct community activities with the help of headmaster and teachers. This includes: o Schools – (parents. The Andhra Pradesh School Education (Community Participation) Act.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM        stimulating safe hygiene behaviour among children.  Budget.THE ANDHRA PRADESH SCHOOL EDUCATION (COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION) ACT.  Organize various activities periodically to collect funds for various programmes. Health. health and hygiene solutions.

Detailed norms are available in the code depending on occupancy saying in no case less than one water closet should be provided. But authorities are failed in implementation of NBC and Building regulation to check building plan approvals. PROVISION OF SANITATION IN OTHER AREAS FOR ACHIEVING CITYWIDE SANITATION National Building Code (NBC 2005) of India is the basis for all Building Regulations and adopted by respective states in the country. Wherever disposal facilities are not available they shall be provided as part of the building design for ensuring highest standards of sanitation condition. HYDERABAD 129 | P a g e . Clear rules need to be amended on responsibility of toilet provision in the premises of any human occupation or use. Part 9 on Plumbing services Section 1 of Water Supply Drainage and Sanitation clearly details the requirements under safe sanitation provision. The sorry state of affairs in Ramagundam indicates that out of 40992 property assessments 40485 properties have measurements and only 78 properties have building plan approvals. who is expected to control the sanitation failed to do so. CSTF should intervene in this and two members should be identified from CSTF to ratify building plans for adequate sanitation provision.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM D. which clearly specifies that any building meant for human occupancy or use should have adequate sanitation and disposal facilities irrespective of availability of sewerage. This clearly indicates ULB. ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA.

Kalyana Mandapams. Theatres. Note: Wherever UGD is available toilets will be connected to UGD. These properties toilets have to provide land within their premises. Non Slums: Old areas. malls. Indepe ndent toilets. Govt quarters.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM Various uses generally found in any given city and options for sanitation provision to achieve citywide sanitation are indicated below: Table 61: Addressing access to various categories of uses Residential Slums: Notified and non notified. Auditoriums Shopping areas. New upcoming areas. Bus stations Others All Industr government ies and non government schools. Individual/ Community toilets Institutional Recreational Commercial Transport Schools Central Govt offices. Otherwise a decentralized concept for black water treatment by Biogas facility and duck weed based technology for grey water treatment should be implemented and it is individual responsibility. A mechanism to build social pressure to maintain design standards needs to be worked. It is the Strict implementation of building bye laws like no building permitted for responsibility construction and occupation without toilet and all Govt. buildings need to take of private approval of ULB for building construction. ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. Independent toilets. Monitoring is the responsibility of ULB. Public Places. Agricultural markets. markets. Fair areas etc Railway station. Public toilets on BOT basis (ref Individual management options). individual to construct and maintain toilet as per NBC and Municipal act norms. HYDERABAD 130 | P a g e . State Govt offices and private offices.

For this partnership arrangements with relevant government agencies. APSRTC. programs for O&M and use Toilet walls. Non government organizations (NGO) need to established and institutionalized for successful implementation of CSPs. Court. of Public/Institutional toilets Consolidate IEC money of all govt. It is observed that different models will work in different situations and some of the options to be tested and implemented by RMC are as follows: Table 62:Management Strategies Option A 1. to donate or providers and government adopt toilets with ad rights. Create public-private Mobilizing business houses. and transfer to community for &M with monthly card system. private sector. Black soil and Waste water Treatment Septage Management Update and amend regulations on Considering subsidizing of Frequency 131 | P a g e septic Public awareness campaign ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. shopping complex. friendly toilets by ULB as part of IEC. market areas. Option B Option C Option D Up gradation with technical Up gradation with financial Guidance notes to APL support for alternatives. on different types of toilets with technical support. 2. agencies. Demand driven approach: Community contribution to toilet construction and O&M where ULB facilitates. Promoting PPPs for O&M propagating child – friendly. field testing and Mobilizing business houses. Generators of huge visitors (railways. companies etc. HYDERABAD . to donate or gender friendly and disabled adopt toilets with ad rights. Community Toilet (Ideally to be cross subsidized from Public toilets for BOT models) Schools Mobilizing donor agencies/ ULB bears Capital and ULB constructs toilet and individuals to construct toilets transfers to Community for O gives for adoption for O&M. partnerships between service companies etc.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM Efforts of many stakeholders to achieve various goals identified in Table 53. support for alternatives. Education dept bears capital and O &M by outsourcing. Improving Access HHs Individual toilets with subsidy. civil society. Designing. O&M. theaters and Govt offices) to give land for pay and use toilets on BOT mode.

fecal and septic effluent discharge in to drains. on public utility’s Regulations for and ULB manage and transportation licensing of private contractors for entrepreneur involvement scheduled desludging. Clear policies and guidelines for developers. technical trainings. Raise public gain their support. . tank emptying for enhanced frequency of regulated by septic tank emptying and authorities to every develop annual septage three years. O& M of toilets and extensive dissemination. HYDERABAD 132 | P a g e .50% (2010 -2012) . Recycling waste . Promotion of no cost/ low costs technologies like soak pits to septic tanks (Areas where UGD is not covered) Scientific treatment and disposal by developing pilot initiatives and testing by 2014 and scaling up afterwards.80% (2012 -14) . M& E and awareness Regulation Public awareness Triggering social mechanisms to Expose NGOs and media to Build political support campaign prevent OD.100% (2014 onwards) A strong regulatory framework to be put in place by amending the Municipal Act.50% (2010 -2012) . emptying fees to poor. symposium. regulations.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM tariffs for septage management. Sludge Treatment Improving and disposal collection Capacity. behavior change. awareness through multimedia reports. obstruction of natural and artificial drainage. importance of sanitation to with exposure visits. Manuals on guidelines. treatment facilities. UGD Scheme ISWM Ref Starters Promotion of RWAs. disuse of toilets.80% (2014 onwards) 3.60% (2012 -14) . in sludge collection and transportation. Building regulations with rules on following: Guidelines on penalties/fines to be imposed on littering. and ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. local Making segregated wastes committees in 100% door to door available at disposal / collection.

Technical evaluation and finalization: Appraising models for toilets. Sustaining usage Impact monitoring: periodic and O&M and governance regular monitoring of socio economic. Framing rules and specifications and effective monitoring especially to make sewerage systems work without any ex filtration in the future. vulnerable and special needs populations. health. HYDERABAD 133 | P a g e . Institutional processes: Community monitoring of construction. ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM campaigns. sanitation. social pressure on usage and O&M etc. emptying pits/septic tanks. determining community Contributions. workshops. menstrual hygiene. . Continuing O&M practices(cleaning toilets. solid/liquid waste management. school sanitation.SWM. targeting children in particular. track O&D 1. Adoption of “Protocol” on monthly collection of data from each ward/slum and publish in public forum. Monitoring evaluation and 1. Drainage. Documented operational systems and institutional responsibility assigned for each sector by preparing written manual. maintaining waste water disposal systems) Establishing linkages for funds defining allocations/sharing costs. ground water and soil impact indicators. usage etc. Gather information and develop databases and regular updation.

A. Rudimentary latrines (discharging into drains and nalas) widely spread in Ramagundam. HYDERABAD 134 | P a g e . Remaining areas need to be covered. Those decentralized systems also require less energy (and have therefore lower costs) than conventional treatment systems. TECHNICAL OPTIONS FOR FECAL TREATMENT AND WASTE WATER TREATMENT As discussed. One factor of success of the decentralized systems is the well organized operation and maintenance.). septic tanks. pit latrines. This has been already planned it has to be completed.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM 6. treatment and disposal of human excreta and community liquid waste.  Promoting proper disposal and treatment of sludge from on-site installations (septic tanks.e. depending on the type of onsite treatment involved. Different types of sanitation systems (indicated in the table) below and decentralized wastewater treatment plants can be suggested i. treated and disposed off safely by interpolated at the end of the village and treated in case of Ramagundam. are the first step to manage excreta. whereas the SIBF and the DEWATS feature only low risk as users do not get in direct contact with the system. type of crops and how well the prior treatment has worked. Each successive step of the ladder represents a higher unit cost but is assumed to give a correspondingly lower level of health risk (Morella 2008). etc. The risk here is dependent on the reuse of water for irrigation practices. For onsite sanitation. This will be achieved by:  Ensuring that all human wastes are collected. biogas toilets and Decentralized Wastewater Treatment System (DEWATS).2. cent percent human excreta and liquid wastes from all sanitation facilities must be disposed-off safely. ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. The proposals for Ramagundam consider safe containment. EXCRETA DISPOSAL AND WASTE WATER MANAGEMENT Presently liquid waste is collected through underground sewers lines in most of the places. Need to ensure 100% treatment of both black and grey water. periodic cleaning shall be ensured. which is either conducted by a private company or a community committee.  Promoting proper functioning of network-based sewerage systems and ensuring connections of all households to them.3. The biogas and Ecosan system pose medium risk to the person who is emptying the systems.  Encourage recycle and reuse of treated waste water for non-potable applications. But the town is spread and there are many empty pockets due to various townships many nodes have developed. The next step in the sanitation ladder is any form of improved latrines that ensure more hygienic separation of excreta and the final step is a flush latrine connected to a septic tank or a sewer network. Onsite sanitation systems to treat grey and black water or a combination depending on the user choice shall be adopted for less dense settlements and other uncovered areas. There is no continuous growth and having centralised UGD will not work and will be very expensive. Sewerage system need not be the only sanitation system for liquid waste. ULB may provide the equipment at a fee and also final disposal. wherever possible.

The decentralized systems aim at reusing the treated wastewater for irrigation. Whereas the septic tank aims only at providing better hygienic conditions.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM The six technologies represent different levels of sanitation services. biogas). HYDERABAD 135 | P a g e . the ecosan and biogas systems provide additional benefits (reuse of nutrients. Basic Sanitation Intended benefit Type Septic tank Individu al Biogas Ecosan Waste Water Treatment SIBF** MSF*** Commun al Yes NA* DEWATS** ** Communal Yes NA* Individual / Individual / Commun Communal Communal al Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes NA* Better Hygienic Yes Conditions Reuse Nutrients Biogas of NA and Reuse of NA treated waste water for irrigation NA NA Yes Yes Yes **Solid Immobilised Biofilter (SIBF) ***Multiple Stage Filtration (MSF) ****Decentralized Wastewater Treatment System (DEWATS) Following waste water treatment options are feasible to Ramgundam context. As apriority. Table 64: Waste water treatment options for RMC Area 1 2 3 Preference (Offsite) 1 Preference 2 Preference 3 (onsite) (onsite) Individual Septic Tanks Two pits STP ECOSAN Community latrines with biogas tanks Community septic tanks New upcoming areas DEWATS (high income) New upcoming areas ( DEWATS Low income) Slums of narrow lanes Existing UGD/ Communal Community septic tanks septic Tank Community septic tanks DEWATS 4 Problematic areas In Ramagundam though STP is not functioning many houses are connected with sewers. ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. Table 63: Intended benefits for the six technology systems. With respect to this situation appropriate treatment options are as follows. RMC should strengthen the present position by properly maintaining small bore sewers and make STP operational immediately.

then will act as a future provision when the sewer line is laid Case 4: Large scale developments All large developments (>50 acre site area) must provide for a polishing pond with necessary aeration facilities for discharge of treated wastewater to enable ‘Zero discharge’ outside site limits. In view of these consequences. Based on the reuse potential and quality requirement of treated water. Hence education on appropriate hygiene practices as well as the use of the systems as a way to improve aspects. B. ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. Treating grey water and reuse for external cleaning. Case 3: New Townships All new townships less than 50n acres should be recommended to install dual plumbing systems. black water to be discharged into the sewer line D. All systems provide water for irrigation with which users get in contact so regular monitoring is required to keep the hygienic risks low. the grey and black water can be separated using dual plumbing systems at source of generation. landscaping. HYDERABAD 136 | P a g e . If site has no access to sewer line. The treatment of wastewater by conventional systems requires a large amount of land. appropriate treatment option or an additive to septic tank should be chosen from the matrices provided in the guidance notes. Grey water reuse potential of the site has to be calculated. Case 2: If a site has access to a public sewer line A. such as smell and breeding insects. At least 80% of the total treated grey water should be reused on site . a grey water treatment system is recommended. A septic tank should be provided for smaller sites (<1000 SqM) with necessary additives and a waste water treatment system should be installed for large sites (>1000 Sq M). If the site has access to sewer. If potential savings on potable water due to reuse of treated grey water exceeds 20%. This has tobe encouraged specifically in townships of PSUs. are energy intensive etc. Separating grey and black water at the source of generation B. A. and WC flushing C. B. which then can be treated separately using appropriate systems and increase its reuse potential. At least 75% of the total treated water should be reused on site. huge capital and O&M costs. appropriate treatment option should be chosen from the matrices provided in the guidance notes. Based on the reuse potential and quality requirement of treated grey water. should be provided on ongoing basis.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM Case 1: If a site does not have access to a public sewer line A.

is the running and maintenance the plant. The RMC is bearing the responsibility of managing the O & M of the partially established system. The preventive maintenance methods to achieve the above requirement are: Ensure self-cleaning velocity in all section of the sewerage system at least once in a day for prevention of clogging in the sewerage system. which may be discharged by the public. skilled manpower and easily available mechanical/electrical equipment. Prevent the accumulation of foul gases in the sewerage system due to the anaerobic decomposition of the deposited solids 4. flushing is necessary. Also thee sewer lines between two ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. Any obstruction or overloading of the collection system can have dramatic consequences on public health and the environment. but is being built part by part. hospitals and commercial institutions for conveyance to STPs for treatment and safe disposal. 2.SS and faecal coliforms laid down by the local body or the pollution control board while discharging the effluent on land or into water bodies. Maintenance of sewer system depends not only on proper design and construction but also on the availability of competent staff for their operation. HYDERABAD 137 | P a g e . Protect the sewerage system against damaging materials. industries. The primary aim of sewage treatment plants’ (STP) operation and maintenance (O&M). The sewer section where it is not possible to obtain the self-cleansing velocities due to flatness of the gradient especially in the head reaches of the sewer network. B. commercial and industrial institution.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM Case 5: UGD in some areas As of now. it is appropriate to operate and maintain the system effectively in order to derive maximum benefit of the investment. For ease of operation and maintenance. power charges for the pumping stations. Save the workers involved in the sewer cleaning from death due to obnoxious gases. The O&M of the created infrastructure includes manning and maintenance of the STPs. The requirements of the maintenance of the sewerage system are: 1. There is no proper DPR prepared for the area under the RMC area. maintenance and repairs of the sewer cleaning machinery and equipment. REQUIREMENTS OF MAINTENANCE OF SEWERS As huge investment are generally made for the implementation of the sewerage system. so that the effluent from the plant meets the prescribed standards in terms of BOD. It is the responsibility of the RMC to ensure that the performance of the proposed sewerage system is not compromised in any manner by adopting proper practices of operation and maintenance of the system. efficiently and economically. Prevent the sewerage system from clogging due to deposition of solids as a result of inadequate flow 3. Effective O&M of an underground sewerage scheme is critical and the direct responsibility rests with the RMC. A sewerage system as it is known collects wastewater from residences. UGD system in Ramagundam is not present in all areas. the proposed sewerage system has to be of locally available materials . manning for the maintenance of the net work. administrative expenditure involved in billing and collection of sewerage cess etc.

Schedule of daily preventive maintenance. Proper and adequate tools. 3.480 (considering 70’ max.2500 5.1000 (inspection chambers & bricks and cement) 3.4300 ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. A thorough knowledge of the processes. The basic requirements of successful O&M of STP are: 1. 8. 6. The revenue from the sewerage sector is mainly from the charges being collected while giving new sewerage connection and drainage cess collected along with house tax. Just before Septic tank construct inspection chamber with in premises and bypass the existing septic tank Figure 10: Connecting to UGC –a typical layout C. HYDERABAD 138 | P a g e . Cost of laying pipes = Rs. Assignment of specific responsibilities to operating staff. Cost of labor = Rs. 2.1000 4.6300 or Rs. Training of all operating staff in operating procedures and maintenance practices. Cost of materials = Rs. Adequate stock of spare parts and chemical.5/ft of pipe) 2. Maintaining records of key activities and operating logs of equipment. 4. Therefore the total cost of laying pipes = Rs. Connection cost/HH = Rs. 7. 5.3800 or Rs2000 6. Total max. Systematic and period inspection. 9. pipe length and @ Rs. COSTS PER HOUSEHOLD 1.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM successive manholes should be periodically inspected using intrusive equipments & arrangement for silting and blockages. cost per HH = Rs. A thorough knowledge of plant and machinery and equipment provided in the STP and their functions.80 X 6 = Rs.

/CuM) O&M Costs Rs.4-2.mg/l (%) - BOD Stabilization Ponds Root Zone Treatment / Reed Bed Technology Decentralized Wastewater Sys-tems (DEWATS) Soil Biotechnology (SBT) Rotating Biological Contractors (RBC) Activated Sludge Package Plants (ASPP) Membrane Bio Reactors (MBR) Fluidized Bed Bio Reactor (FBBR) Fluidized Media Reactor (FMR) Sequential Batch Reactors (SBR) Bio Sanitizer (BS) .5-10 400-1000 sqm/MLD 1 sqm for 25 cum 1500 Sqm/ MLD 40% < ASPP (ASP) 30 - 30 10-50 - 15-60 2500/ Year 2 0.2 lakh/ MLD 5. 10000/ year NA 4.5 1 to 8KWh 1/8 of / day conventional 2. HYDERABAD 139 | P a g e ./CuM) Power Required KWh/Day Space Requirement Sq.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM Table 65: Costs for waste water treatment Treatment Option Capital Cost (Rs.5 to 3 lakh/ MLD 1000 5000/ year 500 / year COD Rs.m/cuM daily flow TSS Treatme nt Indicator s .06 KWh/ KL 10 to 12 (30/90 )8 (90) 23 (87) 54 5-20 3 (Three) 10-15 60-70 15-20 6 to 7 lakhs/ MLD 23-66 lakh/ MLD 2 lakh/ MLD 45 lakh/ MLD 1.5 KWh/cum 25KW/ 500KL STP 0.9 to 1.5 to 6 lakh/ MLD 10000 (cost of baffled 7500 to 10000 / year 0.Additive 2.5 to 1 KWh/cum 310KWh/ day Nil 2 20 2 10 150 10 2000/ Year 15 to 20000/ year Nil 15 - 30 5-15 - 10-30 2 (Two) (for baffled reactor) 15-30 - 30 ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. 25 70/90 50/6 0 - 1 (One) 20-30 30 25000 to 50000 49000 1000/ year 13W/cum of pond 0.

in Lakhs) 60. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 Name of the Work Maintenance of STP including motors and pipe lines at Malkapur Maintenance of STP including motors and pipe lines at Ramagundam Providing of internal Street lights along the bunds of STP at Malkapur Providing of internal Street lights along the bunds of STP at Ramagundam Providing internal WBM roads at STP Malkapur Providing internal WBM roads at STP Ramagudam Total Amount(Rs.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM tank) + 800 (cost of BS) Effective Microorganism s (EM) Additive 6700 (include s const. HYDERABAD 140 | P a g e .00 15. of baffled reactor) 12/cu m (cost of EM solution) Nil 3 (Three) (for baffled tank) 15 30 O & M of STP on PPP mode: An estimation for maintenance of STPs in Ramgundam carried out recently by RMC officials for outsourcing STP O&M through PPP as follows: Table 66: Cost estimations for O&M of STP on PPP Sl.00 ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA.00 30.00 130.00 10.00 10.00 5.

Institutional Campuses 0 –20 > 20 Other Public Buildings ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. HYDERABAD 141 | P a g e .CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM D. The parameters for selection of appropriate grey water treatment options for each of these categories is outlined below. Table 67: Parameters for Selection for Grey Water Treatment Options GW Quantity (KL) Upto 500sq m 0 –4 4 –12 12 –40 40 –80 80 – 160 160 – 400 > 400 5001000sqm 10002500sqm Site Area / Appropriate Treatment Option 0.5acre 2.5-5acre >5acre Residential Buildings D(C)/SFS/R BS D(C)/SFS/R BS D(C)/SFS/R BS D(C)/SFS/R BS EC/D(C)/D( UV) EC/D(C)/D( UV) EC/D(C)/D( UV) RBS/EC/D(C ) EC/D(C)/D( UV) RBS/EC/D(C ) RBS/EC/D(C ) EC/D(C)/D( UV) EC/D(C)/D( UV) SFS/RBS/D( C) RBS/EC/D(C ) D(C)/SFS/R BS D(C)/SFS/R BS D(C)/SFS/R BS D(C)/SFS/R BS EC/D(C)/D( UV) EC/D(C)/D( UV) EC/D(C)/D( UV) RBS/EC/D(C ) EC/D(C)/D( UV) RBS/EC/D(C ) RBS/EC/D(C ) EC/D(C)/D( UV) EC/D(C)/D( UV) SFS/RBS/D( C) RBS/EC/D(C ) GDS/RBS/D( C) SFS/RBS/D(C ) RBS/EC/ D(C) RBS/EC/D(C) EC/D(C)/D(U V) EC/D(C)/D(U V) EC/D(C)/D(U V) RBS/EC/D(C) RBS/EC/D(U V) EC/D(C)/D(U V) RBS/EC/D(U V) RBS/EC/D(U V) RBS/D(UV)/ ATS RBS/ABS/D( C) RBS/EC/D(U V) PDS/RBS/D(C ) SFS/RBS/D(C ) RBS/EC/D(C) RBS/EC/D(C) EC/D(C)/D(U V) EC/D(C)/D(U V) EC/D(C)/D(U V) RBS/EC/D(C) RBS/EC/D(U V) EC/D(C)/D(U V) RBS/EC/D(U V) RBS/EC/D(U V) RBS/D(UV)/A TS RBS/ABS/D(C ) RBS/EC/D(U V) PDS/RBS/D(C ) RBS/ABS/D(C ) RBS/EC/D(C) RBS/ABS/D(C ) ABS/D(C)/D( UV) ABS/D(C)/D( UV) ABS/D(C)/D( UV) ABS/EC/D(UV ) ABS/D(UV)/D (O) RBS/ABS/D(U V) RBS/ABS/D(U V) EC/D(UV)/AT S ABS/D(UV)/A TS RBS/ABS/D(U V) EC/D(UV)/AT S PDS/RBS/D(C ) RBS/ABS/D(C ) RBS/ABS/D(C ) RBS/ABS/D(C ) ABS/D(C)/ D(UV) ABS/D(C)/D( UV) ABS/D(C)/D( UV) ABS/EC/D(UV ) ABS/D(UV)/D (O) RBS/ABS/D(U V) RBS/ABS/D(U V) ABS/D(O)/AT S ABS/D(O)/AT S RBS/ABS/D(U V) ABS/D(UV)/A TS Commercial / Mixed landuse Buildings 0 –8 >8 Institutional / Corporate Campuses 0 –20 20 –30 30 –40 > 40 Govt. they can further be classified into 6 sub-categories.5-2. the building types are classified into 5 categories and further based upon their quantity of grey water generation and site areas. GREY WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM Based upon different uses.

even if treatment is not required in an immediate use application. If storage is required. SFS – Sand Filter System. treat. PDS – Pump Diversion System. the system should also minimize the risks to plants as a result of chemicals. it is necessary to minimize the potential for animals and humans to come in direct contact with the grey water. Table 68: Degree of Treatment Needed for Land Application Treatment Primary Device Type Septic tank Grey water Tank Waterless composting toilet Combustion toilet Land Application System Soil absorption systems Burial (for compost) Secondary AWTS Subsurface Irrigation Grey water treatment Septic tank and re circulating sand filter AWTS Subsurface irrigation Grey water treatment Surface Irrigation (non – Septic tank and re circulating sand aerosal) 142 | P a g e Tertiary (disinfection) ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. D(C) – Disinfection (Chlorine). decentralized systems treat wastewater close to the source. The details regarding the reuse potential for grey water using different treatment options is outlined below. Following guidelines need to be followed for application of sewage water. HYDERABAD . and reuse or dispose of wastewater at or near its point of generation. ABS – Aerobic Biological System. RBS – Reed Bed System. soaps. D(UV) – Disinfection (Ultra Violet).CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM 0 –12 > 12 SFS/EC/D(C ) RBS/EC/D(C ) SFS/EC/D(C ) RBS/EC/D(C ) RBS/EC/D(C) RBS/EC/D(U V) RBS/EC/D(C) RBS/EC/D(U V) RBS/EC/D(UV ) EC/D(UV)/AT S RBS/EC/D(UV ) EC/D(UV)/AT S NOTE: GDS – Gravity Diversion System. If used for irrigation. E. However. Based on the requirement of water for different reuse applications arrived using the Water calculator. It includes systems that treat wastewater from individual homes or buildings as well as cluster systems that treat wastewater from groups of two or more houses. REUSE OF RECYCLED WATER Decentralized wastewater systems collect. D(O) – Disinfection (Ozone). which could adversely affect plant health. detergents and other contaminants. Unlike centralized urban wastewater treatment systems. ATS – Advanced Treatment Systems REUSE POTENTIAL OF TREATED GREY WATER A number of key issues of concern need to be taken into consideration when contemplating the reuse of grey water. suit-able treatment system must be installed so that not more than 20% of treated grey water is disposed outside the site limits. the grey water must be treated to remove biodegradable contaminants. EC – Electro Coagulation. The system should be as simple and easy to use and maintain as possible. They are most cost-effective option especially in peri urban and hilly terrain existing in Ramagundam. otherwise the grey water will quickly become septic and may generate noxious odours and create other aesthetic and operational problems. typically using small pipes for collecting small volumes of domestic wastewater. while minimizing risk to human health.

Use of treated waste water for construction activities .Recharge of groundwater is one of the way of reusing wastewater particularly since the groundwater table tends to lower almost all parts of Rangundam.000 cum/ha) which is commonly required for semi-arid areas.Treated domestic wastewater is ideal for irrigating community parks. which can directly be used by algae. at the same time the same amount of groundwater is saved. The waste water from final receiving chamber is allowed to enter in this reactor at the bottom through a pipe and water rises up at a very low velocity. The cross section of this reactor is trapezoidal section in the bottom and rectangular in the top. PSUs can be regulated to do so. even well-treated wastewater with concentrations as 15 mg/l of total nitrogen and 3 mg/l total phosphorous provides 300 kg N and 60 kg/hectare via irrigation without additional cost. which then could become fish feed.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM filter Grey water (Excluding wastes) tertiary Grey water treatment Kitchen Subsurface irrigation Surface Irrigation (non – aerosol) Toilet flushing Options for safe disposal of treated wastewater Treated wastewater. Discharge into lakes/ponds/water bodies . Application on land for ground water recharge . water plants and lower animals. The different sustainable ways of disposing the treated wastewater are discussed below. Ramgundam has many mining ditches and can be used f or waste water discharge. The treated waste water is collected through gutter along longitudinal walls and enters the secondary treatment system. if handled properly. F. DEWATS : SEWAGE TREATMENT EQUIVALENT) (300 PERSON EQUIVALENT OR 60-65 HHS The sewage treatment unit consists of anaerobic up flow reactor as a primary treatment and Root Zone Treatment (RTZ) System as secondary treatment system. For an irrigation rate of 2m per year (20. HYDERABAD 143 | P a g e . The treated wastewater is finally supplied to the houses for inferior domestic uses like toilet flushing and garden irrigation. This system was designed & implemented for 300 person equivalent. flower beds in gardens and other farm lands/agricultural areas. Description of Wastewater treatment units The wastewater treatment system consists of Up-flow Anaerobic Reactor as primary treatment unit. A maturation pond is also in place for tertiary treatment.Wastewater is full of nutrients.Water if treated upto the required standards can effectively be used for construction purposes. Primary Treatment Unit ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. Application on land for irrigation . can be of high value as it contains several nutrients and is a vital source of fertiliser.

planted with vegetation which can grow in wetlands. Type of Structure: Reinforced Concrete floor with Brick walls. Root Zone Treatment system    Type of treatment system: Horizontal Root Zone treatment. Horizontal Root Zone Treatment Unit The secondary treatment units are implemented in Phase level hence the first level is designed for 50 persons.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM        Type of Primary treatment: Up flow anaerobic reactor. Cross sectional area: 12m2 3.024 Kg/m2/day Actual Load Characteristics ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. Volume: 114 m3 2. Root zone treatment are sealed filter beds consisting of sand.011 Kg/m2/day (As per Actual measurement after commissioning of recycling system) 1. Organic load: 0. HYDERABAD 144 | P a g e . Size of Unit: 10m X 5m X 1. wastewater passes through filter bed by uniform horizontal flow.037 Kg/m2/day (As per Actual measurement before commissioning of recycling system)  Organic Load (Maximum): 0.512 Kg/m2/day Actual Load Characteristics  Hydraulic load: 160 lts/m2/day (As per Standards)  Hydraulic load: 177 lts/m2/day (As per Actual measurement before commissioning of recycling system)  Hydraulic load: 81 lts/m2/day (As per Actual measurement after commissioning of recycling system)  Organic Load (Maximum): 0. occasionally with a cohesive element.2m Design Load Characteristics 1. Hydraulic load: 160 lts/m2/day 2. gravel and soil system. Design capacity: 300 Persons. The wastewater passes through the filter bed where biodegradation of the wastewater takes place. In the root zone treatment. Type of Structure: Reinforced Cement Concrete Size of unit: 10m x 3m x 4m Design Load Characteristics Hydraulic load : 1600 lts/m2/day Organic load: 0. Longitudinal Sectional area at the centre: 40m2 Secondary Treatment Unit The wastewater treatment systems consists of Horizontal root zone system as secondary treatment which receives partly treated wastewater from primary treatment unit.

Table 70: Cost of Operation and Maintenance Sl.0030 kg /m2/day (As per Actual measurement before commissioning of recycling system) Organic load: 0.5 days (as per actual daily sewage inflow) Table 69: Cost of Construction of the Wastewater Treatment system Sl. effluent from Root zone treatment unit enters in the Maturation pond. No 1.0021 kg /m2/day (As per Actual measurement after commissioning of recycling system) Type of plant species: Arundodonax Plan area of filter bed: 50m2 Tertiary Treatment Unit Maturation Pond: In this treatment unit.000.500.00 145 | P a g e ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA.75 m2  Capacity of unit: 28.00 3416.000. HYDERABAD .000.00 Rs 4.00 2.75m2  Plan area: 28.75m X 5mX 1m  Cross sectional area: 5m2  Longitude Sectional area: 5.75 m3  Hydraulic Retention time: 4. 50 50 2000.00 Anaerobic Reactor) Secondary treatment unit (Root 1. No 1 Description of work Monitoring Wastewater Analysis cost Amount (Rs) 26.75.00 500.00 Hence total cost required for the construction of wastewater treatment system is Rs 4000.00 per person.00. 3. The important function of maturation pond is the removal of excreted pathogens to achieve an effluent quality which is suitable for its downstream reuse. Design of Maturation Pond Type of Structure: Reinforced Concrete floor with Brick walls  Size of Unit: 5.00 Primary treatment unit (Upflow 2. Description Total Cost Rs in For Person Equivalent 300 Cost/ Person 916.00 Zone Treatment) Tertiary treatment (Maturation Pond) TOTAL COST unit 25. Maturation pond act as tertiary treatment.00.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM     Hydraulic load: 106 lts /m2/day (As per Actual measurement before commissioning of recycling system) Hydraulic load: 49 lts /m2/day (As per Actual measurement after commissioning of recycling system) Organic load: 0.000.

000. Public Toilets in PPP.mt) 0. 2. VERY HIGH Last mile connectivity to UGD with clear technical guidelines. skill need. COST & IMPACT MATRIX The following matrix represents the cost & impacts scenario for OD free status and achieving environmental sanitation. Pro poor policy on Septage clearance and connections to UGD.7 2. LOW clearly LOW COSTS MEDIUM HIGH VERY HIGH ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA.00 Rs 35000 30.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM 2.specifications and effective monitoring Enhancing DtD collection and transportation Incentives and Punitive measures IMPACT Institutional responsibility assigned.4 Area requirement per person for the treatment of wastewater is nearly 2. Maintenance Operation and maintenance commissioning till date) Onsite Laboratory Cost of Equipment and chemicals Total (two years) O&M cost year 12. Delinking tenure ship Community toilets (bearing capital costs and transferring to community for O&M) Capacity building by exposure visits. behavior change. School Sanitation Framing Rules . mt) Equivalent 300 Area / Person (Sq.4m2/person G.24 0.00 (Since 3.11 Primary treatment unit ((Up-flow 34 Anaerobic Reactor) Secondary treatment unit (Root 62 Zone treatment) Tertiary treatment (Maturation Pond) TOTAL unit 33 129 50 50 300 1. 3. 4 5 6 Table 71 Land Requirement Sl No 1. MEDIUM HIGH Intensive IEC programme to prevent OD. disuse of toilets. Description Total Area Person (Sq.00 68. HYDERABAD 146 | P a g e .000. 500. technical training and workshops Building authentic MIS and updation Ensuring right technology for STP with low OM costs.

 Good working conditions and recognition mechanisms for workforce.  Reduce expenditure on collection per household by imposing user charges 147 | P a g e Possible Constraints  Increasing efficiency and productivity of existing staff. by well-planned door to door collection. transport and  Encourage PPP and out sourcing. HYDERABAD .  Overall training and capacity building of MSW personnel in order to achieve segregation of solid waste at source.  Promote source segregation by keeping “wet” & “dry” wastes separately.  Provide separate collection mechanism for Bulk Waste Producers. Performance indicators in municipal solid waste explain poor state of the situation. to compost all bio – degradable and recycle dry wastes.  Increased involvement of NGOs/Private operators etc. doorstep collection of “wet” waste for bulk waste producers with extra rates. 6. open spaces.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM A summary of the current position of the solid waste management has been dealt in previous chapters.  Regularise sanitary worker attendance by biometric system.3. Field surveys and discussions with stakeholders also identified key issues and problems in Ramagundam. A systematic action plan for maintaining solid waste management while achieving each recommendation as outlined below: Table 72: ISWM Action Plan Recommendation 1 Achieving benchmark cleanliness (following SLB indicators and parameter in Sanitation rankings in phases ) Strategy to be adopted  Establish work norms (per worker) for roads (both congested and wide).  Associate with trade & industry associations for better marketing to segregate recyclable material  Give priority to the source segregation of recyclable waste by shops and establishments and later concentrate on segregation at the 3household level.  Increased public health and hygiene levels 3 Minimizing .3. There need to be considerable focus required to address Integrated Solid Waste management complying to MSW 2000 rules. IMPROVEMENT OF INTEGRATED SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT 2 Source segregation of waste into specified types  Targeting behavior change of households. Actions  Promote clean wards/slums/Colony etc.  Possible protest from employees.  Maximum recycling and maximum local composting of bio-degradable waste.  Involve Corporators and a few other who will support such efforts in their Wards. Construction waste / Debris. ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA.  Encourage successes of visible clean areas.  Good communication and awareness programme. Garden/ Green Waste.primary collection.

offices. Regular reporting and data updating.  Share MSW information with the Public.  Display boards with details of MSW in specific area including Contractor’s phone number on the dustbins to be cleared by them and specify how residents can handover waste to municipal body. one per day). category wise waste generation. fairs and exhibitions and ceremonies. shops. ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. street-food. transportation and disposal. Appropriate division of roles responsibilities.  Spatial and seasonal waste generation quantities and nature (Ward-wise waste). health-care facilities.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM handling costs per ton @ Rs. asset inventory. collection points linking to GIS. number of workers in each ward for collection. eatinghouses or hostels. HYDERABAD 148 | P a g e .  Simple procedures and strict enforcement of regulations. Funds and leadership 4 Management Information Systems 5 Levy user charges  Polluter pays principle and a policy on SWM user charges.  Charges for business or trade. Lack of political will.  Avoid NIMBY by sanitizing all wastes near point of collection until composting commence.  Recording weigh-bridge on-site  Number of staff and expected clearance frequencies. and Developing information base on :   Daily/weekly/monthly reports at town/ward/zone level. encourage source segregation and reduce waste reduction to at least 15%.Planning and optimizing vehicle routing with robust MIS and waste generation data base.  Introduction of GPS and monitoring of MSW vehicles in a centralized locality.

Organize citizen meeting in neighborhood and explain concept of ALM through public meetings.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM 6 Advanced locality Management (ALM) Strong citizen’s group to work closely with ULB to develop strategy and improve ISWM as well as other civic amenities in their local area. criteria based 8 Selection of technologies. etc. hotel waste.  Take up pilot in in newly developed areas. under-served areas and particularly in the areas where local bodies have not been providing service through their own labor force. treatment Developing environmentally sustainable models especially in disposal e.  Supplying refuse collection vehicles on lease.  Lack of information  Inadequate capacities to private operator credible internal monitor 7 Promoting Public Private Participation (PPP) Performance improvement contracting system.  Setting-up. operation and maintenance of waste disposal facility. Select ALM committee from all representative building.  Enhancing the strength of ULBs and ability of engaged contractors to perform. transportation of waste on contractual basis. commercial waste.g. operation and maintenance of waste treatment or processing plants. scientific landfills (SLFs). Internal ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. hospital waste. construction waste and market waste. Coordination and capacities issues.  Setup expert committee. HYDERABAD 149 | P a g e . repairs and maintenance of vehicles at a private garage. lanes etc.  PPP can be considered in:  D2D collection of household waste.

ENABLING 6. ULBs are in the frontline of implementation and have a key role in ensuring sanitation and should focus on demand responsive approach. HYGIENE SUSTAINING PROMOTION AND STRATEGIES COMMUNITY The first step in making cities 100% sanitized is to elevate the consciousness about sanitation in the mind of municipal agencies. government agencies and most importantly. and understanding incentives to change behavior and practices. government agencies and most importantly. amongst the people of the city. amongst the people of the city. ULBs are in the frontline of implementation and have a key role in ensuring sanitation and should focus on demand responsive approach. demand-based sanitation programs. AND RAISING. State government should ensure support to ULBs in providing enabling environment in all respects and provide communication and awareness strategy. The first step in making cities 100% sanitized is to elevate the consciousness about sanitation in the mind of municipal agencies. The following table details out IEC and advocacy plan in achieving desired goals of environmental sanitation: ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. The policy also aims to transform cities into totally sanitized. promote no subsidies for household toilets in future and encourage diversity in technology and design. and for generating awareness amongst urban households on sanitation and its linkages with health.4. public health and economics. A communication strategy has been drafted to create support for and facilitate effective implementation of city-wide. One reason for the low support to sanitation is that opinion leaders. To meet this challenge a systematic “Communication Need Assessment (CNA)” for different Target Groups has been taken up as part of CSP and objective of well driven IEC is demand-driven with social marketing approaches to increase demand for toilets and ensure hygiene behaviors. There needs to be considerable engagement with households and communities on changing mindsets. policy makers and managers do not see the links between sanitation. economic productivity and the environment along with facilitating behavior change towards adoption of safe sanitation practices among households. AWARENESS PARTICIPATION.4. healthy and livable cities and towns. This will only be achieved by:   Generating awareness amongst households and institutions about sanitation and its linkages with public and environmental health.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM 6. HYDERABAD 150 | P a g e .1. Promoting mechanisms to bring about and sustain behavioral changes aimed at adoption of healthy sanitation practices.

Messages/Themes        What are current habits and how the toilets should be designed for social acceptance. office bearers of Sanghabandams and Slum Level Federations representing slums in inner Town                   SLF Meeting Door to door campaign New paper Advt calling for meeting Press Conference Councillors. Engineers Commissioner. Promoting two pit latrines in slums How to ensure compliance from people Rewards/Punishments Better implementation of sanitation projects Safe handling of garbage by Sanitation workers Safe deposition of garbage by Contractors Consultations on preventing open defecation Toilet size Toilet options two pit. Scabies Consultation on problems with current toilets Channels of Communication Council meeting. septic tank Safe disposal of Human Excreta Contamination due to Fecal Matter Health and hygiene Diarrhea. GE. septic tank Health and hygiene Diarrhea. GE. CSP workshops. News paper Advt calling for meeting Press Conference-sharing the goals and plan of action for CSP with press persons Councillors. Malaria. HYDERABAD 151 | P a g e . Malaria.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM Table 73: IEC and Advocacy Plan for Environmental Sanitation Target Audience Councillors. Scabies Consultation on problems with current toilets Consultation of water supply situation Consultation on Environmental sanitation Consultation on expectations form Municipality Safe disposal of Human Excreta Contamination due to Fecal Matter Toilet size Toilet options two pit. office bearers of Sanghabandams and Slum Level Federations in Old Town SLF Meeting Door to door campaign Newspaper Advt calling for meeting Press Conference ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA.

GE. news paper advertisements. Scabies Consultation on problems with current toilets Consultation of water scarcity Consultation on Environmental sanitation Consultation on expectations form Municipality Consultation on problems with current toilets Consultation on septic tank cleaning Consultation on Environmental sanitation Consultation of water supply situation Consultation of willingness to pay for tricycles etc Consultation on expectations form Municipality Display numbers of responsible officials like Sanitation Inspectors prominently in their Zones Restart Call Center Facility. Appreciation of what people desire SLF Meeting Door to door campaign Newspaper Advertisement calling for meeting Press Conference Office bearers of Residents Welfare Association middleclass localities Meetings.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM    Councillors. painting on Elevated/underground reservoirs Print the phone numbers of responsible officials on the tractors Importance of safe handling of waste  Do not dump Garbage on roads leading to dump yard Print the phone numbers of responsible ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. establish grievance redressal mechanism. HYDERABAD 152 | P a g e . Malaria. septic tank Contamination due to Fecal Matter Safe disposal of Human Excreta Health and hygiene Diarrhea. Door to door campaigning Newspaper Advertisement calling for meeting Press Conference Water and sanitation officials Print pamphlets given with newspapers. office bearers of Sanghabandams and Slum Level Federations representing slums in Town Outskirts                     Water and Sanitation Workers Contractors Consultation on Environmental sanitation Consultation of water crisis Consultation on expectations form Municipality Health Risks due to open defecation Toilet size Toilet options two pit.

CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM   Shopkeepers Do not burn garbage Segregate waste at the dump yard.   Do not dump garbage in by lanes If you need to dispose hazardous waste call the municipality and ask for a tractor. Road Side Billboards Keep house and neighborhood Clean News Paper Ads Boil/Filter the Water before drinking Wash your hands before and after eating/drinking Town Cable Don’t allow mosquitoes to breed in your neighborhood Immunize Children Don’t share clothes of persons infected with skin diseases officials on the tractors

Town Wide

     

Sanitation, despite being a basic human need and a critical need for improved quality of life, has not got the necessary attention in the past. Also, the different aspects of sanitation starting from collection of human feces to the safe disposal (the whole process cycle) have seen different stakeholders.
Table 74: Methods and implementation of awareness activities

Stakeholder Group Households (urban poor / slum dwellers) that lack toilets / access to sanitation

Message Intent Motivate citizens to take action and adopt safe, hygienic sanitation practices

Example of Messages that could be used • • Clean households leads to healthy, strong and successful families Choose dignity for your wives and daughters! Having toilets at home adds to the comfort, security and privacy of the women. Improved sanitation facilities, (e.g. use individual or community toilets) will reduce health expenditure of your

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CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM family. Service providers – includes • • Reinforce that: Sanitation also includes Officials of ULBs management of human excreta Officials from different arms of and liquid wastes in addition to the city administration, solid waste management. primarily from ULBs, PHED, OWSSB, etc. Proper waste management is not solely the responsibility of Officials of DHUD the state. Citizens have an equal Officials from different arms of and important role to play in the city administration, helping the state achieve the primarily from ULBs, PHED, state’s urban sanitation goals. OWSSB, etc. Helping provide basic needs like sanitation will strengthen your popularity with your constituents and could further improve political mandate  Leverage investments in sanitation and public health and give the residents and their future generations a chance to a healthy and happy future.

Service providers – includes • •

Proper management of household waste + proper confinement, disposal and treatment of human excreta = Clean Cities. Winning the Nirmal Shaher Puraskar isn’t so difficult. Little effort will result in big gains (for ULB officials) Improve the quality of life of your constituents by influencing them to adopt good sanitation practices

Politicians

There are three important components to the communication strategy 1. Inter-personal communications: Using opinion leader 2. Engaging media and NGOs as partners in promoting sanitation consciousness 3. Adapting and developing multimedia IEC materials for sanitation campaigns Interpersonal means are known to be very effective in behavior change communications. These are tedious processes to carry out but offer better returns. It is important to understand the needs of the local community and select opinion leaders who could influence the community to further sanitation consciousness. These opinion leaders could be local NGOs, cooperators, school teachers or any other respected elder. A newspaper ad or a public service message on TV without ground level work through opinion leaders will fail to be sustainable in the long run.

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CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM For better targeting a need based IEC actions to be implemented categorized into following phases.
Table 75: showing Phase wise distribution of works

Phase 1 (1-2 months) Awareness Raising Phase Aimed at generating high awareness and a sense of alarm or concern about the OD, problem situation and UGD promotion. Consists of easy to grasp messages (e.g. disease incidences from contaminated water are rising). Technical guidance to proper UGD laying. Short advertisements in various media or communication channels.  Organise interactive programmes for effective implementation of UGD. Organise walks by children, meeting/workshop with stakeholders eg. shopkeepers, RWA, NGOs, communities etc. Institutionalize regular discussion between various departments for increased co-ordination to further goals of CSP. Seeking feedback from Councillors to help effective implementation. Media options: o Local Cable TV ads (30 secs)

Phase 2 (3 months) Educational Phase: To deepen the knowledge and appreciation of the target audience. Information and educational approaches to stress properly designed septic tanks and periodic septic tank inspections and desludging every 2- 3 years.

Phase 3 ( Continuous) Continuing Education Action Promotion Phase Promotional phase with short campaigns at least once a year. Action to dominate. To trigger the actual adoption of the practices being marketed.

 

 

Organise interactive programmes for effective implementation of UGD. Organise walks by children, meeting/workshop with stakeholders eg. shopkeepers, RWA, NGOs, communities etc. Institutionalize regular discussion between various departments for increased co-ordination to further goals of CSP. Seeking feedback from Councillors to help effective implementation. Media options: o Local Cable TV ads (30 secs) o Local newspaper ads

 

Organise interactive programmes for effective implementation of UGD. Organise walks by children, meeting/workshop with stakeholders eg. shopkeepers, RWA, NGOs, communities etc. Institutionalize regular discussion between various departments for increased co-ordination to further goals of CSP. Seeking feedback from Councillors to help effective implementation. Media options: o Continuing Continuing radio, TV, print ads

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leaflets.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM o o o o o o o Local newspaper ads Billboards Tarpaulin posters mounted on mobile vans Leaflets for those attending meetings News releases in print. billboards. SLF meetings Continuing news releases on all platforms Continuing feature articles o o  Media: TV.5 lakhs / year ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. radio and TV Discussions on radio o o o o o o Continuing house to house visits short film showing in theatres Continuing billboards Continuing but less frequent  assemblies. Door to door.  Mass announcements  Budget: 3 – 3. HYDERABAD 156 | P a g e . Radio. radio and TV Discussions on radio o o o o o o Billboards Tarpaulin posters mounted on mobile vans Leaflets for those attending meetings News releases in print.

CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM

6.4.2. FINANCING MECHANISMS
The allocations to RMC and yearly allocations are arrived based on state allocations and yearly state allocations arrived by state government duly following 2001 population census through per capita. The five plan perspective plan proposals and year wise plans are prepared as per the year wise allocations arrived for RMC are prepared. The abstract of Annual Development plans year wise are enclosed in annexure-II. Total Proposals for the 5 years are 134 no. of proposals with an estimated cost of Rs.36.36 Crores. The Annual Development Plan for 2010-11 is prepared with 13 no. of proposals with an estimated cost of Rs. 2.76 Crores. RMC is meeting its share of the expenditure of Rs. 876.05 lakhs from its surplus reserves. In fact the revenue and the expenditure in the Water Supply Sector is ring fenced and the Ramagundam Municipality has surplus revenue in the sector which can take care of cash flow of the ULB. For the effective implementation of the city sanitation plan, it is anticipated that funds will be sourced from following channels:      The Central Grants (via ministry of Urban Development and Ministry of HUPA, GOI. Individual and institutional contributions. State’s own budget. Connection cost of UGD to be collected and deposited for O&M of STPs and should be managed by CSTF. Promote public-private partnership for key activities identified in the city sanitation plan. PPP in public and community toilets, CSR funds and mobilize private people in maintaining school toilets. Funding projects wherever possible from existing schemes such as JNNURM and UIDSSMT. Funding from Bilateral and multilateral agencies can also be explored. Providing assistance for the preparation of Detailed Project Report (DPR) as per city sanitation plan as soon as requests for funding are received;

  

BOX 19: PROPOSED SCHEME FOR MECHANICAL AID FOR CLEANING OF SEWERS AND SEPTIC TANKS (SMACSS) a. The National Advisory Council (NAC) has observed that the shameful practice of manual scavenging persists in India, despite being outlawed. The NAC has identified the need for a special focus to liberate our society from the norms on social exclusion and discrimination along with an action plan with full ownership of participation of the persons involved in manual scavenging. The Government of India has enacted the Employment of Manual Scavengers and Construction of Dry Latrines (Prohibition) Act, 1993. It serves as a primary instrument in the liberation of a broken people enslaved to a life of indignity enforced through ideologies of descent based work and caste. The Act defines a manual scavenger as “a person engaged in or employed in manual carriage of human excreta”. b. However, the existing definition of manual scavenging as per the Act, 1993 does not cover manual cleaning of septic tanks and sewers cleaning. It is essential that such cleaning operations be included in the definition of manual scavenging since there they involve similar issues of dignity as well as health related risks. Therefore, the definition of manual scavenging may be

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CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM modified as “a person engaged or employed, whether by an individual or an urban local body or any other public or private agency, for manual cleaning, carrying or disposing untreated human excreta, including a latrine, a tank, in a drain or a sewer line”. There are established technologies that convert human excreta in to manure in a scientific manner. Such decomposed material and its carriage may not be covered in the definition of scavenging. c. Accordingly, the MoUD intends to formulate a scheme for facilitating the state government and ULBs in ensuring cleaning of sewers and septic tanks/any latrines mechanically. The scheme will facilitate funding for the procurement of suction machines for cleaning of septic tanks and suction-cum-jetting machines for cleaning of sewers in all cities/towns in the Country. The scheme is envisaged on ‘All Town’ basis. All 4252 cities and towns as per 1002 census will qualify for assistance under the proposed scheme. Co-operative Housing Foundation Sanitation Loan Programme in Honduras Noting the need and demand for sanitary mprovements, the Co-operative Housing Foundation (CHF), an international NGO, helped to establish a lending programme for various types of latrines and toilets, showers and laundry and wash areas. A sanitation loan fund was created to make small, short-term loans that are affordable to informal settlement residents around Tegucigalpa. Loans range in size from US$ 100-400 and are made through local nongovernmental organisations (NGOs) (i.e. nontraditional finance organisations). The loans are based on several important principles, which include matching the loan amount with the expected result and securing the loan through community-based mechanisms (for example by co-signing) rather than the traditional mortgage approach. The key elements of the Honduras model are: • It is responsive to individual and community demand. • It includes a sustainable revolving loan programme. • It emphasises local NGO capacity enhancement. • It seeks to stimulate the local economy. • A range of technologies are offered. • Health education is a condition (integral part) of the loan. Source: Hermanson, 1994 d. FINANCING PATTERN i. Funds would be provided to the SLNA through State Governments / UTs in the form of 100% grant for capital investment for the procurement of the equipment and machinery. No funds would be provided for operation and maintenance of sewerage and onsite sanitation systems including maintenance of these machines which shall be borne by the ULBs/State Govts. ii. The operation and maintenance of sewerage and onsite sanitation system (septic tanks, dry latrines etc) including running and maintenance of machinery shall be the responsibility of the ULB/Water Supply and Sanitation (WSS) Agencies/Boards. If necessary, these activities may be outsourced by the ULBs/ WSS Agencies/Boards to private service providers/ entrepreneurs over a specified period as per the agreement to be executed between ULBs & private entrepreneurs. The O&M cost including desilting, cleaning of sewers & manholes, de-sludging of septic tanks and maintenance of vehicles would be borne by the ULBs.
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CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM iii. The requirement of funds for the purchase of suction machines and suction-cumjetting machines for cleaning of sewers and septic tanks for all 5161 towns have been assessed as Rs. 4949 Crores. iv. Funding will be available for the procurement of new machines only. 4.21 CRITERIA FOR PRIORITIZATION OF TOWNS 4.22 Priority would be given to towns with the following characteristics. 1. State capitals irrespective of the population 2. Pilgrim centre/heritage towns 3. Culturally important towns 4. ULBs in which the practice of manual scavenging is pre-dominant 5. ULBs where there are no machines for sewer and septic tank cleaning operations. 4.23 MONITORING MECHANISM 4.23 Independent Evaluation and Monitoring Agencies should be appointed by the State Govt. at State level/city level in line with the monitoring mechanism envisaged under JNNURM. The Independent Evaluation and Monitoring Agencies will monitor the status Of the procurement of the machines, cleaning operations of the sewer and septic tanks and the status of the action taken on the eradication of manual scavenging by the ULBs and report to the to the Municipal Administration/State Govts which will forward the same to SLNAs. The SLNA will forward the status of the implementation of the scheme to the Ministry of Urban Development. 4.24 The concerned ULB/Head of Water Supply and Sanitation Agencies, who are responsible for O&M of sewerage and onsite sanitation facilities shall furnish an action plan each year to the Ministry of Urban Development through Directorate of Municipal Administration and SLNA regarding action taken/action to be taken for elimination of manual scavenging and the number of employees engaged in manual cleaning and mechanical cleaning of sewers and septic tanks in the next two years from the date of purchase of machines.

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ANM. HYDERABAD 160 | P a g e . framing of bye-laws and regulations (E. there is a need to identify “Sanitation Implementation Unit” in-house from the existing staff for all practical implementation purposes.  Ear-marking land for community and public sanitation facilities. Commissioner/ CMO H shall be the head of the unit and may appoint suitable officer as the in-charge officer. 2. A multi-stakeholder “City Sanitation Task Force (CTF)” comprising representatives from multidisciplinary fields for overall guidance and oversee sanitation related activities has been constituted in Ramagundam and it is important to conduct meetings once in a month to implement and monitor planned activities. Within the ULB. private and non-governmental agencies for improved service delivery. prohibit discharge of untreated sewage into open areas (Pollution control acts). INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENT AND RESPONSIBILITY The ULBs are responsible for managing the cycle of sanitation and public health within their cities. Engineer /Work Inspector.  Amending municipal acts. maintenance and management of sanitation facilities.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM 6. and the members of the committee are the habitation officers (convenor).4.  Promoting partnerships with public.4. ROLE OF DIFFERENT INSTITUTIONS URBAN LOCAL BODY LEVEL INSTITUTIONAL SET UP: 1. The existing multilevel institutional arrangement should be reoriented with clear assignment of specific roles and responsibilities to the institutions. it is suggested to form a ward level Committee in each ward and Municipal level committee (CSTF) to review and monitor the action taken to prevent and control the incidence of the disease. The ward level committee will be headed by the ward member. Sanitary Inspector /Health Assistant. In view of high level of Open defecation. 3. and the ULB level.3. The unit shall be responsible for preparation and implementation of the city sanitation plan. Already there are number of provisions to practice and implement in achieving sanitation goals and some additional recommendations are as follows:  Using existing provisions in municipal and other acts to promote compliance. NHC president. Commissioner/CMOH may also nominate other suitable officers as members of the unit.g.4. They will also ensure continuous vigilance and surveillance and effective monitoring. Ward Level Sanitation Action Committees (WASCs) should be formed involving SHGs and Community organizer. concerned Asst. ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. The details of the institutional setup at ULB level has been described as follows: 6. This committee shall meet once in a week and as frequently as possible during the epidemic period. in coordination with various departments. The setup of institutions need to be addressed at the state.  Re-orienting policies to ensure that urban poor households obtain access to improved sanitation facilities. district. Building and construction bye-laws) to promote sanitation by public and private agencies.

prioritise projects for implementation. Institute regular desludging mechanism.  To ensure intra departmental coordination of ULB for sanitation promotion  To develop network with several government departments and other agencies for promoting healthy & environmentally sound sanitation. PPP promotion and regulation. Ward Development Committees. and set up mechanisms for monitoring and enforcing their implementation. ULB introduce User charges.  Engaging Civil society to end OD. This unit can monitor the progress every month. Task Force needs to be strengthened with orientation trainings and capacity building training. contracting etc. CDS President.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM This unit should be supported by additional staff like Sanitary Inspector depending on the population of ULBs. establish standards and norms. monitor quality checks identified under CSP and identify actions and related spatial and non spatial interventions. monitoring and evaluation of the programme. It is also responsible for assisting households to provide their own sanitation and to build their own toilet facilities.  To develop city wide communication strategy and conduct city wide total sanitation campaign. DM&HO or his deputee. inform citizens of their rights and duties under existing sanitation legislation/regulations.  Build political support through exposure visits workshops. For day to day implementations existing institutional mechanism at ULB level like Ward Committees. This committee shall meet once in every fifteen days and as frequently and as possible during the epidemic period The functions of the unit will be :  To conduct a baseline survey on city sanitation and update regularly (once in two years)  To prioritize projects for implementation. CMHO. 4. Ward Development Committees. and monitor quality checks.  Mobilize Govt support Capital but local groups to manage O &M. ME. converging the source of funds and preparing the budget. ULB should also plan and budget for the operation and maintenance of sanitation systems. They will identify actions and related spatial and non spatial interventions.  Clarify Roles and improve agency coordination  Streamlining policies so as to develop and adopt local septage ordinance. For day to day implementations existing institutional mechanism at ULB level like Ward Committees. Specific responsibilities include – ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. develop and update database on sanitation in ULB. and monitor the sanitation promotion programmes. Develop local sanitation and hygiene regulations in consultation with stakeholders. The Municipal level committee shall be headed by the Chairperson with the members being the Municipal Commissioner (Convenor). Local NGO. Poverty wing of ULB should be responsible to design. The unit will pinpoint problem areas to address. Task Force needs to be strengthened with orientation trainings and capacity building training. Update and amend regulation in building bye laws. for sanitation projects and be responsible for implementation.  To manage all the process like procurement. HYDERABAD 161 | P a g e . implement.

Capacity Building and IEC). Asset Creation.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM  To design integrated planning and communication strategy for City sanitation promotion. of AP. including sanitation and for implementing School health promotion programmes to create safe and healthy school. terms of reference. Ongoing programs. Health and Education.  To coordinate all the internal departments like PWD. Land Use / Building regulations. Constitution of State Urban Sanitation Cell (SUSC):  Creation of a strategic urban sanitation cell at APMDP.  SUSC will support cities in preparing CSPs by giving overall direction. for Total Sanitation Approach and Campaign in the ULB. STATE URBAN SANITATION CELL (SUSC) APMDP needs to be strengthened for the purpose of functioning as a Sanitation Nodal Agency with a dedicated Sanitation Cell.  SUSC is expected to provide overall direction and strategic support to ULBs and coordinate with sate level organizations in achieving the strategy objectives in a timebound manner.  To monitor the health of communities.  Establish and improve septage management requirements and guidelines  Providing technical support. Environmental Regulation. The Cell will have a complete office set up with the following constitution. youth clubs. Execution.  SUSC will be central coordinating body and need to coordinate with State. to be headed by a “Director” equivalent officer with a fixed tenure of five of mission period for better coordination and integrated development. guidance and training . Education Department and design awareness programmes for convergence. Financing of Capital Investments. & slum wise incentive schemes for reaching the ultimate goal of Nirmal Sahar. Implementation.  To assist households to operate and maintain sanitation facilities  To assist Ward Education Committee for the improvement of school infrastructure. Engineering wing and MIS wings should coordinate regularly with Town and Country Planning Department to ensure all convergence and effective planning.  To provide access to sanitation to all urban population  To make communities aware of the importance of sanitation in terms of health. Legal Regulatory Responsibility. Govt. market committees etc. Sanitation. IEC wing should work closely with State Health Department. frame work etc with in the first year of mission period. on investment flows. Districts and ULBs.  To develop and design ward wise.  To launch together with the communities. and also involving the Community Based Organizations. Welfare Associations.  It will have three strategic wings (Ref: fig no 12) with specific and designated expertise to offer and support in achieving the mission objectives. Each wing will have two expert staff in required field with the support from “Sanitation Fund”. Policy and standards setting. Planning and implementation. Monitoring and Evaluation. (To elaborate on Roles and responsibilities. HYDERABAD 162 | P a g e . ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. Operation and maintenance. health and hygiene promotion programmes. and make the city open defecation free.

ecological and health aspects. PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS AND NGOs ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA.  Design & arrange capacity building programmes for ULB staffs and concerned other line Departments. HYDERABAD 163 | P a g e .4. to facilitate partnerships 6. (2) soil. groundwater and climatic conditions of a location.  Work out standard designs and specifications including construction practices and O&M aspects and bring out a “Sanitation Guidance Manual” to facilitate the target groups in identifying and recommending appropriate technology options for on-site sanitation considering (1) affordability and acceptability by the end users. and (4) availability of water and long term sustainability of the system.  Channelize the financial and technical support to the ULBs and coordinate with other state departments and agencies engaged in sanitation promotion. (3) associated environmental.5.  Monitor the sanitation arrangement and public health & hygiene To take up sector studies and strategy papers.  Guide the ULBs in conceptualizing. planning and implementing the sanitation programmes while preparing CSPs.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM Proposed Institutional Set up for Sanitation: Figure 11: Proposed Institutional set-up for Sanitation The responsibilities of the State Urban Sanitation Cell (SUSC) are:  Monitor integrated planning for sanitation promotion. Develop initiatives to promote and facilitate the process of community development.  Will initiate sector reforms so as to invite more investment from lateral and bilateral funding agencies in the sector.

At ULB level.5.1. Sanitation. Public Works. .5. • Use of safe methods for disposal of infant excreta • Knowledge of danger of unsafe excreta disposal and hand washing practice • Demand for new toilets within towns and from neighboring communities • % of toilets upgraded with own funds by households after monsoon/filling up of pit Monitoring indicators • % of households with access to sanitary latrines: public and personal separately • % constructed water supply facilities maintained by the communities served • % households using safe drinking water regularly (public and personal separately) • Use of toilets by household members (esp.g. aged.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM 6. City Sanitation Task Force will monitor the programme in support of Standing Committees (Health. Monitoring and evaluation of sanitation progamme is of higher relevance and importance as Urban development Ministry. Government of India ranks cities on sanitation and gives Nirmal Shahar Puraskar based on the cities performance. citizens’ groups feedback. BOX 20:INDICATORS TO MEASURE 100% SANITATION MILESTONES ACHIEVEMENT To measure 100% Sanitation Milestone achievements. men. • Use of Recycled Waste Water in Agriculture/ Horticulture as % and absolute quantity. e. MONITORING AND EVALUATION 6. a number of tools apart from 19 indicators of City Sanitation Ranking can be considered: Impact Indicators • Reduction in incidence of diseases. and primary Field Visits. Periodic verification of following Impact and Monitoring indicators at ULB level are suggested. and Water supply) based on Implementation Agency data.percentage children less than 36 months age with diarrhea in last two weeks • Quantity of water used per capita per day • % of child caregivers. disabled. HYDERABAD 164 | P a g e . MONITORING AND REVIEW Monitoring is imperative to verify whether objectives of sanitation plan have been achieved. Elements of this plan will be monitored and reported and will rely on the provision of a range of quantitative and qualitative information. The City Sanitation Task Force should be made be responsible for monitoring and reviewing the implementation of the CSP. food prepares with appropriate hand-washing behavior. ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. children under 5) • Range of available affordable options for toilets.

In the CSP coverage has been considered but data was not periodically updated on the basis of data regarding provision of toilet facilities and new properties being developed (from building plan approval department). Population covered by toilets in slum areas can be calculated as follows: ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. c) Better reflect progress against the targets and. some revisions to the targets may be required in order to: a) Update or remove those targets that have proven to be unclear. For all purposes of monitoring a good information base and regular updation is required hence a data improvement plan in line with SLB indicators is suggested as indicated below. b) Reflect changes in the wider wastewater management/sanitation service provision landscape. unable to be adequately measured. by the taskforce quarterly and by the state Government bi-annually. set new targets. the coverage needs to be computed. it can be assumed that the toilet facilities may not be present in slum areas. This implies that the population covered by toilets is at least equal to the non-slum population in the city. following standards need to be met and a mechanism to monitor internally by CSTF by way of protocol adoption. Field surveys and cross checks throughout the city carried out at least once in five years. For the nonslum population. In case of slums. Progress monitoring and reporting will be conducted by the council monthly. Table 76: Comparison of Standards (issued by CPCB) with effluent values Standard for discharge into inland surface water. HYDERABAD 165 | P a g e .CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM In case of sewage effluent. unworkable. BOD (mg/l) COD (mg/l) 30 250 Standard reuse effluent irrigation 100 NA for SIBF of (effluent) for MSF effluent DEWATS Effluent 6 20 197 688 17 50 The review period of the proposed action plan for CSP is five years from the formal adoption date.an important indicator to monitor regularly and needs to be calculated based on actual number of properties and count of properties with or without toilet facilities. measured through a field survey. d) Better reflect the current state of knowledge of wastewater management/sanitation facilities. or out of date in their allocation of responsibility for action. where necessary. Rest of the population can be assumed to be covered by toilet facilities. b. Data Quality Improvement Plan Indicators as defined in Service Level Benchmarking needs to be closely monitored and for which robust data needs to be maintained and updated periodically and the information base has to be improved as detailed below: For computing Coverage of Toilets . As a result of the review.

the number of hours that the pump is operating daily needs to be recorded. the budget heads related to wastewater are clearly separated. In the absence of flow meters. Sampling regimen well documented and practiced completely. Measurement of wastewater collection at all inlets of Sewage treatment plants by flow meters. system capacity is reassessed through measuring peak throughput. ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. Collection Efficiency of Sewage Network: Water consumption is based on "A" category measurement systems for measuring NRW. Water consumption is based on "A" category measurement systems for NRW. and aggregated for monthly totals. points of supply of recycled water). The rated capacity of the pump needs to be corroborated by using the pump efficiency curve so as to avoid over-estimation of the volume of sewage treated. For good reliability. This data should be periodically updated on basis of new Sewage connections taken (from sewage section/department). In case of multi-function agencies like municipal corporations. Data should be measured daily. Accrual based double entry accounting system is practiced. Water treatment plant system capacity assessed through rigorous testing and commissioning procedures (after which there have been no modifications to the plant). and new properties being developed (from building plan approval department). Based on data from flow meters at treatment plant inlets and outlets (i. Coverage of Sewage Network Services: Calculation based on actual number of properties and count of properties with direct connection. The norm is one public toilet for five households.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM Population covered by toilets in slum areas = (Number of public toilets in slum areas) x 5 x ( average household size in a slum) x (Total number of slum households). number of the Sewage connections need to be correlated with the number of water connections and the population covered by it. HYDERABAD 166 | P a g e . The design capacity of the treatment plant should be taken as the operative treatment capacity. Cost allocation standards for common costs are in place. Periodic independent audit of wastewater quality. Reliable estimates are available for quantity of water consumed from non-municipal sources. for both water production and distribution and for Sewage intake and treatment. the utility needs to monitor the quality of sewage treated from all treatment plants for a period of one month for the purpose of the benchmarking exercise. About 80% of water produced is assumed to be volume of sewage that the city will generate. This number needs to be compared with the volume of sewage available for treatment at the input of all the sewage treatment plants. If data is not available. Estimates are available for water consumed from other sources. This data when multiplied with rated capacity of the pump can provide an estimate of the daily water production levels. Own laboratory equipment (or) easy and regular access to accredited testing centres. Field surveys throughout the city carried out at least once in five years.e. All parameters are assessed. In case any modifications to the treatment plant have been carried out. Process control automation provides accurate data. measured through a field survey.

2. treatment efficiency are presented below. the utility over a period of one month should maintain this data and provide it for the benchmarking exercise. and recognition of best performers by instituting an Award. O&M costs. Open Defecation Free Totally free from open defecation. Multiple mechanisms by which consumers can register their complaints such as by telephone. In the event this being not possible. Utilities should readily be able to provide this data at an aggregate level. However. Accounting and budgeting manuals are in place and are adhered to. appropriate sys-tem must be installed. HYDERABAD 167 | P a g e . it is important that all expenditure items are truly reflected in the expenditure statement for water supply services. space required for its installation.5. data is not provided. For utilities which follow a single entry cash-based accounting system. The status of redressal of complaints is maintained. Financial statements have full disclosure and are audited regularly and in a timely manner. the data may be needed to be compiled. For ward level collection levels. Accounting code structure also enables monitoring of billing and collections for each ward within the ULB. This information will enable the architects/ builders/ developers and other professionals to guide the building owners/ users in adopting the appropriate treatment option for their building. in person or by writing or by email. Collection records maintained for each billing cycle. LAUNCHING REWARD SCHEME: Periodic rating of wards in respect of Sanitation. Often it has been observed that utilities maintain this data at the ward / zonal level. the utility must compile this data from different zones /wards in the city. 6. Sanitary collection of 100 percent human excreta and wastes ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. Expenditure items like power costs are fully accounted for in the year for which the cost recovery ratio is being computed. Since this data is not compiled at the central level. and tracked on a daily basis. As a first step towards providing this data. energy required for its operation. Consumer's endorse complaint being addressed on the municipal proforma. the decision on selecting the suitable treatment option has to be based on the total water requirement for different non-potable uses and thereby. Complaints segregated into different categories. Collections are clearly identified against the specific bill which has been issued. based on the quantity of water for different reuse applications for different types on buildings.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM Accounting standards comparable to commercial accounting standards with clear guidelines for recognition of income and expenditure. Complaints are collated through computer network or other systems. Technical & Financial Specification for Treatment Options For all the earlier discussed treatment options the details like the capital cost for installation. Overall accrual principles of accounting are followed. and therefore deposits and advances are not included in income and expenditure respectively.

The provision of ‘fine’ for all individuals that dispose excreta. a ban. supported by fines on the use of untreated sewage to irrigate crops/water bodies. an indicative list of the sanitation components and their broad investment costs are presented below.8500/Operating:Rs. Table 77: Broad Investment costs Potentia l Areas Househo ld Level –Non slum areas Proble m Open Defecati on Immediat e attention 44175 persons (0.5. depending on ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. INCENTIVES AND DISINCENTIVES BY MC/NPS The incentives within the City Sanitation Plans could provide infrastructure funding to those communities that successfully meet reward scheme or by way of incentives that may include:  The provision of collective ‘in kind’ rewards to motivators that successfully support wards and neighborhoods meeting reward scheme.for instance. illegal slaughter houses.  Placing a signboard to this effect at the entrance to the neighborhood / ward. 750975 00 168 | P a g e Capital:Rs. bills for costs incurred and instigate court proceedings for encroachments.2 00/-to Rs.  Publicly recognizing those wards and neighborhoods that achieve ‘excreta free’. The disincentives the ULBs may consider within the CSP include:  Exercising all provisions within the Municipal Act/ Water Act to levy fines. releases of industrial waste or effluent.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM Proper removal and treatment of all wastewater Wastewater and Drainage safely managed a) All grey water collected and disposed off safely. b) All storm water is properly managed Solid Waste collected and disposed off fully and safely a) 100 percent of solid waste is collected regularly.3.7000 -Rs. litter or foul water in an unhygienic manner in public spaces (Polluter pay principle). ‘litter free’ or ‘foul water free’ status.   Project Components and Costs.2199 lacs HH) Proposa l Construc tion of Toilets Sanitati on options Septic tank with soak pits Requir ed units 8835 Per unit cost Amoun t Capital: Rs. b) Solid wastes are disposed off safely (including treatment and re-use) 6. Based on strategies and interventions identified. burial grounds. markets. Sanctions against harmful actions and/or failure to act . and the provision of essential water/sewerage/drainage connections. HYDERABAD . 618450 00 –Rs.450/per emptying.

397575 0 Pour flush Toilets with double leach pit 8835 Capital:Rs. 30922500 Operating: Rs.2000/to Rs.150/ -to Rs. HYDERABAD 169 | P a g e . 600/-to Rs. 26505000 Operating:Rs. 1325250 –Rs. 2650500 Single Ventilated Improved Pit Latrine 8835 Capital:Rs. Operating:Rs. Financial Requirements Table 78: Financial requirements Name of the Solid Waste Town/ULB/ Management ward Long Term Medium term Short Term Sanitation Water supply Drainage ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA.300/-per annum where subsoil drainage is available Capital:may range from Rs.3000/depending on the Capital: Rs.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM emptying frequency Operati ng cost: Rs. 176700 0 –Rs. 17670000 – Rs.3500/-which can increase where soils are not well suited to drainage. 530100 –Rs.

urban poverty cell ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. etc. SSA .health department . Convergence with: .education department.on-going housing schemes – BSUP/ IHSDP/ VAMBAY/ IAY/ INDIRAMMA/ Rajiv Graha Kalpa. Periodic independent audit of waste water quality Protocol to be developed for recycled waste water quality monitoring. A comprehensive mapping of all categories of drains Participatory reporting for flooding incidence. critical distribution points and consumer points when required Developing a data base to track the Recycle & Reuse component Developing a data base to track the NRW component. Sewerage & Solid Waste Management Installation of Automatic meter reading system Development of a water quality monitoring protocol Installation of weigh bridges Network Modeling Water Quality testing and Monitoring protocol Installation of bulk flow meters Proposal for feasibility study for Introducing 24 X 7 in Pilot Zone Installation of Bulk Flow-meters Preparation of Drainage Master Plan Monitoring mechanism to be developed to document the hours of supply at zonal level Use of pressure gauges to monitor pressure levels at WTP. division wise to improve the value of this indicator.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM Table 79: Description of the Component Undertaking a Comprehensive House Hold survey for Water Supply. HYDERABAD 170 | P a g e . .on-going ULB projects and programmes relating to environmental and social infrastructure .social-welfare department .

This is our age old pit latrine. Because of this unsatisfactory condition of the effluent and also difficulty in providing proper effluent disposal system. so wet latrines are preferred by common man. Wet technologies require water as the name indicates flush out the feces and they drain in to a leach pit. This is an expensive option. Recommend sizes of septic tanks up to 2 users and for 300 users are given below. HYDERABAD 171 | P a g e . This is accompanied by anaerobic digestion of settled solids (sludge) and liquid resulting in reduction in the volume of sludge. SEPTIC TANK A septic tank is a combined sedimentation and digestion tank where sewage is held for one or two days. So the effluent is to be disposed in a very careful way. ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. requires extensive land etc. the suspended solids settle down to the bottom. Even in ‘On site’ system periodical removal of sludge/septage is necessary The conventional offsite disposal system involves collection of the sewage through pipes and conveying to a sewage treatment plant. The liquid depth is 1-2 m and the length to breadth 2 to 1. The septic tanks are normally rectangular in shape and can either be a single tank or double tank. Dry technology: Does not require water as the name indicates. During the period. Off site: Removing waste to a distant place for treatment and disposal or disposal alone.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM ANNEXURE ANNEXURE1: TECHNOLOGY OPTION IN URBAN SANITATION All sanitation technologies are either ‘’Wet’’ or ’’ Dry’’. septic tank or sewer. This is our usually adopted in hilly area where the water table is pretty deep. septic tanks are limited to individual houses. institutions whose contributory population does not exceed so as to reduce the volume of effluent and thereby reduce the difficulty in treatment. In case of double tank. The effluent although clarified to a large extent still contains appreciable amount of dissolved and suspended organic solids and pathogens. methane etc. treatment and disposal. ventilated improved pits etc. reduction in bio degradable organic matter and release of gases like Carbon dioxide. So the communities were forced to think of alternative low cost onsite disposal methods of which the most widely used options are ‘Septic tank’ and Twin pit pour flush latrines.common practice. ‘On site’ and ‘Off site’ systems On site: Retaining waste in a pit or tank. To feel clean water is a must. the solid concentration is considerably lower and the first compartment is usually twice the size of the second.

00-1.00 3.00 m or more from ground level.05 1.00 2. b) A provision of 300 mm should be provided as freeboard.3 5.50 10.00 7. 5.00-1.30 m etc c) For population over 100 mm the tank may be divided into independent parallel chambers for easy maintenance and cleaning.10 2.1. Soak pits or dispersion trenches shall be constructed in soils where the percolation rate is between 12 to 25 minutes per cm [Time taken for percolation of 1 cm depth of water between 12 to 25 minutes] and the depth of water table is 2.00 Liquid depth in m cleaning interval of 2-3years 1.00-1. Septic tank receives black water and excreta from the toilets. The digested sludge is store at bottom 4.30 m.24 1.80 1. ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. If the water table is high.30-1. 2.40 1. soap and grease float to the surface forming scum.00 Breadth in m 0.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM Table 80:Recommended sizes of septic tanks No: users 5 10 15 20 50 100 150 200 300 Length in m 1.24 1.65 3. For soils which have percolation rate more than 25cm other methods shall be adopted for disposal of effluents.00-1. The lighter solids such as hair. 6. Dispersion trenches should be 20.90 0. Disposal of effluent from the septic tank: Land disposal methods such as soak pits and dispersion trenches: The land disposal methods largely upon porosity and percolation characteristics of the soil as the land disposal methods are designed percolation or seepage into the soil.00 1.75 0.05 m + 0. 1. the dispersion trenches shall be partially or fully above ground level or in a mound. methane and hydrogen sulphide are produced during anaerobic decomposition and released to the atmosphere through vent.00-1.24 1.00m away from any source of drinking water and also it should be at least 7. This also depends on the depth of water table. [The depth we get water when the ground is dug] .00m away from any house.00-1.5 2 2 2. HYDERABAD 172 | P a g e . Heavier solids settle to the bottom of the septic tank where they are decomposed by anaerobic bacteria 3. Septic tanks are to be cleaned once in 2 to 3 years to remove the accumulated digested sludge.24 Notes: a) The capacities are recommended on the assumption that discharges from water closet alone are connected to septic tank.00 12. The gases like carbon dioxide.30-2.90 1.00-1. To start with septic tank is filled with water for a depth of about 100 mm and seated with Cow dung or sludge from other septic tank 7.00 m + 0.24 1.30 4.00 15. The Functions 1.

and be capable of supporting the overburden of earth and any reasonable load to which it is subjected  Access to each hollow –lined pit shall be provided by means of a manhole.00m wide excavated to a slight slope. dirt or other foreign material.00m. clay or organic material. Clean coarse gravel or rock at least 150 mm deep shall be placed in the bottom of each pit.W.8 m Slope of the pipe :1 in 400 173 | P a g e ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. block or similar materials shall have a minimum thickness of 100 mm and shall be laid with overlapping. mortar shall be used in the horizontal joints only. tight-butted joints  Below the inlet level. stone.00m and the depth below the invert level or inlet pipe surrounding land to avoid flooding.  The top of the pit shall be covered with a minimum of 150 mm of backfill.0 millimeter) sieve. Above the inlet. 2. Minimum dimension of the soak pit shall be 1. HYDERABAD . clay. The maximum fines in the gravel shall be 2 percent by weight passing through a Standard 10mesh (2. SOAK PIT OR SEEPAGE PIT  All seepage pits shall have a diameter of 1. DISPERSION TRENCHES Narrow and shallow trenches about 0.  All seepage pits shall be designed as any of the following two types 1.  In pits filled with coarse stone.lined pits. the inlet pipe should extend horizontally at least 300 mm into the pit with a tee to divert flow downward and prevent washing and eroding the side wall  A minimum annular space of 150 mm between the lining and excavation wall shall be filled with crushed rock or gravel varying in diameter from 20 mm to 65 mm and free from fines. all joints shall be filled fully with mortar.  A structurally sound and otherwise suitable top shall be provided that will prevent entrance of surface water.       Width of trench:300 to 600 mm wide Depth :500to 600 mm Dispersion pipe: 100 mm diameter open jointed S.3m to 1. The balance portion may be filled with earth and finished in the form of a mound above the ground to avoid flooding of trenches during rain. The top of pipes shall be covered by coarse gravel and crushed stone to a minimum depth of 15 cm.  For hollow. Filled with coarse stone or similar material that range from fines. sand. or organic material.00m deep and 0. the perforated distribution pipe shall run across each pit.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM Soak pits: The soak pits may be of any regular shape and filled with rubble or brick bats. Hollow and lined with acceptable material. sand. Soak pits need be prepared only when the water table is sufficiently below or when a porous layer underlies an in previous layer at top. pipes/ 75mm to 90mm OD perforated PVC pipes Maximum length of each trench: 30 m Spacing of the trench : 1. or by means of an easily removable cover. not less than 450 mm in minimum horizontal dimension.  Pits filled with coarse stone are prepared over hollow lined pits  Lining of brick. Open jointed stone ware or concrete pipes 80 to 100 mm diameter are laid in the trenches over a bed of 15 to 25 cm of washed gravel or crushed stone. A layer of crushed rock or gravel shall be used for leveling the distribution pipe.5m to 1.

6 to 2 lit of water.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM       Media: 20 to 65 mm size broken stones for a thickness of 150 mm below the pipe. LEACH PIT Leach pits serve a dual function of a) Storage and digestion of excreted solids and b) Infilteration of waste liquids. 2) Long term infilteration rate. innocuous and free from pathogens as well as smell. The filled up pit can be conveniently implied after 1⅟₂ to 1 years when most of the pathogens die off. In the case of wet pit where water table is high the volume shall be 0. Trees and other large rooted plants shall not be allowed to grow near to dispersion trenches It is desirable to cover the area over onsite soil absorption systems with lawn grass or other shallow –rooted plants Soil absorption systems should not be located under vegetable gardens. Leach pit configuration can be varied to suit site conditions while the least cost design in a twin circular pits. The contents become lich organic humus. The disadvantage of this system is that desludging has to be done almost immediately after the pit has been filled up which involved handling of fresh and undigested excreta. it is emptied and contents used as organic manure. The size of leach pits depends on a number of factors mentioned above. 1) Solid accumulation rate. Leach pits are designed based on the following parameters. The first pit is covered with earth and allowed to decay. After one or two years. When convenient. The pour flush latrines are with a single leach pit and squatting pan over it. open jointed or with perforated burnt clay or concrete rings. 4) Minimum period required for effective pathogen destruction 5) Optimal pit emptying frequency. the excreta being diverted to second pit. the excreta is hand flushed by pouring about 1. ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. To tide over this situation a twin pit design was introduced. The pits are circular and used alternatively and designed for 3 years filling period.135 m³ percapita of the house hold for a period of 3 years. The sludge can be used as manure. When one pit is filled it is stopped. The separation distance of trenches must be at least equal to 3 times the deepest effective depth of trench with a minimum separation of 370 mm between trenches POUR FLUSH WATER SEAL LATRINES Pour flush latrines as the nature indicates.210 m³ per capita of the house hold for a period of 3 years. HYDERABAD 174 | P a g e . When the pit in use gets filled up another pit is dug and the squatting platform and the slab is placed on it. The pits are lined with honey come brick work. the digested excreta is used as a manure. The effective volume under dry conditions should be at least 0. When one pit is full. So this is appropriate only if it is desludged mechanically. 3) Hydraulic loading. the excreta is diverted into the second pit. Separation distance of trees and rooted plants.

c) In rock strata: In rocky strata with soil layer in between. d) Where space is a constraint: Where circular pits of standard sizes cannot be constructed due to space constraints. submergence of chute in the water. HYDERABAD 175 | P a g e . In case combined pits the partition wall should not have holes. b) In high sub soil water level: Where the sub soil water level rises to less than 300 mm above the likely sub soil water level and earth should be filled all round the pits and latrine floor raised. This consists of a masonry tank filled with water. I. To compensate for evaporation and leakage losses and to maintain the water seal. Earth should then be filled will compacted all round the pits up to 1.e. The partition wall should go 250 mm deeper than the pit lining and plastered on both sides with cement mortar. AQUA PRIVY This is a simplified form of septic tank. deeper pit with smell diameter (not less than 750 mm) or combined oval square or rectangular pits divided into two equal compartments by a partition wall may be provided. the leach pits should be designed as for ordinary leach pit construction with low subsoil water level. water is added every time after its use. a squatting pan or a platform placed above the tank and ventilation pipe. The excreta falls through this chute or pipe into the tank and undergoes anaerobic digestion as in a septic tank.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM Design of pits under different conditions a) In water logged area: The pit top should be raised by 300 mm above likely level of water above ground level at the time of water logging. The accumulated sludge (digested) from the tank is to be removed periodically. ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA.00 m distance from the pit up to its top. A long chute or pipe from the squatting is submerged in the tank water. The raising of the pit will necessitate raising of the latrine floor also.

Sanitation health education teams were set up by the SHGs to propagate the message of sanitation. At the community toilets run by SHGs. The city was ranked 6th in India in the sanitation ranking of Indian cities by the ministry of urban development in 2009-10. and a bore well is also provided by the corporation. and land belonging to the Waqf Board and other private owners. Each facility receives its water supply from the Trichy City Corporation (TCC). 284 are connected to the sewerage system and 63 function through a septic tank. and another 40 by other NGOs. Each toilet has a tap which supplies 13×6 water. For the rest. were no different from the rest of the country. About 100 toilets are being managed on a pay and use basis by SHGs with Gramalaya. and supervise the maintenance of the toilets. They were able to get the support of Water-Aid. is the fourthlargest city in Tamil Nadu. But things began to change about 10 years ago. I found that the toilets were cleaner than what we may typically find in cinema halls in Delhi. a UK-based NGO. sanitary health education team members take turns to sit at a table placed outside the toilet complex with tokens to sell as people come to use the toilet. In West Devathanam. monitor the behaviour of residents. It all started with a major initiative launched by the NGO Gramalaya in 2000. Out of a total of 347 such toilets (some slums have more than one). the tariff for community toilets is levied at the lower domestic rate and not commercial rate. Today. The corporation waives the electricity charge for the pumping of water for the first few years of operating the toilets. Trichy has 122 “approved” slums and as many as 64 “unapproved” slums which are located on railway land. the TCC and/or ward councillors take the responsibility for managing the toilets. Tiruchirapally (Trichy to most people). A community toilet complex typically has 10-12 seats for women and 10-12 for men. Childfriendly toilets are separately provided in an adjacent area. Some have graduated to “sanitary complexes” with room for bathing and washing. to fund the building/renovation of 25 community toilets and child-friendly toilets in the slums. with their sanitation and toilet facilities in an appalling state. so that all the 211 approved slums now have community toilets. The success of the women in managing and maintaining the community toilets encouraged the TCC to build more of them. for children up to the age of eight. Each has a provision of underground storage of water and an overhead tank to which water is pumped. and Trichy has not looked back since. and is located on the banks of the Cauvery with a population of just over a million — of which 14 per cent live in slums. which would be managed by the women of the community on a pay-and-use basis. Afterwards. Government of India land. mobilising women in the slums in self-help groups (SHGs) and launching an awareness campaign on sanitation through training. HYDERABAD 176 | P a g e . TCC has ensured that water is made available also in summer months through tankers.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM ANNEXURE 2: GOOD PRACTICES 1. Until the end of the 1990s the slums of Trichy. They engage cleaners who clean the complex two to three times a day. the cost is around Rs 12 lakh. another complex where the toilet is located between the slum and a public road and caters to the needs of the slum as well as the floating population surrounding the slum. The cost of a typical community toilet was around Rs 3 lakh in the initial years that Water-Aid built such complexes. the famous temple town of the South. ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. The Kamala Nehru Nagar slum where the toilet was inside the slum area.

however. it has to pay an initial cost and a monthly tariff (both of which are about three times higher) reflecting the different capital and operating costs. T. If a family chooses to connect to a condominial system.” Trichy has shown the way. Sanitation and Hygiene) so that men could also contribute to improving the water and sanitation scenario of their joint habitat. is the active involvement of the population in choosing their level of service. A member of the TCC is also invited to these meetings. As is evident in the figure. "Condominial" was a popular Brazilian soap opera and associated with the best in urban life. The women obliged by creating AWASH (Association for Water. while children. Balsamy. They are now extending their sphere to cover solid waste management and better delivery of other public services. The name condominial was given for two reasons. the family wants a conventional connection. As Geetha Jegan. Other cities in India must follow to completely get rid of open defecation and work for better sanitary conditions. the NGOs and the communities from the slums of Trichy have transformed the sanitation scenario in Trichy. Men also find a role through WATSAN (water and sanitation) committees in monitoring the progress of the overall sanitation status of the slums in the city. and a monthly tariff. the guard who keeps the watch. the city corporation. If on the other hand. Second. ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. All teams make a small subscription to come together under Women’s Action for Village Empowerment (WAVE) which is a registered society. HYDERABAD 177 | P a g e . The accounts are meticulously-kept and are audited by the TCC. The collection from user charges is used to pay their electricity bills. the elderly and the physically challenged have free access. First. After initial resistance to their cause. men wanted to have a part of the action when the women seemed to be succeeding in making their slums clean. with a shorter grid of smaller and shallower "feeder" sewers running through the backyards and with the effects of shallower connections to the mains rippling through the system. The more fundamental and radical innovation. The typical user charge varies from 50 paise to Re 1 per use. These innovations cut construction costs to between 20 and 30 per cent of those of a conventional system. it has to pay a connection charge. Families are free to continue with their current system. a block of houses was treated like a horizontal apartment building (or condominial in Portuguese) (see figure). The key elements are that families can choose to continue with their current sanitation system. and in operating and maintaining the "feeder" infrastructure. was very appreciative of the role played by the NGOs and the communities in bringing about the much overdue transformation. which usually means a holding tank discharging into an open street drain. to connect to a conventional waterborne system or to connect to a condominial system. T. The municipal commissioner.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM It is clear from the systems they have put in place to manage and maintain these toilets that these women understand the economics of it all. BOX 21:THE CONDOMINIAL SEWERAGE SYSTEM IN BRAZIL The "condominial" system is the brainchild of Jose Carlos de Melo. a socially committed engineer from Recife. and expenses of minor repairs. the cleaner. Monthly meetings of WAVE allow them to discuss their problems and learn from each other in finding solutions. the result is a radically different layout. which can be financed by the water company. executive director of Gramalaya put it: “Together.

chose not to connect eventually end up connecting. those families who. HYDERABAD 178 | P a g e . 1985. initially.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM In most cases. Source: Briscoe. for example by putting solid waste down the toilet. This increases the communities' sense of responsibility for the system. de Melo. Either they succumb to heavy pressure from their neighbours or they find the buildup of wastewater in and around their houses intolerable once the (connected) neighbours fill in the rest of the open drain. Also. the misuse of any portion of the feeder system. its operating costs are sharply reduced. however. ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. 1993. is that the clever engineering is seen as "the system". direct and informed feedback to the misuser virtually eliminates the need to educate the users of the system in the "acceptable and unacceptable" and results in fewer blockages than in conventional systems. The rapid. Individual households are responsible for maintaining the feeder sewers. The condominial system is now providing service to hundreds of thousands of urban people in northeast Brazil and is being replicated on a large scale throughout the country. with the formal agency maintaining only the trunk mains. the technology has worked poorly (as in Joinville. because of the greatly reduced responsibility of the wastewater utility. Where the community and organisational aspects have been missing. The danger. Santa Catarina) or not at all (as in the Baixada Fluminense in Rio de Janeiro). however. soon shows up in a blockage in the neighbour's portion of the sewer. Finally.

(SoE). Land and Tree Act 2002  The Municipal Solid Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules. 2001  The 74th Constitutional Amendment Act  The Twelfth Schedule of the Constitution (Article 243W)  Andhra Pradesh Urban Services for Poor (APUSP)  Environmental Improvement of Urban Slums (EIUS)  Nehru Rozgar Yojana (NRY)  Prime Minister’s Integrated Urban Poverty Eradication Programme (PMIUPEP)  Swarna Jayanti Shahari Rozgar Yojana (SJSRY)  Integrated Development for Small and Medium Towns (IDSMT)  Integrated Low Cost Sanitation (ILCS)  Urban Basis Services for the Poor (UBSP) Environmental Section  Policy statement for abatement of pollution –MoEF 1992  National Conservation Strategy And Policy Statement On Environment and Development.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM ANNEXURE 3: REVIEWED POLICIES. 2000  The Bio Medical Waste management The Hazardous Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules.  State Environmental 1986 Action Programme  Water (Prevention and Control of  State of Environment Pollution) Cess Act. legal and administrative framework and programmes Policies Legal and Administrative Framework Programmes Social Section  Vision 2020 of Government of Andhra Pradesh  Vision 2021 of Government of India  Draft National Slum Policy  Andhra Pradesh Municipalities Act. including Rules  Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act. LEGAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE FRAMEWORK AND PROGRAMMES Table 81:Reviewed policies. 1975  The Andhra Pradesh Infrastructure developmentEnabling Act. 1989 and 2003 amendment (inclusion of list of municipal solid 179 | P a g e ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. 1992  The Environment Protection Act. 1974 as amended in 1978 and 1988  Water. 1920  The Andhra Pradesh Urban Areas (Development) Act. Andhra Pradesh. HYDERABAD . 1977. 1965  Andhra Pradesh Town Planning Act.

b) Gardens. c) Playgrounds and others Promotion of a) Education. 14 15 ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. b) Cremations grounds c) Electric crematoria a) Cattle ponds b) Prevention of cruelty to animals Wholly               Partly Never 6 7 8                   9 10 11 12 13. Commercial Domestic a) Public health. a) Planning economic development b) Planning social development. b) Aesthetics and others a) Burial grounds. Slum improvement and upgradation. a) Roads b) Bridges. Water supplyIndustrial. Urban poverty alleviation.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM wastes to hazardous wastes). b) Protection of environment c) Promotion of ecological aspects Safeguarding the interests of a) Weaker sections. no. Provision of urban amenities a) Parks. b) Physically handicapped c) Mentally retarded. Table 82:Functions of ULB under 12th Finance Commission S. c) Conservancy d) Solid waste management Fire services a) Urban forestry. HYDERABAD 180 | P a g e . 1 2 3 4 5 Function a) Urban planning b) Town planning a) Regulation of Land-use b) Regulation of building activity. b) Sanitation.

c) Parking lots. e) Public conveniences and others Regulation of a) Slaughterhouses b) Tanneries       ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. d) Bus shelters. b) Registration of births and deaths. 16 17   18 a) Public amenities b) Street lighting. HYDERABAD 181 | P a g e .CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM a) Vital statistics.

HYDERABAD 182 | P a g e .CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM ANNEXURE 4: HOUSEHOLD DETAILS OF PSU TOWNSHIPS Table 83:Household details of PSU townships War d No. Colony Vidyut Nagar Malyalapalle Zero Point & Ambedkar Nagar Railway Quarters Locality SCCL/NTPC/ FCI/APGenco Qtrs House s 328 112 129 329 132 220 220 180 136 171 125 401 833 0 1030 328 112 129 329 132 220 1250 180 136 171 125 401 1013 200 150 450 250 500 1550 390 Privat e Total 4-2-1 4-3-1 4-4-1 662 152 73 662 152 73 ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. Subhash Nagar Bheemunipatnam. From 1 1-1-62 1-2-1 1-3-1 3-1-15/A 3-2-12/1 3-3-1 t o t o t o t o t o t o t o t o t o t o t o t o t o t o t o t o House Numbers To 1-1-278 1-2-100/3 1-3-50 3-1-257/1 3-2-164/1 3-3-220 Total 2 1-4-1 1-5-7 1-6-3/1 1-7-25 1-8-1 1-4-180 1-5-142 1-6-405 1-7-125 1-8-351 Total 3 2-1-1 2-2-1 2-3-1 3-4-1 3-5-1 2-1-113/40 2-2-132 2-3-437 3-4-212/1 3-5-316/40 Total 4 4-1-1 t 4-1-482/1 o t 4-2-316/4 o t 4-3-200/2 o t 4-4-108/1 Crusher Nagar. Kakatiya Nagar.S. Annapurna Colony Medipelli Gramam Medipelli Gramam Houseing Board Colony Village Ramagundam Village Ramagundam E. Ayodya Nagar 14 116 243 "C' Colony Angadi Bazar "A" Colony.I Hospital colony Temple Road. Old Bazar Sub Station Area Mubarak Nagar 180 113 0 87 150 450 236 384 1307 0 390 Railway Station Area ST.

HYDERABAD 183 | P a g e . Colony 254 40 150 444 260 786 430 145 1361 1307 757 Power House Colony.B. Prashanth Nagar I. Srinagar Colony. Uday Nagar Power House Colony. C.B.M.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM o 4-7-1 t 4-7-290 o Total 5 4-5-1 4-6-1 5-1-1 5-2-1 5-3-1 5-6-1 t 4-5-245/A o t 4-6-439 o t o t o t o t o 5-1-216/11 5-2-188 5-3-140/11 5-6-176 Total 6 5-4-1 5-5-1 6-1-1 6-4-1 6-5-1 t 5-4-300/2 o t 5-5-667 o t 6-1-83/154 o t 6-4-297/15 o t 6-5-667 o Total 7 6-2-1 6-3-1 7-1-1 7-5-222 t 6-2-533/16 o t 6-3-323 o t 7-1-369 o t 7-5-376 o Total 8 7-2-1 7-3-1 7-2-533/1/1 7-4-1 7-5-1 t o t o t o t o t o 7-2-472/1 7-3-265 7-2-533/641 7-4-333/9 7-5-221 Total 9 20-1-98/1 t 20-1-305/21/A o Bus Stand Colony Janagoma Janagoma Ganga Nagar CSP Colony G. Saptagiri Colony 143 203 268 705 667 403 Annpurna colony Bheemunipatnam. Colony I. Uday Nagar G. Head Quarters. Bheemuni Patnam 0 0 289 1566 379 553 282 206 151 451 2022 262 289 1566 379 553 282 206 151 451 2022 262 667 403 411 908 1013 256 230 140 973 61 93 230 174 558 665 20 2651 337 323 370 174 20 495 262 1204 495 262 1040 470 295 2562 1567 ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. Power House Colony. New poratpalli Malkapuram Krishna Nagar 0 0 Auto Nagar. Colony. M. Colony Tharakaram Nagar 626 Narrashalapalle "B" Type Gate.F Qtrs. Annapurna Colony Krishna Nagar Jangala palle.I.S.

Bhagathsing Nagar Vittal Nagar 0 Gandhi Nagar Gandhi Nagar 30 160 450 Hanuman Nagar Hanuman Nagar. Gandhi Nagar Vidya Nagar . Ganesh Nagar Addaguntapalli. Vinobha Nagar Seetha Nagar Surya Nagar 29 118 169 820 160 2287 493 298 335 1126 693 664 28 57 Ram Nagar Sanjay Nagar. Maruthi Nagar Markandeya Colony. Swatatra Chowk Ashok Nagar.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM 20-2-13 20-5-16/1 t 20-2-850 o t 20-5-322/1 o Total t 8-1-536/1 o t 20-4-397 o t 20-3-326 o Total t 8-2-614/1 o t 8-3-593/1 o t 20-3-600 o Total t 8-4-778 o t 8-5-557 o Total 13 8-6-1 9-3-1 t 8-6-495 o t 9-3-959 o Total 14 19-2-1 19-3-1 19-4-16/2 19-5-1 t 19-2-356 o t 19-3-158/5 o t 19-4-390 o t 19-5-182/20 o Total t 18-3-125/5/A o t 18-4-315/5 o t 19-1-115/B o t 19-7-322/3 o t 19-8-302 o Total Ashok Nagar. Laxmi Nagar 0 15 Krishna Nagar. Jyothi Nagar 29 29 250 1607 738 525 1263 573 1108 1681 315 111 253 205 884 330 280 387 289 300 323 15 1579 0 207 123 0 0 0 0 850 320 2737 611 467 335 1413 722 664 278 1664 738 554 1292 573 1108 1681 522 279 443 304 1548 280 387 289 315 323 1594 10 8-1-1 20-4-1 20-3-1 11 8-2-1 8-3-1 20-3-328 12 8-4-1 8-5-1 15 18-3-1 18-4-1 19-1-1 19-7-1 19-8-1 ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA.I 287 Lenin Nagar. Makandeya Colony Markandeya Colony. Gandhi Nagar Gandhi Nagar Old Market Area 45 190 99 334 Addaguntapalli. HYDERABAD 184 | P a g e . Ashok Nagar Laxmi Nagar.

Mearbasti Kalyan Nagar Kalyan Nagar 151 703 411 187 180 250 318 27 207 337 67 Addaguntapalli Addaguntapalli Laxmi Nagar. HYDERABAD .B.T.Nagar Thirumala Nagar Vijay Nagar Kakatiya Nagar Thirumala Nagar 0 150 279 429 124 1346 505 714 1219 79 325 28 247 399 284 422 1110 332 62 62 0 Shivaji Nagar Shivaji Nagar.Nagar Ramesh Nagar Kakatiya Nagar. Kalyan Nagar Laxmi Nagar.Nagar L.B.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM 16 18-1-1 18-2-1 18-5-1 18-6-1 19-6-1 16-9-157 t o t o t o t o t o t o t o t o t o t o t o t o t o t o t o t o t o 18-1-127/3 18-2-140/1/2 18-5-325 18-6-216 19-6-473 16-9-286/1 Total 17 16-1-1 16-2-1 16-10-1 16-9-1 16-9-287 16-1-310 16-2-394 16-10-406 16-9-24 16-9-305 Total 18 16-3-1 16-4-1 16-5-1 16-6-1 16-8-1 16-9-25 16-3-400 16-4-177 16-5-196/2 16-6-223/2 16-8-251/1/B 16-9-156 Total 19 15-2-146 15-3-1 t 15-2-676 o t 15-3-946 o Total t o t o t o t o t 15-2-143/3 16-7-291/1 17-2-258 17-3-539 Total 21 15-1-1 15-1-554/25 Thilak Nagar Jawahar Nagar. Ramesh Nagar N.B. Nagar Ramesh Nagar. L.R Nagar Ramesh Nagar. Dwaraka Nagar L. Kalyan Nagar Kalyan Nagar 0 79 72 0 260 443 489 31 23 543 36 222 230 361 220 531 268 1832 222 230 361 220 531 268 1832 339 515 489 31 23 1397 447 187 247 250 345 207 1683 655 993 1648 203 325 374 669 1571 332 185 | P a g e 20 15-2-1 16-7-1 17-2-1 17-3-1 ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. Medarbasti Kalyan Nagar.B. L. Kalyan Nagar Maruthi Nagar.

Vittal Nagar 7 "B" Colony Thilak Nagar (Down) Thilak Nagar (Down) Thilak Nagar (Down) 5 Incline.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM o 17-4-1 t 17-4-496/1 o t 17-5-261/1 o Total 22 14-5-1 15-4-1 14-5-942 15-4-471 Total 23 14-1-1 14-2-1 14-3-1 t 14-1-222 o t 14-2-667/1 o 14-3-531 Total 24 9-1-157 9-2-1 13-2-1 14-4-1 9-1-188 t 9-2-231 o t 13-2-535 o t 14-4-616 o Total t o t o t o t o t o t o t o t o 9-1-156/1 13-1-455 13-3-500 13-4-294 Total 26 9-4-1 9-5-1 9-6-1 9-7-1 9-4-116/2 9-5-398 9-6-588/1 9-7-711 Total 27 10-2-28 t 10-2-336 o Total t 10-1-352 o Veerlapalli 0 New Maredupaka 1186 Vittal Nagar Vittal Nagar Vittal Nagar Vittal Nagar 0 7 "B" Colony Vittal Nagar Vittal Nagar Jawahar Nagar. Parusharamnagar 5 Incline. Thilaknagar Chandrashekar Nagar. Thilak Nagar Jawahar Nagar. HYDERABAD 186 | P a g e . Santhosh Nagar. Bharat Nagar 0 12 278 290 130 80 172 382 74 158 13 228 473 87 192 457 206 942 512 512 17-5-1 286 1130 828 277 1105 282 656 362 1300 19 129 542 432 1122 130 342 113 124 709 142 466 608 790 2006 106 106 41 41 327 1171 840 555 0 1395 412 736 534 0 1682 93 287 555 660 1595 217 534 570 330 25 9-1-1 13-1-1 13-3-1 13-4-1 0 1651 142 466 608 790 0 234 234 352 2006 340 340 1538 28 10-1-61 ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. Vittal Nagar Vittal Nagar Parusharm Nagar. Thilak Nagar Down Chandrashekar Nagar.

HYDERABAD 187 | P a g e . Chandrababu Colony. Ganesh Nagar. Vijay Nagar. 1186 660 0 237 352 1538 897 11-6-1 1411 2071 110 347 0 332 1521 2418 332 808 30 11-1-1 11-2-1 Allur Sripada Colony. Indira Nagar. Bharath Nagar. Lurdu Nagar Indira Nagar Shanthi Nagar Kazipalli Mathangi Colony 0 0 121 156 0 160 528 120 11-3-1 84 253 280 617 11-7-1 t 11-7-621 o Total t 12-4-183 o t 12-5-333 o Total t 17-1-84/A o t 17-6-117 o t 21-5-106 o t 21-5-1/104 o t 21-6-123/2 o Total 561 805 570 1351 93 825 241 400 641 214 243 120 1224 2981 241 400 641 214 243 120 121 31 12-4-1 12-5-1 32 17-1-1 17-6-1 21-5-1 21-5-1/1 21-6-1 160 316 277 737 515 1014 515 33 21-1-29/1 t 21-1-255/1/2 o 21-2-1 21-3-1 21-4-27 22-7-1 22-8-1 t 21-2-195/15/2 o t o t o t o t o 21-3-368/2 21-4-73/6 22-7-180/2 22-8-117/1/B Total 735 465 125 280 155 2275 735 465 125 280 155 2275 ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. Santhosh Nagar. Taraka Ram Nagar 8 Incline Colony. Hanuman Nagar Gopal Nagar. Siddartha Nagar Elkalapelli Gate Laxmipuram 0 Rajeev Nagar Rajeev Nagar.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM Total 29 11-4-1 t 11-4-537/70 o t 11-6-634/52 o Total t 11-1-221 o t 11-2-807 o t 11-3-624 o 8 Incline Colony. Rajeev Nagar. Laxmi Nagar. Pragathi Nagar 0 Yellandu Guest Area. ExServiceman Colony. KCR Colony Markandeay Colony. Baskar Rao Nagar. Kavitha Area. Sanjay Gandhi Nagar Gouthami Nagar Chaitanya Puri Colony Gouthami Nagar.

P.C. P.T.T.S.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM 34 22-3-1 22-4-1 22-5-1 22-6-1 22-3-274/A 22-3-235 22-4-1150 22-5-418 22-6-668 t 22-3-274/17 o Total Total P.C.C.T.S. F. P. P. N.P.T. N.C. N.T.T.P.S.S. N.I X road 2471 13482 0 25106 235 1150 418 668 21 21 16468 235 1150 418 668 21 2492 55056 ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA.T.T. HYDERABAD 188 | P a g e .C.P.

Maps and physical features of settlements (wards. slums. treatment plants. Arrangements and practices of commercial. solid waste. Drainage and flooding vii. Access to household level sanitation arrangements in general residential and slum areas ii.) and key city infrastructure (water. Safe collection and conveyance of human excreta (on-site and sewerage) – infrastructure and management (including status of de-sludging services) iv. transport and safe disposal vi. I Item Baseline data collection & situational analysis in terms of identification of short-term or mid-term or long-term measures Has the city carried out a baseline data collection (secondary and primary) and situation analysis of different aspects of sanitation viz: i. Current population and socio-economic categories and projections by different categories x. drainage) ix. drainage. etc. Community and public toilets – location and status iii. sanitation. public and other institutions in respect of sanitation and solid wastes xi. HYDERABAD 189 | P a g e . roads. sewerage. Treatment and safe disposal of human excreta v. else “No”) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. quality and coverage viii. water and sewage Yes/No Remarks/ status 1) (Score overall “Yes” if at least nine indicators below score “Yes”.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM ANNEXURE 5: MOUD CHECKLIST Ministry of Urban Development’s Self Appraisal Checklist: A quality checklist provided by MoU D is verified for the activities taken up and areas covered in CSP : Table 84: CSP Content self-assessment No. Drinking water quantity. Solid waste collection. Institutional arrangements and finances for capital creation and O&M management of environmental services (water.

implementation. etc.e. monitoring and regulation? Has the draft CSP proposed specific actions to resolve institutional gaps and overlaps for: a. Monitoring of outcomes f. HYDERABAD . Planning and financing b. Other important and locally relevant details (specify) 2) Has the draft CSP identified specific data gaps and developed a plan for detailed data collection? Institutional roles and issues Has the city identified an institutional home/s for sanitation planning. Data on health-related indicators of sanitation and water supply xiii. transport and safe disposal – i. Creation of physical infrastructure c. else “No”) Yes IV 6) Yes 7) Yes V 8) Yes (Specify locations) 9) ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. retrofitting or new investments) consider the whole city? (not just a part thereof) Urban poor and unreached Has the draft CSP identified the locations or settlements of the urban poor and other unreached population segments with have no or limited access to sanitation? Does the draft CSP identify actions for assisting unreached/poor households with 190 | P a g e No Yes Yes II 3) 4) (Score overall “Yes” if at least five indicators below score “Yes”. Training and capacity building e.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM pumping stations. full-cycle) for sanitation? Do the proposed sanitation interventions (rehabilitation. Communications g. Regulation III 5) City-wide sanitation campaign Does the draft CSP contain a plan for the launch of a 100% Sanitation Campaign in the city? Technology options and city-wide design Has draft CSP detailed and evaluated different technology options (on or off-site as well for collection.) xii. O&M management d.

implications on tariff increases and willingness to pay for services.g. Cost Benefit Analysis done) 13) Whether O&M implications of each of the investment options evaluated i. even if investment numbers are indicative or workin-process)? 12) Were the different sanitation options (hardware plus software) evaluated on the basis of financial viability? (i. etc. loans. NGOs etc. HYDERABAD 191 | P a g e . provisions in development regulations or building bye-laws to promote sanitation including safe disposal) 17) Does the draft CSP have a plan for improving septage management? 18) Whether the draft CSP includes an implementation plan and timeline? Yes Yes Yes Yes ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM individual. community or public sanitation facilities (in that order).e.e. scrutiny about sanitation arrangements before issue of building permits) 16) Have gaps and overlaps in existing regulations identified for resolution? (e. personnel number and capacities etc.) for extending access to sanitation and related behavior change communication activities? VI Financing and O&M management 11) Does the draft CSP consider an appropriate time-frame and spatial and demographic dimensions to remain relevant (at least for the 12th Five Year Plan period.g. grants. prohibiting hazardous discharge of untreated sewage.? 14) Has the draft CSP considered options for partnering with private sector. for implementation or O&M management of sanitation facilities? VII Expedient and other actions Yes 15) Has the draft CSP identified the steps for implementing improved enforcement of existing laws and provisions? (e. and efficient disposal from these facilities? 10) Has the draft CSP identified or proposed sources of financing the CSP (schemes.

CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM 19) Whether the draft CSP has a disaster preparedness component? 20) Whether the draft CSP identifies shortterm/ medium-term/ long-term measures to achieve identified outcomes? 21 Does this draft CSP leads to improvement of service levels with respect of SLB related to MSW/storm water drainage/solid waste management? No Yes Yes 22) Outline of expected improvements on rating as per NUSP? Yes ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. HYDERABAD 192 | P a g e .

ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. Aerobic treatment: Treatment of wastewater with the help of micro-organisms that rely on oxygen. 21. 10. Biosolids: See Sewage sludge. 13. Ecological sanitation (ecosan): A form of dry sanitation that involves separation of feces and urine in order to facilitate recycling of nutrients in local agricultural systems. Activated sludge: An aerobic treatment process in which oxygen and micro-organism concentrations in wastewater are artificially elevated to facilitate rapid digestion of biodegradable organic matter. Anaerobic digestion: Decomposition of organic material by anaerobic bacteria in the absence of air. Fecal sludge: The undigested sludge that is collected from pit latrines and leach pits. 8. HYDERABAD 193 | P a g e . Biochemical oxygen demand: A measure of the organic pollutant strength of wastewater. 9. 16. Bucket latrine: A traditional but unhygienic form of sanitation in which feces is deposited into a bucket which is collected regularly (usually at night) and taken away (usually by ‘sweepers’). Domestic sewage: All forms of wastewater derived from residential properties. Dry sanitation: Disposal of human excreta without the use of water for flushing or anal cleansing. Leachfield: A trench filled with sand. 18. 23. Desludging: Removal of sludge or settled solid matter from treatment tanks such as septic/Imhoff tank. 14. 4. Leach pit (sometimes known as a cesspit): An underground tank that is used where there is no sewer and household wastewaters are drained into them to permit leaching of the liquid into the surrounding soil. Lagoon: See technology data sheet on ‘Wastewater and Fecal Sludge Treatment: Waste Stabilization Ponds’ (page 203). 6. Blackwater: Wastewater discharge from toilets. 19. Composting latrine: A latrine designed to receive both feces and waste vegetable matter with the aim of reducing moisture content and achieving a carbon-to-nitrogen ratio that promotes rapid that promotes rapid decomposition. 20. 22. as well as blackwater and greywater from commercial and institutions buildings. Anaerobic lagoon: A system for treatment of high-strength wastewater and sludge that involves retention under anaerobic conditions. Excreta: Feces and urine. gravel and brickbats for disposal of septic tank overflow into the surrounding soil. 11. 17. soil.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM GLOSSARY 1. 3. interceptor tank or sedimentation tanks. Greywater (also known as sullage): Wastewater produced by washing and bathing activities. 7. 12. Aerated pond or lagoon: A natural or artificial wastewater treatment pond in which mechanical or diffused air aeration is used to supplement the natural reoxygenation processes. 2. Effluent: Any form of wastewater or liquid waste that flows from an operation or activity. 15. Disposal: Discharge. deposition or dumping of any liquid or solid waste onto land or water so that it may enter the environment. 5. Dry latrines: All forms of latrines that do not require water for flushing.

29. 26. Pit latrine: A form of on-plot sanitation with a pit for accumulation and decomposition of excreta from which liquid infiltrates into the surrounding soil. 42. 31. along with any surface water/storm water. viruses and protozoa that cause disease. which is used to collect and convey wastewater away from its point of production to its point of disposal. and other personal and domestic activates. Septic tank: A form of on-plot sanitation for the anaerobic treatment of sewage/blackwater. which are deposited into a bucket or other receptacle for manual removal. district or town. 28. 35. usually a pipe. cooking. Sewerage: A network of interconnected sewers in an area. typically after a septic tank from where wastewater slowly seeps into the ground through perforated sides and bottom. 45. Pour flush toilet: A type of latrine where a water seal trap is used to prevent smells and to reduce insects. but may also include facilities shared by several households living together on the same plot. On-plot facilities: The components of a sanitation system located within a householder’s plot.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM 24. Septage: Mixture of wastewater and sludge removed from a septic tank during cleaning operations. Sewage sludge (sometimes referred to as biosoilds): A semisolid residue generated during the treatment of domestic sewage including both solids removed by sedimentation and biological sludge produced by biological treatment. Sewer: A conduit. It may also contain a component of industrial wastewater. 32. Commonly. 25. 27. Night soil: Human excreta. Sanitation: Interventions (usually construction of facilities such as latrines) that improve the management of excreta and promote sanitary (healthy) conditions. 41. 39. 36. Wastewater: Liquid waste from households or commercial or industrial operations. On-plot sanitation: A sanitation system that is wholly contained within the plot occupied by a private dwelling and its immediate surroundings. ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA. Sewage: A mixture of wastewater from all urban activates from residential. Off-site sanitation: A system of sanitation that involves collection and transportation of waste (wastewater either by sewerage or septage/fecal sludge by vacuum truck) to a location away from the immediate locality. with a dark interior and a screened vent pipe to reduce odor and fly problems. on-plot sanitation is equivalent to ‘household latrine’. Sullage (also known as greywater): Wastewater from bathing. with or without anal cleansing material. 37. 40. 44. Pathogens: Micro-organisms such as bacteria. 33. 34. preparation of food. HYDERABAD 194 | P a g e . Soak pit/Soakaway: A pit. Suction truck: A vehicle used for mechanized sludge removal from septic tanks and lined latrine pits. 30. Superstructure: Screen or building enclosing a latrine to provide privacy and protection for users. laundry. 43. Ventilated improved pit latrine (VIP): A dry latrine system. Percolation rate: The rate at which liquids move through soil. commercial properties. Vent pipe: A pipe that facilitates the escape of gases and odors from a latrine or septic tank. 38.

HYDERABAD 195 | P a g e . in which excreta are deposited before being flushed away using water. 48. 47. Wastewater treatment: A combination of physical. dissolved pollutants. Water seal: Water held in a U-shaped pipe or hemispherical bowl connecting a pan to a pipe. Water closet: A pan. incorporating a water seal. chemical and biological processes to remove suspended solids. ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF COLLEGE OF INDIA.CITY SANITATION PLAN RAMAGUNDAM 46. and pathogens and render the water harmless to the environment. channel or pit to prevent the escape of gases and insects from the sewer or pit.