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Dynamic depressurisation calculations LNG regasification unit

by Sissel Eng DNV Technology Services

Agenda • • • • Project background Presentation of results HYSYS dynamic depressuring unit Service provided by DNV TS .

Storage and Handling of Liquefied Natural Gas • EN 1473: Installation and equipment for liquefied natural gas design of onshore installations • IGC: International Code for the Construction and Equipment for Ships Carrying Liquefied Gases in bulk Code (Gas Code) • API RP 520/521/14C • NORSOK • Relevant ISO standards • DNV rules and offshore standards • Other class societies: ABS.Standards and Codes evaluated for LNG regasifications systems • NFPA 59A: Standard for the Production. Lloyd’s • SIGGTO LNG Operation in Port Areas • IP Guideline/Scandpower guideline .

4 • Establish a procedure for performing depressuring calculations in accordance with NORSOK. ISO 13702.Background • Compare API methodology with Scandpower Guideline in general • Investigate thermal effects during depressuring of LNG processes • Investigate dynamic depressuring utility available in HYSYS version 3. API RP 520. PED .

width. height: 11 x 4 x 8 meters Operating pressure: 40 to 130 bara Locked-in volume approximately 1 ton Initial liquid inventory.Typical regasification unit Two stage heating system Capacity of one skid: 50-210 tons LNG per hour Length. varied from 0 to 100% No insulation .

convection (Stephan-Boltzman fire mode) q = α S ε f σTr4 + h(T f − TS . 82 • Heat transfer per area. taken into account radiation.O (t )) − ε SσTS .O (t )4 .000 ⋅ F ⋅ A 0 .Comparison heat absorption models • API heat absorption equation per area (API fire mode) q = 34 .

Agenda • • • • Project background Presentation of results HYSYS dynamic depressuring unit Service provided by DNV TS .

Comparison API and Stephan-Boltzman Pressure profile 16000 14000 12000 P re s s u re [k P a ] 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 0 200 400 Time [s] 600 800 API Stephan-Boltzman • Pressure profile versus time plotted • Initial pressure 60 bara. and – 60 0C • Initially 50% liquid filled • Depressuring orifice constant throughout simulations • Graph shows larger evaporation rate with Stephan-Boltzman fire mode .

Comparison API and Stephan-Boltzman Bulk vapour temperature 700 600 T e m p e ra tu re [d e g C ] 500 400 300 200 100 0 200 400 Time [s] 600 800 API Stephan-Boltzman • Vapor temperature versus time plotted • S-B fire mode shows higher temperatures • Which model is correct? -100 0 .

S-B compared with experimental values: vapour wall temperature 1200 Wall temperature (degC) 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Time (sec) Calculated Experimental Experimental values presented by NH/Sintef at FABIG 2003 .

50. Orifice size kept constant through simulations • Initial pressure 60 bara.Results: Thermal effects • Fire mode selected: Stephan Boltzman • Heat input according to NORSOK fire • Orifice sized for cold depressuring. 75 and to 100% initially liquid filled 20000 15000 @ 0% init liq vol @ 50% init liq vol @ 100% init liq vol Pressure [kPa] 10000 5000 0 0 200 400 Time [s] 600 800 600 500 Wall Temperature [degC] 400 Vap Wall T @ 0% init liq vol Vap Wall T @ 50% init liq vol Vap Wall T @ 100% init liq vol 300 200 100 0 0 200 400 Time [s] 600 800 . Down to 6. initial temperature -60 0C • Liquid level varied from 0. 25.9 barg in 15 minutes.

Results: other parameters reported by Hysys Mass flow out of valve SB Fire Mode 3500 3000 Mass Flowrate [kg/h] Remaining mass in vessel 900 800 R em ain in g m ass [kg ] 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 200 400 Time [s] 600 800 Vapour mass Liquid mass 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0 200 400 Time [s] 600 800 @ 0% init liq vol @ 50% init liq vol @ 100% init liq vol .

Agenda • • • • Project background Presentation of results HYSYS dynamic depressuring unit Service provided by DNV TS .

HYSYS dynamic depressuring utility • Commercially available • Rigorous thermodynamic • Dynamic depressuring simulation • Often used for steady state process simulations .

Services provided by DNV TS • Procedure developed for detailed depressuring calculations Utilizing a well established simulation tool Competence within material data (UTS) Competence within piping stress • • Evaluation of results: risk analysis and consequences of possible rupture Evaluation of results: ESD S/D logic and sectioning philosophy .