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Training Objective


WAN Protocol Overview

Principles and Configurations of HDLC Protocol Principles,Configurations and Maintenance of PPP and MP Protocol

Principles, Configurations and Maintenance of X.25

Principles, Configurations and Maintenance of Frame Relay

WAN Overview




T h eW ideAreaNetworkis called W A Nfor short, w h ichis acom p u ter com m u n icationnetwork establishedinawiderange T h eW A Nis a kin d of cross-regiondatacom m u n ication network, w h ich uses th ee q u ip m e n ts suppliedbytelecomcarriersasthedatatransferplatform T h eW A Nis m a in lyusedtoconnecttheLANsliesindifferentplaces

Main WAN Connection Technologies

Point-to-point connection
H D LC , P P P , S L I P

Connection through packet switching network
X.25, Frame Relay, ATM
Service Provider

High-level Data Link Control (HDLC)

Flag F

Address A

Control C

Information info

Frame Check Sequence FCS

Flag F

Bit-oriented protocol Transparent transmission: zero bit filling method Run on synchronous serial lines

Configurations of the HDLC Protocol

Encapsulate the HDLC protocol at the interface mode
encapsulation hdlc

Set the keepalive time to detect the link status
keepalive time

huawei.PPP Protocol Introduction HUAWEI PSTN/ISDN Access Server PPPEncapsulation PPP PPPprotocolisdevelopedonthebasisofSLIP PPPprotocolislocatedatthedatalinklayer.thesecondlayerofOSIm o d e l   Thephysicallayercaneitherbethesynchronousorasynchronousphysicalm edia .

com .N C P sa n dP A P .huawei. www. C H A Pfor network security.PPP Composition HUAWEI PPPusesNCPtosupportmultipleNetwork protocols TCP/IP Novell IPX PPP LCP is used to establish and maintain links ThePPPprotocolism a in ly composedof th eL C P .

com .PPP Protocol Stack HUAWEI IP IPCP PPP IPX IPXCP Other network protocols Network Layer Other NCPs NCP Link Layer Authentication. other options LCP Physical media ( synchronous / asynchronous ) Physical Layer www.huawei.

PPP Negotiation Procedure HUAWEI Bottom Layerup Dead Stage Establish Stage LCP up Authentication  passed Authentication  or failure no authentication Authenticate Stage Fail DOWN Terminate Stage Close Network Stage .

com .huawei.PAP Authentication HUAWEI Authenticated  Party Authenticating Party User name+Pasword ACK / NAK User database The PAP is two handshake authentication protocol.  The password is transmitted in plain text and the  authenticated party first originates the  authentication request. www.

andithashighersecuritythan P A P .Itdoesnotsendanypassword. The . www.CHAP Authentication HUAWEI Authenticated Party Host name+random message Host name+encrypted message User database Authenticating Party Success /  Fail User database C H A Pisa3-handshakeauthenticationprotocol.

com .SSNHFandendpoint discrim inator Therearetwoflagsusedforbundling:usernameandtheendpoint discrim inator www.huawei.Brief Introduction to MultiLink PPP Protocol HUAWEI NegotiatewhethertouseMPornotattheLCPstage ThenperformthePPPauthenticationtoobtaintheusernameof theremotepartyandfindthevirtualinterfacetem p late specified for theuseraccordingtotheusername Thenegotiationparam e tersinclude:MRRU.

HUAWEI PPP Configuration Commands Encapsulate PPP encapsulation ppp Configure authentication method ppp authentication {pap|chap} Configure user name and password user username password {0|7} password .

com .HUAWEI PAP Configuration Command Authenticating party configuration Configure authentication method ppp authentication pap Configure user list user username password [0/7] password Authenticated party configuration Configure the PAP user name ppp pap sent-username username password{0|7} password www.huawei.

huawei.HUAWEI CHAP Configuration Command C o n figureauthenticationm e thod pppauthentication chap C o n figurelocalhostnam e o s t n a m e pppchaphosth Addtheremoteusernameandpasswordtothelocaluserlist s e r n a m e password[0/7]password useru Authenticating party configuration: Authenticated party configuration: C o n figurethelocalhostnam ea n dtheremoteusernameandpassword o s t n a m e pppchaphosth u s e r username password[0/7] password .

Typical PPP Configuration Example I HUAWEI A u thenticatingparty PAPauthentication S0 Q u id w a y# 1 Quidway(config)# user quidway2password0 uidway Quidway(config)# interface serial 0 Quidway(config-if-serial0)# ppp authentication pap A u thenticatedparty S0 Q u id w a y# 2 Quidway(config)# interface serial 0 Quidway(config-if-serial0)# ppp pap sent-username quidway2password0 quidway .

com .huawei.Typical PPP Configuration Example II HUAWEI A u thenticatingparty CHAP authentication A u thenticatedparty S0 S0 Q u id w a y# 2 Q u idway(config)# user q u i d w a y 1password0 hello Q u idway(config)# interface serial 0 Q u idway(config-if-serial0)# ppp chap host q u i d w a y 2 Q u id w a y# 1 Q u idway(config)# user q u i d w a y 2password0 hello Q u idway(config)# interface serial 0 Q u idway(config-if-serial0)# ppp chap host q u i d w a y 1 Q u idway(config-if-serial0)# ppp authentication chap www.

com .MultiLink PPP Configuration Command HUAWEI Basic MP configuration tasks include: Configure the MP work mode of the interface bundled in the virtual template ppp multilink Establish the relationship between the PPP users and the virtual template multilink-user user-name bind virtual-template number The higher level MP configuration task include: Configure the maximum number of bind MP links multilink max-bind binds www.huawei. .Typical MP Configuration Example HUAWEI Router B DDN Router A Router C www.

HUAWEI PPP Monitor and Maintenance Command show user Operation Show the local user list Show the interface configuration and status show interface interface-name Show the interface information of the MP show ppp multilink . .PPP Troubleshooting HUAWEI Fault 1: the link can never be converted to the UP status The configuration of the PPP authentication parameters is not correct Fault 2: the physical link cannot be converted to the UP status The command "show interface serial number" is used to view the interface status www.

25 Overview HUAWEI DTE X. statistics. flow control.25 Protocol DCE X. etc.huawei.25 Protocol DTE The X. Itsm a infunctionistodescribehowtoset u pvirtual circuits. transmissionpackets. transmit data. set up . releaselinks andtoclear thevirtual circuitsbetweenthe DTEandthe DCE . www.25 recommendation is the interface specifications between the DTE and the DCE. it wil implement the error control.X. and in the meantime.25 DCE X.

com .huawei.25 Network Model HUAWEI DTE PSE DTE DCE PSE PSE DCE DCE PSN DTE DTE DCE PSE PSN Data Terminal Equipment Data Circuit-terminating Equipment) Packet Switching Equipment Packet Switching Network www.X.

com .huawei.25 HUAWEI O S IRM Application Presentation Session Layer Transport Layer Network Layer Data Link Layer Higher-level protocol with remote DTE Upper-level Protocol Packet Layer Packet Layer Data Link Layer Physical Layer X.25 Data Link Layer Physical Layer Physical Layer DTE DCE www.Hierarchy of X.

25 Network IP Header User Data LAN Packet Header Frame Header IP Packet LAN X.25 Packet Frame tail Router X.25 Router .huawei.HUAWEI Transmission of IP Packet through X.

X.25 Virtual Circuit HUAWEI Statistic time-division multiplexing SVC (virtual switching circuit) and PVC (permanent virtual circuit) An interface can be configured with 4095 virtual circuits at maximum .

com .huawei.Link Layer Protocol LAPB HUAWEI The main functions of the Link Layer are as follows: Effectively transmit data between the DTE and the DCE Guarantee the information synchronization between the receiver and the transmitter Detect and correct errors occurred during transmission Identify and report protocol errors to the higher-level protocols Notify the Link Layer status to the Packet Layer www.

25 e n c a p s u l a t i o nx 2 5 [[ dte|dce ] | [ bfe|cisco-com p a tible|ddn|ietf ]] Configure the X.25 Configuration HUAWEI Configure the work mode of X.121 address x 2 5a d d r e s s x.huawei.121-address Create the map between network address and X.121 address x 2 5m a p protocol protocol-addressx.121-address [option] Create permanent virtual circuit x 2 5p v c pvc-number protocol protocol-addressx.121-address[option] .

25 Packet Layer Configure virtual circuit scope x 2 5[LIC|HIC|LTC|HTC|LOC|HOC]circuit-number Configure packet size x 2 5i p s bytes( thedefaultvalueis128) x 2 5o p sbytes( thedefaultvalueis128) Configure window size ) x 2 5w inpackets( thedefaultvalueis2 ) x 2 5w o u t packets( thedefaultvalueis2 Configure modulo mode ( x 2 5m odulo{8|128} thedefault value is 8 www.HUAWEI Parameter Configuration of the .

121-address [option] x25 pvc pvc-number protocol protocol-address x. which has its own protocol address and virtual circuit.25 sub-interface Configure address mapping Command interface serial number encapsulation x25 interface serial number. There are two types of sub-interfaces: point-to-point sub-interface and point-to-multipoint .121-address Configure permanent virtual [option] circuit www.subinterface-number [ multipoint | point-to-point ] x25 map protocol protocol-address x.25 Sub-interface HUAWEI The sub-interface is a virtual interface.Configure X. Multiple sub-interfaces can be set up at one physical interface.huawei. Operation Enter the main interface Encapsulate the X25 protocol Create the X.

255.38.2 encapsulation x25 dce x25 address 20112452 x25 map ip 202.Typical X.2 20112452 interface serial 1 ip address 202.25 Configuration Example HUAWEI 20112451 202.1 20112451 www. Serial 0 Router A 20112452 encapsulation x25 dte x25 address 20112451 x25 map ip cable Serial 1 Router B interface serial 0 ip address .2 V.38.1 255.

X.25 switching routing table show x25 route View the X.25 virtual circuit show x25 vc lci-number Enable debugging of all the X25 packets Enable debugging of the X25 event debug x25 all [ interface type number ] debug x25 event [ interface type number ] Enable debugging of the X25 packets debug x25 packet [ interface type number ] .25 switching virtual circuit show x25 switch-vc-table table View the X.25 address mapping table show x25 map View the X.huawei.25 Monitor and Maintenance HUAWEI Operation View interface information View the X.25 alias list Command show interface [ type number ] show x25 alias View the X. .121 address is not configured The address mapping is not configured The remote X. but the X. i. but frequent resets or clears occur in data transmission Check whether the flow control parameters are set correctly www.e.25 protocol has been in the "UP" status. cannot ping through The local X.. but the virtual circuit cannot be set up.25 Troubleshooting HUAWEI The LAPB has already been in the connected status.huawei.121 address is not configured The address mapping from the remote end to the local end is not configured The channel scope is not correct Carry facility options not allowed by the network The virtual circuit can be set up.25 protocol cannot be in "UP" status Check whether the DCE/DTE configuration is correct The X.

huawei. it is a kind of improved X.Introduction to Frame Relay HUAWEI LAN Local Management Interface(LMI) LAN DLCI DCE FR DCE DLCI DTE DTE PVCs Permanent virtual circuits(PVCs) use data-link connection identifiers(DLCIs) The frame relay protocol is a kind of fast packet switching technology based upon the . www.25 protocol. The frame relay is based upon virtual circuits.25 packet switching technology.

transparentfram etransm issionanderrordetectionintheLinkLayer. b u t it doesnotprovideretransm issionoperationaftertheerrorisdetected T h em a x im u mreservedfram elengthatleastshouldreach1600bytes/fram e .notthe p h y s icalconnections Itadoptstwo-levelarchitecture(thePhysicalLayerandtheLinkLayer) It im p lem e n ts statistic m u ltiplexing.appropriatefor e n c a p s u l a t i n gL A Nd a t au n it Itprovidesasetofreasonablebandwidthm a n a g e m e n tandcongestionpreventingm e c h a n ism T h efram erelayadoptstheswitchingtechnologyorientedtoconnection www.HUAWEI Characteristics of Frame Relay T h efram erelayprotocoltransm itsdatainform a tioninth eformof fram e s T h etransm issionlinksusedbythefram erelayfordatatransm .

com . . . . .Frame Relay Protocol Stack HUAWEI OSI Reference Model Frame Relay 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 The Application Layer The Presentation Layer The Session Layer The Transport Layer The Network Layer The Data Link Layer The Physical Layer .huawei. Frame Relay The Physical Layer www.

com .huawei.Frame Relay Terms HUAWEI DLCI 31 DLCI 21 DLCI 22 DLCI 23 DLCI 32 DLCI 33 frame relay switch DLCI: Digial Link Connection Identifier CIR: Committed Information Rate Bc: Burst committed Be : Busst excess allowed FECN: Forward Congestion Indication BECN : Backward Congestion Indication DE : Disposable flag www.

huawei.Allocation of Frame Relay DLCI HUAWEI MAP DLCI 48 DLCI 48 DSU/CSU Network Address frame relay switch Token Ring Obtain the allocated DLCIs from the frame relay network service provider Each DLCI has only local meaning Map the remote network address to the DLCIs . .26 Router A DLCI 66 Router A notifies IP to DLCI 66 to DLCI 48 TheInverseARPautomaticallyfindsthenetworkaddressofthedestinationroutersoas to sim p lify th eframerelayconfiguration www.11.3 Router B Switch Notification DLCI 48 Switch Notification Router B Notifies IP FR DLCI 66 172.HUAWEI Inverse ARP Protocol Used for Network Discovery DLCI 48 172.

huawei.LMI Supported by Quidway HUAWEI ANSI ITU-T (CCITT) Cisco Compatible T1.933 Annex (signaling) Gang of Four www.617 Annex D .

com .huawei.HUAWEI Frame Relay Network Topology Full-meshed connection Star architecture Partial-mesed Connection www.

then the incoming routing information from S0 will not be sent out from this serial interface. www.Split Horizon and Frame Relay HUAWEI B wants to forward update routing information to C through S0 of Router A Router B DLCI 16 to B DLCI 17 to C DLCI 18 to D s0 Router A Router C Router D If mapping three DLCIs in the serial interface S0 of Router A to three .huawei.

Frame Relay Subinterface HUAWEI Subnet1 Router B Subnet 2 Router C s0.1 s0.3 Router A Subnet3 Router D The subinterface can solve the problem of horizontal segmentation One physical interface can contain multiple logic subinterfaces The routers are connected through frame relay netowrk www.huawei.2 .

huawei.Frame Relay Configuration HUAWEI Encapsulate the frame relay protocol encapsulation frame-relay [cisco-compatible | ietf ] Conmfigure the terminal type of the frame relay interface frame-relay intf-type { dce | dte | nni } Select the LMI type frame-relay lmi-type { ansi | cisco-compatible | q933a } .

com . Manually configure the static mapping: frame-relay map { ip | ipx } protocol-address dlci [broadcast ] Dynamic setup: enable dynamic inverse ARP frame-relay inverse-arp [ ip | ipx ] [dlci ] www.huawei.Configure Frame Relay Address Mapping HUAWEI The frame relay address mapping sets up the mapping relationship between the remote protocol address and the local DLCI. This address can be statically configured or dynamically configured.

com . but the "interface" can either allocate for both the main interface and the subinterfaces. www.HUAWEI Configure Local Virtual Circuits of Frame Relay Allocate a virtual circuit number to the main iterface frame-relay local-dlci dlci Allocate the virtual circuit numbers to the main interface or the subinterfaces frame-relay interface-dlci dlci Difference: "local" can only allocate virtual circuits for the main interface.huawei.

The address mapping is only needed in point-to-multipoint condition. you may either use the static or dynamic address .subinterface-number [ multipoint | point-to-point ] Configure the virtual circuit number for the frame relay subinterfaces frame-relay interface-dlci dlci The command for creating the address mapping is the same as that of the physical interface.huawei.Configure Frame Relay Subinterface HUAWEI There are two types of subinterfaces: point-to-point and point-to-multipoint subinterfaces Create frame relay subinterface and enter the subinterface configuration mode interface type number. www.

com . interface type should be dce or nni www.Configure Frame Relay Switching HUAWEI Allow the frame relay to perform the PVC switching frame-relay switching Set frame relay interface type frame-relay intf-type { dce | dte | nni } Configure the route of frame relay PVC switching frame-relay route in-dlci interface serial number out-dlci Note: If the frame relay switching is used.huawei.

163.252 www.251 100 Router B IP:202.38.huawei.163.163.255.r e l a y intf-type frame-relay dte frame-relay inverse-arp or frame-relay map ip 202.Typical Frame Relay Configuration Case 1 HUAWEI DCE DLCI 100 DTE Encapsulated as frame relay interface serial i p a d d1 ress 202.255.251 .252 100 Router A IP: encapsulation f r a m e .163.251 interface serial i p a d d1 ress encapsulation f r a m e .38.r e l a y intf-type frame-relay d ce frame-relay local-dlci 1 0 0 frame-relay inverse-arp or frame-relay map ip 202. .huawei.253 Router C IP: Router B Frame Relay Router A DLCI 60 DLCI 70 DLCI 80 IP:202. please refer to the teaching materials www.251 For detailed configuration .Typical Frame Relay Configuration Case 2 HUAWEI LANs interconnection through frame relay network DLCI 50 IP:202.163.163.

Frame Relay Monitor and Maintenance HUAWEI Operation Show the receiving/transmitting statistics information of LMI frame relay messages Show the mapping table of the protocol address and the frame relay address Show statistic information of the frame relay PVC Show frame relay PVC routing table Show frame relay protocol status of each interface Command show frame-relay lmi [ interface type number ] show frame-relay map show frame-relay pvc show frame-relay route show frame-relay Status Clear all the dynamically established frame relay clear frame-relay-inarp address mapping Switch on all the message debugging switches of the debug frame-relay all [ interface type number ] frame relay Switch on frame relay ARP message information debug frame-relay arp [ interface type number ] debugging switch Switch on frame relay event information debugging switch Switch on the LMI protocol information debugging switch of the frame relay debug frame-relay event [ interface type number ] debug frame-relay lmi [ interface type number ] .

com .buttheLinkLayerisDOW N Protocol encapsulation W h e therdoesDTE/DCEcorrespondstoeachother M o n itor the transm itting/receiving status of the LMI message T h eL inkLayerprotocolisUP.huawei.Diagnosis and Removal of Frame Relay Fault HUAWEI Fault1:ThePhysicalLayerisDOW N checkthephysicallines checktheremoteequipment T h eP h y s icalLayerisUP.butitcannotpingthroughtherem oteequip m e n t W h e thertheLinkLayerprotocolsoftheequipmentatbothendsareinUpstatus W h e thertheaddressmappingiscorrect checktheroutingtabletoseewhetherthereisroutetotheremoteequipment www.

which support the Network Layer protocol better It has the authentication protocol PAP/CHAP so that the network security is guaranteed .PPP Summary HUAWEI The PPP is a Data Link Layer Protocol It supports the point-to-point connection The Physical Layer can either be synchronous circuit or asynchronous circuit It has various NCP protocols such as IPCP and IPXCP.

) can be encapsulated into packets and transmitted through the X.25 corresponds to the three lower layers of the OSI architecture.25. IPX. .25 the data of the other protocols (such as IP.25 Summary HUAWEI The X.25 map www.25 in an interface: Encapsulate the interface Set the parameters Set the X. The Lapb is the Data Link Layer of the X. Y ou need to perform the following operations to configure the X.121 address of the interface Configure the X.X.huawei.

Frame Relay Summary HUAWEI UsethelocalDLCIastheframerelayPVCidentifiertothedestinationend T h eQ U IDWAYsupportsthreeLMItypes: ) A N S I( A n n e xD ) C C ITT( AnnexA b C ISCOcompatible D e fine static framerelayMAP D e finesubin terfacetoavoidtheproblemofsplithorizonconcerningroutingupdate Bydefault.theInverseARPcanfindrem oteprotocoladdressforthelocalDLCIautom a tically Usethecommandsshowa n ddebugto m onitor the framerelay .huawei.