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JOURNAL OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS, VOLUME 21, ISSUE 1, JULY 2013 23

Audio Watermarking in Image by Using Radon – Wavelet Transforms
Osama Qasim Jumah Al-Thahab and Heba Abdul-Jaleel Alasady
Abstract-The rapid growth of digital media and communication network has highlighted the need for Intellectual Property Rights (IRP) protection technology for digital multimedia. Watermarking of multimedia data has become a hotspot for research in recent years. Watermarking can be used to identify the owners, license information, or other information related to the digital object carrying the watermark. Watermarks can provide the mechanism for determining if a particular work has been tampered with or copied illegally. In this paper, a novel algorithm for robust audio watermarking is presented in image using wavelet transform based on image, and radon transform on audio file for the first time. The motivation of choosing image as a cover is driven by the fact that human visual system is less sensitive than human auditory system thus an image provides better masking effect. The algorithm is based on decomposition of images using Haar wavelet basis. Performance of the algorithm has been evaluated extensively, and simulation results are presented to demonstrate the imperceptibility and robustness of the proposed algorithm.

Keyword-­‐Discrete   wavelet   transform,   radon   transform,   audio   watermarking,   image   watermarking   .
• Osama Qasim Jumah Al-Thahab Lecturer in Engineering College Electrical Departement of Babylon university. • Heba Abdul- Jaleel Alasady Msc student at Babylon University.

1    INTRODUCTION  

Digital  watermarking  is  a  new  technology  used  
for       copyright   protection   of   digital   media.   Digital    watermarking  was  introduced  at  the  end   of   the   20th   century   to   provide   means   of   enforcing   copyright   protection   of   digital   data.   Where,   ownership   information   data   called   watermark   is   embedded   into   the   digital   media   (image,   audio,   and   video)   without   affecting   its   perceptual  quality.       In   case   of   any   dispute,   the   watermark     data   can   be   detected   or   extracted   from   the   media   and   used   as   a   proof   of   ownership.   Imperceptibility  and    robustness  against  attacks   are   the   fundamental   issues   in   digital   watermarking   techniques[1].   Audio   watermarking   techniques   reported   in   literature   can   be   grouped   into   two   types;   time-­‐domain  

techniques   and   frequency-­‐transform   domain   technique.   The   two   domains   have   different   characteristics,   and   thus   performances   of   their   techniques   may   vary   with   respect   to   the   robustness   and   imperceptibility   (inaudibility)   requirements   of   audio   watermarking.   Inaudibility   refers   to   the   condition   that   the   embedded   watermark   should   not   produce   audible   distortion   to   the   sound   quality   of   the   original   audio,   in   such   a   way   that   the   watermarked   marked   version   of   the   file   is   indistinguishable  from  the  original  one[2].   watermarking   gets   divided   into   the   following   categories   non-­‐blind,   semi-­‐blind   and   blind  methods.  In  non-­‐blind  methods,  to  extract   the  watermark  the  original  image  itself  is  being   employed,   while   the   semi-­‐blind   methods   engages  particular  characteristics  of  the  original   image,  in  exception  of  the  other  two  cases,  the   detection   process   in   the   blind   methods   do   not  

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necessarily   requires   the   original   image.   To   progress   the   robustness,   majority   of   the   researches,   embed   the   watermark   in   the   frequency  domain.  As  a  substitute  for  the  spatial   domain,   diverse   transformations   widely   employed   are   of   the   Discrete   Cosine   Transform   (DCT),   the   Discrete   Wavelet   Transform   (DWT),   the   Discrete   Fourier   Transform   (DFT),   Discrete   Hadamard   Transform   (DHT)   and   more[3].   A   fair   amount   of   research   has   been   done   related   to   watermarking  a  binary  sequence  in  an  audio    or   an   image   which   is   relatively   easy   as   the   watermark   consists   of   just   two   binary   values   and   deviation   of   the   coefficients   of   the   transformed   host   from   a   predefined   threshold   are  monitored  to  find  out  either  a  ‘1’  or  ‘0’  value   of  the  watermark[4].     The   basis   for   using   an   image   as   a   cover   for   watermarking   an   audio   is   the   fact   that   Human  Visual  System  (HVS)  is  less  sensitive  than   Human   Auditory   System   (HAS)   and   provides   better   masking   properties   [4-­‐5].   Embedded   watermarks   are   recovered   by   running   the   inverse  process  that  was  used  to  embed  them  in   the   cover   work,   that   is,   the   original   work.   This   means  that  all  watermarking  systems  consist  of   at   least   two   generic   building   blocks:   a   watermark  embedding  system  and  a  watermark   recovery   system.   Figure   1   shows   a   basic   watermarking   scheme,   in   which   a   watermark   is   both  embedded  and  recovered  in  an  audio  file.   As   can   be   seen,   this   process   might   also   involve   the  use  of  a  secret  key.  In  general  terms,  given   the  audio  file  A,  the  watermark  W  and  the  key  K,   the  embedding  process  is  a  mapping  of  the  form     A*K*W=A'    [5].             Figure  1:  Basic  watermarking  system        

This  paper  is  organized  as  follows.  In  Sec.   2.   DWT   method   is   briefly   described.   Section   3.   the   Radon   transform   .   Section   4.   Audio   watermarking   .   The   Result   &Discussion   proposed  in  Section  5.  Finally,  The  conclusion  in   section  6.      

2    Discrete  Wavelet  transform:  

Wavelets   are   special   functions   which,   in   a   form   analogous   to   sines   and   cosines   in   Fourier   analysis,   are   used   as   basal   functions   for   representing   signals[2-­‐6].   Discrete   wavelet   transform   divides   an   image   into   4   coefficient   images  in  the  single  level.  Each  coefficient  image   contains   one   of   low   frequency   bands   and   high   frequency   bands.   With   an   M×N   image,   2-­‐D   DWT   generates   four   M/2×N/2   coefficients:   LL,   LH,   HL,   and   HH,   where   LL   represents   a   low   frequency   band,   LH   a   horizontal   high   frequency   band,   HL   vertical  high  frequency  band,  HH  a  diagonal  high   frequency  band.     The   low   frequency   band   is   utilized   to   the   net   level   of   DWT.   In   DWT,   the   most   prominent   information   in   the   signal   appears   in   high   amplitudes   and   the   less   prominent   information   appears   in   very   low   amplitudes.   Data   compression   can   be   achieved   by   discarding   these  low  amplitudes.    The   wavelet   transforms   enables   high   compression   ratios   with   good   quality   of   reconstruction  Wavelet  transform    is  capable  of   providing   the     time   and   frequency   information   simultaneously,   hence   giving   a   time   frequency   representation  of  the  signal.  DWT  is  believed  to   more   accurately   model   aspects   of   the   HVS   (Human  Visual  System)  as  compared  to  the  FFT   or   DCT.   This   allows   to   use   higher   energy   watermarks  in  regions  that  the  HVS  is  known  to   be   less   sensitive   to.   Inserting   watermarks   in   these   regions   increases   the   robustness   of   watermark,   additional   impact   on   image   quality.   Experimentally   it   is   being   found   that   insertion   in   the   LL   portion   of   the   DWT   proves   to   be   most   robust  against  various  kinds  of  attacks  [7].    The   wavelet   functions   induce   an   orthonormal   decomposition   of   L2(R)   using   the   equations  (1,2):    

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  φ ( χ / 2) = 2 ∑k hk φ ( x − k ).........................(1)

ψ ( x / 2) = 2 ∑ g kψ ( x − k ).................... ....(2)
k

 

The   mother   wavelet   function   is   represented   by   ψ,   φ   is   the   scaling   function   (father  wavelet),  hk  and  gk  are  respectively  low-­‐ pass  and  high-­‐pass  filters.  The  decomposition  of   a  function  f(x)  can  be  done  in  two  ways  as  seen   in  equations  (3,4).    
f ( x) = ∑ f ,ψ m,n ψ m,n ( x)..........................................(3)
m,n

approximated   coefficients   A   (low   frequencies)   are   produced   by   passing   the   signal   S   through   a   low  pass  filter  y.  The  details  coefficients  D  (high   frequencies)  are  produced  by  passing  the  signal   S  through  a  low  pass  filter  g.           Figure  2:  One-­‐level  DWT  decomposition       Depending   on   the   application   and   the   length   of   the   signal,   the   low   frequencies   part   might  be  further  decomposed  into  two  parts  of   high   and   low   frequencies.   Figure   3   shows   a   3-­‐ level   DWT   decomposition   of   signal   S.   The   original   signal   S   can   be   reconstructed   using   the   inverse  DWT  process[10].                                                                                                    
 

f ( x) = ∑ f , φ m 0, n φ m 0, n ( x) +
n

m≤ m 0, n

f ,ψ m,n ψ m,n ( x)....(4)

 

Since   most   dynamic   processes   have   a   low-­‐pass   character,   the   scaling   function   term   only  is  able  to  approximate  the  dynamic  system   [8].   Discrete   Wavelet   Transformation   (DWT)   of   image   produces   the   multi-­‐resolution   representation   of   image.   A   multi-­‐resolution   representation   provides   a   simple   hierarchical   framework   for   interpreting   the   image   information.  At  different  resolutions,  the  details   of   an   image   generally   characterize   different   physical   structures   of   the   image.   At   a   low   level   resolution,   these   details   correspond   to   the   larger   structures   which   provide   the   image   content.  Wavelet  transformation  consist  of  two   main   steps   namely   DWT   and   IDWT   (Inverse   DWT).   DWT   segments   a   digital   signal   into   high   frequency   quadrant   and   low   frequency   quadrants.   The   low   frequency   quadrant   is   split   again   into   two   more   parts   of   high   and   low   frequencies  and  this  process  is  repeated  till  the   signal  has  been  entirely  decomposed.     In   watermarking,   generally   1-­‐5   level   of   decompositions   is   used.   The   reconstruct   of   the   original   signal   from   the   decomposed   image   is   performed   by   IDWT.   Several   types   of   wavelets   exist   for   decomposition.   Some   examples   include   Haar,   Daubes   chies,   Coif   lets,   Sym   lets,   Mor   lets,   Mexican   Hat   Meyer   and   Bi-­‐orthogonal   wavelets[9].   For     example     starting   from   the   original   audio   signal   S,   DWT   produces   two   sets   of   coefficients   as   shown   in   Figure   2.   The  

Figure  3:  Three-­‐level  DWT  decomposition.  

3    Radon  transform:  
The  Radon  transform  is  named  after  the   Austrian   mathematician   Johann   Karl   August   Radon.   The   main   application   of   the   Radon   transform   is   CAT   scans.   where   the   inverse   Radon   transform   is   applied[11].   In   recent   years   the   Radon   transform   have   received   much   attention.   This   transform   is   able   to   transform   two   dimensional   images   with   lines   into   a   domain   of   possible   line   parameters,   where   each   line   in   the   image   will   give   a   peak   positioned   at   the  corresponding  line  parameters.     This   have   led   to   many   line   detection   applications  within  image  processing,  computer   vision,   and   seismic   .   The   Radon   Transformation   is   a   fundamental   tool   which   is   used   in   various   applications   such   as   radar   imaging,   geophysical   imaging,   nondestructive   testing   and   medical  

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imaging.   The   Radon   transform   computes   projections   of   an   image   matrix   along   specified   directions.   A   projection   of   a   two-­‐dimensional   function   f(x,y)   is   a   set   of   line   integrals.   The   Radon  function  computes  the  line  integrals  from   multiple  sources  along  parallel  paths,  or  beams,   in  a  certain  direction.  The  beams  are  spaced  one   pixel  unit  apart.     To   represent   an   image,   the     radon   function   takes   multiple,   parallel-­‐beam   projections   of   the   image   from   different     angles   by  rotating  the  source  around  the  center  of  the   image.   Figure   4   shows   a   single   projection   at   a   specified  rotation  angle.                   Figure  4:  Single  projection  at  a  specified  rotation                                  angle.     The  Radon  transform  is  the  projection  of   the   image   intensity   along   a   radial   line   oriented   at   a   specific   angle.   The   radial   coordinates   are   the  values  along  the  x'-­‐axis,  which  is  oriented  at   θ   degrees   counter   clockwise   from   the   x-­‐axis.   The   origin   of   both   axes   is   the   center   pixel   of   the   image.  For  example,  the  line  integral  of  f(x,y)  in   the   vertical   direction   is   the   projection   of   f(x,y)   onto   the   x-­‐axis;   the   line   integral   in   the   horizontal   direction   is   the   projection   of   f(x,y)   onto   the   y   axis.   Figure   5   shows   the   horizontal   and   vertical   projections   for   a   simple   two-­‐ dimensional  function.   Projections   can   be   computed   along   any   angle  θ,  by  using  general  equation  of  the  Radon   transform  as  seen  in  equation  (5).  
∞ ∞

Rθ ( x' ) =

− ∞− ∞

∫ ∫ f ( x, y)δ ( x cosθ + y sin θ − x' )dxdy.........(5)  

where   δ(·∙)   is   the   delta   function   with   value   not   equal   zero   only   for   argument   equal   0,   and   x'   is   the   perpendicular   distance   of   the   beam   from   the  origin,  and  θ  is  the  angle  of  incidence  of  the   beams.     Figure   6   illustrates   the   geometry   of   the   Radon  Transformation.  The  very  strong  property   of   the   Radon   transform   is   the   ability   to   extract   lines   (curves   in   general)   from   very   noise   images.   Radon   transform   has   some   interesting   properties   relating   to   the   application   of   affine   transformations.   We   can   compute   the   Radon   transform   of   any   translated,   rotated   or   scaled   image,   knowing   the   Radon   transform   of   the   original  image  and  the  parameters  of  the  affine   transformation  applied  to  it.                                                                                       Figure  5:  Horizontal  and  Vertical  Projections  of  a                                      Simple  Function.                             Figure  6:    Geometry  of  the  Radon  Transform.  
 

x' = x cosθ + y sin θ .........................................(6)  

This  is  an  interesting  property  for  symbol   representation  because  it  permits  to  distinguish  

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between   transformed   objects,   but   we   can   also   know   if   two   objects   are   related     by   an   affine   transformation   by   analyzing   their   Radon   transforms.   It   is   also   possible   to   generalize   the   radon  transform  to  detect  parameterized  curves   with  nonlinear  behavior  [12].  

Watermarked     image

 

DWT

4    The  Proposed    Audio  Watermarking          Scheme  

The   proposed   system   is   shown   in   figure   7,   and   it   can   be   seen   that   the   addition   is   the   using  of  radon  transform  for  encoding  the  audio   signal,   then   the   result   of   it   will   embedded   with   the   host   encoded   image   to   produce   the   watermarking  image.           Detail   Host   Embed               IDWT   coefficients DWT             image       Radon         Audio   Water-­‐   transform   file   marked     image     Figure  7:  block  diagram    of  the  proposed  system  

        Inverse   Audio     Radon   file   transform   Figure  8:  block  diagram  of    extraction  process.   The  extraction    process  can  be  described   in  the  following  steps:   a)   Read   the   watermarked   image     of   size   N*N.                                 b)   Apply   the   discrete   wavelet   transform   on   the   watermarked  image.                                                               c)   Extract   the   watermark   from     the     wavelet   coefficients   and   resize   it   to   the   desired   size.                                 d)   Finally   ,     Apply   the   inverse   Radon   transform   and  read  the  Audio  file.    

Watermark   extraction   process

Size  of   watermark

5  Result  &Discussion    
 

  4.1  Embedding  process  

The  embedding  process  can  be  described   in  the  following  steps:   a)   Convert   the   original   image     to   gray   of   size   N*N.   b)  Apply  the    DWT  to    the  cover  image    which  is   the  original  image.   c)  Apply    the  Radon  transform  on  the  audio  file.   d)  Embed  the  audio  file  after  Radon  transform  in   the   wavelet   coefficients   which   is   the   approximation  coefficients  matrix  (ca)  &  details   coefficients  matrices  (cd).   e)   finally,   Apply     the   IDWT   to   reconstruct   the   original   image     which   is   called     watermarked   image.    

4.2  Extraction  process  

The  audio  signal  can  be  introduced  from   the  watermarking  image  by  using  the  extraction   process  as  seen  in  figure  8.          

In   this   section   the   effect   of   embedding   algorithm   on   cover   image   is   discussed   in   terms   of   perceptual   similarity   between   the   original   image   and   watermarked   image   using   PSNR   and   Entropy.   The     proposed   technique   uses   the   wavelet   transformation   and   Radon   transformation   domains   to   embed   the   data   so   as   to   exploit   the   advantages   of   wavelet     and   Radon   transformations   being   resistant   to   frequency  attacks.  The  host  image    is  (Lena.jpg)   cover   images   of   size   512*512   as   shown   in   figure   9.  The  performance  of  extraction  algorithm  can   be   tested   by   considering   different   types   of   image  processing  attacks  on  watermarked  gray-­‐ level  image  such  as  rotation,  adding  salt,  pepper   noise,   contrast   enhancement,   and   adding   Gaussian   noise.   A   host   of   these   attacks   can   be   depicted  in  Table  1.   From   the   table   1,   it   is   cleared   that   the   proposed   algorithm   works   well   and   have   a   resistant  to  a  different  types  of  attacks.   The  effect  of  different  noise  on  the  cover   image   can   be   seen   in   figure   10,   while   The   original   audio   signal   is   seen   in   figure   11,   and   the   extracted   audio   signal   is   shown   in   figure   11   which   shows   the   effect   of   noise   on   the   audio   signal.  

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Gaussian   noise   (0.01)   73.2712   23.4097   0.3345   6.3073   7.5239   7.8014  

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Rotation   0 (90 )   79.7489   27.7583   0.2915   4.5995   7.5239   7.6302   Poisson   noise   75.2240   25.8337   0.3141   5.7902   7.5239   7.7022   Contrast   Enhancement   54.9120   11.2002   0.4422   15.9240   7.5239   7.9002  

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Salt  &   pepper   noise(0.05)   79.7797   79.3061   27.7403   0.2921   4.6049   7.5239   7.5239   27.5237   0.2916   4.7026   7.5239   7.6441  

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(f)   Figure  10:  Noise  effect  a)  Salt  &  pepper.     b)  Gaussian  noise.  c)  Rotation  (900).  d)  Poisson    noise.  e)  Contrast  effect.  f)  cover  image.      
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RMS   values.   Selecting   the   target   area   based   on   the   randomness   metric   allows   us   in   achieving   better  PSNR.     The  wavelet  domain  was  chosen  for  data   hiding   due   to   its   low   processing   noise   and   suitability   for   frequency   analysis,   because   of   its   multi  resolutional  properties  that  provide  access   both  to  the  most  significant  parts  and  details  of   signal’s   spectrum   Furthermore,   the   watermarked   image   is   subjected   to   various   noisy   attacks.   Here   a   watermarking   algorithm   based   on   hybrid   technique   which   uses   the   methods   of   (DWT-­‐Radon)   transform   is   a   highly   robust   and   can   resist   many   image   processing   attacks.   The   quality   of   the   watermarked   image   is  good  in  terms  of  perceptibility  and  PSNR  .     The   proposed   algorithm   is   shown   to   be   robust   to   all   the   attacks   mentioned   earlier   except  for  Contrast  Enhancement  attack  a  good     PSNR  values  can  be  get.  

  7    References  

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6    Conclusion  
This   work   proposes   an   innovative   audio   watermarking   scheme   employing   image   as   a   host  medium  and  audio  as  watermark  that  uses   randomness  as  a  metric  for  selecting  the  target   area   in   an   image.   However,   fine   correlation   between   the   original   audio   watermark   and   the   extracted   watermark   using   the   proposed   technique   is   observed   from   their   respective  

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