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Psychoanalytic Theory 4 distinct psychoanalytic psychologies: Table 4.1 1. Drive theory: instincts, pleasure seeking motivations 2.

Ego: id, ego, superego 3. Object relations: object seeking motivations 4. Self psychology: self organizes experience, not drives and instincts Wolberg: varieties of psychotherapy: 1. Supportive: bring client to equilibrium ASAP 2. Re-educative: remodeling client attitude & behavior with adaptive life integration 3. Re-constructive: bring the client to awareness of unconscious conflicts, their derivatives, and how these limit daily life Developmental Perspective: 1. Psychic determinism: mental activity is not meaningless or accidental; nothing happens by chance or in a random way, and all mental phenomena have a causal connection to the psychic events that precede them. 2. Unconscious mental processes: accounts for the apparent discontinuities in the clients perception of symptom and cause, for the causal connection has become part of the unconscious process. thoughts 3. 4. Defense mechanisms: the mind’s way of unconsciously keeping from awareness disturbing

Psychosexual stages: See handout

Post-Freudian Psychoanalytic Theory: Revisit Table 4.1 1. Object relations: (Fairbairn) 2. Self psychology: (Kohut) 3. Relational theorizing: (Mitchell) 4. Intersubjectivity theory: (Stolorow) 5. Social constructivism: (Hoffman): Postmodern perspective, where all knowledge is perspectival, contextual, and non-universal; the analyst and client together create or construct what is clinically useful 6 Major Constructs: Meta-psychology 1. Topographic: contrasts unconscious versus conscious mental processes 2. Dynamic: tension-discharge; keep level of excitation at it lowest point 3. Economic: the manner in which psychic energy is distributed, transformed, or expended 4. Genetic: origin and development of psychic phenomena; how the past is brought to the present and why a certain compromise or solution has been adopted 5. Structural: assumes that the psychic apparatus (id, ego, superego) can be divided into several persisting functional units. 6. Adaptation: a person’s relationship to his or her environment, objects of love and hate, and society Application: Goals: changing the personality and character structure of the individual through resolving unconscious conflicts and developing more effective ways of dealing with problems, particularly in relationships Intervention strategies: free association; dream analysis; analysis of transference and countertransference; analysis of resistance; interpretation; and interactions between counselor and client Counseling goals: emphasis on resolving clients’ problems, enhance clients’ ability to cope with life changes, work through unresolved developmental stages

personality unity. world 3. flows to the opposite (enantiodromia) 1. Animus Heiros gamos 6. acknowledge potential for growth. Shadow 4. Introvert B. Active imagination Adler’s Individual Psychology . chiseling in stone. Ego 2. Complex: constellation of varying degrees of autonomy. Four functions: 1. 3. Intuition The MBTI is the popularized adaptation of Jung’s principles of typology 2. Applications: 1. Process of change: address the isolation and confusion of modern times Synchronicity: the acausal and meaningful coincidences that impart order in the Intervention strategies: A. Dreams B. Feeling 3.Jungian Analytical Theory Overview: Most of the work of Jung derived from his journaling. drawing. Eastern religions.” collective unconscious Motifs Soma Symbols: includes the personal and collective. and realization of the self 2. Extrovert C. researching myth. 5. constant striving for wholeness. conscious and unconscious Collective unconscious 4.1 1. personal unconscious Archetype: “ideal form. integration of the personality. Sensing 2. constructing figures and cities in sand. dialoguing with dreams. Anima 5. and transcendence. Goals: stress the processes of individuation. Psychological types: A. Self Mandalas Temenos Major Constructs: psychic energy (libido) is lost from consciousness. Persona Collective ideals 3. Transference and countertransference C. Thinking 4. and ancient cultures Methodology of personality transformation: process of individuation Reality of the “psyche” Developmental perspective: See Table 5.

Analytic: individuals often understand more than they willingly admit. most behavior is based upon what is unconscious or not understood Holism: the indivisibility of a person is a fundamental belief of Adlerian (Individual) psychology Function of emotion & feelings: Emotions are not considered entities unto themselves. a. center of attention b. Youngest: center of attention. guilt and fear do not come to us out of a vacuum. Pinpoint and neutralize issues of contention such as “who’s right. feel. Mastery 3. a. protected e. f. their experiences d. interests differ c. Process of change Source of direction comes from lifestyle Changes in one’s “map” of movement through life Adaptation.” loss of respect. Establish mutual respect 2. Second: less responsible. Only: same as oldest but never dethroned. and power 3. Reaching an agreement on a plan to achieve the desired goals ( including a new arrangement between marriage partners without changing basic life goals) 3. 4.Theory based on phenomenological understanding of individual motivation and behavior Early development: 1. c. anger. Establish what is needed and desired to ameliorate or improve the relationship 4. We must perceive. private meanings 2.. b. Oldest: glad tidings. joy. precocious Major constructs: 1. manage. and predict events within In counseling: behavior change within the existing life-style is the goal In psychotherapy: a change in life-style is the desired outcome 4 goals of children’s behavior” Excessive attention getting Personal power Revenge Inadequacy g. c. sadness. 2. Life tasks: Work Friendship Love Spiritual self (Mosak & Dreikurs) Coping with self as subject and object (Mosak & Dreikurs) 2. Interventions: a. behavior is purposive even though this fact may be obscure to the observer 3. e. and then act. b. Inferiority feelings Family constellation: Birth order: ordinal vs. alteration of convictions one uses to evaluate. d. Middle: perceive themselves singularly disadvantaged d. 1. a willingness to serve the greater good (Lifestyle) 2. love. Private logic: personal. more independent. Application: 1. Teleo: goal-oriented nature of human beings. psychological postition a. e. no competitor. Socio: inclination toward belongingness. 3. Encouragement . value. 4 steps for problem solving: 1.

transcendence. Maslow. or ideals. choose our reactions to deplorable situations . Sartre. Tillich. 3 reasons why people do not achieve their potential: a.b. Psychopathology: 1. d. Angst. anxiety (angst). confronting anxiety. Major constructs: 1. and meaninglessness. responsibility. divinity Developmental: Gaining understanding about the menaing of life and taking responsibility for one’s life serve to influence and isnpire our development. freedom with responsibility. and authenticity rather than resolving existential conflicts. potential. Frankl. May. Pathology represents loss of potential 3. Buber. awareness of personal experience. Lower instinctive pressure to self-actualize b. isolation. Humanistic-Existential counseling. Transpersonal existentialism: perceives death as an opportunity for the individual to rise above the given circumstances 2. c. etc) were missing. freedom. . and struggling with responsibility and freedom. Existential crisis and confrontation produces depression (anomic depression) 5. individuals fail to develop inner strength. c. letting go of unhealthy or non-functional parts of the self. . suffering with loss and death. arose as an answer to the limitations of the Freudian and behavioral approaches.”. 2. existential anxiety. and expression 6. Education Life style assessment Early recollections Existential Theory Existentialism embodies the understanding of the individual in the culture and time as well as the nature. Arises from the philosophies of Kierkegaard. avoiding the presence. the Third Force. The most unsettling pathology is the loss of self in the world. and Yalom are contributors. creativity. they move beyond being isolated to feeling a profound sense of loneliness. phenomenology. living without meaning. choice. 3. lack of being there. A potential consequence of feeling alone in an isolating culture and context. to love passionately because we die. relationships. of that existence. Bugental. “. of a finite being about the threat of non-being 4. Nietzsche. c. or existential isolation. Inauthenticity. accessibility. Tendencies toward fear and regression. Respect. worth and identity. Freedom: comes after our confrontation with our inaccurate representation of ourselves. and Heidegger. 7. Cultural institutions that control or inhibit creativity. self-actualization. Approaches: a. and feelings. Death: ultimate truth. responsibility. honor. Humanistic existentialism: emphasize unconditional acceptance. Dynamic existentialism: focus attention on the resolution of inner conflict and anxiety b. uniqueness. Jourard. meaning. Existentialism addresses issues such as death. The positive aspects of humanness (love.

counselor is merely a guide on a journey Goals of counseling: “tragically optimistic” 1. Existential relationships: a. and analytic and unsupported by scientific research. “Us to them” e. . but taking responsibility for selfdestructive actions is not easy 5. Life’s unpredictability provides an individual incentive to take responsible action Process of change: 1. Confronting existential anxiety is critical 8. Centered awareness of being Help the client become more centered. people can transcend their present situation. experiencing individuality. Suffering is a human achievement and accomplishment 2. vulnerable persons are always in conflict. Focus on the client’s dynamic. provide hope for genuine understanding. Disclosing and working through resistance supportively 7. encountering true connection. compassion. we arrive at meaning in our lives. Closure requires authenticity and willingness to be present Person-centered Theory Phenomenological: People see the world from their own unique perspective. “I to it” b. keeps us from connecting and contributing to the larger social order in more productive ways 5. Coming to terms with anxiety through awareness of responsibility and choice Interventions: 1. Sharing Existence in the moment The existential relationship is the primary therapeutic intervention. and the client is an existential partner. Willingness to participate in the human encounter. counseling relied on techniques that were highly diagnostic. Authenticity/Vulnerability: authentic persons live grounded with honesty. we become fully aware of ourselves 7. “It to it” c. Isolation: separation fro oneself as much as from others. Meaninglessness:out of our will to love and live. Sustaining changes in being means having faith in the client 9. and developing the inner strength to transcend the life situation 2. Dream Work Dreams are the window to the unconscious. confronting loneliness. Telling the story: finding the meaning of Myth View the client’s history through the client’s geing and awareness rather than focusing on pathological development 2. “I to you” f. through awareness and actualization. Guilt provides the opportunity to chane oneself for the better 3. Vulnerability motivates us to become authentic 4. probing.4. Prior to the 1940's. “I to thou”: the most profound meeting. our culture gives our world meaning and protects us from anxiety regarding death 6. core of connection. Self-responsibility Taking responsibility for growth is important. “We to we” d. aware 4. lacking self-honesty and honesty with others 8. Culture: the objective mind. and awareness. 3. immediately real and present existence viewed through the dream rather than the set of dynamic mechanisms at work 6.

Rogers called for more rigor on his non-directive and other. Immediacy 6. PC implies great confidence in the client 2. Non-client-centered interventions: A. People make mistakes in judgment 4. self-growth. Treatment planning C. caring. 2. Perceived world view may not approximate the world sought (incongruence) 6. Questioning D. Analyzing Feminist Theory . Empathic understanding: accurate empathy 3. Facilitate an internal locus of control Intervention strategies: 1. Confidence in the client 5. The practitioner’s task is to provide the essential growth conditions of a genuine human relationship where acceptance. Congruent individuals trust their world view Applications: 1. Developmental perspectives: 1. Acceptance and caring 3. All people have an innate motivation to grow in a positive way 3. and a deep understanding of the client are developed and communicated effectively to the client Goals of counseling: 1. and self-actualization. Reflection of content and feelings 4. more directive techniques This new emphasis changed the role of the counselor from an individual who only reflected the content of client statements to one who identified the client’s underlying emotions in client words and through the helping relationship. The client has all the necessary but as yet unfulfilled potential for attaining greater selfunderstanding. Personalized counselor actions 7. Become more flexible 4. Accurate empathic understanding 5. Reductions in the distortions and a greater trust in one’s evelving positive nature 3. Unconditional positive regard 4. Gain enthusiasm about new aspects of their lives opened up by new experiences Process of change: 1. Diagnosis B. self-acceptance. Movement from incongruence to congruence 2. No two people see things as happening in exactly the same way 2. People are trustworthy 4. People respond to their uniquely perceived world (phenomenological world) Major constructs: 1. Genuineness 2. Being genuine 2. Appropriate self-disclosure 5. Active listening 3. People have the inner resources to move themselves in positive directions 6. See a wider range of feelings in themselves and a freedom to express them 5. People will innately move toward self-actualization 5.

the parts that promote a dichotomous view of men and women. redefines women’s development in a positive way 3. Cognitive-behavioral: adjust to life. Psychoanalytic: since focus is intrapsychic. male traits are not preferred to female traits 4. Goal is to increase women’s choice of lifestyle. Phase III (1985-date) is built on the acknowledgement of feminine potential and the idea that many of the issues faced by women are a result of society’s failure to allow them to exercise their free will. eliminating androcentric bias. Egalitarianism: maintenance of a non-exploitative relationship and boundaries 2. sexuality. social construction and division of labor remain problems for women Important differences: 1. pathologized into sex role standards. Connectedness 2. tends to pathologize women 2. Moral development 3. not change it 5. Family systems: issue of fusion. “junk values” of capitalism. Phase II (1970-1985) characterized by mainstreaming of feminism into other theories. Theories are based on the assumption that men and women are alike 2. Object Relations: pathologizes women who choose career over child bearing 3. Developmental perspective: 1. Women’s stories at mid-life: development should not be tied merely to biological functions Major constructs: 1. Women’s unique experiences provide foundation of knowledge for thinking about women . Self-in-relation: 4. to empower women to make life choices based on personal skills and interestes. Evolved as a result of and response to the women’s movements of the 1960-1970's and a rejection of the traditional psychotherapies which served to keep women oppressed 2. rather than on stereotypical gender roles promoted by society Evolution of Feminist Therapy Theory 1. and which has existed between the sexes Calls for a reformation and equalization of the power relationships between men and women Allows for more life choices and can increase their sense of partnership with each other Requires pro-female stance Re-evaluate and recognize the contribution of and assets of women and provides an increased opportunity for female development MYTH AND MISCONCEPTION to view feminist theory as devaluing home and family. Feminism promotes differences. Feminists are offering different explanations of female development throughout the lifespan Resistance. Reframing 3. reciprocity. Impact on other theories: 1.Seeks to remedy the inequality that exists. “lookism”. named the issues faced by women. Phase I (1960-1970) characterized by activism: feminists actively explored the philosophies of feminism. and applied conventional therapies to these issues. Jungian: sexist 4. complementarity Dichotomous sex roles: psychotherapy second only to marriage in the suppression and control of women.

associate stimuli and responses and development is seen as the sum total of these associations 2. just relegated to inferior role unless manifest in current behavior Major constructs: See Table 11. Promotion of independence and assertiveness in women 5. past not ignored. Based on individual’s learning history/style. experiences in the environment. Pluralism: celebrates the sociocultural differences among women. Adaptive behaviors developed and maintained by external events or cues. Careful use of self-disclosure to enhance relationship 7. Importance of relationship exists but focus is on specific treatment techniques Applications: 1. Use of here-and-now. Work on body image Treatment of depression Assertiveness training The process of “coming out” Single parent mothers and stress work Feminist therapy with men Issues for African-American (other ethnically/culturally diverse) women Working with battered women Cognitive-Behavioral Theories Beck’s Cognitive Therapy Ellis’s Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy Meichenbaum’s Stress InoculationTraining and Self-instruction Training Watson: Behaviorism Pavlov: Classical conditioning Skinner: Operant conditioning Wolpe: Systematic desensitization Developmental perspective: 1. understanding of the world 5.1. and these differences deserve to be valued equally 4. 6. as well as between men and women. Behavior is learned 3. Cognitive excesses or deficits: cognitions mediate behavior change 2. Focusing on and valuing women’s unique strengths rather than weaknesses or flaws 6. Behavioral excesses or deficits: all behavior is learned 3. Combination of both 4. problems are related to internal and external antecedents and consequences 5. page 265 1. What are the problems? b. What are the environmental contingencies maintaining the behavior? . 4. How can progress be measured and monitored? c. 3. Tabula rosa principle. Goals: a. 8. All problems are viewed operationally: concrete. 7. reinforcers. 2. The personal is political: gender and power are intertwined and cannot be separated Application: empowerment end of oppression Process of change: Interventions: 1. measurable. Emphasis is on learning. 5. not development.3. or thinking processes 4. observable.

“all or none” thinking. firm. Allow silence 13. Use humor 6. thought stopping. Self-efficacy: 1. Establish boundaries Plans: Simple Attainable Measurable Immediate Involved Controlled by the client Committed to Consistent 3. b. Be yourself 7. positive self-statements c. Allow or impose consequences 12. Suspend judgment 4.d. 2. genuine 3. Recognition of physiological state b. Attending behaviors: courteous. shaping. Do the unexpected 5. Share yourself 8. determined enthusiastic. Behavioral: reinforcement. Vicarious experience 3. Verbal persuasion 4. Be ethical 14. Summarize and focus 11. Enactive attainments 2. catastrophizing. Listen for themes 10. Environment 2. extinction. Which interventions are likely to be most effective? Process of change: a. Create suspense and anticipation 16. Cognitive: distortions. disqualifying the positive. Be redundant 15. . Listen for metaphors 9. Does changing beliefs lead to change in behavior? Interventions: a. Cognitive-Behavioral: union of strategies Beck’s Theory: page 272 Ellis’s Theory: page 274 Meichenbaum’s Theory: page 276 Reality Therapy Theory (Choice Theory) Intervention strategies: 1.

Integrative Developmental Model Pictures: TFA Maslow Application of theory to models of Tx .