ETT-MODULE 1 QUESTION SET ON MPLS

1. What is MPLS and why it is being so popular in short time? 2. Why MPLS is called multi protocol? 3. What is the protocol used by MPLS? 4. What are the advantages and applications of MPLS? 5. What is the difference between VPN and MPLS? 6. What is a label? What is the structure of the label? 7. Where will the label be imposed in a packet? 8. What is a Forwarding Equivalence Class (FEC)? 9. What do the terms incoming, outgoing, local, and remote mean when referring to labels? 10. Explain the architecture of an MPLS network? 11. What is downstream and upstream router in MPLS? 12. Explain the format of the MPLS label? 13. Describe the stack of MPLS label and explain where it resides in the frame? 14. What s label switch router? What function does it perform? 15. What are labeled switch path and forwarding equivalence class? 16. In which layer does MPLS fits in an OSI reference model? 17. Which table does an LSR use to forward packets? 18. Explain how label packets are forwarded? 19. Why does the MPLS labels have TTL field? Explain what happen to the packets that have TTL expiring? 20. Explain the need and operation of LDP?

Submitted by: Tushar Saxena M.Tech-TSE A1637012004

MPLS QUESTIONS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. What is the difference between VPN and MPLS? What is MPLS and why it is being so popular in short time? What is the protocol used by MPLS? MPLS works on which layer? What is the difference between P and PE router? Can I make my PE router as P? Two routers are having 4 equal cost links, how many ldp sessions will be established? My LDP router id, OSPF router id and BGP router id is different, will it work to forward the traffic of customers or not? 9. What is Penultimate Hop Popping and why it is required? Which router performs the PHP function? 10. What are the different types of labels? 11. How to make customer route unique? 12. What is the difference between RD and RT? 13. Can I assign a same RD to two different customers? 14. Is RD travels in route update? 15. What is downstream on demand? 16. How to filter MPLS labels? 17. What is the default range of MPLS labels in Cisco routers? How to extend that range? 18. What is the difference between VPNv4 and IPv4 address family? 19. Default timers of LDP? 20. What is transport address?

HIMANSHU AGARWAL A1637012013 M TECH(TSE)

What other protocols does MPLS support besides IP? 12.How does MPLS Traffic engineering accomplish? 14.How are label switch path built? 11.What are the differences between MPLS and ATM? 13.How are loops prevented in MPLS network? 16.What is a “forward equivalency class”? 10.What is downstream on demand? 6.QUESTIONS ON MPLS 1.How does MPLS enables VPNs? 19.How MPLS works? 4.What is the protocol used by MPLS? 5.What problem does MPLS solve? 3.What is a label distribution protocol? 8.What kind of QoS protocol does MPLS supports? 20.How does MPLS perform failure recovery? 17.What differences are there in running MPLS in OSPF versus IS-IS environment? 18.How are MPLS network managed? Submitted by:kanak priya (A1637012007) .What is the relationship between MPLS and the Interior Routing Protocol ? 9.What is MPLS and why it is being so popular in short time? 2.How does MPLS merge Traffic flows? 15.What is a label switch path? 7.

What is a Forwarding Equivalence Class (FEC)? Q8.What is the protocol stack architecture of MPLS. mean when referring to labels? Q12.What does the terms incoming. What are the different types of messages that are carried by LDP? Q18.What do you understand by label switching? Q6. Q17.What are the advantages of MPLS over IP? Q3.What is the range of label values? What label values are reserved? What do the reserved values signify? Q15.What is the characteristics of MPLS? Q10.What is the concept of tunneling in MPLS.What are the functional components that is used in MPLS? Q11.How does MPLS works? Q5.Explain in brief LSR.Where will the label be imposed in a packet? Q7.? Q20. local.Explain Label Switching Algorithm? Q16.What are its advantages & disadvantages? Ankita Awasthi Enrollment no:A1637012005(M.What is a label? What is the structure of the label? Q4. LER and LSP? Q13.What is an upstream label switch router (LSR)? What is a downstream LSR? Q9.What are the steps that are required for the data to be travel through MPLS domain? Q19.What are the components presents in Label Switching Forward Table? Q12. outgoing. and a middle label of the label stack? Q14.tech TSE) . What is Multi−Protocol Label Switching (MPLS)? Q2. bottom label.How does the LSR know which is the top label.Questions on MPLS Q1.How label switching algorithm work in MPLS.

What is LER and LSR in MPLS ? 9. What are differences between MPLS and ATM ? 10. What is MPLS? 2. What is lable distribution frame ? 6. What kind of Qos protocol does MPLS support ? 15. What are the limitations of MPLS ? 19. How does MPLS enable VPNs ? 14. What is lable switch path ? 5. What is GMPLS ? 20. What are the advantages and disadvantages of MPLS ? 16. What are the components of MPLS-TE ? 12. What are the components of GMPLS ? Submited by: NEHA KUMARI (A1637012008) . Explain flow control in MPLS? 17. What problms does MPLS solve ? 3. How does tunneling done in MPLS ? 18. What is forwarding equivalance class ? 8. What’s the difference between CR-LDP and RSVP-TE ? 7. What is label ? 4. Explain the operation of MPLS ? 13.EMERGING TELECOM TECHNOLOGY 1. What does traffic engineering accomplish ? 11.

Name the four fields that are part of a label. Why do MPLS VPN packets have two MPLS labels? 20. Why does an LSR forward the ICMP message “time exceeded” along the LSP of the original packet with the TTL expiring instead of returning it directly? 13. Why does the MPLS label have a Time To Live (TTL) field? 11. 3. What are the components of MPLS traffic engineering? 15. PAVAN KUMAR ( A1637012011 ) . Why do you need a link-state routing protocol for MPLS TE? 19. 7.MPLS IMPORTANT QUESTIONS 1. 5. what do you need to have? 18. When would you use different route distinguishers for routes of the same VPN? -U. Which table does an LSR use to forward labeled packets? 10. 14. Name the advantages of MPLS traffic engineering. What are the attributes of the links enabled for traffic engineering? 16. How many labels can reside in a label stack? 8. What are the advantages of the MPLS VPN solution for the service provider over all the other VPN solutions? 4. When you have an MPLS VPN network and TE tunnels that do not always have the PE routers as head/tail end routers. 17. Name two pre-MPLS protocols that use label switching. Name the six ways how you can forward IP traffic onto a TE tunnel. What do the ATM switches need to run so that they can operate MPLS? 6. In which layer does MPLS fit in the OSI reference model? 9. Name three advantages of running MPLS in a service provider network. What does the push operation do on a labeled packet? 12. What are the various MPLS applications? 2.

Where will the label be imposed in a packet? Q. Can an LSR transmit/receive non-MPLS on an MPLS interface? Q5. Explain the need and operation of LDP. Determine how labels are distributed in an MPLS network Q20. What is a Forwarding Equivalence Class (FEC)? Q4. Can an LSR receive/transmit a labeled packet on a non-MPLS interface? Q6. Compare MPLS and Frame relay Q14. What is Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS)? Q2. How does LDP Initializes? Q10. What is the difference between VPN and MPLS? Q8. Q13.Q1. Why does the MPLS label have a Time To Live (TTL) field? Q17. What are the applications of MPLS By : Richa Budhiraja . Where does the MPLS label live in a data frame? Q16. Compare MPLS and ATM Q15. and a middle label of the label stack? Q7. Difference between MPLS and GMPLS Q12. bottom label. Why MPLS is called multi protocol? Q9. Q18. What is a label? What is the structure of the label? Q3. How does the LSR know which is the top label. What is FEC in traditional IP routing and MPLS? Q11. How can you reduce the number of label bindings on an LSR? Q19. Advantages of MPLS.

Explain how labeled packets are forwarded Q3. Which table does an LSR use to forward labeled packets? Q20. and a middle label of the label stack? Q16. bottom label. What benefit do we achieve by using MPLS tunnels? Q19. How does the LSR know which is the top label. Determine how labels are distributed in an MPLS network Q10. Explain the driving factors behind MPLS Q5.Q1. Difference between MPLS & FRAME RELAY Q14. Difference between MPLS & GMPLS Q13. Can an LSR transmit/receive a non-MPLS on an MPLS interface? Q17. What benefit do we achieve by using MPLS tunnels? Q18. Difference between MPLS & ATM Q15. Describe a stack of MPLS labels and explain where it resides in the frame Q8. What is the fundamental purpose of LDP? Q11. What a label switch router is and what functions it needs to perform Q9. Explain what happens to labeled packets that have TTL expiring Q4. Q2. Name the four fields that are part of a label. List the benefits of forwarding labeled packets instead of forwarding IP packets Q6. Explain the applications of MPLS that have received widespread acceptance Q7. Why MPLS is called multi protocol? By Neeraj Kumar . How can you reduce the number of label bindings on an LSR? Q12.

1. How much overhead does an MPLS LSP tunnel have? How does the LSR know which is the top label. bottom label.1.0/24? What do the terms incoming. local.1Q trunk between two Cisco Catalyst switches on different sites over a MPLS connection? . outgoing. and a middle label of the label stack? What is the range of label values? What label values are reserved? What do the reserved values signify? What protocol and port numbers do LDP and TDP use to distribute labels to LDP/TDP peers? What restrictions exist for MPLS support on the Catalyst 6500 and 7600 Optical Services Router (OSR)? Where can I find MPLS configuration samples? What options are available for load balancing MPLS packets? Can we configure an 802.QUESTIONS ON MPLS By: PRASHANT SINGH A1637012001                   What is Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS)? What is a label? What is the structure of the label? Where will the label be imposed in a packet? What is a Forwarding Equivalence Class (FEC)? What is an upstream label switch router (LSR)? What is a downstream LSR? Is R3 a "Downstream" LSR to R4 for 10. and remote mean when referring to labels? Can an LSR transmit/receive a native IP packet (non-MPLS) on an MPLS interface? Can an LSR receive/transmit a labeled packet on a non-MPLS interface? What platforms and Cisco IOSes support MPLS? Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) tunnel has an overhead of 24 bytes.

 Does the outgoing MPLS EXP value inherit the DSCP value in incoming IP packets by default or is the incoming DSCP trusted without any additional configuration on an MPLS enabled interface?  Does DHCP relay function work in the MPLS VPN network? .

13Q) Explain the operation of MPLS. operations and backbone connectivity. video. 11Q) What is the difference between MPLS & GMPLS. 7Q) How quickly will the provider respond to business change? 8Q) What are the terms if the network goes down or the level of service is not maintained? 9Q) What type of connectivity is supported on the network? Can incorporate Voice. 16Q) Explain the mechanism label switching. 15Q) Explain label format in MPLS. . mobile. security assessment and regular backup. label allocation. 14Q) What is the advantage of GMPLS over MPLS. data. 2Q) Can it secure its own network traffic & manage priority traffic across other networks? 3Q) What are the performance thresholds for network latency & availability? 4Q) How is performance measured & delivered to you? 5Q) Are there procedures for on-the-fly load rebalancing. availability. mobile to mobile into the MPLS network ? 10Q) What is the difference between MPLS & VPN. label switching in MPLS. label stacking. 12Q) What is the requirement of GMPLS. 6Q) Can its data centre supports your requirements for physical & network security capacity.EMERGING TELECOM TECHNOLOGIES Course Code: MCE 303 Credit Units: 04 1Q) Does the service provider track & monitor the entire network.

18Q) What are the five phases of LDP session. 19Q) What is lambda switching? ( GMPLS) 20Q) Explain flow control mechanism in MPLS? BY Neha Kumari(2009) .Explain it briefly.17Q) Explain TTL( time to live) in MPLS label format.

outgoing. What restrictions exist for MPLS support on the Catalyst 6500 and 7600 Optical Services Router (OSR)? 19. local. bottom label. What is the default range of MPLS labels in Cisco routers? How to extend that range? 9. Does the outgoing MPLS EXP value inherit the DSCP value in incoming IP packets by default or is the incoming DSCP trusted without any additional configuration on an MPLS enabled interface? 16. However. What is the difference between VPNv4 and IPv4 address family? 13. and remote mean when referring to labels? 20. It is required that VRF users VRF_A and VRF_B be able to route to and from VRF_C. How can this be accomplished? 4. How much overhead does an MPLS LSP tunnel have? BY amritpal . What is Penultimate Hop Popping and why it is required? Which router performs the PHP function? 7. and a middle label of the label stack? 18. What is CEF and without enabling CEF. What is MP-iBGP? Can we use normal BGP in lieu of MP-iBGP? 10. which hosts shared services. In neighbor discovery command. I am receiving only xmit. What problems does MPLS solve? 14. How to filter MPLS labels? 8. What components/services are provided with the MPLS circuit order? 2. How does the LSR know which is the top label. What is the difference between P and PE router? 6. Which statement correctly describes the disabling of IP TTL propagation in an MPLS network? 3. what does it mean? 12. can we make MPLS work? 11. A network is composed of several VRFs. Does DHCP relay function work in the MPLS VPN network? 17. What is the difference between VPN and MPLS? 5. What do the terms incoming.1. Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) tunnel has an overhead of 24 bytes. What are the different types of MPLS VPNs? 15. traffic must not be allowed to flow between VRF_A and VRF_B.

What are two standardized protocols for managing MPLS paths? 12. Compares the MPLS with following a) ATM b) Frame Relay 13. Differentiate Between MPLS And MPLS-Tp. What Are The Different Types Of MPLS VPNS Deployed In Todays Network? 6. Explain Benefits Of MPLS Networks? 5. What are push. 15. Explain different types of LSPs in MPLS. What problems does MPLS solved ? 20. MPLS-TP For Connection-Oriented Ethernet. 2. Explain pseudowire using LDP. On which layer MPLS is operated? 7. 17. LPDs and LSP? 10. Show the layered model of MPLS. What are the advantage and disadvantage of MPLS? 14. 16. What Are The Advantages Of MPLS For Mobile Backhaul? 3. Differentiate Ethernet Vs. What are the fields of stack in MPLS? 9. LERs.1. What are LSRs. pop and swap operations? 11. Explain MPLS Packet Encapsulation & MPLS Header Fields. 4. Who are the competitors of MPLS? 19. What is stack? 8. 18. What is the status of the MPLS standard? By : prabhat kumar .

By Rahul Raj .

3. Anshika Salaria (A1637012014) . What are LSPs. What are PDUs? 20. Explain the different types of binding? 13. LER and LSR. 16. 19. How the label switching tables are formed? 7. 8. Explain the label switching algorithm.1. How MPLS works? 4. Draw and explain MPLS protocol stack architecture? 14. What is SHIM? Draw and explain the format of SHIM? 15. Explain tunneling. What is MPLS? What are its characteristics? 2. 9. Explain the methods by which the label binding information can be distributed. Explain MPLS operation. What is binding? 12. What is LDP and why is it used? 5. What is GMPLS and why was it required? 18. 10. What is the role of traffic engineering in MPLS? 17. List the advantages and disadvantages of MPLS. What is a label and what is its importance? 6. Explain flow control in MPLS and GMPLS. Explain network layer routing in MPLS. 11.

Describe the features of MPLS Label Allocation. What is an upstream label switch router (LSR)? What is a downstream LSR? Q4. What do the terms incoming. Describe MPLS VPN Architecture Q17.tech -TSE Q1. Describe the characteristics and behaviors of Label Distribution in Frame-mode MPLS Q9. Explain Convergence in Frame-mode MPLS Q10. and Retention Modes Q12. bottom label. Describe the characteristics and functions of Virtual Private Networks Q14. and a middle label of the label stack? Q7. Can an LSR transmit/receive a native IP packet (non-MPLS) on an MPLS interface? 5(b). Explain basic core MPLS technology and concepts Q2.20 Questions by NAVIN PAUDEL (A1637012010). What is the range of label values? What label values are reserved? What do the reserved values signify? Q8. How does the LSR know which is the top label. What is a label? What is the structure of the label? Where will the label be imposed in a packet? Q3. Describe Overlay and Peer-to-Peer VPNs Q15. Distribution. Explain the process of MPLSVPN Packet Forwarding . M. Describe the characteristics and behaviors of Label Distribution over LC-ATM Interfaces and VC Merge Q11. Explain Major VPN Categorization Q16. Can an LSR receive/transmit a labeled packet on a non-MPLS interface? Q6. outgoing. and remote mean when referring to labels? Q5 (a). Describe the MPLS VPN Routing Model Q18. Explain the process of LDP Neighbor Discovery Q13. local.

Explain Switching and Forwarding Operation on MPLS Q20.Q19. How Flow control is done in MPLS? .

o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o What is MPLS? What are its applications? Explain 3 advantages of MPLS N/W? Name two pre-MPLS protocols to use label switching? What does the ATM switches need to run so that they can operate MPLS? How to insure Optimal Traffic flow between all the customer sites in an ATM or Frame Relay overlay N/W? Name all fields of label? How many labels can reside in a label stack? In which layer MPLS fit in the OSI reference Model? Which table does an LSR use to forward label packet? Why does MPLS label have a TTL field? What does push operation do in label packet? What are the value and the functions of Router Alert Label? Why are MTU and MRU such an important Parameters in MPLS networks? Is using Path MTU Discovery a guarantee that there will be no MTU problems in the MPLS network? What is the fundamental Purpose of LDP? What are label switched pathLSP and a forwarding equivalence classFEC? Determine how labels are distributed in MPLS? Name 4 main functions that LDP takes care of? How can you reduce the number of label bindings on an LSR? By himanshu goyal .

What is the difference between VPN and MPLS? 2. SSL and IPSec? 11. what is FEC in traditional IP routing and MPLS? 19. Does MPLS support IPv6? 12. How to filter MPLS labels? 8. Why MPLS is called multi-protocol? 10. How Does LDP Initializes? 18. What is MPLS and why it is being so popular in short time? 3. What is downstream on demand? 7. What is the RFC of MPLS? 9. Fast and CEF Switching? 20. What is adjacency table? 15. What is forward equivalence class aka FEC? 14. MPLS works on which layer? 5.1. What is the difference between MPLS. What is downstream and upstream router in MPLS? 17. Advantages of MPLS. What are the different types of labels? 6. Difference between MPLS IP and MPLS Label Protocol LDP command? 16. What is the difference between Optimum. Can I use the existing IPv4 MPLS backbone for IPv6? 13. BY Nandini Deb . What is the protocol used by MPLS? 4.

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