You are on page 1of 20

ETT-MODULE 1 QUESTION SET ON MPLS

1. What is MPLS and why it is being so popular in short time? 2. Why MPLS is called multi protocol? 3. What is the protocol used by MPLS? 4. What are the advantages and applications of MPLS? 5. What is the difference between VPN and MPLS? 6. What is a label? What is the structure of the label? 7. Where will the label be imposed in a packet? 8. What is a Forwarding Equivalence Class (FEC)? 9. What do the terms incoming, outgoing, local, and remote mean when referring to labels? 10. Explain the architecture of an MPLS network? 11. What is downstream and upstream router in MPLS? 12. Explain the format of the MPLS label? 13. Describe the stack of MPLS label and explain where it resides in the frame? 14. What s label switch router? What function does it perform? 15. What are labeled switch path and forwarding equivalence class? 16. In which layer does MPLS fits in an OSI reference model? 17. Which table does an LSR use to forward packets? 18. Explain how label packets are forwarded? 19. Why does the MPLS labels have TTL field? Explain what happen to the packets that have TTL expiring? 20. Explain the need and operation of LDP?

Submitted by: Tushar Saxena M.Tech-TSE A1637012004

MPLS QUESTIONS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. What is the difference between VPN and MPLS? What is MPLS and why it is being so popular in short time? What is the protocol used by MPLS? MPLS works on which layer? What is the difference between P and PE router? Can I make my PE router as P? Two routers are having 4 equal cost links, how many ldp sessions will be established? My LDP router id, OSPF router id and BGP router id is different, will it work to forward the traffic of customers or not? 9. What is Penultimate Hop Popping and why it is required? Which router performs the PHP function? 10. What are the different types of labels? 11. How to make customer route unique? 12. What is the difference between RD and RT? 13. Can I assign a same RD to two different customers? 14. Is RD travels in route update? 15. What is downstream on demand? 16. How to filter MPLS labels? 17. What is the default range of MPLS labels in Cisco routers? How to extend that range? 18. What is the difference between VPNv4 and IPv4 address family? 19. Default timers of LDP? 20. What is transport address?

HIMANSHU AGARWAL A1637012013 M TECH(TSE)

What is downstream on demand? 6.QUESTIONS ON MPLS 1.What problem does MPLS solve? 3.What other protocols does MPLS support besides IP? 12.What kind of QoS protocol does MPLS supports? 20.How does MPLS merge Traffic flows? 15.How does MPLS Traffic engineering accomplish? 14.How are loops prevented in MPLS network? 16.What is a label switch path? 7.What is the protocol used by MPLS? 5.What is MPLS and why it is being so popular in short time? 2.What differences are there in running MPLS in OSPF versus IS-IS environment? 18.How are MPLS network managed? Submitted by:kanak priya (A1637012007) .How MPLS works? 4.How does MPLS perform failure recovery? 17.What is a label distribution protocol? 8.How are label switch path built? 11.How does MPLS enables VPNs? 19.What is the relationship between MPLS and the Interior Routing Protocol ? 9.What is a “forward equivalency class”? 10.What are the differences between MPLS and ATM? 13.

How label switching algorithm work in MPLS.What is an upstream label switch router (LSR)? What is a downstream LSR? Q9.Explain in brief LSR.tech TSE) . bottom label.Where will the label be imposed in a packet? Q7.What are the functional components that is used in MPLS? Q11.Explain Label Switching Algorithm? Q16.What is the protocol stack architecture of MPLS.? Q20.Questions on MPLS Q1.What are the steps that are required for the data to be travel through MPLS domain? Q19.What are the advantages of MPLS over IP? Q3.What is the range of label values? What label values are reserved? What do the reserved values signify? Q15. mean when referring to labels? Q12.What are the components presents in Label Switching Forward Table? Q12. Q17.What is the characteristics of MPLS? Q10.What are its advantages & disadvantages? Ankita Awasthi Enrollment no:A1637012005(M. What is Multi−Protocol Label Switching (MPLS)? Q2. outgoing.What does the terms incoming.How does the LSR know which is the top label. LER and LSP? Q13.What is a label? What is the structure of the label? Q4.How does MPLS works? Q5.What do you understand by label switching? Q6.What is a Forwarding Equivalence Class (FEC)? Q8. What are the different types of messages that are carried by LDP? Q18.What is the concept of tunneling in MPLS. local. and a middle label of the label stack? Q14.

What is MPLS? 2. What are the limitations of MPLS ? 19. What is lable distribution frame ? 6. What are the components of GMPLS ? Submited by: NEHA KUMARI (A1637012008) . What is GMPLS ? 20. What problms does MPLS solve ? 3. What kind of Qos protocol does MPLS support ? 15. What are the components of MPLS-TE ? 12. What is forwarding equivalance class ? 8. What’s the difference between CR-LDP and RSVP-TE ? 7. How does tunneling done in MPLS ? 18. What is label ? 4. What are the advantages and disadvantages of MPLS ? 16. Explain the operation of MPLS ? 13. What is LER and LSR in MPLS ? 9. How does MPLS enable VPNs ? 14. Explain flow control in MPLS? 17. What does traffic engineering accomplish ? 11. What is lable switch path ? 5. What are differences between MPLS and ATM ? 10.EMERGING TELECOM TECHNOLOGY 1.

What are the components of MPLS traffic engineering? 15. 14. What does the push operation do on a labeled packet? 12. What are the attributes of the links enabled for traffic engineering? 16. 3. Name three advantages of running MPLS in a service provider network. What are the advantages of the MPLS VPN solution for the service provider over all the other VPN solutions? 4. Name the four fields that are part of a label. What are the various MPLS applications? 2. What do the ATM switches need to run so that they can operate MPLS? 6. Why does an LSR forward the ICMP message “time exceeded” along the LSP of the original packet with the TTL expiring instead of returning it directly? 13. How many labels can reside in a label stack? 8. Name the advantages of MPLS traffic engineering. 7. 5. Name the six ways how you can forward IP traffic onto a TE tunnel. Why does the MPLS label have a Time To Live (TTL) field? 11. 17. Why do you need a link-state routing protocol for MPLS TE? 19. what do you need to have? 18. Which table does an LSR use to forward labeled packets? 10. Why do MPLS VPN packets have two MPLS labels? 20. In which layer does MPLS fit in the OSI reference model? 9. When would you use different route distinguishers for routes of the same VPN? -U. Name two pre-MPLS protocols that use label switching.MPLS IMPORTANT QUESTIONS 1. When you have an MPLS VPN network and TE tunnels that do not always have the PE routers as head/tail end routers. PAVAN KUMAR ( A1637012011 ) .

Why does the MPLS label have a Time To Live (TTL) field? Q17. What is Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS)? Q2. What is a label? What is the structure of the label? Q3. What is a Forwarding Equivalence Class (FEC)? Q4. How does LDP Initializes? Q10. How can you reduce the number of label bindings on an LSR? Q19. bottom label. Q18. Where does the MPLS label live in a data frame? Q16. What is FEC in traditional IP routing and MPLS? Q11. Where will the label be imposed in a packet? Q. Determine how labels are distributed in an MPLS network Q20. and a middle label of the label stack? Q7. How does the LSR know which is the top label. Compare MPLS and Frame relay Q14. Can an LSR receive/transmit a labeled packet on a non-MPLS interface? Q6. What are the applications of MPLS By : Richa Budhiraja . Can an LSR transmit/receive non-MPLS on an MPLS interface? Q5.Q1. Why MPLS is called multi protocol? Q9. Explain the need and operation of LDP. Advantages of MPLS. Compare MPLS and ATM Q15. What is the difference between VPN and MPLS? Q8. Q13. Difference between MPLS and GMPLS Q12.

Q1. List the benefits of forwarding labeled packets instead of forwarding IP packets Q6. What benefit do we achieve by using MPLS tunnels? Q19. Q2. Which table does an LSR use to forward labeled packets? Q20. Determine how labels are distributed in an MPLS network Q10. Describe a stack of MPLS labels and explain where it resides in the frame Q8. How does the LSR know which is the top label. What is the fundamental purpose of LDP? Q11. What a label switch router is and what functions it needs to perform Q9. Explain how labeled packets are forwarded Q3. Why MPLS is called multi protocol? By Neeraj Kumar . Difference between MPLS & GMPLS Q13. Explain what happens to labeled packets that have TTL expiring Q4. Difference between MPLS & FRAME RELAY Q14. How can you reduce the number of label bindings on an LSR? Q12. What benefit do we achieve by using MPLS tunnels? Q18. Name the four fields that are part of a label. bottom label. and a middle label of the label stack? Q16. Difference between MPLS & ATM Q15. Explain the driving factors behind MPLS Q5. Explain the applications of MPLS that have received widespread acceptance Q7. Can an LSR transmit/receive a non-MPLS on an MPLS interface? Q17.

bottom label.0/24? What do the terms incoming. and remote mean when referring to labels? Can an LSR transmit/receive a native IP packet (non-MPLS) on an MPLS interface? Can an LSR receive/transmit a labeled packet on a non-MPLS interface? What platforms and Cisco IOSes support MPLS? Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) tunnel has an overhead of 24 bytes. outgoing. How much overhead does an MPLS LSP tunnel have? How does the LSR know which is the top label.1. local. and a middle label of the label stack? What is the range of label values? What label values are reserved? What do the reserved values signify? What protocol and port numbers do LDP and TDP use to distribute labels to LDP/TDP peers? What restrictions exist for MPLS support on the Catalyst 6500 and 7600 Optical Services Router (OSR)? Where can I find MPLS configuration samples? What options are available for load balancing MPLS packets? Can we configure an 802.1Q trunk between two Cisco Catalyst switches on different sites over a MPLS connection? .1.QUESTIONS ON MPLS By: PRASHANT SINGH A1637012001                   What is Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS)? What is a label? What is the structure of the label? Where will the label be imposed in a packet? What is a Forwarding Equivalence Class (FEC)? What is an upstream label switch router (LSR)? What is a downstream LSR? Is R3 a "Downstream" LSR to R4 for 10.

 Does the outgoing MPLS EXP value inherit the DSCP value in incoming IP packets by default or is the incoming DSCP trusted without any additional configuration on an MPLS enabled interface?  Does DHCP relay function work in the MPLS VPN network? .

16Q) Explain the mechanism label switching. security assessment and regular backup. 7Q) How quickly will the provider respond to business change? 8Q) What are the terms if the network goes down or the level of service is not maintained? 9Q) What type of connectivity is supported on the network? Can incorporate Voice. 2Q) Can it secure its own network traffic & manage priority traffic across other networks? 3Q) What are the performance thresholds for network latency & availability? 4Q) How is performance measured & delivered to you? 5Q) Are there procedures for on-the-fly load rebalancing. data. 11Q) What is the difference between MPLS & GMPLS. label allocation. label stacking. . mobile to mobile into the MPLS network ? 10Q) What is the difference between MPLS & VPN.EMERGING TELECOM TECHNOLOGIES Course Code: MCE 303 Credit Units: 04 1Q) Does the service provider track & monitor the entire network. 6Q) Can its data centre supports your requirements for physical & network security capacity. 13Q) Explain the operation of MPLS. video. operations and backbone connectivity. availability. 14Q) What is the advantage of GMPLS over MPLS. label switching in MPLS. 15Q) Explain label format in MPLS. mobile. 12Q) What is the requirement of GMPLS.

17Q) Explain TTL( time to live) in MPLS label format. 19Q) What is lambda switching? ( GMPLS) 20Q) Explain flow control mechanism in MPLS? BY Neha Kumari(2009) . 18Q) What are the five phases of LDP session.Explain it briefly.

What problems does MPLS solve? 14. What is the default range of MPLS labels in Cisco routers? How to extend that range? 9. It is required that VRF users VRF_A and VRF_B be able to route to and from VRF_C. which hosts shared services. In neighbor discovery command. What is Penultimate Hop Popping and why it is required? Which router performs the PHP function? 7. can we make MPLS work? 11. What is the difference between P and PE router? 6. and remote mean when referring to labels? 20. Does the outgoing MPLS EXP value inherit the DSCP value in incoming IP packets by default or is the incoming DSCP trusted without any additional configuration on an MPLS enabled interface? 16. However. What are the different types of MPLS VPNs? 15. How does the LSR know which is the top label.1. What is the difference between VPNv4 and IPv4 address family? 13. How much overhead does an MPLS LSP tunnel have? BY amritpal . How to filter MPLS labels? 8. What is CEF and without enabling CEF. traffic must not be allowed to flow between VRF_A and VRF_B. Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) tunnel has an overhead of 24 bytes. bottom label. What is MP-iBGP? Can we use normal BGP in lieu of MP-iBGP? 10. Does DHCP relay function work in the MPLS VPN network? 17. What components/services are provided with the MPLS circuit order? 2. and a middle label of the label stack? 18. what does it mean? 12. How can this be accomplished? 4. What do the terms incoming. A network is composed of several VRFs. I am receiving only xmit. What is the difference between VPN and MPLS? 5. Which statement correctly describes the disabling of IP TTL propagation in an MPLS network? 3. What restrictions exist for MPLS support on the Catalyst 6500 and 7600 Optical Services Router (OSR)? 19. outgoing. local.

What is stack? 8. 18. What Are The Different Types Of MPLS VPNS Deployed In Todays Network? 6. MPLS-TP For Connection-Oriented Ethernet. What are two standardized protocols for managing MPLS paths? 12. What is the status of the MPLS standard? By : prabhat kumar . LPDs and LSP? 10. pop and swap operations? 11. Explain MPLS Packet Encapsulation & MPLS Header Fields.1. 16. Differentiate Ethernet Vs. Explain Benefits Of MPLS Networks? 5. What are LSRs. What are the advantage and disadvantage of MPLS? 14. Compares the MPLS with following a) ATM b) Frame Relay 13. What are the fields of stack in MPLS? 9. Who are the competitors of MPLS? 19. 4. What Are The Advantages Of MPLS For Mobile Backhaul? 3. What problems does MPLS solved ? 20. On which layer MPLS is operated? 7. What are push. 17. LERs. Differentiate Between MPLS And MPLS-Tp. 15. Show the layered model of MPLS. Explain pseudowire using LDP. 2. Explain different types of LSPs in MPLS.

By Rahul Raj .

8. What is binding? 12. Explain network layer routing in MPLS. How MPLS works? 4. 19. Draw and explain MPLS protocol stack architecture? 14. 16. Explain tunneling. What is SHIM? Draw and explain the format of SHIM? 15. 9. 11. LER and LSR. Explain flow control in MPLS and GMPLS. What is LDP and why is it used? 5. 3. Explain MPLS operation. Explain the label switching algorithm. List the advantages and disadvantages of MPLS. Explain the methods by which the label binding information can be distributed. How the label switching tables are formed? 7. What is MPLS? What are its characteristics? 2. 10. What is a label and what is its importance? 6. Anshika Salaria (A1637012014) .1. What is the role of traffic engineering in MPLS? 17. What is GMPLS and why was it required? 18. What are PDUs? 20. Explain the different types of binding? 13. What are LSPs.

Describe the features of MPLS Label Allocation. What do the terms incoming. Describe the characteristics and functions of Virtual Private Networks Q14. and a middle label of the label stack? Q7. Explain the process of LDP Neighbor Discovery Q13. Describe the characteristics and behaviors of Label Distribution in Frame-mode MPLS Q9. Distribution.tech -TSE Q1. local. Explain Major VPN Categorization Q16. Explain basic core MPLS technology and concepts Q2. and remote mean when referring to labels? Q5 (a). Describe the MPLS VPN Routing Model Q18. What is the range of label values? What label values are reserved? What do the reserved values signify? Q8. M. Explain Convergence in Frame-mode MPLS Q10. Describe MPLS VPN Architecture Q17.20 Questions by NAVIN PAUDEL (A1637012010). Can an LSR transmit/receive a native IP packet (non-MPLS) on an MPLS interface? 5(b). outgoing. Can an LSR receive/transmit a labeled packet on a non-MPLS interface? Q6. How does the LSR know which is the top label. Explain the process of MPLSVPN Packet Forwarding . Describe the characteristics and behaviors of Label Distribution over LC-ATM Interfaces and VC Merge Q11. What is a label? What is the structure of the label? Where will the label be imposed in a packet? Q3. Describe Overlay and Peer-to-Peer VPNs Q15. What is an upstream label switch router (LSR)? What is a downstream LSR? Q4. and Retention Modes Q12. bottom label.

How Flow control is done in MPLS? . Explain Switching and Forwarding Operation on MPLS Q20.Q19.

o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o What is MPLS? What are its applications? Explain 3 advantages of MPLS N/W? Name two pre-MPLS protocols to use label switching? What does the ATM switches need to run so that they can operate MPLS? How to insure Optimal Traffic flow between all the customer sites in an ATM or Frame Relay overlay N/W? Name all fields of label? How many labels can reside in a label stack? In which layer MPLS fit in the OSI reference Model? Which table does an LSR use to forward label packet? Why does MPLS label have a TTL field? What does push operation do in label packet? What are the value and the functions of Router Alert Label? Why are MTU and MRU such an important Parameters in MPLS networks? Is using Path MTU Discovery a guarantee that there will be no MTU problems in the MPLS network? What is the fundamental Purpose of LDP? What are label switched pathLSP and a forwarding equivalence classFEC? Determine how labels are distributed in MPLS? Name 4 main functions that LDP takes care of? How can you reduce the number of label bindings on an LSR? By himanshu goyal .

What is downstream and upstream router in MPLS? 17. Fast and CEF Switching? 20. Advantages of MPLS. MPLS works on which layer? 5.1. How Does LDP Initializes? 18. What is downstream on demand? 7. Can I use the existing IPv4 MPLS backbone for IPv6? 13. What is the protocol used by MPLS? 4. BY Nandini Deb . Difference between MPLS IP and MPLS Label Protocol LDP command? 16. What is the RFC of MPLS? 9. what is FEC in traditional IP routing and MPLS? 19. What are the different types of labels? 6. SSL and IPSec? 11. Does MPLS support IPv6? 12. What is the difference between MPLS. What is the difference between VPN and MPLS? 2. What is the difference between Optimum. What is MPLS and why it is being so popular in short time? 3. Why MPLS is called multi-protocol? 10. What is adjacency table? 15. What is forward equivalence class aka FEC? 14. How to filter MPLS labels? 8.