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LANE 462

Teaching Skills
By: Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar http://SBANJAR.kau.edu.sa/ http://wwwdrshadiabanjar.blogspot.com

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GOOD TEACHING
•Good teaching is based on three factors: 1.scholarship, 2. personal integrity, and 3. the ability to communicate with the young.

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Scholarship
•Scholarship is both the grasp of knowledge and a habit of mind. •An effective teacher brings about both from his students, but a habit of mind lasts in a person over a lifetime. •Scholarship is not only an affair of the classroom, but a way of life which is marked by respect for evidence and logic, by questioning and finding new meaning in familiar data, and by the ability to see things in context, to relate specificities to generalities, facts to theories, and theories to facts.

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and • they look to the teacher as who has learned to control the ambiguities. in gaining proper selfconfidence.probity: characteristics of honesty. 2. 7/25/2010 Dr. principle and decent frankness.completeness or unity of character. pressures and restrictions of life.INTEGRITY •Integrity has 2 separate meanings: 1. the sense of self-confidence and personal identity • most of our students' most painful trials are in finding their own selves. Shadia Yousef Banjar 4 .

of knowing the tests to which to put a young scholar in order that he be convinced of his own learning and to tempt him into further learning. Shadia Yousef Banjar 5 . obviously. 7/25/2010 Dr. enjoying their noisy enthusiasm and intense questioning. liking young people.THE ABILITY TO COMMUNICATE WITH THE YOUNG •The ability to communicate with the young is means. •It means the skill of provoking more out of a student than he believed possible. Great teachers neither mock nor underestimate the young. a compulsive listener. A good teacher must be. •It means a belief in the dignity of young people and in the stage of life at which they now find themselves. to see a situation as the student sees it. •It means the ability to empathize. obviously.

privately. •Telling a student the unvarnished truth. don’t say anything at all. create a standard and a style from which young people can learn. Examples: •knowing the student’s name. •remembering something that had earlier worried a student. you’re not working hard enough”. and asking about it.Acts which may appear trivial in themselves. •following the motto which all our parents taught us: “If you can’t say anything good about someone. •resisting the hurtful sarcastic to a foolish comment made by the student. and calling them by name. 7/25/2010 Dr.”. •greeting students and colleagues pleasantly . Shadia Yousef Banjar 6 . “George.

•“hearing” students. Shadia Yousef Banjar 7 . •being on the edge of your subject and interest. exhibiting the same questing in your field that you would have your students feel. 7/25/2010 Dr.Here are some points to be considered in order to help students developing rational habits of mind: •always insisting on the reasons in class and out. when evidence and logic suggest it. and questioning them thoroughly enough to know just how they see or are confused by an issue •showing that you can change your mind.

Code of ethics for teachers as educators 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 8 .

•Educators believe a commonly held set of principles can assist in the individual exercise of professional judgment. Principles 7/25/2010 Dr.•The Code of Ethics is a public statement by educators that sets clear expectations and principles to guide practice and inspire professional excellence. •This Code speaks to the core values of the profession. Shadia Yousef Banjar 9 .

Shadia Yousef Banjar 10 .Principle 1: Educators cultivate the intellectual. 7/25/2010 Dr. and civic potential of each student. social. physical. emotional.

support.Principle 2: Educators create. Shadia Yousef Banjar 11 . and maintain challenging learning environments for all 7/25/2010 Dr.

Principle 3: Educators commit to their own learning in order to develop their practice. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 12 .

Principle 4: Educators collaborate with colleagues and other professionals in the interest of student learning 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 13 .

building trust and respecting confidentiality 7/25/2010 Dr.Principle 5: Educators collaborate with parents and community. Shadia Yousef Banjar 14 .

Shadia Yousef Banjar 15 .Principle 6: Educators advance the intellectual and ethical foundation of the learning community 7/25/2010 Dr.

Common teaching methods 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 16 .

•There are 14 common methods for teaching:
1. Lecture 2. Lecture with discussion 3. Panel of experts 4. Brainstorming 5. Video tapes 6. Class discussion 7. Small group discussion 8. Case studies 9. Role playing 10. Report-back session 11. Worksheets/surveys 12. Index card exercise 13. Guest speaker 14. Values clarification exercise

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Each of these methods has its own: 1. STRENGTHS, 2. LIMITATIONS and 3. PREPARATION

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Common visual aids
•Visual aids are of 6 kinds: 1. Flip chart/posters 2. Slides 3. Videos 4. Overhead transparencies 5. Computer projections (e.g., power point) 6. Samples, examples, and Mock-ups

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10. Seize the moment. 11. Plan for periodic rests. 7. 3. Shadia Yousef Banjar 20 .•There are 11 ways to enhance teaching effectiveness: 1. Reward desired learning with praise. Move from simple to complex. 6. Sort goals by learning domain. Allow immediate application of knowledge. Involve the student in planning. 4. Accommodate the student’s preferred learning style. 2. Begin with what the student knows. 7/25/2010 Dr. 9. 8. 5. Make material meaningful. Tell your students how they are progressing.

Shadia Yousef Banjar 21 .Is the effectiveness of teaching enough to motivate students to learn? 7/25/2010 Dr.

• Create an atmosphere that is open and positive. • Ensure opportunities for students' success by assigning tasks that are neither too easy nor too difficult. Shadia Yousef Banjar 22 . early. • Help students feel that they are valued members of a learning community. positive feedback that supports students' beliefs that they can do well. • Help students find personal meaning and value in the material. 7/25/2010 Dr.Motivating Students To encourage students to become self-motivated independent learners. instructors can do the following: • Give frequent.

7/25/2010 Dr. and motivation factors & strategies by time . other general principles. Shadia Yousef Banjar 23 . instructional behavior.To motivate students. the teacher may consider some general strategies.

Capitalize on students’ existing needs 2. Shadia Yousef Banjar 24 . Make students active participants in learning 3. Ask students to analyze what make their classes more or less “motivating” 7/25/2010 Dr.General Strategies 1.

major contributors to student motivation are eight: 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 25 .•According to Sass (1989).

that is.Six Incorporating Instructional Behaviors That Motivate Students 1 Hold high but realistic expectation for your students 2 Help students set achievable goals for themselves 3 Tell students what they need to do to succeed in your course Learning is most effective when an individual is ready to learn. when one wants to know something. Shadia Yousef Banjar 26 . Avoid creating intense competition among students Be enthusiastic about your subject 7/25/2010 Dr.

when one wants to know something. Motivation is enhanced by the way in which the instructional material is organized 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 27 . that is.GENERAL PRINCIPLES •General principles of motivation are five: 1 The environment can be used to focus the student’s attention on what needs to be learned 2 Incentives motivate learning 3 Internal motivation is longer lasting and more self-directive than external motivation Learning is most effective when an individual is ready to learn.

7/25/2010 Dr. and ending. Shadia Yousef Banjar 28 . during.MOTIVATION FACTORS & STRATEGIES •Motivation factors and strategies differ according to time period: beginning.

•There are four more points for the teacher to consider to motivate his/her students: structuring the course to motivate students 2 de-emphasizing grades 3 motivating students by responding to their work motivating students to do the reading 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 29 .

to increase the difficulty of the material as the 4. semester progresses.•The course can be structured in a way that motivates students by using four methods: 1. and to vary your teaching methods 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 30 . 3. to work from students’ strengths and interests. 2. to let students choose what they will be studied.

to avoid using grades as threats 7/25/2010 Dr.•The teacher may de-emphasize grades by three methods: 1. to emphasize mastery and learning rather than grades. and 3. Shadia Yousef Banjar 31 . 2. to design tests that encourage the kind of learning you want students to achieve.

3. she/he may give students feedback as quickly as possible. Shadia Yousef Banjar 32 . 6. be specific when giving negative feedback. 4. reward success. avoid giving in to the students’ pleas for “the answer” to homework problems. 5. introduce students to the good work done by their peers. 2.•The teacher can motivate students by responding to their work through six methods: 1. avoid demeaning comments. 7/25/2010 Dr.

3. asking nonthreatening questions about the reading. 2. 6. giving a written assignment to those students who have not done the reading 7/25/2010 Dr. having the students turn in brief notes on the day’s reading that they can use during exams if the class is small. Shadia Yousef Banjar 33 .•The teacher can motivate his/her students to do the reading using eight ways: 1. 4. 5. 7. asking students to write a one-word journal or one-word sentence. 8. assigning study questions. preparing an exam question on a new reading material. assigning the reading at least two sessions before it will be discussed. using class time a reading period.

and 4. Shadia Yousef Banjar 34 . 7/25/2010 Dr. faculty initiated activities. 3. general classroom management.Ideas to Encourage Student Retention •There are 63 ideas to encourage student retention which are subdivided into four general categories: 1. faculty/student interaction. student-initiated activities. 2.

. Miss.. •tell the student by what name and title s/he prefers to be called (Prof.Faculty/Student Interaction The teacher may •learn the name of each student as quickly as possible and use the student’s name in class. quizzes in class. Ms. Mrs... •ask one student to stay for a minute to chat at the end of each class period •instead of returning tests. 7/25/2010 Dr. Mr. ask students to stop by the teacher’s office to pick them up which gives the chance to talk to the student informally. Dr. First Name). Shadia Yousef Banjar 35 .

•listen intently to students’ comments and opinions so they feel that their ideas. give students a respectful answer to any question they might ask. comments. and opinions are worthwhile. 7/25/2010 Dr. or make an appointment with them to discuss attendance. make-up work. •conduct a personal interview with all students sometime during the semester.•call students on the telephone if they are absent. etc. or walking with them between classes. Shadia Yousef Banjar 36 . •provide positive reinforcement whenever possible. •socialize with students as the teacher’s style permits by attending their clubs or social activities. •get feedback periodically from students on their perceptions of the teacher’s attitude toward them. etc.

tutoring. Shadia Yousef Banjar 37 . work missed. •lend some of his/her books to students and borrow some of theirs in return. assignments.•be aware of the difference between students’ classroom mistakes and their personal successes/failure •be honest about his/her feelings. opinions. s/he should admit that. •have the students establish a buddy system for absences. pair up the students and have them acquainted with one another. If the teacher does not know the answer. 7/25/2010 Dr. etc. and attitude toward students and toward the subject matter. •give his/her telephone number to students and the location of office. •at a first class meeting.

4. circulate around the class as s/he talks or asks questions. This movement creates physical closeness. 3. avoid standing behind the lectern or sitting behind the desk for the entire period.General Classroom Management In day-to-day operations of class. 2. give each student a mid-term grade and indicate what each must do to improve. tell the students (orally and in writing) what the attendance policy is 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 38 . the teacher may 1.

let students know that the learning resources the teacher uses in class (slides. Shadia Yousef Banjar 39 . 6.5. 7. let students know how. conduct a full instructional period on the first day of classes list and discuss the course objectives on the first day. tell them what they should expect of the teacher and s/he will contribute to their learning. 7/25/2010 Dr. let students know how the course can fit in with their personal/career goals. films) are available to them outside of class. tapes.

background.) 12. expertise. goals and other personal information the teacher thinks is important. address. 10. telephone number. etc. 7/25/2010 Dr. 11.if the student asks a question. discussion. quizzes. films. be sure that the student understands the teacher’s answer.vary instructional techniques ( lecture. debate. use a pre-test to determine their knowledge.return tests. 9.8. Shadia Yousef Banjar 40 . if the subject matter is appropriate. and write comments (+ and -) when appropriate. have students fill out an index card with name. and papers as soon as possible. small groups. etc.

use familiar examples in presenting materials. 16. and be consistent in enforcing these rules. and be the last one to leave 14. definitions. 17. explain why and what s/he will do to make up the time and/or materials. 7/25/2010 Dr.clarify and have students understand the rules of what is acceptable and unacceptable behavior in a classroom.If the teacher had to miss a class. 15.13. principles.realize the importance of eye contact with students both in and out of class.get to class before the students arrive. and theorems with concrete examples understandable to the to the student. Shadia Yousef Banjar 41 . explicate rules.

This approach assists students in organizing the material presented by the teacher. 19.allow students to switch classes if work schedules change or other salient reasons develop. 22.distribute an outline of the lecture before the class starts. the teacher should take the responsibility of arranging a library orientation. Shadia Yousef Banjar 42 .have the counselors visit the classes to foster an awareness of counseling. 20. 21. be prepared to use an alternate approach if the one the teacher has chosen seems to bog down.18.if the teacher requires a term paper or research paper. 7/25/2010 Dr. The format of instruction can be changed according to student interests and concerns.

7/25/2010 Dr. but particularly during the first class sessions: • stress a positive attitude (“you can handle it”) • emphasize his/her willingness to give individual help point out the relevance of the subject matter to the concerns and goal of the students • capitalize on opportunities to praise the abilities and contributions of students whose status in the course is in doubt • utilize a variety of instructional methods. • urge students to talk to the teacher about problems.throughout the course. Shadia Yousef Banjar 43 . drawing on appropriate audio-visual aids as much as possible.23. such as changes in work schedule. before dropping the course for them.

ask students to submit sample test questions (objective or subjective) prior to a test. 3. use their leadership skills to improve student performance. the teacher may: 1. have students one another’s papers before they turn them in. 2. 7/25/2010 Dr.Student-Initiated Activities To produce positive results in getting the students to work with one another. have the students plan it and make some or all of the arrangements. This activity could help them to locate one another’s errors before being graded. 4. The class itself can compose a test or a quiz based on the course objectives. 5. have students set specific goals for themselves throughout the semester in terms of their learning and what responsibilities they will undertake. Shadia Yousef Banjar 44 . create opportunities for student leaders to emerge in class. if the class lends to a field trip. if students are receiving tutoring help. ask them to report the content and results of their tutoring 6.

4. The instructor may select books at various reading levels. the instructor may: 1. utilize small group discussions in class whenever feasible. develop library/supplementary reading lists which complement course content. encourage students who had the first part of a course to be in the second part together. ask the Reading Faculty to do a “reliability study” of the texts s/he uses in the classroom 5. take the initiative to contact and meet with students who are doing poor work 3.FACULTY INITIATED ACTIVITIES To be more creative faculty member. Shadia Yousef Banjar 45 . 2. 7/25/2010 Dr.

failing students. etc. particularly in class. experience. have students submit topics that they would like to cover or discuss. use his/her background. conduct a class research project) 7/25/2010 Dr. and knowledge to interrelate the subject matter with other academic disciplines 7. counseling center. 8. 10. reading/study skills area. Shadia Yousef Banjar 46 .create situations in which students can help the teacher (the student may get a book from library. work with the division counselor to discuss procedures to follow-up absentees. etc. look up some reference material. take students on a mini-tour of the learning resources center. 11. throughout the semester.use his/her imagination to device ways to positively reinforce student accomplishments and try to avoid placing students in embarrassing situations. 9.6.

confer with other faculty members who have the same students in class 14.look at his/her record book periodically to determine student progress (inform the latter) 15.team teach a class with a colleague.12. how did students react?) 18. switch classes for a period or two. the teacher can advise the student to work with a division counselor.at mid-term and at final exam. 16. especially for students who are doing poorly. If a potential drop-out is identified. the last test question asked by the teacher is that whether the student is going to continue at the college.engage in periodic (weekly) self-evaluation of each class (e.use the library reference shelf for some of the old tests and quizzes and tell the students that some question will be taken from the old test in the next test. or invite a guest lecturer to class. Shadia Yousef Banjar 47 . 17. 7/25/2010 Dr. 13. what was accomplished this past week?.set up special tutoring sessions and extra classes.g.

7/25/2010 Dr.Teaching can be more effective by a) lesson planning. and c) syllabus designing. Shadia Yousef Banjar 48 . b) course designing.

3. and syllabus functions. principles that foster critical thinking.DESIGNING A SYLLABUS •Three aspects are to be considered whilst designing a syllabus: 1. steps for syllabus planning. 7/25/2010 Dr. 2. Shadia Yousef Banjar 49 .

Shadia Yousef Banjar 50 . 7. 5. 8. 3. course information. texts/resources/reading/supplies. study tips/ learning resources. course description. 2. course objectives. course policies. 4. 6. and 11. 10.Perfect syllabus contains eleven main subdivisions: 1. course calendar. evaluation. grading. student feedback on instruction 7/25/2010 Dr. instructional approaches. 9. course requirements & assignments.

Shadia Yousef Banjar 51 .Lesson planning •Lesson planning takes place in three stages: • Pre-Lesson Preparation. • Lesson Planning and Implementation. and • Post Lesson Activities 7/25/2010 Dr.

content 6.instructional procedures 7.lesson evaluation and revision 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 52 .evaluation procedures Stage 3: Post Lesson Activities 1.rationale 5.content 3.student entry level Stage 2:Lesson Planning and Implementation 1.unit title 2.instructional goals 3.Lesson Planning Procedure Stage 1: Pre-Lesson Preparation 1.objectives 4.goals 2.

4. 5. “GOOD COURSE” DESIGN CONTAINS FIVE PRINCIPLES : challenges students to HIGHER LEVEL OF LEARNING. uses ACTIVIVE FORMS OF LEARNING. 2. Shadia Yousef Banjar 53 . and has a FAIR SYSTEM FOR ASSESSING AND GRADING STUDENTS. 7/25/2010 Dr. gives FREQUANT and IMMIDIATE FEEDBACK to students on the quality of their learning.COURSE DESIGN A 1. uses a STRUCTURED SEQUENCE OF DIFFERENT LEARNING ACTIVITIES. 3.

comprehending and remembering basic information and concepts.e. and creative thinking.FIVE PRINCIPLES OF GOOD COURSE DESIGN PRINCIPLE 1: challenges students to HIGHER LEVEL OF LEARNING • all courses require some “lower level” learning. decision making. Examples of “ higher level learning” include problem solving. critical thinking. But many courses never get beyond this. i. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 54 ..

“active learning ” means learn solving problems and thinking critically. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 55 .PRINCIPLE 2: uses ACTIVIVE FORMS OF LEARNING means not “passive” (i. reading and listening).e.

PRINCIPLE 3: gives FREQUANT and IMMIDIATE FEEDBACK to students on the quality of their learning “frequent” means weekly or daily . Frequent and immediate feedback for students are needed to know whether they are doing it correctly. or at the next class session. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 56 .“immediate” means during the same class if possible.

PRINCIPLE 4: uses a STRUCTURED SEQUENCE OF DIFFERENT LEARNING ACTIVITIES Different learning activities such as lectures. etc are to be structured in sequence in which earlier classes lay the foundation for complex and higher level learning tasks in later classes. 7/25/2010 Dr. discussions. writing. Shadia Yousef Banjar 57 . small groups.

and communicated in writing. based on learning.PRINCIPLE 5: has a FAIR SYSTEM FOR ASSESSING AND GRADING STUDENTS Students should have a fair grading system: objective. 7/25/2010 Dr. flexible. Shadia Yousef Banjar 58 . reliable.

hawaii.htm •MOTIVATING STUDENTS http://honolulu.htm •ENHANCING YOUR TEACHING EFFECTIVENESS http://honolulu.nysed.html •COMMON TEACHING METHODS http://honolulu..htm 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 59 .hawaii.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip /studretn. •Code of Ethics for Teachers as Educators http://www.RESOURCES: •GOOD TEACHING http://honolulu.hawaii.htm •IDEAS TO ENCOURAGE STUDENT RETENTION http://honolulu.gov/tcert/resteachers/codeofethics.hawaii.hawaii.htm •COMMON VISUAL AIDS http://honolulu.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teacht ip/enhance..edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teach.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip /visuals.highered.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip /comteach.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip /motiv.

edu/instructional-topics/designing-courses/designing-learning-centeredsyllabus.html 7/25/2010 Dr.ht m •COURSE DESIGN http://honolulu.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/finks5. Shadia Yousef Banjar 60 .hawaii.•LESSON PLANNING PROCEDURES http://honolulu.htm •Designing a Syllabus http://cte.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/lesspln1.hawaii.udel.